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Sample records for antibacterial nucleosides effective

  1. Effects of halides on reaction of nucleosides with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshinori; Kaya, Eriko; Inukai, Michiyo

    2012-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)), a major component of photochemical oxidants, is used recently as a deodorizer in living spaces. It has been reported that O(3) can directly react with DNA, causing mutagenesis in human cells and carcinogenesis in mice. However, little is known about the effects of coexistent ions in the reaction of O(3). In the present study, we analyzed the effects of halides on the reaction of O(3) with nucleosides using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. When aqueous O(3) solution was added to a nucleoside mixture in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.3), the nucleosides were consumed with the following decreasing order of importance: dGuo > Thd > dCyd > dAdo. The effects of addition of fluoride and chloride in the system were slight. Bromide suppressed the reactions of dGuo, Thd, and dAdo but enhanced the reaction of dCyd. The major products were 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-bromo-2'-deoxycytidine, and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The time course and pH dependence of the product yield indicated formation of hypobromous acid as the reactive agent. Iodide suppressed all the reactions effectively. The results suggest that bromide may alter the mutation spectrum by O(3) in humans. PMID:22646086

  2. Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Marius; Niro, Giuliana; Leyerer, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muraymycins are a promising class of antimicrobial natural products. These uridine-derived nucleoside-peptide antibiotics inhibit the bacterial membrane protein translocase I (MraY), a key enzyme in the intracellular part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This review describes the structures of naturally occurring muraymycins, their mode of action, synthetic access to muraymycins and their analogues, some structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies and first insights into muraymycin biosynthesis. It therefore provides an overview on the current state of research, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in this field. PMID:27340469

  3. Nucleoside Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Schrader; Frank-Gerrit Klärner; Michael Fokkens

    2006-01-01

    A rigid molecular clip comprising bisphosphonate binding sites and aromatic sidewalls forming an electron-rich cavity is able to distinguish between nucleosides and nucleotides in aqueous solution. Neutral nucleosides as well as antibiotics derived thereof are drawn into the unpolar interior of the cleft and lead to substantial upfield-shifts in the 1H NMR spectrum. Nucleoside drugs can therefore be detected with high selectivity in the presence of their phosphorylated pendants or nucleic acids.

  4. Using conformationally locked nucleosides to calibrate the anomeric effect: Implications for glycosyl bond stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyung Ryong; Siddiqui, Maqbool A.; Sun, Guangyu; Filippov, Igor V.; Landsman, Nicholas A.; Lee, Yi-Chien; Adams, Kristie M.; Barchi, Joseph J.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Kelley, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Steric and electronic parameters such as the anomeric effect (AE) and gauche effect play significant roles in steering the North ⇆ South equilibrium of nucleosides in solution. Two isomeric oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane nucleosides that are conformationally locked in either the North or the South conformation of the pseudorotational cycle were designed to study the consequences of having the AE operational or not, independent of other parameters. The rigidity of the system allowed the orientation of the orbitals involved to be set in “fixed” relationships, either antiperiplanar where the AE is permanently “on”, or gauche where the AE is impaired. The consequences of these two alternatives were subject to high-level calculations and measured experimentally by x-ray crystallography, hydrolytic stability of the glycosyl bond, and pKa values. PMID:21052524

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Bridged Nucleosides on Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase and Insight into the Binding Interactions.

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    Sung-Kun Kim

    Full Text Available Modified nucleosides have the potential to inhibit DNA polymerases for the treatment of viral infections and cancer. With the hope of developing potent drug candidates by the modification of the 2',4'-position of the ribose with the inclusion of a bridge, efforts were focused on the inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase using quantitative real time PCR, and the results revealed the significant inhibitory effects of 2',4'-bridged thymidine nucleoside on the polymerase. Study on the mode of inhibition revealed the competitive mechanism with which the 2',4'-bridged thymidine operates. With a Ki value of 9.7 ± 1.1 μM, the 2',4'-bridged thymidine proved to be a very promising inhibitor. Additionally, docking analysis showed that all the nucleosides including 2',4'-bridged thymidine were able to dock in the active site, indicating that the substrate analogs reflect a structural complementarity to the enzyme active site. The analysis also provided evidence that Asp610 was a key binding site for 2',4'-bridged thymidine. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed to further understand the conformational variations of the binding. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD values for the peptide backbone of the enzyme and the nitrogenous base of the inhibitor stabilized within 0.8 and 0.2 ns, respectively. Furthermore, the MD analysis indicates substantial conformational change in the ligand (inhibitor as the nitrogenous base rotated anticlockwise with respect to the sugar moiety, complemented by the formation of several new hydrogen bonds where Arg587 served as a pivot axis for binding formation. In conclusion, the active site inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase by 2',4'-bridged thymidine suggests the potential of bridged nucleosides as drug candidates.

  6. Antibacterial Effects of Silver Loaded Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The antibacterial capability of silver loaded hydroxyapatite(HA-Ag) in both poor nutrient phosphate buffer saline solution(PBS,pH=7.4)and nutrient rich medium,which represented two kinds of typical conditions in real life,was evaluated respectively using Escherichia coli as a model.At 0.4 mg/mL in PBS solution containing an initial cell concentration of 106/mL,HA-Ag killed all the E.coli cells in the PBS solution within 4.5 h.In a nutrient rich medium containing a cell concentration of 107/mL,HA-Ag exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect of E.coli cells.The maximum specific growth rate in the medium containing 3 mg/mL HA-Ag was only 0.292, 26% of that in a control sample which was 1.116,and the viable cell concentration in the former HA-Ag medium was just 40% of that in the control.As a safe antibacterial agent,HA-Ag powder demonstrated antibacterial efforts both in poor nutrient and in nutrient rich environment.It seems that the HA-Ag compound hold a lot of promises for practical applications.

  7. Effective antibacterials: at what cost? The economics of antibacterial resistance and its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anthony R

    2011-09-01

    The original and successful business model of return on investment being sufficiently attractive to the pharmaceutical industry to encourage development of new antibacterial molecules and related diagnostics has been compromised by increasing development costs and regulatory hurdles, resulting in a decreasing chance of success and financial return. The supply of new effective agents is diminishing along with the number of companies engaged in antibacterial research and development. The BSAC Working Party on The Urgent Need:Regenerating Antibacterial Drug Discovery and Development identified the need to establish, communicate and apply the true health and economic value of antibacterials, along with the adoption of meaningful incentives, as part of the future model for antibacterial development. Robust data are needed on the cost of resistance and ineffective treatment of bacterial infection, along with national and local holistic analyses of the cost-benefit of antibacterials. An understanding of the true health and economic value of antibacterials and the cost of resistance across healthcare systems needs to be generated, communicated and used in order to set a pricing and reimbursement structure that is commensurate with value. The development and economic model of antibacterial use needs to be rebuilt based on this value through dialogue with the various stakeholders, including the pharmaceutical industry, and alternative incentives from 'push' to 'pull' and funding models, such as public/private partnerships, agreed. A research and development model that succeeds in developing and delivering new antibacterial agents that address the health needs of society from start to finish, 'from cradle to grave', must be established. PMID:21700625

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES AND DRYING EFFECTS OF FLAX DENIM AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN FLAX FABRIC

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    David T.W. Chun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A modification of “AATCC Test Method 100-1999” was used for assaying for bacteriostatic/antibacterial properties of denim containing various flax concentrations. Since no direct evidence that increasing the flax content of fabric imparted the fabric with increased bacteriostatic properties was found against the control bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, other possible explanations for the long held presumption that flax fabric exhibited antibacterial properties was sought. Because the appearance of having antibacterial or bacteriostatic properties might be imitated if the flax content would decrease the time fabric would be moist enough for bacterial growth, the effect of drying was evaluated. When flax fabric was saturated and the moisture lost during incubation was measured, there was no improved drying associated with increased flax content. When untreated nonwoven flax was evaluated as possibly containing more ‘antibacterial’ or bacteriostatic components than scoured nonwoven flax material, the population densities increased. This increase suggests that the unscoured nonwoven flax contain compo-nents that support bacterial growth to the extent that bacteriostatic or antibacterial components, if any, are overwhelmed by the components that support bacterial growth. In tests involving the control bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, increasing the flax content of flax fabric did not demonstrate increased antibacterial properties.

  9. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

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    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  10. Antibacterial Effect of the Conducting Polyaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nanlin SHI; Xuemei GUO; Hemin JING; Jun GONG; Chao SUN; Ke YANG

    2006-01-01

    Excellent antibacterial performance of polyaniline (Pani) against Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms has been demonstrated under both dark and visible light conditions. The electrostatic adherence between the Pani molecules and the bacteria may play a very important role for the antibacterial reaction of the Pani. As a result of our investigation, conducting Pani and its composites/blends are believed to be useful as a new type of antibacterial agent, self-clean as well as multifunctional material for improving the human health and living environment.

  11. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent and to detect the changes of its mechanical property. Methods: Nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent was added to the room curing PMMA material in the range of 0.5% -3.0% at an interval of 0.5% by ball milling specimen. Antibacterial rates of the specimens were detected by film method. Bending strength, impact strength, and wear resistance of the specimens were respectively detected on electronic universal testing machine, impact test machine and friction and wear test machine. Results: The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 50% when antibiotics content was 1.0% . The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 90% when the antibiotics content was 2.5% . The three mechanical properties were increased compared with control group when the antibacterial agents were in the range of 1.0% -1.5% . Then the three mechanical properties were decreased with the increasing of antimicrobial concentration. When the antibiotics content was 2.0% , the wear resistance had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05); when the antibiotics content was 2.5% , the bending strength and impact strength had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of room curing PMMA adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent is ideal. The antibacterial rate is increased gradually with the increasing content of antibacterial agents. There is no significant effect on the mechanical properties of room curing PMMA material, but the antibacterial effects are satisfied when the content of antibacterial agents is 2.0% . (authors)

  12. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Effects of

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    SS Saei Dehkordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis L. as a member of the Lamiaceae family and lysozyme as a natural antibacterial agent is important in food microbiology, because of its characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and anti-listerial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (REO alone and in combination with lysozyme for enhancement of anti-listerial activity of both substances. Materials & Methods: Rosmarinus officinalis L. was purchased from a local grocery store at Shahrekord and was identified by the Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR. The air-dried aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil and yielded oil was analyzed by GC/MS. Antibacterial activity (on basis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of REO was studied separately and in combination with unheated lysozyme (L and heat-treated lysozyme (HTL on Listeria monocytogenes at different pH (5, 6 and 7 by a micro-broth dilution assay. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, 98.05% of constituents of the essential oil were identified. The major components were α-pinene (14.06%, 1,8-cineole (13.62%, verbenone (11.2%, camphor (10.51%, borneol (7.3%, 3-octanone (7.02%, camphene (5.46% and linalool (5.07%. The inhibitory action of REO was stronger at lower pH especially 5 (MIC=225 μg/mL. Inhibition by L at pH 5 was 640 μg/mL but no inhibition was seen at pH 7. HTL resulted in more effective inhibition than L, especially at pH 5 and heat-treatment 80˚C (MIC: 160 μg/mL. Conclusion: Combination of L + REO and particularly HTL + REO was led to enhancement of bacterial inhibition. It was concluded that REO by the identified chemical composition was effective alone or in combination with L or HTL on Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen.

  13. Cost-effectiveness and Pricing of Antibacterial Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    VERHOEF, T. I.; Morris, S

    2014-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the ne...

  14. Antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles combined with ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the present study investigated the antibacterial effect of ZnO nanoparticles both in the absence and presence of ultrasound stimulation. While the antibacterial effect of control nanoparticle chemistries (Al2O3) alone was either weak or unobservable under the conditions tested, the antibacterial effect of ZnO alone was significant, providing over a four log reduction (equivalent to antibiotics) compared to no treatment after just 8 h. The antibacterial effect was enhanced as ZnO particle diameter decreased. Specifically, when testing the antibacterial effect against bacteria populations relevant to infection, a 500 μg ml−1 dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm reduced S. aureus populations by four orders of magnitude after 8 and 24 h, compared to control groups with no nanoparticles. This was accomplished without the use of antibiotics, to which bacteria are developing a resistance anyway. The addition of ultrasound stimulation further reduced the number of viable colony-forming units present in a planktonic cell suspension by 76% compared to nanoparticles alone. Lastly, this study provided a mechanism for how ZnO nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasound decrease bacteria functions by demonstrating greater hydrogen peroxide generation by S. aureus compared to controls. These results indicated that small-diameter ZnO nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial properties that can be additionally enhanced in the presence of ultrasound and, thus, should be further studied for a wide range of medical device anti-infection applications. (paper)

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Five Zingiberaceae Essential Oils

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    Orapin Kerdchoechuen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe., galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw., turmeric (Curcuma longa L., kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt. and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall. was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major components of ginger, turmeric, galangal, bastard cardamom and kaempferia were zingiberene, turmerone, methyl chavicol, and γ-terpinene, respectively. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes, with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 mg/mL.

  16. Purine metabolic enzymes in lymphocytes. III. Effects of immunosuppressants on adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kurashige, Satonori; Akuzawa, Yuki; Yoshida, Toshiharu; Kodama, Kazue

    1983-01-01

    Mice were treated with a single injection of 6-mercaptopurine riboside (6MP-R), predonine or cyclophosphamide (CY), and the effects of these immunosuppressants on blastogenic responses to phytohemagglutinin P (PHA-P) or bacterial lipopoly saccharide (LPS) and on adenosine deaminase (ADA) or purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) activities were studied with spleen lymphocytes. The retardation of blastogenic responses to both PHA-P and LPS were associated with the retardation of both intracellu...

  17. Calculations of the Energetics of Oxidation of Aqueous Nucleosides and the Effects of Prototropic Equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, David M; Wardman, Peter

    2016-06-16

    Recently the calculated standard reduction potentials of the radical-cations of N-methyl substituted DNA bases have been reported that agree fairly well with the experimental results. However, there are issues reflecting the fact that the experimental results usually relate to the couple E(o)(Nuc(•),H(+)/NucH(+)), whereas the calculated results are for the E(o)(Nuc(•+)/Nuc) couple. To calculate the midpoint reduction potential at pH 7 (Em7), it is important to have accurate acid dissociation constants (pKs) for both ground-state bases and their radicals, and the effects of uncertainty in some of these values (e.g., that of the adenosine radical) must be considered. Calculations of the pKs of the radicals of the nucleic acid bases (as nucleosides) have been performed to explore the effects the various pKs have on calculating the values of Em7 and to see what improvements can be made with the accuracy of the calculations.

  18. Antibacterial effects of several current orthodontic materials against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalbaş, B; Kamak, H; Demir, A; Nur, M; Hadimli, H H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial effect of several current orthodontic materials against a certain oral bacterium. The antibacterial activities of six orthodontic composite resins (Transbond LR, Light Cure Retainer (LCR), Light Bond, System 1+, Kurasper F, Transbond XT adhesive), two orthodontic bonding materials (Transbond XT primer and System 1+ activator) and two glass ionomer cements (GIC) [Multicure Glass Ionomer and Ketac Cem GIC] were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans. The hard materials were put into the Teflon mould. The liquid materials were put on a paper disc. All materials were handled under aseptic conditions and placed on agar culture plates. All plates were incubated at 5% CO2 and 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The bacterial growth inhibition zones including the diameter of the sample were measured in millimetres. As a result of this study, the multicure GIC showed the highest antibacterial effectiveness, but no inhibition zones were noted for ketac cem GIC. The light bond adhesive of the Reliance orthodontic bonding system produced high antibacterial effect against S mutans, while the Reliance composite (LCR) did not show any antibacterial effect (p < 0.05). Both composite and primer of the transbond XT system demonstrated significant antibacterial effect against the test bacterium when compared to transbond LR (p < 0.05). Among the materials tested, kurasper F, Ormco system 1+ and system 1+ activator showed slight or no inhibitory effect against the test bacterium in this study In patients who have relatively high salivary levels of Streptococci mutans before treatment, the multicure GIC, the Reliance light bond adhesive, and transbond XT system which had high level antibacterial properties could be applied. PMID:23757904

  19. Effective strand invasion ODN incorporating a new bicyclic nucleoside analogue (WNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Eriko; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Efficient and specific targeting of DNA sequences by synthetic ligands is a major goal in chemical biology. Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are sequence-specific DNA-binding agents, but are limited to homopurine/homopyrimidine target sequences. We have previously reported two useful analogues (WNA: W-shaped nucleoside analogues), WNA-bT and WNAbC, which recognize a TA and a CG interrupting site forming triplexes with high stability and selectivity, respectively. However, their ability to form triplexes depended on their neighbouring bases in the TFO. Subsequent studies have shown that the sequence-dependency of the WNA analogues, for the formation of triplexes, has been partially solved by use of a WNA analogue bearing a substituted aromatic ring. Investigations into the effects of the substituted aromatic ring of WNA derivatives on the stability of triplexes led to the discovery of strand invasion by the TFO incorporating the new WNA analogue to form a highly stable duplex. PMID:18029683

  20. Effect of Purine Nucleoside Analogue-Acyclovir on The Sperm Parameters and Testosterone Production in Rats

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    Vahid Nejati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acyclovir (ACV, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived fromguanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220± 20 g were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group. One groupserved as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally(i.p. injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drugtreatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Eighteen days after the lastinjection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymideswere removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis,sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity wereanalyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined.Results: The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased spermmotility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increasedat 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damageat 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, asignificant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/kg doses.Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicityby adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in malerats.

  1. Comparative effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and its components on endotoxin induced bacterial translocation and small intestinal injury in protein deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei, A A; Yamauchi, K.; Chan, Y. C.; Konishi, M; Yamamoto, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Nucleoside-nucleotide mixture has been shown to improve gut morphology and reduce the incidence of bacterial translocation in protein deficient mice. AIMS--To compare the reparative effect of nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and their individual components on maintenance of gut integrity and bacterial translocation based on their differential metabolism and utilisation. METHODS--ICR (CD-1) mice were randomised into eight groups of 10 animals each and fed 20% casein diet (control), pr...

  2. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Effects of

    OpenAIRE

    SS Saei Dehkordi; H Tajik; Moradi, M; A Jafari Dehkordi; Ghasemi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis L. as a member of the Lamiaceae family and lysozyme as a natural antibacterial agent is important in food microbiology, because of its characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and anti-listerial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (REO) alone and in combination with lysozyme for enhancement of anti-listerial activity of both substances. Materials & Methods: Rosmarinus officinalis ...

  3. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE IN DIFFER ENT VEHICLES

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    Hari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of ca lcium hydroxide in different vehicles in an in vitro model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Calcium hydroxide paste prepared with two conventionally used vehicles namely, campho rated monochlophenol, distilled water and also propylene glycol. The antibacterial activity of these paste were tested against five micro- organisms that can commonly occur in the inf ected root canals. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study indicate that a paste of ca lcium hydroxide made with propylene glycol exerts significant antibacterial act ion. Hence, it can be recommended for use as an intracanal medicament in preference to a paste prepa red with a tissue toxic phenolic compound like camphorated mono chlorophenol

  4. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD. PMID:24612819

  5. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD.

  6. Renal transepithelial transport of nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A; Vidale, E; Enigbokan, M

    1988-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has suggested that the mammalian kidney has unique mechanisms for handling purine nucleosides. For example, in humans and in mice, adenosine undergoes net renal reabsorption whereas deoxyadenosine is secreted [Kuttesch and Nelson: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 8, 221 (1982)]. The relationships between these renal transport systems and classical renal organic cation and anion, carbohydrate, and cell membrane nucleoside transport carriers are not established. To investigate possible relationships between such carriers, we have tested effects of selected classical transport inhibitors on the renal clearances of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUR), and 5-fluorouracil in mice. The secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR, but not the reabsorption of adenosine or 5-fluorouracil, was prevented by the classical nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine. Cimetidine, an inhibitor of the organic cation secretory system, also inhibited the secretion of 5'-dFUR, although it did not inhibit deoxyadenosine secretion in earlier studies [Nelson et al.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 32, 2323 (1983)]. The specific inhibitor of glucose renal reabsorption, phloridzin, failed to inhibit the reabsorption of adenosine or the secretion of deoxyadenosine. Failure of the nucleoside transport inhibitors and phloridzin to prevent adenosine reabsorption suggests that adenosine reabsorption may occur via a unique process. On the other hand, inhibition of the net secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR by dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine implies a role for the carrier that is sensitive to these compounds in the renal secretion (active transport) of these nucleosides.

  7. Selective antibacterial effects of mixed ZnMgO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidic, Jasmina, E-mail: jasmina.vidic@jouy.inra.fr [VIM, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique (France); Stankic, Slavica, E-mail: slavica.stankic@insp.jussieu.fr; Haque, Francia [CNRS, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588 (France); Ciric, Danica; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vidy, Aurore [VIM, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique (France); Jupille, Jacques [CNRS, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588 (France); Delmas, Bernard [VIM, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique (France)

    2013-05-15

    Antibiotic resistance has impelled the research for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth without showing cytotoxic effects on humans and other species. We describe the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of nanostructured ZnMgO whose antibacterial activity was compared to its pure nano-ZnO and nano-MgO counterparts. Among the three oxides, ZnO nanocrystals-with the length of tetrapod legs about 100 nm and the diameter about 10 nm-were found to be the most effective antibacterial agents since both Gram-positive (B. subtilis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria were completely eradicated at concentration of 1 mg/mL. MgO nanocubes (the mean cube size {approx}50 nm) only partially inhibited bacterial growth, whereas ZnMgO nanoparticles (sizes corresponding to pure particles) revealed high specific antibacterial activity to Gram-positive bacteria at this concentration. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that B. subtilis cells were damaged after contact with nano-ZnMgO, causing cell contents to leak out. Our preliminary toxicological study pointed out that nano-ZnO is toxic when applied to human HeLa cells, while nano-MgO and the mixed oxide did not induce any cell damage. Overall, our results suggested that nanostructured ZnMgO, may reconcile efficient antibacterial efficiency while being a safe new therapeutic for bacterial infections.

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Zakavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P<0.0001, but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes.

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  10. High concentration honey chitosan electrospun nanofibers: biocompatibility and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2015-05-20

    Honey nanofibers represent an attractive formulation with unique medicinal and wound healing advantages. Nanofibers with honey concentrations of chitosan and honey (H) were cospun with polyvinyl alcohol (P) allowing the fabrication of nanofibers with high honey concentrations up to 40% and high chitosan concentrations up to 5.5% of the total weight of the fibers using biocompatible solvents (1% acetic acid). The fabricated nanofibers were further chemically crosslinked, by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapor, and physically crosslinked by heating and freezing/thawing. The new HP-chitosan nanofibers showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus but weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The developed HP-chitosan nanofibers revealed no cytotoxicity effects on cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, biocompatible, antimicrobial crosslinked honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers were developed which hold potential as effective wound dressing. PMID:25817652

  11. Determination of in-vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    C N Akujobi; I Egbuonu; C C Ezechukwu; F T Ogunsola

    2009-01-01

    Background:Breast milk undisputedly is the ideal baby food. It provides a lot of protective functions for the baby as well complete nutrition. It contains fat, proteins carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. There have been various claims that it cures ailments. The study was therefore designed to substantiate those claims. Objective: To determine the in vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk Methodology:Expressed breast milk of nursing mothers who were not on antibiotics was chall...

  12. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Antibacterial Substantivity of Chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahriari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the antibacterial substantivity of chlorhexidine (CHX. Seventy-five dentine tubes prepared from human maxillary central and lateral incisor teeth were used. After contamination with Enterococcus faecalis for 14 days, the specimens were divided into five groups as follows: CHX, H2O2, CHX + H2O2, infected dentine tubes (positive control, and sterile dentine tubes (negative control. Dentine chips were collected with round burs into tryptic soy broth, and after culturing, the number of colony-forming units (CFU was counted. The number of CFU was minimum in the first cultures in all experimental groups, and the results obtained were significantly different from each other at any time period (<.05. At the first culture, the number of CFU in the CHX + H2O2 group was lower than other two groups. At the other experimental periods, the CHX group showed the most effective antibacterial action (<.05. Hydrogen peroxide group showed the worst result at all periods. In each group, the number of CFU increased significantly by time lapse (<.05. In conclusion, H2O2 had no additive effect on the residual antibacterial activity of CHX.

  13. Effect of pressurization on antibacterial properties of Lactobacillus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Grześkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of high pressures on antibacterial properties of selected strains of the Lactobacillus species. Cultures of 22 strains were subjected to high-pressure treatment at 30, 60, 90, and 300 MPa/1 min/18 °C. The susceptibility of the bacteria pressurized at 30-90 MPa was diversified and depended on the strain and not on its species affiliation. When compared with pressures of 30-90 MPa, the pressure treatment at 300 MPa caused the inhibition of the acidifying activity of the strains analyzed. In turn, the pressures applied had no impact on the quantity of hydrogen peroxide synthesized. An increase in pressure was accompanied by a diminishing antibacterial activity of the investigated Lactobacillus strains.

  14. Effect of antibacterial dental adhesive on multispecies biofilms formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Wang, S; Zhou, X; Xu, H H K; Weir, M D; Ge, Y; Li, M; Wang, S; Li, Y; Xu, X; Zheng, L; Cheng, L

    2015-04-01

    Antibacterial adhesives have favorable prospects to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of dental adhesives containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) on different bacteria in controlled multispecies biofilms and its regulating effect on development of biofilm for the first time. Antibacterial material was synthesized, and Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus sanguinis were chosen to form multispecies biofilms. Lactic acid assay and pH measurement were conducted to study the acid production of controlled multispecies biofilms. Anthrone method and exopolysaccharide (EPS):bacteria volume ratio measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to determine the EPS production of biofilms. The colony-forming unit counts, scanning electron microscope imaging, and dead:live volume ratio decided by confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the biomass change of controlled multispecies biofilms. The TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization imaging were used to study the proportion change in multispecies biofilms of different groups. The results showed that DMADDM-containing adhesive groups slowed the pH drop and decreased the lactic acid production noticeably, especially lactic acid production in the 5% DMADDM group, which decreased 10- to 30-fold compared with control group (P antibiofilm and anticaries clinical applications. PMID:25715378

  15. Structure-activity-relationships (SAR) in pyrimidine nucleoside transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of pyrimidine nucleosides were evaluated as part of a larger program to develop non-invasive brain imaging agents. The interaction of these antitumor/antiviral nucleosides with an NBMPR-sensitive murine erythroctye nucleoside transporter was evaluated by determining their inhibitory effect (Ki) on zero-trans influx of thymidine. Within each series of compounds, which had F, Cl, Br or I as halogen substituents, an increase in size of the halogen atom or a decrease in electronegativity decreased affinity for the transporter. Partition coefficients (P) of these pyrimidine nucleosides were measured to determine their potential to diffuse across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Most of the pyrimidine nucleosides had lower P values (log P i for nucleosides with a particular sugar moiety. Within a nucleoside series with a given sugar component, the binding affinity for the transporter was inversely proportional to lipophilicity. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. [Purine nucleoside phosphorylase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2013-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is one of the most important enzymes of the purine metabolism, wich promotes the recycling of purine bases. Nowadays is the actual to search for effective inhibitors of this enzyme which is necessary for creation T-cell immunodeficient status of the organism in the organs and tissues transplantation, and chemotherapy of a number pathologies as well. For their successful practical application necessary to conduct in-depth and comprehensive study of the enzyme, namely a structure, functions, and an affinity of the reaction mechanism. In the review the contemporary achievements in the study of PNP from various biological objects are presented. New data describing the structure of PNP are summarised and analysed. The physiological role of the enzyme is discussed. The enzyme basic reaction mechanisms and actions are considered. The studies on enzyme physicochemical, kinetic, and catalytic research are presented. PMID:24479338

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Teucrium polium on the Bacteria Causing Urinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Shahba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present investigation was conducted to study the antibacterial effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Teucrium polium plant on the bacteria isolated from urine samples of those with UTI and to compare it with the effect of commonly used antibiotics in treating UTIs. Materials and Methods: The antibiotic resistance of 147 strains of bacteria causing UTIs to the antibiotics selected through Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was determined. In the meantime, the aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of T. polium plant were prepared. The antibacterial activity of these extracts was examined using Disk Diffusion Method. Finally, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of antibacterial were determined using serial dilution method. Results: T. polium extracts were merely effective in enterococcus and pseudomonas bacteria. In general, the MIC rate of aqueous extract in enterococcus was 1.25-5 mg/ml. The MIC rate of ethanolic extract for enterococcus was calculated as 10 mg/ml. The MIC of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts for pseudomonas bacteria were achieved as 5 and 20 mg/ml, respectively. The MBC contents of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of teucrium for pseudomonas bacteria was 10 mg/ml in aqueous and 20 mg/ml in ethyl acetate extracts. The MBC content of extracts for enterococcus bacteria were 10 mg/ml in aqueous extract and 20 mg/ml in ethanolic extract. Conclusion: T. polium extract can be effective in some bacteria causing urinary tract infection, especially enterococcus.

  18. Antibacterial effect of protamine assayed by impedimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Gill, T.; Gram, Lone

    1995-01-01

    estimating the cell number after protamine treatment, rather than colony counts. Protamine from salmon killed growing Gram- positive bacteria and significantly inhibited growth of Gram- negative bacteria in Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) at 25 degrees C. In general Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive...... to protamine than Gram-negative bacteria; the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIG) determined for Gram-positive strains varied from 20 to 1000 mu g ml(-1) and for Gram-negative strains from 500 mu g ml(-1) to more than 4000 mu g ml(-1). The effect of protamine on non-growing Listeria monocytogenes Scott...... A suspended in buffer was not lethal as was the effect on growing cells; however, protamine (50-500 mu g ml(-1)) killed the Gram-negative fish spoilage bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens when the live cells were suspended in buffer....

  19. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  20. Antibacterial effect of oral antiseptics on facultative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel da Silva Garrote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of four oral antiseptics (two solutions of cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate and benzalkonium chloride on facultative bacteria using two methods. Methods: Strains were inoculated in 7 mL of brain heart infusion (BHI and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. For the agar diffusion test, 15 Petri plates with 20 mL of brain heart infusion agar (BHIA were inoculated with 0.1 mL of microbial suspensions using sterile swabs to produce confluent growth; one Petri plate was not inoculated. Thirty-six 9-mm paper discs were immersed in the experimental solutions (0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, and 0.13% benzalkonium chloride for 1 minute. Subsequently, three paper discs containing irrigant solutions were placed on the BHIA in each plate. The plates were kept at room temperature for 1 hour and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Two measurements of the inhibition zones were made on the paper discs containing the solutions, and mean values were calculated. For the direct exposure test, 216 #50 sterilized paper points were immersed in the microorganism suspensions for 5 minutes, placed onto Petri plates and covered with 10 mL of irrigant solution. At one, five, 10 and 30 minutes, three paper points were removed from the contact substances, transported individually, immersed in 7 mL Letheen broth and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Bacterial growth was evaluated by turbidity. An inoculum of 0.1 mL Letheen broth was transferred to 7 mL BHI, and incubated as described above. Bacterial growth was evaluated according to turbidity. Results: Inhibition zones were greater than 10 mm for all substances and all microorganisms under study. The antibacterial effect of 0.13% benzalkonium chloride against the biological indicators was observed after five minutes in direct exposure, while cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate had an

  1. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  2. Effect of antibacterial dental adhesive on multispecies biofilms formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Wang, S; Zhou, X; Xu, H H K; Weir, M D; Ge, Y; Li, M; Wang, S; Li, Y; Xu, X; Zheng, L; Cheng, L

    2015-04-01

    Antibacterial adhesives have favorable prospects to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of dental adhesives containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) on different bacteria in controlled multispecies biofilms and its regulating effect on development of biofilm for the first time. Antibacterial material was synthesized, and Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus sanguinis were chosen to form multispecies biofilms. Lactic acid assay and pH measurement were conducted to study the acid production of controlled multispecies biofilms. Anthrone method and exopolysaccharide (EPS):bacteria volume ratio measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to determine the EPS production of biofilms. The colony-forming unit counts, scanning electron microscope imaging, and dead:live volume ratio decided by confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the biomass change of controlled multispecies biofilms. The TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization imaging were used to study the proportion change in multispecies biofilms of different groups. The results showed that DMADDM-containing adhesive groups slowed the pH drop and decreased the lactic acid production noticeably, especially lactic acid production in the 5% DMADDM group, which decreased 10- to 30-fold compared with control group (P biofilms compared with control group (P biofilm had a more healthy development tendency after the regulation of DMADDM. In conclusion, the adhesives containing DMADDM had remarkable antimicrobial properties to serve as "bioactive" adhesive materials and revealed its potential value for antibiofilm and anticaries clinical applications.

  3. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect between Silibinin and Antibiotics in Oral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin is a composition of the silymarin group as a hepatoprotective agent, and it exhibits various biological activities, including antibacterial activity. In this study, the antibacterial activities of silibinin were investigated in combination with two antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria. Silibinin was determined with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.1 to 3.2 and 0.2 to 6.4 μg/mL, ampicillin from 0.125 to 64 and 0.5 to 64 μg/mL, gentamicin from 2 to 256 and 4 to 512 μg/mL, respectively. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.025–0.8 μg/mL and 0.1–3.2 μg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activities of silibinin against oral bacteria were assessed using the checkerboard and time-kill methods to evaluate the synergistic effects of treatment with ampicillin or gentamicin. The results were evaluated showing that the combination effects of silibinin with antibiotics were synergistic (FIC index <0.5 against all tested oral bacteria. Furthermore, a time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2–6 h of treatment with the MBC of silibinin, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin or gentamicin. These results suggest that silibinin combined with other antibiotics may be microbiologically beneficial and not antagonistic.

  4. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L., E-mail: argelia.almaguer@mac.com; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Odontología, DEPeI, I (Mexico); Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa (Mexico); Berea, Edgardo [FarmaQuimia SA de CV. (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  5. Determination of in-vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C N Akujobi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Breast milk undisputedly is the ideal baby food. It provides a lot of protective functions for the baby as well complete nutrition. It contains fat, proteins carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. There have been various claims that it cures ailments. The study was therefore designed to substantiate those claims. Objective: To determine the in vitro antibacterial effects of breast milk Methodology:Expressed breast milk of nursing mothers who were not on antibiotics was challenged with 0.5 McFarland′s standard of overnight cultures of common bacteria that cause infections. The mixture was sub cultured at 30 minutes, 1 hour and lastly 2 hour intervals. The plates were read the following day for evidence of growth. Result:Overnight incubation yielded growth of the various organisms that were inoculated. Conclusion:Breast milk does not have in vitro antibacterial effect although it may possess same in vivo with the synergistic effect of other substances in the body.

  6. Antibacterial effects of N-acetylcysteine against endodontic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Choi, Young-Suk; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Heo, Jung Sun; Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2016-04-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the eradication of microorganisms from the root canal system and the prevention of reinfection. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant mucolytic agent, as an intracanal medicament against selected endodontic pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC for Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis were determined using the broth microdilution method. NAC showed antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 0.78-1.56 mg/ml. The effect of NAC on biofilm formation of each bacterium and a multispecies culture consisting of the four bacterial species was assessed by crystal violet staining. NAC significantly inhibited biofilm formation by all the monospecies and multispecies bacteria at minimum concentrations of 0.78-3.13 mg/ml. The efficacy of NAC for biofilm disruption was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and ATP-bioluminescence quantification using mature multispecies biofilms. Preformed mature multispecies biofilms on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disks were disrupted within 10 min by treatment with NAC at concentrations of 25 mg/ml or higher. After 24 h of treatment, the viability of mature biofilms was reduced by > 99% compared with the control. Moreover, the biofilm disrupting activity of NAC was significantly higher than that of saturated calcium hydroxide or 2% chlorhexidine solution. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we conclude that NAC has excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy against endodontic pathogens and may be used as an alternative intracanal medicament in root canal therapies. PMID:27033208

  7. The antibacterial effect assay of a few officinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moţ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available From very old times plants were used for man or animal health, with good results in slightly, functional injuries or in incipient stages of diseases. In chronic, when already appeared organic affection, officinal plants has an adjuvant part and can contributes to a partial reversibility of symptoms or lesions. This study was been performed using aqueous solutions or essential oils from Mentha spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris and Rosa sp. with bacterial cultures on usual or special culture mediums of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus. In view of antibacterial assay emphasizing were been used small pieces of absorbent paper immersed in solutions or essential oils above mentioned officinal plants. These pieces of papers then were been deposed in usual and special culture mediums containing the mentioned species of bacteria and then incubated 24 hours. The obtained result emphasized by the inhibition areas development recommend the antibacterial effect of essential oils of Rosa sp. (25.5 mm inhibition area, Mentha spicata (16.5 mm, Thymus vulgaris (7.3 mm and Ocimum basilicum (5.1 mm in therapeutic purpose, both in intern and extern way in infections caused by Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus, in incipient stages.

  8. The effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on virologic response in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B treated with nucleoside analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)on virologic response in chronic hepatitis B patients treated with nucleoside analogues.Methods Three hundred and thirty-two treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen(HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B(CHB)who visited clinic or hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College from January 2007 to December 2009

  9. The antibacterial paradox: essential drugs, effectiveness, and cost.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasehun, F.

    1999-01-01

    The concept proposed by WHO of an essential drugs list that should comprise drugs corresponding to the health needs of the majority of the people has been embraced by countries, which have adapted it to their needs. In this study, the essential antibacterial drug lists of 16 countries chosen from the six WHO regions are reviewed. Most of these countries include 73% of WHO-recommended essential antibacterials on their lists. However, most are lacking reserve antibacterials, and even some main ...

  10. Effects of antibacterial dishwashing liquid on foodborne pathogens and competitive microorganisms in kitchen sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningrum, H.D.; Putten, van M.M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about home hygiene, the use of antibacterial products to reduce microorganisms in kitchen sponges and cleaning cloths is strongly promoted by some producers of detergent for domestic use. The effects of an antibacterial dishwashing liquid on Escherichia coli, Salmon

  11. Effect of dyeing on antibacterial efficiency of silver coated cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Sheila; Rezaee, Sahar; Hezavehi, Emadaldin

    2014-04-01

    Despite numerous investigations during recent decades in the field of antimicrobial treating textile fibers using silver, many obscurities remain regarding the durability and dyeing ability and the influences of dyeing on the antimicrobial effectiveness of silver-treated fibers. In this research work, the cotton fabrics were sputtered using DC magnetron sputtering system for different times of exposure by silver. Then the silver coated samples were dyed by different classes of synthetic and natural dyes. The dye ability of coated samples was compared with untreated cotton. The reflective spectrophotometer was used for this purpose. The morphology of the cotton fabrics before and after dyeing was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity of samples before and after dyeing, were investigated and compared. For antibacterial investigation, the antibacterial counting tests were used. It was concluded that, dyeing does not have any negative effect on antibacterial activity of coated samples and very good antibacterial activity was achieved after dyeing.

  12. 沙葱提取物抗菌效果的研究%Antibacterial Effect of Extracts from Allium mongolicum Regel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚蕾; 罗瑞明

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on antibacterial activity and stability of the ethanol extracts from Allium mongolicum Regel. [Method] Taking Allium mongolicum Regel.(AMR) as experimental material, the antibacterial and stability test, antibacterial capacity and antibacterial activity substance stability of extracts were studied. [Result] Size order of antibacterial effect of extracts on these 5 strains tended to be:Saccharomyces cerevisiae > Penicillium sp.> Aspergillusniger> Staphylococcusaureus> Escherichia coli; under neutral or slight alkaline conditions, optimum antibacterial effect presented best; and UV light irradiation basically had no influence on tested strains. [Conclusion] Antibacterial effect of ethanol extract shows great difference among these strains, and antibacterial activity substance is of good heat and UV light stability.

  13. Antibacterial Effectiveness Of Low Energy Diode Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howida M. Sharaf *, Adel M. Elkhodary**, Ali E. Saafan***, Mostafa I. Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the poor oral hygiene exhibited by patients with Down syndrome, the potential for a robust flora arises causing Periodontitis. Along with periodontal disease, the patient population has other medical conditions that limit treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of an 870-nm diode laser on periodontitis in patients with Down syndrome. Subjects & methods :Thirty five patients with Down syndrome suffering from periodontitis were included in this study and divided into two groups, Group I (25 patients laser was applied to one half of the mouth and the other half was considered as a control & Group II included (10 patients basic periodontal treatment was applied to evaluate the systemic effect of laser. Quantification of A. actinomycetemconcomitans, P. Gingivalis and Capnocytophaga were carried out using real-time PCR technique at baseline and at 2 weeks, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks post periodontal and laser treatment.Results: A. Actinmycetcomitans and P. gingivalis were the most common organisms found in the studied patients and Capnocytophaga was the least common organisms. In group I the quantitative results of A. actinomycetemconcomitans, P. Gingivalis at 2 weeks were significantly lower in both sides of mouth than that of baseline level.After 6 week, it was still significantly lower than that of the baseline in the right side of the mouth, but at 12 weeks no significant difference was observed in both sides. In group II, quantitative results of A. actinomycetemconcomitans, P. Gingivalis at 2 weeks were also significantly lower than that of baseline but not at 6 & at 12 weeks. As regards, Capnocytophaga there was no significant difference at baseline, at 2 weeks, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks post periodontal and laser treatment in both groups I & II.Conclusion, scaling and root planning plus laser therapy was better than scaling and root planning alone in the chosen patients and this

  14. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effects of Boron on Different Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Zafer; Ucan, Uckun Sait; Sakmanoglu, Asli

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) compounds are used in many fields ranging from medicine to industry. In this study, boric acid (BA) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) were evaluated for their antibacterial effects and antibiofilm capacities on selected strains of clinical and type cultures that are of veterinary concern (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 19570, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Brucella melitensis Rev1 and field isolates of Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactococcus garvieae, and Brucella abortus). Also, the inhibition of biofilm was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. The lowest MIC values of BA and DOT were measured, by broth method using microdilution, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and were 0.385 and 0.644 mg/ml, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most resistant to both BA and DOT. Using the microplate method, we observed that the strongest positivities for biofilm production were presented by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and also a clinical isolate of Lactococcus garviea. Lower values in the MIC scores for both B compounds were tested by measuring the inhibitory effect on biofilm production. We found that all the bacterial strains inhibited biofilm formation with the exception of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains for BA only and an isolate of Lactococcus garviea for DOT only. Such effects by BA and DOT are worth discussing in order to find novel approaches for different functions in medicine and industry using the bacteria tested. PMID:26864941

  15. Nucleotides, Nucleosides, and Nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Dandanell, Gert; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne;

    2008-01-01

    We review literature on the metabolism of ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleobases in Escherichia coli and Salmonella,including biosynthesis, degradation, interconversion, and transport. Emphasis is placed on enzymology and regulation of the pathways, at both the level of gene...

  16. Prebiotic phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffstall, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study intended to assess phosphorylation under neither aqueous nor dry thermal conditions. Instead, phosphorylations were attempted in possible nonaqueous prebiotic solvents. Formamide appeared to be the most obvious candidate for phosphorylation studies. Three main classes of phosphorylated products were formed in formamide solution: adenosine monophosphates, cyclic adenosine phosphate, and adenosine diphosphates. Experiments were designed to investigate the extent of phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide, the relative amounts of nucleoside monophosphate, diphosphates and cyclic phosphate formed and the relative effectiveness of different sources of phosphate as phosphorylating agents in formamide. Reaction variables were temperature, nature of the phosphate or condensed phosphate, nucleoside, concentration of reactants and possible effects of additives. Product identification was based on qualitative and quantitative thin layer chromatography.

  17. Antibacterial effect of Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa L. oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecgel, Umit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of five different oils from Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa used in foods mainly for their flavour, preservation and natural therapies were screened for their antibacterial effects at 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % concentrations using the agar diffusion method against twenty four pathogenic, spoilage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. All tested oils showed antibacterial activity against all the bacteria used in the assay. The oils at 2.0 % concentration were more effective than of the other concentrations. The most sensitive bacterium against all of the oil concentrations was Aeromonas hydrophila, while the most resistant was Yersinia enterocolitica. Generally, lactic acid bacteria had more resistance than pathogenic and spoilage bacteria against black cumin oils. Consequently, black cumin oil may be used as an antimicrobial agent in food products to prevent spoilage.Se ensayaron un total de cinco aceites diferentes de comino negro turco ( Nigella sativa L., que se utilizan habitualmente en alimentos para darles sabor, ayudar a la conservación o por sus efectos terapéuticos, para estudiar sus propiedades antimicrobianas a concentraciones de 0.5 %, 1.0 %, y 2 %. Para ello se utilizó el método de difusión en agar, frente a veinticuatro microorganismos patógenos, causantes de alteraciones o bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB. Todos los aceites ensayados mostraron actividad antimicrobiana contra todos los microorganismos ensayados, siendo las concentraciones del 2 % las concentraciones más eficaces. Aeromonas hydrophyla fue el microorganismo mas sensible a todas las concentraciones mientras que Yersinia enterocolitica fue la más resistente. Generalmente las bacterias acido lácticas tuvieron más resistencia que los gérmenes patógenos y las bacterias que causan alteraciones. En consecuencia, el aceite de comino negro turco se puede utilizar como agente antimicrobiano en productos alimenticios para evitar su alteración.

  18. Comparison of Antibacterial Effect of Fluoride and Chlorhexidine on Two Cariogenic Bacteria: An in Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Poureslami HR; Barkam F; Poureslami P; Salari Z; Salari S

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Dental plaque is the main source for dental caries and there is no proper vaccine that can affect dental plaques. Objectives: Daily use of an efficient anti-plaque product can be very beneficial in plaque control and, thus, prevention of caries. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effects of four products of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride on two types of cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the antibacterial effect of Chlorhe...

  19. Protective effect of taurine on hypochlorous acid toxicity to nuclear nucleoside triphosphatase in isolated nuclei from rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Xiang Li; Yong-Zheng Pang; Chao-Shu Tang; Zai-Quan Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Taurine has been shown to be an effective scavenger of hypochlorous acid (HOCI). The role of HOCI is well established in tissue damage associated with inflammation and injury. In the present study, the effect of HOCI on nuclear nucleoside triphosphatase of hepatocytes and the ability of taurine to prevent this effect were investigated.METHODS: Isolated hepatic nuclei from rat liver were exposed to HOCI with or without taurine. The NTPase activity on nuclear envelope was assayed using ATP and GTP as substrates, respectively.RESULTS: The first series of experiments evaluated the toxicity of HOCl and the efficacy of taurine to protect NTPase.HOCI at 10-9-5×10-6 mol/L reduced nuclear NTPase activities in a concentration dependent manner (ATP and GTP as substrates) (P<0.01). HOCI at 10-6 mol/L reduced the NTPase activity by 65% (ATP as substrate) and 76% (GTP as substrate). Taurine (10-7 to 10-4 mol/L) was tested for protection against HOCI at 10-6 mol/L and the nuclei treated with 5x10-4 mol/L taurine exhibited only 20% and 12% reduction in NTPase activities compared to untreated controls. A second study was performed comparing taurine to glutathione (GSH). GSH and HOCI at 10-6 mol/L exhibited 46% and 67.4% reduction in NTPase activities compared with control. GSH (10-4 mol/L) which was incubated with the nuclei and HOCi still exhibited 44.2% and 44.8% reduction in NTPase activities of untreated control. Taurine with HOCI only exhibited 15.2% and 17.1% reduction in NTPase activities, which provided more powerful protection against HOCI than GSH. The third experiment was undertaken to evaluate the specificity of taurine against HOCI. Incubation of rat hepatic nuclei with Fe3+/H2O2 (1 m mol/L vS 5μ mol/L) resulted in a decrease in nuclear NTPase activities (P<0.01).When hepatic nuclei were incubated with Tau (10-4 mol/L) and Fe3+/H2O2 (1m mol/L vS 5μ mol/L), nuclear NTPase activities were only slightly increased as compared with that of incubation with Fe3+/H

  20. Efavirenz Has the Highest Anti-Proliferative Effect of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors against Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hecht

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention and therapy in HIV-1-infected patients will play an important role in future. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI Efavirenz and Nevirapine are cytotoxic against cancer cells in vitro. As other NNRTIs have not been studied so far, all clinically used NNRTIs were tested and the in vitro toxic concentrations were compared to drug levels in patients to predict possible anti-cancer effects in vivo.Cytotoxicity was studied by Annexin-V-APC/7AAD staining and flow cytometry in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and Panc-1 and confirmed by colony formation assays. The 50% effective cytotoxic concentrations (EC50 were calculated and compared to the blood levels in our patients and published data.The in vitro EC50 of the different drugs in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells were: Efavirenz 31.5 μmol/l (= 9944 ng/ml, Nevirapine 239 μmol/l (= 63,786 ng/ml, Etravirine 89.0 μmol/l (= 38,740 ng/ml, Lersivirine 543 μmol/l (= 168,523 ng/ml, Delavirdine 171 μmol/l (= 78,072 ng/ml, Rilpivirine 24.4 μmol/l (= 8941 ng/ml. As Efavirenz and Rilpivirine had the highest cytotoxic potential and Nevirapine is frequently used in HIV-1 positive patients, the results of these three drugs were further studied in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and confirmed with colony formation assays. 205 patient blood levels of Efavirenz, 127 of Rilpivirine and 31 of Nevirapine were analyzed. The mean blood level of Efavirenz was 3587 ng/ml (range 162-15,363 ng/ml, of Rilpivirine 144 ng/ml (range 0-572 ng/ml and of Nevirapine 4955 ng/ml (range 1856-8697 ng/ml. Blood levels from our patients and from published data had comparable Efavirenz levels to the in vitro toxic EC50 in about 1 to 5% of all patients.All studied NNRTIs were toxic against cancer cells. A low percentage of patients taking Efavirenz reached in vitro cytotoxic blood levels. It can be speculated that in HIV-1 positive patients having high Efavirenz blood levels pancreatic

  1. Investigation of antibacterial effect of Cadmium Oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Bahareh; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic antibacterial factors provide high bacterial resistance and thermal stability. Inorganic nanomaterial consists of modern formulation, biological, chemical, and physical properties produced on the basis of their function and influenced by their nano scales, the reason for which they have become very popular. The antibacterial effect of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles on Staphylococcus Aureus has been studied for the first time in this research because of their resistance to an...

  2. Ramsons can deliver taste and antibacterial effect in food preservation: From nature to cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Martin; Hansen, Flemming; Grevsen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Ramsons (Allium ursinum) contain sulphur compounds that display strong antibacterial activity against Listeria, Salmonella and E. coli. Onion bulbs and flowers have a higher concentration of allicin than leaves and stems and display higher inhibitory activity. Grinded onion bulbs have shown strong antibacterial effects in meat test models and may potentially be used as an alternative to preserve organic meat products. Cultivation methods are investigated.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of pulp capping agents with direct contact test method

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Muhammet; Arslan, Ugur; Dundar, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Calcium hydroxide has been used in dentistry as a major capping material having the capacity to introduce the formation of a mineralized dentin bridge, but it has no direct inducing effect to the pulp cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of three different pulp capping agents using a direct contact test (DCT). Materials and Methods: The antibacterial properties of three pulp capping agents were evaluated a DCT. For the DCT, wells (n = 12) o...

  4. Synthesis of Methacrylate Monomers with Antibacterial Effects Against S. Mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei He

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of polymerizable quaternary ammonium compounds were synthesized with the aim of using them as immobilized antibacterial agents in methacrylate dental composites, and their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analysis. Their antibacterial activities against the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans were evaluated in vitro by a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration test, and the results showed that 2-dimethyl-2-hexadecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C16 had the highest antibacterial activity against S. mutans, and 2-dimethyl-2-pentyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C5 and 2-dimethyl-2-octyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C8 did not show any inhibition.

  5. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry (Israel); Domb, Abraham J., E-mail: avid@ekmd.huji.ac.i [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel)

    2010-02-15

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  6. Antibacterial effects of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibrous membranes loaded with chlorhexidine and silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiankang; Remmers, Stefan J A; Shao, Jinlong; Kolwijck, Eva; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Yang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    To prevent percutaneous device associated infections (PDAIs), we prepared electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibrous membrane containing silver nanoparticles as an implantable delivery vehicle for the dual release of chlorhexidine and silver ions. We observed that the silver nanoparticles were distributed homogeneously throughout the fibers, and a fast release of chlorhexidine in 2days and a sustained release of silver ions for up to 28days. The antibacterial efficacy of the membranes against Staphylococcus aureus showed that the membranes exhibited an obvious inhibition zone upon loading with either chlorhexidine (20μg or more per membrane) or AgNO3 (1 and 5wt% to polymer). Furthermore, long-term antibacterial effect up to 4days was verified using membranes containing 5wt% AgNO3. The results suggest that the membranes have strong potential to act as an active antibacterial dressing for local delivery of antibacterial agents to prevent PDAIs. PMID:26970025

  7. The Effect of Antibacterial Formula Hand Cleaners on the Elimination of Microbes on Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this project is to find out which one of the antibacterial hand cleanser (antibacterial bar soap, antibacterial liquid hand soap, and liquid hand sanitizer) is more effective in eliminating microbes. If antibacterial- formula liquid hand soap is used on soiled hands, then it will be more effective in eliminating microbes. Germs are microorganisms that cause disease and can spread from person-to-person. Bacteria are a kind of microbe, an example of which is Transient Flora that is often found on hands. Hand washing prevents germs from spreading to others. During the procedure, swabs were used to take samples before and after the soiled hands had been washed with one of the antibacterial hand cleansers. Nutrient Easygel was poured into petri dishes to harden for 1 day, and then samples were swabbed on the gel. The Petri dishes were placed in an incubator for 24 hours, and then data was recorded accordingly. The antibacterial liquid hand soap was sufficient in eliminating the majority of bacteria. The hands had 65% of the bacteria on them, and after the liquid hand soap was used only 37% of the bacteria remained.

  8. Anti-bacterial effect of Mentha spicata L. essential oil on eight standard species of gastrointestinal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Zare Bidaki; Mina Arab; Mohtarame Khazaei; Ehsan Afkar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nowadays resistance to antibiotics and their side effects has emerged as a worldwide problem. As a result, tend to use anti-bacterial compounds of plant origin has been increased. Mint plant scientifically called Mentha spicata L. is one of the plants which has many medicinal uses and its antibacterial effects is a matter of debate. We aimed to study antibacterial effects of Mentha spicata L essential oil on 8 standard bacterial species including Escherichia coli, Bacillus...

  9. The Antibacterial Effect of CMCTS-Containing Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagang Miao; Dan Blom; Hongmei Zhao; Xuefei Luan; Tongzhi Chen; Xiaohui Wu; Ning Song

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This paper was designed to confirm the efficacy of chewing carboxymethyl chitosan(CMCTS)-containing gum in suppressing the growth of oral bacteria when compared to a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.Methods:Fourteen healthy subjects were recruited from among the staff and students of Qingdao University Dentistry Department.Before the experiments saliva was collected from all subjects and bacteria counts determined.For the gum study,the subjects chewed CMCTS-containing gum for 5 rain and then rested for 5 min.When testing the CMCTS mouth rinse,the subjects gargled with 10 mL of solution for 30 s,followed by resting for 9min 30 s.These protocols were repeated five times over a 50 rain period on the same day.Post-experiment saliva samples were then collected at the following times:0,30 and 60 min.Results:Chewing gum containing CMCTS or rinsing with a CMCTS-containing rinse significantly decreased oral bacteria counts.The total bacteria counts,total Streptococci counts,and mutans streptococci counts of saliva from subjects who chewed CMCTS-containing gum were significantly lower than saliva from subjects in the rinse group in all three sampling periods,except in the case of the total bacteria count in the 60 min samples.Conclusion:CMCTS-containing gum chewing has a greater antibac-terial effect than using a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.The present findings strongly indicate that the application of natural materials such as chitosan and its derivatives is useful for better oral health.

  10. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects and Mechanism of Action of Protocatechualdehyde against Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shili Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechualdehyde (PCA is an important plant-derived natural product that has been associated with a wide variety of biological activities and has been widely used in medicine as an antioxidant, anti-aging and an anti-inflammatory agent. However, fewer reports concerning its antibacterial effects on plant-pathogenic bacteria exist. Therefore, in this study, protocatechualdehyde was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against plant pathogens along with the mechanism of its antibacterial action. PCA at 40 μg/mL was highly active against R. solanacearum and significantly inhibited its growth. The minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum inhibitory concentration values for PCA were 40 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL, respectively. Further investigation of the mechanism of action of PCA via transmission electron microscopy and biological assays indicated that the destruction of the cell structure, the shapes and the inhibition of biofilm formation were important. In addition, the application of PCA effectively reduced the incidence of bacterial wilt on tobacco under greenhouse conditions, and the control efficiency was as high as 92.01% at nine days after inoculation. Taken together, these findings suggest that PCA exhibits strong antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum and has the potential to be applied as an effective antibacterial agent for controlling bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum.

  11. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Luděk; Nencka, Radim; Huvarová, Ivana; Palus, Martin; Joao Alves, Maria; Gould, Ernest A; De Clercq, Erik; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause devastating infant brain defects and other neurological disorders in humans. However, no specific antiviral therapy is available at present. We tested a series of 2'-C- or 2'-O-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 2'-C-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 3'-O-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 3'-deoxynucleosides, derivatives with 4'-C-azido substitution, heterobase-modified nucleosides, and neplanocins for their ability to inhibit ZIKV replication in cell culture. Antiviral activity was identified when 2'-C-methylated nucleosides were tested, suggesting that these compounds might represent promising lead candidates for further development of specific antivirals against ZIKV. PMID:27234417

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum immobilization in alginate coated with chitosan and gelatin on antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ayadi, Dorra; Bejar, Wacim; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate and evaluate the efficiency of immobilizing the Lactobacillus plantarum TN9 strain in alginate using chitosan and gelatin as coating materials, in terms of viability and antibacterial activity. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of L. plantarum TN9 strain were produced with 2% sodium alginate, 10(8)UFC/ml, and 1M calcium chloride. The viability and antibacterial activity of the L. plantarum TN9 cultures before and after immobilization in alginate, chitosan-coated alginate, and gelatin-coated alginate, were studied. The findings revealed that the viability of encapsulated L. plantarum could be preserved more than 5.8 log CFU/ml after 35 day of incubation at 4 °C, and no effects were observed when gelatin was used. The antibacterial activity of encapsulated L. plantarum TN9 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria was enhanced in the presence of chitosan coating materials, and no activity was observed in the presence of gelatin. The effects of catalase and proteolytic enzymes on the culture supernatant of L. plantarum TN9 were also investigated, and the results suggested that the antibacterial activity observed was due to the production of organic acids. Taken together, the findings indicated that immobilization in chitosan enhanced the antibacterial activity of L. plantarum TN9 against several pathogenic bacteria. This encapsulated strain could be considered as a potential strong candidate for future application as an additive in the food and animal feed industries.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Dental Materials; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Pedriatric Dentistry], e-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm{sup 2} area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  14. 五种抗菌皂抗菌效果的评价%EVALUATION ON ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF FIVE ANTIBACTERIAL SOAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓婷; 姚晨之; 公培龙

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价含有不同抗菌成分香皂的抗菌性能,以了解其质量状况.方法 采用琼脂稀释法,对市售标有抗菌作用的抗菌肥皂的抗菌效果进行了体外抗菌性能评价.结果 浓度为5 000 mg/L的上海药皂、上海硫磺皂、六神艾叶除菌香皂、六神除菌香皂对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和白色念珠菌均有抑制效果,达到广谱抗菌肥皂的要求;浓度为6 000 mg/L的舒服佳橄榄油润肤香皂对白色念珠菌亦无抑制作用.结论 所抽检的五种抗菌肥皂中,只有四种在较高浓度下达到广谱抗菌肥皂的标准.%Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of soaps containing different antibacterial ingredients in order to know the quality status.Method Agar dilution method was used to evaluate the antibacterial or inhibition activities of commercial antibacterial soaps.Results Shanghai medicated soap,Shanghai sulfur soap,Liushen folic artemisiae antibacterial soap and Liushen antibacterial soap have great antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at the concentration of 5 000 mg/L,which could achieve the requirements of the broad-spectrum antibacterial soap.Safeguard olive oil emollient soaps have no inhibition effect on Candida albicans at the concentration of 6 000 mg/L.Conclusion At higher concentration,only four of five checked antibacterial soaps are up to the standards of the broad-spectrum antibacterial soap.

  15. Study of Antibacterial Effect of Novel Thiazole, Imidazole and Tetrahydropyridine Derivatives against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available > Introduction: Escherichia coli is one of the important pathogens in human with globalimportance. Because of the necessity for identification and the use of novel antibacterialcompounds against E. coli, in this present study we focused on the antibacterial effects ofsynthesized thiazole, imidazole and tetrahydropyridine derivatives on E. coli.Methods: For evaluation of antibacterial effect, the disk diffusion method was applied to measurethe growth inhibition zone diameter and broth micro-dilution was performed to determine theminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC.Results: Assessing the antibacterial effect showed that only 6d derivative of thiazole hadinhibitory effect on E. coli and the other thiazole, imidazole and tetrahydropyridine derivativeslacked any inhibitory result on this organism. The inhibitory effect of 6d derivative of thiazolewas MIC=125 and growth inhibition zone diameter of 16±0.1.Discussion: The antibacterial effect of thiazole, imidazole and tetrahydropyridine derivativesdiffers from each other and chemical linkages such as oxygen to thiazole ring in 6d derivative,could have reinforced this effect. The next step is determination of the toxicity and therapeuticeffects in the laboratory animals.

  16. The synthesis of double-headed nucleosides by the CuAAC reaction and their effect in secondary nucleic acid structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Søndergaard; Shaikh, Khalil Isak; Enderlin, Gerald;

    2011-01-01

    Four double-headed nucleosides were prepared by the CuAAC reaction. Hereby, a triazole-containing linker connects an additional thymine or adenine to the 2´-position of 2´-deoxyuridine, a thymine to the 5´-position of thymidine and a thymine to the 6¢-position of an LNA-thymidine monomer. Whereas...... no conclusive recognition effects of the additional thymines were found when introduced in LNA or at the 5´-position, both thymine and adenine in the 2´-position were found to stabilise three-way junctions in both dsDNA and DNA:RNA contexts and to give cross-strand interactions in a DNA-duplex, when...

  17. Effects of Rare Earth Elements on Photocatalytic Antibacterial Properties of Nanometer TiO2 Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ning; Liang Jinsheng; Meng Junping; Ou Xiuqin

    2004-01-01

    Nanometer Ce/TiO2 functional materials with photocatalystic antibacterial properties were prepared by dipping TiO2 nanometer powders into RE( NO3 )·nH2O solutions, filtrating, drying and heat treatment, and the enhancement mechanisms of Ce on the nanometer TiO2 were studied by electronic spin resonance(ESR) The results show that TiO2 for photocatalystic antibacterial properties is strengthened evidently by adding Ce, which has a high efficiency of photocatalystic antibacterial properties with the light extent of visible light and ultraviolet radiation. The basic reason for obtaining the strengthened result is that the effective wave length of photocatalystic properties of TiO2 can be expanded to visible light area with the induction of the rare earth elements, whether or not ultraviolet light exists, nanometer TiO2 can produce a great deal of hydroxylic radical(·OH) by treating with rare earth elements.

  18. Effect of Relative Arrangement of Cationic and Lipophilic Moieties on Hemolytic and Antibacterial Activities of PEGylated Polyacrylates

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Punia; Kevin Lee; Edward He; Sumit Mukherjee; Andrew Mancuso; Probal Banerjee; Nan-Loh Yang

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amphiphilic polymers have been established as potentially efficient agents to combat widespread deadly infections involving antibiotic resistant superbugs. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains into amphiphilic copolymers can reduce their hemolytic activity while maintaining high antibacterial activity. Our study found that the incorporation of PEG has substantially different effects on the hemolytic and antibacterial activities of copolymers depending on structur...

  19. Base-Modified Nucleosides as Chemotherapeutic Agents: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Matthew P; Borland, Kayla M; Litosh, Vladislav A

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleobase antimetabolites have substantially impacted treatment of cancer and infections. Their close resemblance to natural analogs gives them the power to interfere with a variety of intracellular targets, which on one hand gives them high potency, but on the other hand incurs severe side effects, especially of the chemotherapeutics used against malignancies. Therefore, the development of novel nucleoside analogs with widened therapeutic windows represents an attractive target to synthetic organic and medicinal chemists. This review discusses the current antimetabolite drugs: 5- fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, Cladribine, Vidaza, Decitabine, Emtricitabine, Abacavir, Sorivudine, Clofarabine, Fludarabine, and Nelarabine; gives insight into the nucleoside drug candidates that are being developed; and outlines the approaches to nucleobase modifications that may help discover novel bioactive nucleoside analogs with the mechanism of action focused on termination of DNA synthesis, which is expected to diminish the off-target toxicity in non-proliferating human cells. PMID:26369814

  20. Intratubular Antibacterial Effect of Polyethyleneimine Nanoparticles: An Ex Vivo Study in Human Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak Abramovitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a facultative gram positive bacterium which can remain in the teeth root canals and cause refractory or persistent periapical diseases. E. faecalis bacteria that penetrate the dentinal tubules can be the source of intracanal infection and endodontic disease. Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QPEI nanopolymers were shown to have long lasting antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The present study evaluated the intratubular antibacterial effect of an epoxy resin sealer incorporating 1% QPEI against E. faecalis in a human dentin model. Root canals of extracted teeth were inoculated with E. faecalis for 7 days prior to standard endodontic treatment. The antibacterial effect of an epoxy-amine resin endodontic sealer was tested at concentration of 0% or 1% (wt/wt added QPEI nanoparticles. Reduction in bacterial viability p<0.01 was depicted in the dentinal tubules of the root canals obturated with the sealer incorporating QPEI nanoparticles. In conclusion, QPEI nanoparticles when incorporated in a small percentage into epoxy-resin based sealer may target E. faecalis in the dentinal tubules, producing a potent antibacterial effect that reduces significantly bacterial viability.

  1. Elution of monomers from three different bonding systems and their antibacterial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polydorou, Olga; Rogatti, Philipp; Bolek, Richard; Wolkewitz, Martin; Kümmerer, Klaus; Hellwig, Elmar

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the release of monomers from three bonding systems and to correlate it with their antibacterial effect. Three bonding systems (Optibond FL(®), Xeno III(®) and Clearfil™ Protect Bond) were tested after storage in ethanol 75 % and human saliva. Twenty samples (n = 10/medium) of each bonding material were prepared and polymerized according to the manufacturers' instructions. Each sample was stored in 1 ml of the respective storage medium. The medium was renewed after 24 h, 7 days, and 28 days and was analysed by LC-MS/MS for the release of substances. Additionally, the antibacterial effect of the unpolymerized components of each bonding system and their polymerized mixture was tested using agar disc-diffusion test with Streptococcus mutans. Only HEMA was found to be released. The amount of HEMA detected in the ethanol samples was significantly higher compared to the saliva samples (p Optibond FL(®) < Xeno III(®.) According to the agar disc-diffusion test, all materials exhibited certain antibacterial activity. The release of HEMA from all tested materials even after storing in human saliva increases the concerns about their toxicity. Their antibacterial effect seems not be due to the release of substances. PMID:22684585

  2. Antibacterial Effects of Pyrolysis Oil Against Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Many issues have been found to be related to food preservation and food contamination caused by various pathogenic bacteria in recent years. Many antibacterial agents act efficiently against Gram-positive foodborne bacteria; however, they are less effective against Gram-negative foodborne bacteria. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the antibacterial activity of pyrolysis oil manufactured from Pinus densiflora (PLO) against two Gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. PLO possessed potent antibacterial activity against both foodborne pathogenic bacteria, as indicated by inhibition zones of 10.33-12.33 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 250-500 μg/mL and 500-1000 μg/mL, respectively. PLO at the minimum inhibitory concentration exhibited an inhibitory effect on the viability of the bacterial pathogens with leakage of 260 nm absorbing materials, an increase in the relative electrical conductivity, and loss of salt tolerance capacity. PLO exhibited promising antibacterial activity against both of the Gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria and thus it can be utilized in the food sector and pharmaceutical industries for the development of antibiotics and preservatives. PMID:26651059

  3. The effect of lipophilicity on the antibacterial activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. BARNA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the antibacterial activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives were evaluated against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all the compounds. Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR was employed to study the effect of the lipophilicity parameters (log P on the inhibitory activity. Log P values for the target compounds were experimentally determined by the “shake-flask” method and calculated by using eight different software products. Multiple linear regression was used to correlate the log P values and antibacterial activity of the studied benzimidazole derivatives. The results are discussed based on statistical data. The most acceptable QSAR models for the prediction of the antibacterial activity of the investigated series of benzimidazoles were developed. High agreement between the experimental and predicted inhibitory values was obtained. The results of this study indicate that the lipophilicity parameter has a significant effect on the antibacterial activity of this class of compounds, which simplifies the design of new biologically active molecules.

  4. The Investigation of Antibacterial Effects of Salvia Sahendica Extracts on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bannazadeh Baghi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The salvia plant is one of the Lamiacea family members, that is being cultiurated all over the world. In Iran almost all spices of this plant could found, that are used for medical, food industry and parfumers production. Salvia sahendica genus is the member of this family, that its antibacterial effects on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated. Methods: In this study are used standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27852 Staphylococcus aureus, (ATCC 25923 and, Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 3583. Salvia was provided from Tabriz mall and was powdered. Then this powder was suspended with ratio 1:10 with Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and water. After 24h extractions isolated and concentrated with distillated in vacuum system. Which of bacteria were cultured to over night in Mohler Hinton agar medium, then compared with 0.5 macfarland. In continue extraction were tested by used of well assay method and then the diameter of zone measured. Experiments repeated tree times and the average of data obtained. In each of tests we had a control from special solvent. Results: Regarding to the results, all of salvia sahendica extractions showed antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and. That regarding Klebsiella pneumonia, Ethanol, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Hexan, and regarding Staphylococcus aureus Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only Chloroform this plant has antibacterial effects. Chloroform extraction of salvia shows the most antibacterial activity (with the biggest diameter of antibacterial zone. Conclusion: Regarding the carried out study it could be noted that for inhibition and destroying Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, plants effects extraction could be used.

  5. Preparation, antibacterial effects and corrosion resistant of porous Cu–TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Xiangyu, E-mail: zhangxiangyu@tyut.edu.cn; Geng, Zhenhua; Yin, Yan; Hang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Yao, Xiaohong; Tang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Antibacterial TiO{sub 2} coatings with different concentrations of Cu (Cu–TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) on pre-sputtered CuTi films. The effect of Cu concentrations in CuTi films on the MAO process was investigated. The Cu–TiO{sub 2} coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of Cu–TiO{sub 2} coatings was evaluated via potentiodynamic polarization method. The antibacterial properties were assessed by two methods: spread plate method and fluorescence staining. The experimental results demonstrate that the coatings are porous and consist of anatase phase, rutile phase and unoxidized titanium. The CuTi films are almost completely oxidized and the thickness of all MAO coatings is about 5–10 μm. Cu mainly exists as CuO in the TiO{sub 2} coatings. The Cu–TiO{sub 2} coatings exhibit excellent antibacterial activities, and the antibacterial rate gradually rise with the increase in Cu concentration in the MAO coatings. The corrosion resistance of MAO coatings is also improved slightly.

  6. Copper-polymer nanocomposites: An excellent and cost-effective biocide for use on antibacterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Laura; Azócar, Manuel; Kogan, Marcelo; Riveros, Ana; Páez, Maritza

    2016-12-01

    The development of polymer nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties has been a key factor for controlling or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and preventing foodborne diseases and nosocomial infections. Commercially available antibacterial products based on silver-polymer are the most widely used despite the fact that copper is considerably less expensive. The incorporation of copper nanoparticles as antibacterial agents in polymeric matrices to generate copper-polymer nanocomposites have presented excellent results in inhibiting the growth of a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The potential applications in food packaging, medical devices, textiles and pharmaceuticals and water treatment have generated an increasing number of investigations on preparing copper based nanocomposites and alternative polymeric matrices, as potential hosts of nano-modifiers. This review presents a comprehensive compilation of previous published work on the subject, mainly related to the antimicrobial activity of copper polymer nanocomposites. Within all the phenomenology associated to antibacterial effects we highlight the possible mechanisms of action. We discuss the differences in the susceptibility of Gram negative and positive bacteria to the antibacterial activity of nanocomposites, and influencing factors. As well, the main applications of copper polymer-metal nanocomposites are described, considering their physical and chemical characteristics. Finally, some commercially available copper-polymer nanocomposites are described. PMID:27612841

  7. Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of the phytochemicals of whole Leucas aspera extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Atiar Rahman; Md Saiful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of whole Leucasaspera (Labiatae) (L. aspera) alcoholic extract. Methods: Whole L. aspera powder was extracted by absolute ethanol (99.50%). The ethanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant, antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed potent radical scavenging effect (antioxidant) with IC50 value of (99.58±1.22) µg/mL which was significant (P<0.01) in comparison to ascorbic acid with IC50 value of (1.25±0.95) µg/mL. In case of antibacterial screening, the extract showed notable antibacterial effect against the tested microbial strains. Significant (P<0.05) zone of inhibitions against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis [(12.00±1.32) mm] and Bacillus megaterium [(13.00±1.50) mm], Staphylococcus aureus [(8.00±0.50) mm] and Gram negative Salmonella typhi [(6.00±0.50) mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(8.00±1.00) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(9.00±1.32) mm] and Vibrio cholerae [(9.00±0.66) mm] was observed. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the extract showed the LC50 value as (181.68±2.15) µg/mL which was statistically significant (P<0.01) compared to positive control vincristine sulfate [LC50=(0.76±0.04) µg/mL]. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of L. aspera could be used as antibacterial, pesticidal and various pharmacologic actives.

  8. Studies on the antibacterial effects of statins--in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bergman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statin treatment has been associated with a beneficial outcome on respiratory tract infections. In addition, previous in vitro and in vivo experiments have indicated favorable effects of statins in bacterial infections. AIM: The aim of the present study was to elucidate possible antibacterial effects of statins against primary pathogens of the respiratory tract. METHODS: MIC-values for simvastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin against S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were determined by traditional antibacterial assays. A BioScreen instrument was used to monitor effects of statins on bacterial growth and to assess possible synergistic effects with penicillin. Bacterial growth in whole blood and serum from healthy volunteers before and after a single dose of simvastatin, fluvastatin and penicillin (positive control was determined using a blood culture system (BactAlert. FINDINGS: The MIC-value for simvastatin against S pneumoniae and M catarrhalis was 15 µg/mL (36 mmol/L. Fluvastatin and Pravastatin showed no antibacterial effect in concentrations up to 100 µg/mL (230 µmol/L. Statins did not affect growth or viability of H influenzae. Single doses of statins given to healthy volunteers did not affect growth of pneumococci, whereas penicillin efficiently killed all bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Simvastatin at high concentrations 15 µg/mL (36 µmol/L rapidly kills S pneumoniae and M catarrhalis. However, these concentrations by far exceed the concentrations detected in human blood during simvastatin therapy (1-15 nmol/L and single doses of statins given to healthy volunteers did not improve antibacterial effects of whole blood. Thus, a direct bactericidal effect of statins in vivo is probably not the mechanism behind the observed beneficial effect of statins against various infections.

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Farnaz Hajifattahi; Elham Moravej-Salehi; Maryam Taheri; Arash Mahboubi; Mohammad Kamalinejad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHI...

  10. NEW THERAPEUTIC FORMULATIONS WITH AN ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT, BASED ON PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina Soare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effects produced by anthocyanins and other bioactive plant compounds are weaker than those generated by antibiotics. In some cases, the combination of extract-antibiotic can cause synergistic effects, also the purpose of the research was to develop and test new antibiotic - plant extract formulations. New potential antimicrobial formulations was done by soaking discs impregnated with piperacillin or tetracycline with different extract. The tested microorganisms were: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli 820B, soil bacterium 23S, and Enterobacter cloacae. The combination of antibiotics with extracts determined, only for some of the microorganisms tested, better antibacterial effects than those caused by the antibiotic or the extract.

  11. In vitro assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic (allium sativum) extracts on pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S K; Saha, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K

    2015-04-01

    The study was aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of crude and aqueous extract of garlic (Allium stivum) against standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and antibiotic Imipenem were also determined with the help of broth dilution method. Inhibitory effect of crude garlic extract (CGE) was determined by inoculation of bacteria in CGE incorporated nutrient agar (NA) media and for AGE antibacterial effect was determined by disc diffusion method. All experiments except disc diffusion procedure were reconfirmed by subculture in pure NA media. In case of CGE the growth inhibition of test organism was observed in 30% CGE incorporated NA media. On the other hand sensitivity of AGE also determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 7 mm, 12 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. The MICs of AGE and Imipenem were 600 μg/ml and 1μg/ml. The MIC of imipenen was far less in comparison with the MIC of AGE. From the findings it is clearly determined that both the extracts have definite antibacterial effect upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. Only then the Garlic extracts fulfilled the criteria for its therapeutic use. Still then external application advised for burn and superficial skin infections and may be used in food poisoning, and respiratory tract infection along with conventional antibiotics which are used in those conditions. PMID:26007246

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Granati fructus Cortex Extract on Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut R. Alfath

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 The rind of pomegranate fruit (Granati fructus cortex composed of antibacterial compounds such as alkaloid, flavonoid and tannin. Objective: To evaluate the bacterial effect of Granati fructus cortex extract against Streptococcus mutans. Methods: The study was laboratory experimental. The inhibition test was performed by agar diffusion method on MHA medium. Results: It showed the bacterial property of Granati fructus cortex on various concentration. The highest extract concentration of 30% extract has the largest of inhibition zones (15.4mm. The results showed a difference in the size of inhibition zones related to different extract concentrations. Conclusion: This study confirmed the antibacterial effect of Granati fructus cortex on the growth of Streptococcus mutans.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.126

  13. Effect of Argon Plasma Treatment Variables on Wettability and Antibacterial Properties of Polyester Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Pandurangan; Karthik, Thangavelu

    2016-04-01

    In this research work, the effect of argon plasma treatment variables on the comfort and antibacterial properties of polyester fabric has been investigated. The SEM micrographs and FTIR analysis confirms the modification of fabric surface. The Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization of plasma process variables and to evaluate the effects and interactions of the process variables, i.e. operating power, treatment time and distance between the electrodes on the characteristics of polyester fabrics. The optimum conditions of operating power 600 W, treatment time 30 s, and the distance between the electrodes of 2.8 mm was arrived using numerical prediction tool in Design-Expert software. The plasma treated polyester fabrics showed better fabric characteristics particularly in terms of water vapour permeability, wickability and antibacterial activity compared to untreated fabrics, which confirms that the modified structure of polyester fabric.

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Chovanová; Mária Mikulášová; Štefánia Vaverková

    2013-01-01

    The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. ...

  15. [Antibacterial effects of water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosans on different microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, D V; Avdienko, I D; Bannikova, G E; Zueva, O Iu; Varlamov, V P

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight chitosans with a viscosity-average molecular weight (Mv) of 5 to 27 kDa and equal degree of deacetylation (DD, 85%) were highly active against Pseudomonas aureofaciens, Enterobacter agglomerans, Bacillus subtilis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum 791, causing death of 80 to 100% of cells. An exception to this tendency was Escherichia coli, for which the rate of cell death, induced by the 5-kDa chitosan, was 38%. The antibacterial effect was manifested as early as 10 min after incubation of 12-kDa chitosan with B. subtilis or E. coli cells. Candida krusei was almost insensitive to the above crab chitosans. However, Candida krusei was highly sensitive to chitosans with Mv 5, 6, 12, 15.7, and 27 kDa: the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.06 to 0.005%. Chitosans with M, 5, 12, and 15.7 kDa exerted an antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Chitosans with Mv 5, 15.7, and 27 kDa had no effect on Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 14893. The antibacterial effect of the 4-kDa chitosan on E. coli and B. bifidum 791 increased with DD in the range 55-85%.

  16. Phytochemical, analgesic, antibacterial, and cytotoxic effects of Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ahmed, A M; Sharmen, Farjana; Mannan, Adnan; Rahman, Md Atiar

    2015-10-01

    This research evaluated the phytochemical contents as well as the analgesic, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial effects of the methanolic extract of Alpinia nigra leaf. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using established methods. The analgesic effects of the extract were measured with the formalin test and tail immersion test. The antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated using the disc diffusion technique. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance using statistical software (SPSS, Version 19.0). The qualitative phytochemical screening of A. nigra leaf extract showed the presence of medicinally active secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides, and saponins. The extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg revealed a prevailed central nociception increasing the reaction time in response to thermal stimulation. The extract also showed a response to chemical nociceptors, causing pain inhibition in the late phase. The leaf extract (2 mg/disc) showed mild antibacterial activity compared to tetracycline (50 μg/disc). In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50 (lethal concentration 50) value of the extract was found to be 57.12 μg/mL, implying a promising cytotoxic effect. The results evidenced the moderate analgesic and antibacterial effects with pronounced cytotoxic capability. PMID:26587396

  17. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Herrera Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of M. americana extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans. For this, an experimental study was conducted. Ethanolic extract was obtained from seeds of M. americana (one oil phase and one ethanolic phase. The strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were exposed to this extract to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Antibacterial activity was observed with the two phases of M. americana extract on P. gingivalis and S. mutans with lower MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration. Also, bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was detected against S. mutans, depending on the concentration of the extract, while on M. americana extract presented only bacteriostatic activity against P. gingivalis. These findings provide important and promising information allowing for further exploration in the future.

  18. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based TiO2 nanocomposites after cessation of UV irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Cai

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis induced by TiO2 and UV light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. The present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of UV irradiation. We show that resin-based composites containing 20% TiO2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis for up to two hours post UV. For biomaterials or implant coatings, where direct UV illumination is not feasible, a prolonged antibacterial effect after the cessation of the illumination would offer new unexplored treatment possibilities.

  19. Antibacterial effects of Arctium lappa and Artemesia absinthium extracts in laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Habibipour Reza; Rajabi Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arctium lappa (Great burduck) and Artemesia absinthium are medicinal plants that some of their antibacterial and antivirus properties have been suggested in nutritional industries. The objective of this research was to study the effects of A. lappa and A. absinthium on some microorganisms including Pseudomonads aeraginosa, Haemophilus influenza, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Extracts were prepared by maceration metho...

  20. The Investigation of Antibacterial Effects of Salvia Sahendica Extracts on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    H Bannazadeh Baghi

    2007-01-01

    Background: The salvia plant is one of the Lamiacea family members, that is being cultiurated all over the world. In Iran almost all spices of this plant could found, that are used for medical, food industry and parfumers production. Salvia sahendica genus is the member of this family, that its antibacterial effects on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated. Methods: In this study are used standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC ...

  1. Anti-biofim and antibacterial effect of essential oils and their major compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Oliveira, J. M.; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites commonly used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. Along with their compounds, oils can contribute to development of new antimicrobial/antibiofilm products. Our study evaluated antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major compounds on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus planktonic cells and anti-biofilm activity. The effect of essential oils and their major compounds on biofilm and planktonic cells was assessed...

  2. Antibacterial properties of tualang honey and its effect in burn wound management: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Nur-Azida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of honey as a natural product of Apis spp. for burn treatment has been widely applied for centuries. Tualang honey has been reported to have antibacterial properties against various microorganisms, including those from burn-related diagnoses, and is cheaper and easier to be absorbed by Aquacel dressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antibacterial properties of tualang honey dressing and to determine its effectiveness as a partial thickness burn wound dressing. Methods In order to quantitate the bioburden of the swabs, pour plates were performed to obtain the colony count (CFU/ml. Swabs obtained from burn wounds were streaked on blood agar and MacConkey agar for bacterial isolation and identification. Later, antibacterial activity of Aquacel-tualang honey, Aquacel-Manuka honey, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel- plain dressings against bacteria isolated from patients were tested (in-vitro to see the effectiveness of those dressings by zone of inhibition assays. Results Seven organisms were isolated. Four types of Gram-negative bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., and three Gram-positive bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CONS and Streptococcus spp., were isolated. Total bacterial count decreased on day 6 and onwards. In the in-vitro antibacterial study, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel-Manuka honey dressings gave better zone of inhibition for Gram positive bacteria compared to Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. However, comparable results were obtained against Gram negative bacteria tested with Aquacel-Manuka honey and Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. Conclusions Tualang honey has a bactericidal as well as bacteriostatic effect. It is useful as a dressing, as it is easier to apply and is less sticky compared to Manuka honey. However, for Gram positive bacteria, tualang honey is not as effective as usual care

  3. Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Panáček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels.

  4. Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panáček, Aleš; Smékalová, Monika; Kilianová, Martina; Prucek, Robert; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Večeřová, Renata; Kolář, Milan; Havrdová, Markéta; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Chojniak, Joanna; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2015-12-28

    The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels.

  5. Antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Amin; Enayat Kalantar; Neda Mohammad-Saeid; Behzad Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Methods:Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was assessed by agar disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was tested by E test. Results:The essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was effective on pathogenic bacteria particularly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The MIC values of the target cultures ranged from 0.39 mg/mL to 1.56 mg/mL. The physicochemical properties like effects of pH, temperature, detergents, and enzymes on the activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss were also determined. The essential oil was quite stable to temperature as tested against S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The essential oil was very stable over a wide range of pH. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents (Such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton 100, etc.) and enzymes (namely proteinase K, trypsin, lipase, and lysosyme). Conclusions:A potential use of the essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss is suggested. More studies including further purification, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of toxicity are needed for confirmation of this suggestion.

  6. An efficient antigene activity and antiproliferative effect by targeting the Bcl-2 or survivin gene with triplex forming oligonucleotides containing a W-shaped nucleoside analogue (WNA-βT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yosuke; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-10-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are some of the most promising tools in the antigene strategy for the development of gene targeting therapeutics. However, the stable triplex formation is restricted to the homopurine sequences consisting of purine nucleosides, dG and dA. Therefore, the T or dC nucleoside in the homopurine strand inhibits the stable triplex formation. We have developed W-shaped nucleoside analogues (WNAs) for the formation of the unnatural type triplex DNA, with sequences containing the interrupting site in an antiparallel triplex formation. In the present study, we tested the antigene effect of TFOs having WNA-βT, which increased the stability of the triplex formation with a target sequence including the TA interrupting site. We designed the GU TFO (WNA) and GU TFO (natural) for targeting sequences of the Bcl-2 or survivin oncogene. The gel shift assay showed that the TFO (WNA) formed more stable triplexes than the natural TFO. Remarkably, the Bcl-2- or survivin-targeted TFO (WNA) inhibited the cell proliferation and induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis. It was confirmed that the survivin-targeted TFO (WNA) more effectively decreased the number of survivin products in the A549 cell than the natural TFOs. PMID:22987068

  7. Zinc release from atomic layer deposited zinc oxide thin films and its antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kääriäinen, M.-L., E-mail: marja-leena.kaariainen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Weiss, C.K.; Ritz, S.; Pütz, S. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Cameron, D.C. [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Mailänder, V. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); III. Medical Clinic, University Medicine of the Johannes-Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Landfester, K. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Zinc oxide films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different reaction temperatures and in various thicknesses. Zinc-ion release has been examined from the ZnO films in water and in phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). Additionally, the antibacterial effect has been studied on Escherichia coli. The thickness of the ZnO film or its crystal orientation did not affect the rate of dissolution. ALD grown aluminum oxide films were deposited on top of the ZnO films and they acted as an effective barrier against zinc dissolution. The bacteriostatic effect was not dependent on the film thickness but both 45 nm and 280 nm thick ZnO films significantly reduced bacterial attachment and growth in dark conditions by 99.7% and 99.5%, respectively. The results indicated that photoirradiation is not required for to enhance antibacterial properties of inorganic films and that the elution of zinc ions is probably responsible for the antibacterial properties of the ZnO films. The duration of the antibacterial effect of ZnO can be controlled by accurate control of the film thickness, which is a feature of ALD, and the onset of the antibacterial effect can be delayed by a time which can be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer. This gives the possibility of obtaining dual antibacterial release profiles through a nanolaminate structure of these two materials.

  8. Oil Essential Mouthwashes Antibacterial Activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A Comparison between Antibiofilm and Antiplanktonic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Erriu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the antibacterial activity of three marketed mouthwashes on suspended and sessile states of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The efficacy of two commonly used products in clinical practice, containing essential oils as active ingredients (menthol, thymol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol in association with or without alcohol, has been evaluated in comparison with a chlorhexidine-based mouthwash. The microtiter plate assay, in order to obtain a spectrophotometric measurement of bacterial responses at growing dilutions of each antiseptic, was used for the study. The analysis revealed that a good antibacterial activity is reached when the abovementioned mouthwashes were used at concentration over a 1/24 dilution and after an exposure time of 30 seconds at least. In conclusion, the alcoholic mouthwash appears to have a better biofilm inhibition than its antiplanktonic activity while the nonalcoholic product demonstrates an opposite effect with a better antiplanktonic behavior.

  9. The non-antibacterial effects and possible clinical applications of macrolide antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Shi-liang; WANG Yuan-liang; GAO Wen-juan

    2006-01-01

    As one group of the most widely used oral antibacterial drugs, macrolides have been clinically applied for more than 50 years because of their safety and efficacy. Recently, the non-antibacterial applications of macrolides are frequently reported, such as the therapy of malignant tumor, exudative pleurisy, pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchiectasis, asthma, gastrointestinal peristalsis disorders, and so on with new pharmacological effects, including reverse of tumor resistance, anti-chemical adherence, anti-fibrosis, and modulations of gastrointestinal motility as well as immune activity. The in-depth research of marcolides' non-antibiotic actions can not only extend the application fields of macrolides, but provide a new way to treat some refractory diseases.

  10. STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF BARK, SEED AND CALLUS EXTRACTS OF HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA WALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOMA ROY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure has been outlined for callus formation and antibacterial effects of bark, seed and callus extracts of animportant medicinal shrub Holarrhena antidysenterica WALL. Explants used for callus formation were mainlyseeds and both in vivo and in vitro grown plant parts like stem, nodal parts, roots and apical shoots. A friable typeof callus was obtained when these explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS culture mediumcontaining different concentrations of 2,4-D separately and in combinations of KN. During present studiesmethanolic extracts of bark, seed and callus were made and tested for their antimicrobial activities againstStaphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Eschercia coli. Results showed that all three different typesof extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica possess nearly similar potential for antibacterial activity against thesepathogenic bacteria.

  11. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  12. Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes; Mourão, Jozeanne Alves; Angelo, Angela Maria; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera) and pods of soursop (Annona muricata) in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 microL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment) and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm) against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.

  13. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Anzabi Younes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry), Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi) and Allium cepa L. (Onions) on the standard strain (ATCC:19114) of Listeria monocytogenes (L. mo...

  14. Screening, Identification and Antibacterial Activities of Effective Thermotolerant Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Raw Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannikar SANTONG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one isolates of Bacillus species were isolated from raw milk, analyzed using the spot on lawn and agar diffusion method in terms of their general inhibition effects to test bacteria (Escherichia coli TISTR 887 and Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 517. The results demonstrated that most isolates are effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria whereas their extensive inhibition effect is particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. Only 2 effective thermotolerant isolates, BA8 and BA16, exerted broad spectrum antibacterial activities against both test bacteria.  Based on biochemical and physiological properties, they were classified as Brevibacillus laterosporus and Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, respectively.

  15. Structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis was solved by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement and refined at a resolution of 2.24 Å. Protein structures from the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) are being determined as part of a structural genomics programme. Amongst initial candidates for crystallographic analysis are enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, since these are recognized as potential targets in antibacterial therapy. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the purine-salvage pathway. The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis has been solved by molecular replacement at 2.24 Å resolution and refined to an R factor of 18.4%. This is the first report of a DeoD structure from a Gram-positive bacterium

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial effect of new magnetically core–shell nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allafchian, Alireza, E-mail: Allafchian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahramian, Hamid [Department of physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hossein Jalali, Seyed Amir [Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadvand, Hossein [Department of physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A new magnetically responsive three-component nanocomposite consisting of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Poly Acrylonitrile Co Maleic Anhydride (PAMA) and nanosilver was synthesized and characterized and then its antibacterial activities were tested. For the preparation of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Ag, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was coated by Ag and for the synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@PAMA@Ag, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was first covered by PAMA and then silver nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of the PAMA shell. The nanocomposites were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The antibacterial activity of the synthesized nanocomposite against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria was studied and compared with that of naked NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Ag and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@PAMA. The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@PAMA@Ag had better antibacterial activity and could be readily isolated from the aqueous solution via magnetic decantation, thereby avoiding the contamination of the environment. - Highlights: • A novel NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@PAMA@Ag nanocomposites magnetic composite has been prepared. • This system display potent antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial species. • The antibacterial effect was studied by disk diffusion method. • This composite can be easily removed from solution by magnetic decantation.

  17. Biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with enhanced osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-lasting antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Fu, Xuekun; Pan, Haobo; Wan, Peng; Wang, Lei; Tan, Lili; Wang, Kehong; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke; Chu, Paul K

    2016-06-07

    A series of biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys is designed to induce osteogenesis, stimulate angiogenesis, and provide long-lasting antibacterial performance at the same time. The Mg-Cu alloys with precipitated Mg2Cu intermetallic phases exhibit accelerated degradation in the physiological environment due to galvanic corrosion and the alkaline environment combined with Cu release endows the Mg-Cu alloys with prolonged antibacterial effects. In addition to no cytotoxicity towards HUVECs and MC3T3-E1 cells, the Mg-Cu alloys, particularly Mg-0.03Cu, enhance the cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, collagen secretion, osteogenesis-related gene and protein expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells, cell proliferation, migration, endothelial tubule forming, angiogenesis-related gene, and protein expressions of HUVECs compared to pure Mg. The favorable osteogenesis and angiogenesis are believed to arise from the release of bioactive Mg and Cu ions into the biological environment and the biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-term antibacterial ability are very promising in orthopedic applications.

  18. Nanostructured molybdenum oxide-based antibacterial paint: effective growth inhibition of various pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Premanathan, Mariappan; Veerapandian, Murugan; Kim, Sang Jae

    2014-08-01

    The prevention of bacterial infections in the health care environment is paramount to providing better treatment. Covering a susceptible environment with an antimicrobial coating is a successful way to avoid bacterial growth. Research on the preparation of durable antimicrobial coatings is promising for both fundamental surface care and clinical care applications. Herein, we report a facile, efficient, and scalable preparation of MoO3 paint using a cost-effective ball-milling approach. The MoO3 nanoplates (synthesized by thermal decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate) are used as a pigment and antibacterial activity moiety in alkyd resin binders and other suitable eco-friendly additives in the preparation of paint. Surface morphology, chemical states, bonding nature, and intermolecular interaction between the MoO3 and the alkyd resin were studied using Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial properties of a prepared MoO3 nanoplate against various bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) was determined using the microdilution method. Bacterial strains exposed to an MoO3 paint coated surface exhibit a significant loss of viability in a time-dependent manner. Fundamental modes of antibacterial activities ascribed from a biocompatible and durable MoO3 nanostructure incorporated into an alkyd resin complex are discussed. The obtained experimental findings suggest the potential utility of prepared MoO3-based paint coating for the prevention of health care associated infections.

  19. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect of Tinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Rena-Aguila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the crude and semi-crude leaf extracts of Tinomiscium philippinense (T. philippinense. Methods: The leaves of T. philippinense were extracted with methanol and partitioned with solvents of different polarities, namely, hexane, dichloromethane and butanol. The extracts were subjected to duck chorioallantoic membrane assay to establish its anti-angiogenic property. Microwell assay was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the different extracts of the plant. Results: The dichloromethane leaf extract of T. philippinense at 1 000 µg/disc showed the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All the fractions exhibited a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the three bacterial strains with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative lactose fermenter exhibiting a higher sensitivity to dichloromethane semi-crude extract among the treatment groups. For the toxicity test, no mortality and no change in behavior were observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days after the oral administration of the plant extracts. The methanolic leaf extract of T. philippinense is non-toxic at a maximum dose of 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The dichloromethane leaf extract of T. philippinense is a potential antiangiogenic endemic plant species. This plant extract is also a potential antibacterial candidate as determined by microwell assay. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the plant may be attributed to the essential oil, steroid, flavonoid, sterol and triterpene content of the plant.

  20. Biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with enhanced osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-lasting antibacterial effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Fu, Xuekun; Pan, Haobo; Wan, Peng; Wang, Lei; Tan, Lili; Wang, Kehong; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    A series of biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys is designed to induce osteogenesis, stimulate angiogenesis, and provide long-lasting antibacterial performance at the same time. The Mg-Cu alloys with precipitated Mg2Cu intermetallic phases exhibit accelerated degradation in the physiological environment due to galvanic corrosion and the alkaline environment combined with Cu release endows the Mg-Cu alloys with prolonged antibacterial effects. In addition to no cytotoxicity towards HUVECs and MC3T3-E1 cells, the Mg-Cu alloys, particularly Mg-0.03Cu, enhance the cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, collagen secretion, osteogenesis-related gene and protein expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells, cell proliferation, migration, endothelial tubule forming, angiogenesis-related gene, and protein expressions of HUVECs compared to pure Mg. The favorable osteogenesis and angiogenesis are believed to arise from the release of bioactive Mg and Cu ions into the biological environment and the biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-term antibacterial ability are very promising in orthopedic applications. PMID:27271057

  1. Effects of antibacterial nanostructured composite films on vascular stents: hemodynamic behaviors, microstructural characteristics, and biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Yi; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Sinrang, Andi Wardihan; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate stresses resulting from different thicknesses and compositions of hydrogenated Cu-incorporated diamond-like carbon (a-C:H/Cu) films at the interface between vascular stent and the artery using three-dimensional reversed finite element models (FEMs). Blood flow velocity variation in vessels with plaques was examined by angiography, and the a-C:H/Cu films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy to analyze surface morphology. FEMs were constructed using a computer-aided reverse design system, and the effects of antibacterial nanostructured composite films in the stress field were investigated. The maximum stress in the vascular stent occurred at the intersections of net-like structures. Data analysis indicated that the stress decreased by 15% in vascular stents with antibacterial nanostructured composite films compared to the control group, and the stress decreased with increasing film thickness. The present results confirmed that antibacterial nanostructured composite films improve the biomechanical properties of vascular stents and release abnormal stress to prevent restenosis. The results of the present study offer the clinical benefit of inducing superior biomechanical behavior in vascular stents.

  2. New insights into the synergism of nucleoside analogs with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleoside analogs have been frequently used in combination with radiotherapy in the clinical setting, as it has long been understood that inhibition of DNA repair pathways is an important means by which many nucleoside analogs synergize. Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a critical enzyme required for the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs, have clarified the mechanistic role this kinase plays in chemo- and radio-sensitization. A heretofore unrecognized role of dCK in the DNA damage response and cell cycle machinery has helped explain the synergistic effect of these agents with radiotherapy. Since most currently employed nucleoside analogs are primarily activated by dCK, these findings lend fresh impetus to efforts focused on profiling and modulating dCK expression and activity in tumors. In this review we will briefly review the pharmacology and biochemistry of the major nucleoside analogs in clinical use that are activated by dCK. This will be followed by discussions of recent advances in our understanding of dCK activation via post-translational modifications in response to radiation and current strategies aimed at enhancing this activity in cancer cells

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Untreated and Treated (Decolorized Dyes by Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity (antibacterial effect of untreated and treated (decolorized dyes on a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. Low cost and easily available two agricultural residues (cotton stalk and apricot seed as biosorbents were used to remove Astrazone Black and Astrazone Yellow from aqueous solution. The removal of these dyes with agricultural wastes reduced the toxic effect on P. aeruginosa. This reduction in toxic effect is important both in respect of environmental biotechnology and waste detoxification. This study showed that these agricultural byproducts can be used for decolorization and detoxification of dyes.

  4. Effects of Nitrogen Concentration on Microstructure and Antibac-terial Property of Copper-Bearing Austenite Stainless Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixia ZHANG; Laizhu JIANG; Gang LIN; Zhou XU

    2008-01-01

    Austenite antibacterial stainless steels have been found to have wide applications in hospitals and food indus-tries. In recent years epsilon copper precipitation in antibacterial stainless steels has obtained much research interest due to its antibacterial action. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nitro-gen concentration on the precipitation of epsilon copper and antibacterial property. Two kinds of austenite antibacterial stainless steels containing copper and different nitrogen concentration (0.02 and 0.08 wt pct, re-spectively) were prepared and the microstructures were characterized by a combination of electron microscopy and thermodynamic analysis. A mathematical expression was deduced to predict the effect of nitrogen con-centration on the activity coefficient of copper, In(fCu/focu)=0.53524+4.11xN-0.48x2N. Higher nitrogen was found to increase the free energy difference of copper concentration distribution between precipitation phase and austenite matrix, stimulate the aggregation of copper atoms from austenite, increase the precipitation amount and consequently enhance the antibacterial property of steel.

  5. Comparison of Antibacterial Effect of Fluoride and Chlorhexidine on Two Cariogenic Bacteria: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poureslami HR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Dental plaque is the main source for dental caries and there is no proper vaccine that can affect dental plaques. Objectives: Daily use of an efficient anti-plaque product can be very beneficial in plaque control and, thus, prevention of caries. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effects of four products of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride on two types of cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride (gel and solution against Streptococci Sanguis and Sobrinus was evaluated. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1% gel (Corosodyl, France, Chlorhexidine gluconate 2% solution (Consepsis, Ultradent, US, Sodium fluoride 0.2% solution (Oral-B, US and Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride 1.23% gel ( Denti-Care, Canada were used. The disc diffusion method was used for testing bacterial sensitivity. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: In comparison with the negative control, each of the four gels and solutions showed antibacterial effects but the effects were not statistically significant for fluoride solution (P=0.217. For S. Sobrinus, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with fluoride gel (F g, fluoride solution (F s, Chlorhexidine gel (CHX g and Chlorhexidine solution (CHX s were 19, 9, 21.5 and 27.5mm, respectively. For S. Sanguis, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with F g, F s, CHX g and CHX s were 17, 11, 17 and 25mm, respectively. CHX s had the most effect on both bacteria and F s had the least. CHX g and F g were less effective than CHX s, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that 2% CHX s and 1.23% F g can be effective on inhibition of the growth of some of cariogenic bacteria. Therefore, these agents can be used in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries.

  6. Antibacterial textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskara, Usha Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the antibacterial functionalization of textiles and its application in professional laundries. The antibacterial functionalization was meant for the various textile packages lent out by the laundry companies to their customers from hotels, hospital or food industries. The work in this thesis proposed the antibacterial functionalization of the textile during the laundering process in contrast to the standard washing step. An antibacterial functionalization of the tex...

  7. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on the antibacterial and remineralizing effects of a calcium phosphate nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin HK

    2016-01-01

    Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3–18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties. Five QAMs were synthesized: DMAPM (CL3), DMAHM (CL6), DMADDM (CL12), DMAHDM (CL16), and DMAODM (CL18). Each QAM was incorporated into a composite containing 20% NACP and 50% glass fillers. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites with QAMs matched those of a commercial control composite (n = 6; P > 0.1). Increasing the CL from 3 to 16 greatly enhanced the antibacterial activity of the NACP nanocomposite (P < 0.05); further increasing the CL to 18 decreased the antibacterial potency. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 exhibited biofilm metabolic activity and acid production that were 10-fold lesser than those of the control composite. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 produced 2-log decreases in the colony-forming units (CFU) of total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. In conclusion, QAMs with CLs of 3–18 were synthesized and incorporated into an NACP nanocomposite for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Increasing the CL reduced the metabolic activity and acid production of biofilms and caused a 2-log decrease in CFU without compromising the mechanical properties. Nanocomposites exhibiting strong anti-biofilm activity, remineralization effects, and mechanical properties are promising materials for tooth restorations that inhibit

  8. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on the antibacterial and remineralizing effects of a calcium phosphate nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Zhang; Lei Cheng; Michael D Weir; Yu-Xing Bai; Hockin HK Xu

    2016-01-01

    Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3–18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties. Five QAMs were synthesized: DMAPM (CL3), DMAHM (CL6), DMADDM (CL12), DMAHDM (CL16), and DMAODM (CL18). Each QAM was incorporated into a composite containing 20% NACP and 50% glass fillers. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites with QAMs matched those of a commercial control composite (n 5 6; P . 0.1). Increasing the CL from 3 to 16 greatly enhanced the antibacterial activity of the NACP nanocomposite (P , 0.05); further increasing the CL to 18 decreased the antibacterial potency. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 exhibited biofilm metabolic activity and acid production that were 10-fold lesser than those of the control composite. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 produced 2-log decreases in the colony-forming units (CFU) of total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. In conclusion, QAMs with CLs of 3–18 were synthesized and incorporated into an NACP nanocomposite for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Increasing the CL reduced the metabolic activity and acid production of biofilms and caused a 2-log decrease in CFU without compromising the mechanical properties. Nanocomposites exhibiting strong anti-biofilm activity, remineralization effects, and mechanical properties are promising materials for tooth restorations that inhibit

  9. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

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    Ken Cham-Fai Leung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis (SB is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX. Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB as the marker. The mucosal diffusion assay on Nano-SB was undertaken in a porcine model. The antibacterial effects of the mixed nanoparticles (Nano-MIX of Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 (w/w ratio were analyzed in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral bacteria. The Nano-MIX was effective on the mono-species biofilms of Streptococcus (S. mutans, S. sobrinus, Fusobacterium (F. nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter (A. actinomycetemcomitans (MIC 50 μg/mL at 24 h, and exhibited an enhanced effect against the multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas (P. gingivalis (MIC 12.5 μg/mL at 24 h that was supported by the findings of both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM. This study shows enhanced synergistic antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX on common oral bacterial biofilms, which could be potentially developed as a novel antimicrobial agent for clinical oral/periodontal care.

  10. Lack of effect of cell-wall targeted antibacterials on biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility of Candidaspecies

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    Gisela Myrian de Lima Leite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of central venous catheters (CVC and broad-spectrum antibacterials are among the main risk factors for the development of candidemia in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU. It is known that some antibacterials increase the resistance of these yeasts to azole antifungals. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine whether yeast present in CVC colonizations previously exposed to cell-wall targeted antibacterials benefit from a reduction in susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole, facilitating their ability to form biofilms. Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. guilhermondii were seeded into antibacterial (cefepime, meropenem, vancomycin, and piperacillin-tazobactam gradient plates produced in Mueller-Hinton Agar. The susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole and the biofilm formation of the yeasts were tested before and after exposure to the antibacterials. None of the antibacterials exerted a significant effect on the in vitro susceptibility of the yeasts to the antifungal agents or on their ability to form biofilms. These results suggest that increased candidemia in ICU patients is not attributable to possible alterations in the yeasts, but is more likely caused by a weakening of the patient's general condition after long exposure to infection.

  11. Antioxidant,antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of the phytochemicals of whole Leucas aspera extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md; Atiar; Rahman; Md; Saiful; Islam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant,antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of whole Leucas aspera(Labiatae)(L.aspera)alcoholic extract.Methods:Whole L.aspera powder was extracted by absolute ethanol(99.50%).The ethanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant,antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality assay.Results:The extract showed potent radical scavenging effect(antioxidant)with IC50value of(99.58±1.22)μg/mL which was significant(P<0.01)in comparison to ascorbic acid with IC50value of(1.25±0.95)μg/mL.In case of antibacterial screening,the extract showed notable antibacterial effect against the tested microbial strains.Significant(P<0.05)zone of inhibitions against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis[(12.00±1.32)mm]and Bacillus megaterium[(13.00±1.50)mm],Staphylococcus aureus[(8.00±0.50)mm]and Gram negative Salmonella typhi[(6.00±0.50)mm],Salmonella paratyphi[(8.00±1.00)mm],Shigella dysenteriae[(9.00±1.32)mm]and Vibrio cholerae[(9.00±0.66)mm]was observed.In brine shrimp lethality bioassay,the extract showed the LC50value as(181.68±2.15)μg/mL which was statistically significant(P<0.01)compared to positive control vincristine sulfate[LC50=(0.76±0.04)μg/mL].Conclusions:The results demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of L.aspera could be used as antibacterial,pesticidal and various pharmacologic actives.

  12. Photodynamic therapy for inactivating endodontic bacterial biofilms and effect of tissue inhibitors on antibacterial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Annie; Kishen, Anil

    Complex nature of bacterial cell membrane and structure of biofilm has challenged the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) to achieve effective disinfection of infected root canals. In addition, tissue-inhibitors present inside the root canals are known to affect APDT activity. This study was aimed to assess the effect of APDT on bacterial biofilms and evaluate the effect of tissue-inhibitors on the APDT. Rose-bengal (RB) and methylene-blue (MB) were tested on Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative) biofilms. In vitro 7- day old biofilms were sensitized with RB and MB, and photodynamically activated with 20-60 J/cm2. Photosensitizers were pre-treated with different tissue-inhibitors (dentin, dentin-matrix, pulp tissue, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) and tested for antibacterial effect of APDT. Microbiological culture based analysis was used to analyze the cell viability, while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) was used to examine the structure of biofilm. Photoactivation resulted in significant reduction of bacterial biofilms with RB and MB. The structure of biofilm under LSCM was found to be disrupted with reduced biofilm thickness. Complete biofilm elimination could not be achieved with both tested photosensitizers. APDT effect using MB and RB was inhibited in a decreasing order by dentin-matrix, BSA, pulp, dentin and LPS (Pbacterial biofilms resisted complete elimination after APDT and the tissue inhibitors existing within the root canal reduced the antibacterial activity at varying degrees. Further research is required to enhance the antibacterial efficacy of APDT in an endodontic environment.

  13. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. PMID:26884763

  14. Screening and characterization of purine nucleoside degrading lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut and evaluation of the serum uric acid lowering effect in hyperuricemic rats.

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    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99% to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A (P<0.05. The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment (P<0.05. Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential

  15. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Farzan, Ali; Shiri, Niloufar; Shokri, Dariush; Fatemi, Syed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL), 2 (400 μg/mL), 3 (600 μg/mL) of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract). A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy). Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours (P deodorant

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Zakavi; Leila Golpasand Hagh; Arash Daraeighadikolaei; Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh; Arsham Daraeighadikolaei; Zahra Leilavi Shooshtari

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and w...

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and w...

  18. Antibacterial effect and cytotoxic effect of supercritical extraction of thyme and thyme extract obtained through hydrodistillation process

    OpenAIRE

    Mišić Dušan; Nišavić Jakov; Žižović Irena; Ivanović Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of antibacterial effect of supercritical extraction of thyme (TNKE) and thyme extract obtained by hydrodistillation (THD) covered 18 bacteria strains from the genuses Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus, including the strains MRSA, the strains VRE, as well as the reference strains S.pyogenes ATCC 19615, S. agalactiae ATCC 27959, S. aureus ATCC 11632, and S.aureus ATCC 25923. The anibacterial effect of thyme extracts was examined using the microdillution method in bou...

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

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    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  20. Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  1. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

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    Ahmed Tafesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW. Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%, verbascoside (7.4%, and tyrosol (2.6%. The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of iron chelators against Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Cheul; Lee, Hee-Su; Kim, Sung-Woon; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-09-01

    Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathogen, has been shown to be resistant to many antibiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of the FDA-approved iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFRA) against planktonic and biofilm cells of P. intermedia in order to evaluate the possibility of using these iron chelators as alternative control agents against P. intermedia. DFRA showed strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC values of 0.16 mg ml(-1)) against planktonic P. intermedia. At subMICs, DFRA partially inhibited the bacterial growth and considerably prolonged the bacterial doubling time. DFO was unable to completely inhibit the bacterial growth in the concentration range tested and was not bactericidal. Crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that DFRA significantly decreased the biofilm-forming activity as well as the biofilm formation, while DFO was less effective. DFRA was chosen for further study. In the ATP-bioluminescent assay, which reflects viable cell counts, subMICs of DFRA significantly decreased the bioactivity of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. Under the scanning electron microscope, P. intermedia cells in DFRA-treated biofilm were significantly elongated compared to those in untreated biofilm. Further experiments are necessary to show that iron chelators may be used as a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease. PMID:23329319

  3. In vitro antibacterial effect of carbamide peroxide on oral biofilm

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    Chao Shu Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of carbamide peroxide (CP and chlorhexidine (CHX on oral biofilm in vitro. Collagen-coated hydroxyapatite discs were inoculated with subgingival plaque. After 3 weeks, the emergent biofilms were subjected to 1-, 3-, and 10-min exposures of a 1% CHX gel, a 5% CP gel and rinse, and a 10% CP gel and rinse. Subsequently, the biofilms were stained using a two-colour fluorescent dye kit for confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the volume ratio of dead bacteria to all bacteria was analysed. Compared to a non-treated gel control, the active agents killed bacteria on all the discs, with higher concentration and longer exposure times killing more bacteria. The rinse form disrupted the biofilm quicker than the gel form. Overall, 10% CP showed more disruption of biofilm and a greater proportion of killed bacteria than 1% CHX (p<0.05.

  4. The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Schnell, Beverly M; Hoekstra, Robert M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Keswick, Bruce H

    2002-10-01

    We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n = 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n = 81); 79 households in a nearby neighborhood were enrolled as standard practice controls. After adjustment for household clustering and covariates, the incidence of impetigo among children living in households receiving triclocarban-containing soap (1.10 episodes per 100 person-weeks) was 23% lower than in households receiving placebo soap (P = 0.28) and 43% lower than the standard habit and practice controls (P = 0.02). The routine use of triclocarban-containing soap by children living in a community with a high incidence of impetigo was associated with a reduced incidence of impetigo. PMID:12452499

  5. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effect of Low Viscosity Chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragland, Inger Sofie; Rukke, Håkon Valen; Stenhagen, Ida S R; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Kopperud, Hilde M

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of low viscosity chitosan on S. epidermidis growth and biofilm formation. Methods and Results. The antibacterial and antibiofilm properties were investigated, during both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. This was performed using different concentrations in media and by coating on polystyrene surfaces. In addition, the bactericidal effect was investigated using a modified direct contact test. The results showed that low viscosity chitosan in media had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis in a concentration dependent manner. Polystyrene discs coated with chitosan reduced both early biofilm formation (6 h) and late biofilm formation (18 h), as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The modified direct contact test showed a bactericidal effect. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that low viscosity chitosan has a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis and that the activity is dependent on the amount of chitosan added. In addition, low viscosity chitosan reduced biofilm formation both when added to media and when coated on polystyrene surfaces. Significance and Impact of Study. Low viscosity chitosan could be a contribution to new treatment approaches of biofilm-related infections of S. epidermidis. PMID:27635144

  6. Antibacterial Effect of Essential Vegetal Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus Compared to Antibiotics

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    Nicodim Iosif FIT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aiming to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ten essential vegetal extracts on strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animal lesions. The comparative effect of some antibiotics on these strains isolated from animals was also tested and estimated. The extracts were represented by Albies alba, Aloe barbadensis, Calendula officinalis, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula angustifolia, Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita, Pinus silvestris essential oils, in three amounts (30 μl, 3 μl and 0,3 μl and comparatively eight antibiotics frequently utilized in staphylococci infections treatment in animals were used. Animal origin S. aureus strains were identified using API staph tests (BioMerieux, France. The tests were realized by diffusion method using Muller Hilton agar while the antibacterial effect was interpreted depending on the inhibition area diameter. The obtained results revealed that Satureja hortensis and Albies alba extracts inhibit the develop of the most staphylococci tested strains. The highest inhibition areas were observed for the amounts of 30 μl and 3 μl essential extract. Most of the staphylococci strains were resistant to antibiotics, the most efficient being Ceftiofur and Methicillin. The results are suggesting that savory and fir has antibacterial effect on S. aureus similar to the best antibiotics proving to be an alternative as natural antibiotics utilization in infectious diseases.

  7. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effect of Low Viscosity Chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis

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    Inger Sofie Dragland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of low viscosity chitosan on S. epidermidis growth and biofilm formation. Methods and Results. The antibacterial and antibiofilm properties were investigated, during both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. This was performed using different concentrations in media and by coating on polystyrene surfaces. In addition, the bactericidal effect was investigated using a modified direct contact test. The results showed that low viscosity chitosan in media had both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis in a concentration dependent manner. Polystyrene discs coated with chitosan reduced both early biofilm formation (6 h and late biofilm formation (18 h, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The modified direct contact test showed a bactericidal effect. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that low viscosity chitosan has a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis and that the activity is dependent on the amount of chitosan added. In addition, low viscosity chitosan reduced biofilm formation both when added to media and when coated on polystyrene surfaces. Significance and Impact of Study. Low viscosity chitosan could be a contribution to new treatment approaches of biofilm-related infections of S. epidermidis.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial effects of four dentine bonding systems: An in vitro study

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    Ruchi Arora

    2013-01-01

    had minimal effect against the test bacteria during the test period. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect decreased over a period of three months for all the dentin bonding systems.

  9. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect ofTinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae) leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheryl Rena-Aguila; Mario A Tan; Oliver B Villaflores

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the crude and semi-crude leaf extracts ofTinomiscium philippinense (T. philippinense). Methods:The leaves ofT. philippinense were extracted with methanol and partitioned with solvents of different polarities, namely, hexane, dichloromethane and butanol. The extracts were subjected to duck chorioallantoic membrane assay to establish its anti-angiogenic property. Microwell assay was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the different extracts of the plant. Results:The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense at 1 000µg/disc showed the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All the fractions exhibited a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the three bacterial strains withPseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative lactose fermenter exhibiting a higher sensitivity to dichloromethane semi-crude extract among the treatment groups. For the toxicity test, no mortality and no change in behavior were observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days after the oral administration of the plant extracts. The methanolic leaf extract ofT. philippinense is non-toxic at a maximum dose of 5 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense is a potential anti-angiogenic endemic plant species. This plant extract is also a potential antibacterial candidate as determined by microwell assay. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the plant may be attributed to the essential oil, steroid, flavonoid, sterol and triterpene content of the plant.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    for the extracts ranged from 0.01 to 1.56 mg/ml. when comparing antibacterial activity of A. herb alba plant extracted with acetone solvent on the same bacteria with zone of inhibition values ± SD, ranging from 00±00 to 5.6±0.60 mm. Both extracts from J. montana and A. herb alba plant extracts with petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform solvent were less antibacterial activities than acetone solvent extract. Conclusion: The present study spot highlight on isolation and identification of mastitis pathogens that are fundamental aspects of milk quality, udder health control programs and public health and food safety issues associated with food borne pathogens. J. montana and A. herb alba plants have antibacterial effects more than antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis. Finally, the medicinal plant extracts can be used to discover bioactive natural product in the form of antibacterial that may be serve the development of new pharmaceutical products. But still need further research necessary to identify active compounds and research to mechanism and drug interaction.

  11. Antioxidant, antibacterial and in vivo dermal wound healing effects of Opuntia flower extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Bardaa, Sana; Mzid, Massara; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebaii, Tarak; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica flowers are used for various medicinal purposes. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate biological properties of O. ficus-indica flowers extracts and to investigate its antioxidant and antibacterial activities and its ability to enhance wound healing. The wound healing activity of the mucilaginous and methanol extracts of O. ficus-indica flowers were assessed using excision wound model in rats. After thirteen days of treatment by both extracts, a beneficial effect on cutaneous repair was observed as assessed by the acceleration of wound contraction and remodeling phases. Histopathological studies of the granulation tissue indicated that the derma is properly arranged with the Opuntia flowers extract, compared with the control group. The mucilage extract was more effective than the methanol extract, but both showed significant results compared with the control. Such investigation was supported by the efficiency of the methanolic and mucilage extract as antimicrobial and antioxidant. Indeed, the extracts showed a potential antioxidant activity determined by different test systems, namely DPPH radicals scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching assay and metal chelating activity and exhibited significant antibacterial activity against almost all tested bacteria. PMID:26306411

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating Enriched by Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil and Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeisi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The presence of pathogenicbacteria and the factors causing food spoilage are the greatchallenge for public health. Attention to natural additivesinstead of chemical preservatives resulted in conducting severalstudies on plant essential oil and extracts. We aimed atevaluating the antibacterial effect of carboxymethyl cellulosecoating enriched by Zataria multiflora essential oil and grapeseed extract on rainbow trout meat.Material and methods: In this study, two concentrations ofZataria multiflora essential oil (1% and 2% and twoconcentrations of grape seed extract (0.5% and 1% were usedboth alone and in combination with Carboxymethyl cellulosecoating. Antibacterial effect of these treatments was evaluatedby enumeration of bacteria in special culture media.Results: The results obtained in this study demonstrate thatZataria multiflora essential oil in combination with grape seedextract significantly can decrease the number of bacteria anddelay the spoilage of the samples (p<0.05.Conclusion: Coating enriched by Zataria multiflora and grapeseed extract can properly delay the growth of spoilagemicroorganisms and prolong the shelf life of meat products.Key words: Carboxymethyl cellulose coating, Zatariamultiflora essential oil, Grape seed extract, Microbial flora

  13. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on the antibacterial and remineralizing effects of a calcium phosphate nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-03-01

    Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3-18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties. Five QAMs were synthesized: DMAPM (CL3), DMAHM (CL6), DMADDM (CL12), DMAHDM (CL16), and DMAODM (CL18). Each QAM was incorporated into a composite containing 20% NACP and 50% glass fillers. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The flexural strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites with QAMs matched those of a commercial control composite (n = 6; P > 0.1). Increasing the CL from 3 to 16 greatly enhanced the antibacterial activity of the NACP nanocomposite (P composite. The NACP nanocomposite with a CL of 16 produced 2-log decreases in the colony-forming units (CFU) of total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci. In conclusion, QAMs with CLs of 3-18 were synthesized and incorporated into an NACP nanocomposite for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Increasing the CL reduced the metabolic activity and acid production of biofilms and caused a 2-log decrease in CFU without compromising the mechanical properties. Nanocomposites exhibiting strong anti-biofilm activity, remineralization effects, and mechanical properties are promising materials for tooth restorations that inhibit caries. PMID:27025265

  14. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Juan; Wu, Changzhu; Wu, Qingsheng; Li, Jian

    2005-09-01

    The bactericidal action of silver (0) nanoparticles and amoxicillin on Escherichia coli is studied, respectively. Increasing concentration of both amoxicillin (0-0.525 mg ml-1) and silver nanoparticles (0-40 µg ml-1) showed a higher antibacterial effect in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Escherichia coli cells have different bactericidal sensitivity to them. When amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles are combined, it results in greater bactericidal efficiency on Escherichia coli cells than when they were applied separately. Dynamic tests on bacterial growth indicated that exponential and stationary phases are greatly decreased and delayed in the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles. In addition, the effect induced by a preincubation with silver nanoparticles is examined. The results show that solutions with more silver nanoparticles have better antimicrobial effects. One hypothesized mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  15. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

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    Anzabi Younes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry, Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi and Allium cepa L. (Onions on the standard strain (ATCC:19114 of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes, as it seems that it is possible to find some important organic and health safe anti-Listerial compounds. Materials and Methods: After collecting the mentioned plants phytology study was done. Then methanol extracts of named plants were prepared and antibacterial effects of these plants against the mentioned strain of L. monocytogenes by the Disk Diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC methods were performed. Also Ampicillin (10 μg/disc was used as the reference antibacterial substance. In order to find the relationship between antibacterial properties of plants extracts independent t test, chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were used. Results: Results showed that the extracts of all the three studied plants had antibacterial effects on L. monocytogenes. Average diagonal of growing area in disk diffusion test for barberry, kiwi and onions in order was 12, 15.5 and 11 mm. Also MIC of mentioned plants extracts in order was 125, 62.5, and 125 μg/ml and MBC of named plants was 500, 250 and 500 μg/ ml, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this work showed that methanol extracts of kiwi had stronger anti-Listerial effect than barberry’s and onion’s extracts.

  16. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun, E-mail: weiywswzy@163.com [Anhui Agricultural University, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2016-01-15

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion–solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100–150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus (M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application.

  17. THE REGULATORY EFFECT OF NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE ON G-PROTEIN AND G-PROTEIN MEDIATED PHOSPHOLIPASE C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德昌; 张宽仁

    1995-01-01

    The effect of nueleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) on the activity of guanine nueleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) mediated phospholipase C (PLC) and on the [35S ] GTPTτS binding of G-protein was investigated in this work in order to demonstrate the mechanism behind the regulation of G-protein and its effector PLC by NDPK. The stimulation of PLC in turkey erythrocyte membrane by both GTP and GTPτS indicated that the PLC stimulation was msdiated by G-protein, NDPK alone stimulated PLC activity, as well as the stimulation in the presence of GTP and GDP, in a dose-dependent manner. However, NDPK inhibited GTPτS-stimulated PLC, Furthermore, NDPK inhibited [35S] GTPτS binding of purified Gi-protein in a non-competitive manner. A hypothesis implying an important role of direct interaction of G-protein and NDPK in the regulation of their functions is suggested and discussed.

  18. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of the Combination of ε-Polylysine and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Mei; Du, Lihui; Wang, Daoying; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Sun, Chong; Xu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of the combination of ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and nisin against Enterococcus faecalis strains. The combination of ε-PL and nisin showed synergistic antibacterial activity against three Enterococcus strains. Scanning electron microscopy and a membrane permeability assay revealed that the combined treatment with ε-PL and nisin synergistically damaged the cell morphology of E. faecalis strain R612Z1 cells. Both ε-PL and nisin can dissipate the transmembrane electric potential of E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, but these peptides did not affect the transmembrane pH gradient. The combination of ε-PL and nisin can produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells. The results indicated that the uptake of ε-PL into cells was promoted through nisin and that the combination of ε-PL and nisin could produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, leading to cell growth inhibition.

  19. Introducing a Semi-Coated Model to Investigate Antibacterial Effects of Biocompatible Polymers on Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Winkel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implant infections from bacterial biofilms on artificial surfaces are a common threat to all medical implants. They are a handicap for the patient and can lead to implant failure or even life-threatening complications. New implant surfaces have to be developed to reduce biofilm formation and to improve the long-term prognosis of medical implants. The aim of this study was (1 to develop a new method to test the antibacterial efficacy of implant surfaces by direct surface contact and (2 to elucidate whether an innovative antimicrobial copolymer coating of 4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide and dimethyl(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphonate (VP:DMMEP 30:70 on titanium is able to reduce the attachment of bacteria prevalent in peri-implant infections. With a new in vitro model with semi-coated titanium discs, we were able to show a dramatic reduction in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, completely independently of effects caused by soluble materials. In contrast, soft tissue cells (human gingival or dermis fibroblasts were less affected by the same coating, despite a moderate reduction in initial adhesion of gingival fibroblasts. These data confirm the hypothesis that VP:DMMEP 30:70 is a promising antibacterial copolymer that may be of use in several clinical applications.

  20. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: differential effects of gamma-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; Demott, Michael S; Dedon, Peter C

    2010-05-01

    -deoxyribonolactone at 7% and 24% of total 2-deoxyribose oxidation, respectively, with frequencies of 10 lesions per 10(6) nt per Gy (G-value, 13 nmol/J) and 2.4 lesions per 10(6) nt per microM. Studies in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells, in which the analytical data were corrected for losses sustained during DNA isolation, revealed background levels of 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde of 9.7 and 73 lesions per 10(6) nt, respectively. Gamma-irradiation of the cells caused increases of 0.045 and 0.22 lesions per 10(6) nt per Gy, respectively, which represents a approximately 250-fold quenching effect of the cellular environment similar to that observed in previous studies. The proportions of the various 2-deoxyribose oxidation products generated by gamma-radiation are similar for purified DNA and cells. These results are consistent with solvent exposure as a major determinant of hydroxyl radical reactivity with 2-deoxyribose in DNA, but the large differences between gamma-radiation and Fe(2+)-EDTA suggest that factors other than hydroxyl radical reactivity govern DNA oxidation chemistry. PMID:20377226

  1. STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF APAMARGA (ACHYRANTHES ASPERA ON MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT CLINICAL ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Usha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports on emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria are cause of concern in medical world. Several ayurvedic drugs have been proved to contain the antimicrobial activity. Literature on effect of ayurvedic drugs on multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens is limited. Present study reports the antimicrobial effect of Achyranthes aspera (Apamarga crude extracts on the clinical isolates of multidrug resistant bacteria. The drug was evaluated by using phytochemical tests. Crude extracts of aqueous, methanol, ethanol and chloroform was prepared. Antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria belonging to groups of bacillus, citrobacter, E.coli, klebsiella, proteus and salmonella was tested. The drug showed highest efficacy against Bacillus organism while least effectiveness on Proteus spp bacteria. Results of the study conclude that the medicinal plant A. aspera might be useful against multidrug resistance in pathogens of clinical importance.

  2. Antibacterial Effects of Novel Thiazole Derivatives and the Toxicity of Oxothiazole on Liver Histopathology of Mice

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    Mohsen Najimi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has actuated researchers toward evaluating many new antibacterial compounds of which are the thiazoles. In this research the inhibitory effects of novel thiazole derivatives were unraveled on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and oxothiazole liver toxicity effects were assessed on mice. Methods: The antibacterial effect of thiazole derivatives was evaluated by measuring the halo zone with disk diffusion method and dilution procedure in microplate in order to discriminate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the liver toxicity of oxothiazole, also, was discerned by injecting 160 mg/kg, 265 mg/ kg and 350 mg/kg doses to mice as well as scrutinizing the liver histopathology. Results: Derivatives utilized in experiment had no inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, though their inhibitory effect was observed on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. For Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae the diameters of growth inhibition zone were 8.9-22.3 mm and 16.1-25.6 mm, respectively and MIC of 50-200 and 25-100 µg/ml by order. Additionally, by increasing the injection dose of oxothiazole with 160 mg/ml, 265 mg/ml and 350 mg/ml doses, the hepatitis lesions and liver necrosis were observed in experimental mice. Discussion: The thiazole derivatives possessed more inhibitory trace on gram positive bacteria than gram negative ones. Furthermore, the likely presence of oxygen link to thiazole ring in tested compounds results in the enhancement of inhibitory potency of these substances. Besides, our results suggest that high doses of oxothiazole cause severe liver damage and rapid death less than 24 hours.

  3. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  4. The in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and gentamicin impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, István; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Man, Adrian; Zuh, Sándor György; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2014-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a disease that is still difficult to treat, with considerable morbidity and associated costs. The current "gold standard" in treatment - debridement and implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads - presents the disadvantage of a second surgical intervention required for the removal of the beads. We comparatively investigated the in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass (BAG) and gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads. Bacterial viability was assessed hourly by Standard Plate Count during 24 hours of incubation, by determining the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both tested materials showed an antibacterial effect on all studied bacteria. In case of S. aureus, BAG granules were almost as effective as gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads, with no statistically significant differences. In contrast, PMMA beads had a superior antibacterial effect on S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect of BAG was greatly influenced by granule size and contact time. There was a statistically significant correlation between pH values and the number of CFU in the case of S53P4 BAG granules. As a biocompatible and biodegradable bone substitute, S53P4 bioactive glass can be a good alternative in the local management of osteomyelitis.

  5. Antibacterial textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhaskara, Usha Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the antibacterial functionalization of textiles and its application in professional laundries. The antibacterial functionalization was meant for the various textile packages lent out by the laundry companies to their customers from hotels, hospital or food industries. The

  6. Effect of the existing form of Cu element on the mechanical properties, bio-corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Mian; Hou, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu alloys have exhibited strong antibacterial ability, but Ti-Cu alloys prepared by different processes showed different antibacterial ability. In order to reveal the controlling mechanism, Ti-Cu alloys with different existing forms of Cu element were prepared in this paper. The effects of the Cu existing form on the microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys have been systematically investigated. Results have shown that the as-cast Ti-Cu alloys showed a higher hardness and mechanical strength as well as a higher antibacterial rate (51-64%) but a relatively lower corrosion resistance than pure titanium. Treatment at 900°C/2h (T4) significantly increased the hardness and the strength, improved the corrosion resistance but had little effect on the antibacterial property. Treatment at 900°C/2h+400°C/12h (T6) increased further the hardness and the mechanical strength, improved the corrosion resistance and but also enhanced the antibacterial rate (>90%) significantly. It was demonstrated that the Cu element in solid solution state showed high strengthening ability but low antibacterial property while Cu element in Ti2Cu phase exhibited strong strengthening ability and strong antibacterial property. Ti2Cu phase played a key role in the antibacterial mechanism. The antibacterial ability of Ti-Cu alloy was strongly proportional to the Cu content and the surface area of Ti2Cu phase. High Cu content and fine Ti2Cu phase would contribute to a high strength and a strong antibacterial ability.

  7. Nano polyamidoamine-G7 dendrimer synthesis and assessment the antibacterial effect in vitro

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    Mitra Gholami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nano scale dendrimers are macromolecules synthetic which frequently used in medical and health field. Because traditional antibiotics inevitably induce bacterial resistance, which is responsible for many treatment failures, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic drugs. This study was aimed to examine Synthesis and the antibacterial effect of NanoPolyamidoamine-G7 (NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer on Escherichia Coli, Proteus Mirabilis, Salmonella Typhi, Bacillus Subtilis and Staphylococcus Aureus. Methods: In this experimental study that has been conducted in June 2015 in the Laboratory of Microbiology, Iran University of Medical Science, NPAMAM-G7 dendrimers was synthesized by Tomalia’s divergent growth approach. The antibacterial effects of NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer were studied by disc diffusion and micro-dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guideline. Standard discs were prepared using different concentrations of dendrimer on Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Results: Zone of inhibition in concentration 25 μg/ml of NPAMAM-G7 dendrimers for Escherichia Coli, Proteus Mirabilis, Salmonella Typhi, Bacillus Subtilis and Staphylococcus Aureus were 26, 38, 36, 22 and 25 mm, respectively. Regarding the zone of inhibition in gram negative bacteria with gram positive ones was P= 0.16 and was not significant difference. The MIC for Salmonella Typhi was 0.025, for Proteus Mirabilis, Bacillus Subtilis, Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli was 0.25 μg/ml. The MBC for Salmonella Typhi was 25μg/ml, for Proteus Mirabilis and Bacillus Subtilis was 50 μg/ml and for Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus was 100 μg/ml. The least of sensitivity against NPAMAM-G7 related to Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus and the most of sensitivity related to

  8. Biogenic silver nanoparticles from Abutilon indicum: their antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Rani; Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using biological entities is gaining interest because of their potential applications in nano-medicine. Herein, we report the biological synthesis of Abutilon indicum silver nanoparticles (AIAgNPs) using aqueous Abutilon indicum leaf extract (AILE) and evaluation of their biological applications. TEM analysis revealed that the spherical biogenic AIAgNPs were found to be between 5 and 25 nm in size. The bioactive phyto-constituents such are condensed tannins of AILE were found to play a key role in the reduction and capping of AIAgNPs. The biological properties of AIAgNPs were premeditated as free radical scavenging activity, antibacterial effect and anti-proliferative activity. AIAgNPs were found to exhibit good free radical scavenging activities and the intense zone of inhibition displayed by them in six different pathogenic species indicate the potential antibacterial effect. Further, AIAgNPs showed a dose dependant anti-proliferative effect against COLO 205 (human colon cancer) and MDCK (normal) cells with an IC50 of 3 and 4 μg/mL and 100 and 75 μg/mL, respectively after 24 and 48 h. The morphological changes, chromatin condensation and membrane potential loss induced by AIAgNPs were evidenced by AO/EB and AnnexinV-Cy3 staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and G1/S transition cell cycle arrest in COLO 205 cells was evidenced in rhodamine123 staining and FACS analysis. The high levels of ROS as shown in DCF-DA staining could have played a major role in DNA fragmentation and eventually lead to apoptosis. The mode of action through the induction apoptosis by AIAgNPs in COLO 205 cells is exciting with promising application of nano-materials in biomedical research. PMID:25701118

  9. S-nitrosothiol tethered polymer hexagons: synthesis, characterisation and antibacterial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, S; Nithya, R; Berchmans, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we portray a new controlled nitric oxide (NO) delivery platform by grafting S-nitrosothiol derived from cysteine into the polymeric backbone of poly(vinyl methyl ether-co-maleic anhydride). Nitrosothiols (RSNO's) are linked to the polymeric backbone through solvent displacement method. By adjusting solvent polarity, materials of different shapes and sizes varying between μm and nm are prepared. More often our method of preparation resulted in hexagonally shaped polymeric materials. The structure and RSNO conjugation analysis was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Bactericidal efficacy of nitric oxide releasing polymer hexagons, a novel antibacterial agent is demonstrated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Confocal microscopic studies revealed the enhanced bactericidal effect of polymer hexagons via membrane destruction. Results suggest that this biocompatible NO releasing RSNO conjugated polymer hexagons could be potentially useful for antimicrobial applications.

  10. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giselle Cristina Silva; Renata Albuquerque Costa; Antonio Adauto Fonteles Filho

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Methods:Paper disks were soaked with 100, 200, 300 and 400μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL. All extracts were tested against Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteritidis (IH) and Aeromonas caviae. The susceptibility tests were performed using the modified disk diffusion method. Results:The strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (IH) were resistant to all treatments. In general, disks with 400μL extract were the most efficient against S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, E. faecalis and A. caviae. Conclusions: The study indicates a promising potential for aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts as alternative treatment of infections caused by the tested strains.

  11. Antibacterial and antioxidant effects from seaweed, Sargassum wightii (Greville, 1848) against marine ornamental fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppiah Nanthini devi; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen seaweed Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) for bioactive natural substance against marine ornamental fish bacterial pathogens, and also study the antioxidant properties, brine shrimp toxicity effect.Methods:screened for antibacterial activity and purified by column chromatography, purified fractions obtained were tested for the activity. The 1st fraction of acetone extract showed maximum activity, this was again subjected for purification and obtained three sub-fractions also tested for the activity. Total phenols and flavonoid contents, reducing power, free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and H2O2) and brine shrimp toxicity were also studied using purified acetone extract followed by standard methods.Results:Crude extract was made using three solvents (acetone, ethanol and methanol) and ten. GC-MS results revealed two major compounds such as 24-methylene cholesterol (79.9%) and methyl oleate (30.3%) which presented in higher percentage in purified extract and had highest phenols and flavonoid contents, reducing power, free radical scavenging activities, and also showed less toxicity effect. In he present study, the purified extract of S. wightii had potential antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila [(22.25±0.35) mm] and minimum activity against Streptococcus sp. [(10.00±0.00) mm]. The purified extract of S. wightii also had potential total antioxidant activity of (3.87±0.04) µg at 100 µg/mL concentration and the lowest activity was exhibited (1.52±0.01) µg at 25 µg/mL. The purified acetone extract showed maximum activity against eight pathogens among Conclusions: The present study concluded that the brown seaweed, S. wightii has potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, which can be used in aquaculture industry for treated bacterial diseases in infected fishes.

  12. Antifungal and Anti-bacterial Synergistic Effects of Mixture of Honey and Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Khosravi-Darani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: By increasing resistance of several bacterial and fungal species to many kinds of antibiotics, applications of natural base compounds e.g. honey and medicinal herbs have been more attractive. The aim of present research is evaluation of anti-bacterial and anticandida effects of three kinds of honey of Iran together with alcoholic extract of mint and zataria, as well as extract and starch of ginger on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aueoginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, as pathogens of human body. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum additive inhibitory concentration (MAIC were determined by the agar diffusion method by dilution method in Sabouraud agar. By inoculation of 10 μL from suspension and appearance of colorless vesicles, MIC was determined. Growth inhibition was calculated by ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U and t-student tests. All experiments were conducted three times. MIC for three variety of honey on Staphylococcus aureus (32, 30, 29% v/v, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, (70, 67, 71% v/v, Escherichia coli (40, 35, 39% v/v and Candida albicans (45, 48, 50% v/v are reported. While, the MAIC for the growth inhibition of honeys together with extract of mint and zataria, as well as extract and starch of ginger were reduced. Results: The results show that ginger extract has more significant impact on microorganism growth with respect to others. Pseudomonas aeroginosa was the most susceptible microorganisms to ginger extract. Growth inhibitory effect of ginger extract was more significant than ginger starch.Conclusion: Addition of herbal extract increases antibacterial and anticandida properties of honey thus letting hope for a honey benefit and would constitute an alternative way against the resistance to bacteria.

  13. Evaluating the In-vitro Antibacterial Effect of Iranian Propolis on Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Kasra Kermanshahi, Ruha; Erfan, Mohammad; Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Rezaei, Yashar; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2011-01-01

    Propolis has traditionally been used in curing infections and healing wounds and burns. Current researches have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions however, the pharmacological activity of propolis is highly variable depending on its geographic origin. There have been few studies on the effects of Iranian propolis on the oral microorganisms. In this in-vitro study, the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and water extracts of the Iranian propolis (10%, w/v) from north-east area of Tehran was evaluated. Susceptibility of the oral strains tested (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668; Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9222; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923; Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 9854 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 39392) was evaluated using the agar diffusion method at a concentration of 20 mg/mL of propolis and the zones of growth inhibition were measured. Antibacterial activity was determined by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at different concentrations of propolis. The ethanolic extract showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against all the strains, with MIC and MBC ranges of 250-500 µg/mL. The MIC concentration of the water extract was 500 µg/mL against S. mutans and E. faecalis. The water extract showed bactericidal activity only against S. mutans (20 mg/mL). These results indicate that the ethanolic extract is probably more useful in the control of oral biofilms and subsequent dental caries development. However, to determine the consequence of the ethanolic extract of Iranian propolis on the oral mucosa, in-vivo studies of its possible effects are needed.

  14. Antibacterial effects of Arctium lappa and Artemesia absinthium extracts in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibipour Reza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arctium lappa (Great burduck and Artemesia absinthium are medicinal plants that some of their antibacterial and antivirus properties have been suggested in nutritional industries. The objective of this research was to study the effects of A. lappa and A. absinthium on some microorganisms including Pseudomonads aeraginosa, Haemophilus influenza, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Extracts were prepared by maceration method and tested on Mueller Hinton agar medium based on disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by micro-dilution method. Antibiotic disks used for controlling and standardizing the examination. Results: The extracts of A. lappa and A. absinthium had significant effect on S. aureus. The MIC and MBC concentrations of the extract of A. lappa on B. subtilis were respectively 600 and 750 mg/ml. Also, these values were 230 and 540 mg/ml for H. influenza. Extract of A. absinthium showed more inhibitory effect on B. subtilis. All extracts showed inhibitory effect on B. cereus. The extracts of A. lappa and A. absinthium had inhibitory effects on H. influenza and P. aeraginosa. Among antibiotics, only Ofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin had effects on H. influenza. Extract of A. lappa showed flimsy effect on K. pneumonia, while extract of A. absinthium had no effect on this bacterium. Conclusion: Due to the effects of A. lappa and A. absinthium on some bacteria, they might be good substitutes for synthetic substances.

  15. The Molecular Mechanisms of the Antibacterial Effect of Picosecond Laser Generated Silver Nanoparticles and Their Toxicity to Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshed, Peri; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are known to have antibacterial properties. They are commonly produced by chemical synthesis which involves the use of harmful reducing agents. Contras, the laser technique is able to generate high-purity Ag NPs in water with specified surface charge characteristics. In the past, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the bactericidal effects of Ag NPs have been investigated extensively, but little is known of the antibacterial and toxic effects and mechanisms involved in laser-generated Ag NPs. In the current study Ag NPs were generated by picosecond laser ablation. Their antibacterial activity was determined on the gram-negative bacteria E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus including the methicillin resistant strain MRSA. Results showed that the laser generated Ag NPs exhibited strong dose-dependent antibacterial activity against all the three bacterial strains tested. Using E.coli as a model system, the laser Ag NPs treatment induced significantly high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS did not include detectable hydroxyl radicals, suggesting for the first time the selective ROS induction in bacterial cells by laser generated Ag NPs. The increased ROS was accompanied by significantly reduced cellular glutathione, and increased lipid peroxidation and permeability, suggesting ROS related bacterial cell damage. The laser generated Ag NPs exhibited low toxicity (within 72 hours) to five types of human cells although a weak significant decrease in cell survival was observed for endothelial cells and the lung cells. We conclude that picosecond laser generated Ag NPs have a broad spectrum of antibacterial effects against microbes including MRSA with minimal human cell toxicity. The oxidative stress is likely the key mechanism underlying the bactericidal effect, which leads to lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, DNA damages and eventual disintegration of the

  16. The Molecular Mechanisms of the Antibacterial Effect of Picosecond Laser Generated Silver Nanoparticles and Their Toxicity to Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshed, Peri; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are known to have antibacterial properties. They are commonly produced by chemical synthesis which involves the use of harmful reducing agents. Contras, the laser technique is able to generate high-purity Ag NPs in water with specified surface charge characteristics. In the past, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the bactericidal effects of Ag NPs have been investigated extensively, but little is known of the antibacterial and toxic effects and mechanisms involved in laser-generated Ag NPs. In the current study Ag NPs were generated by picosecond laser ablation. Their antibacterial activity was determined on the gram-negative bacteria E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus including the methicillin resistant strain MRSA. Results showed that the laser generated Ag NPs exhibited strong dose-dependent antibacterial activity against all the three bacterial strains tested. Using E.coli as a model system, the laser Ag NPs treatment induced significantly high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS did not include detectable hydroxyl radicals, suggesting for the first time the selective ROS induction in bacterial cells by laser generated Ag NPs. The increased ROS was accompanied by significantly reduced cellular glutathione, and increased lipid peroxidation and permeability, suggesting ROS related bacterial cell damage. The laser generated Ag NPs exhibited low toxicity (within 72 hours) to five types of human cells although a weak significant decrease in cell survival was observed for endothelial cells and the lung cells. We conclude that picosecond laser generated Ag NPs have a broad spectrum of antibacterial effects against microbes including MRSA with minimal human cell toxicity. The oxidative stress is likely the key mechanism underlying the bactericidal effect, which leads to lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, DNA damages and eventual disintegration of the

  17. Importance of mammalian nuclear-envelope nucleoside triphosphatase in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; McCaldin, B; McArdle, H J

    1979-09-15

    The nucleoside triphosphate-stimulated efflux of RNA from isolated nuclei was studied under a range of conditions, and the effects of these conditions on the process were compared with the properties of the nucleoside triphosphatase located in the pore complex. A marked similarity between the rate of efflux and the rate of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis was apparent, in terms of substrate specificity, sensitivity to treatment with insolubilized trypsin, kinetics and the effects of increased ionic strength and of many inhibitors. These results are taken, in view of earlier evidence, to suggest that the activity of the nucleoside triphosphatase is a prerequisite for nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in vivo. There are some indications that the nuclear-envelope lipid is also involved in regulating the efflux process.

  18. Antibacterial Mechanism of Copper-bearing Antibacterial Stainless Steel against E.Coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li NAN; Weichao YANG; Yongqian LIU; Hui XU; Ying LI; Manqi L(U); Ke YANG

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study was made on the antibacterial mechanism of copper-bearing antibacterial stainless steels against E.coli through experiments of microbiology such as EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) complex- ing, DNA smearing and AFM (atomic force microscope) observation. It was measured that the antibacterial stainless steels showed excellent antibacterial functions with antibacterial rate to E.coli over 99.99%. The antibacterial rate was weak if the bacteria solution was complexed by EDTA, indicating that the copper ions play a dominant role in the antibacterial effect of the antibacterial stainless steels. The electrophoresis experi- ment did not show the phenomenon of DNA smearing for E.coli after contacting antibacterial stainless steels, which meant that DNA of E.coli was not obviously damaged. It was observed by AFM that the morphology of E.coli changed a lot after contacting antibacterial stainless steels, such as cell walls being seriously changed and lots of contents in the cells being leaked.

  19. Blue-violet laser modification of titania treated titanium: antibacterial and osteo-inductive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Kawano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies on surface modifications of titanium have been performed in an attempt to accelerate osseointegration. Recently, anatase titanium dioxide has been found to act as a photocatalyst that expresses antibiotic properties and exhibits hydrophilicity after ultraviolet exposure. A blue-violet semiconductor laser (BV-LD has been developed as near-ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to this BV-LD on surface modifications of titanium with the goal of enhancing osteoconductive and antibacterial properties. METHODS: The surfaces of pure commercial titanium were polished with #800 waterproof polishing papers and were treated with anatase titania solution. Specimens were exposed using BV-LD (λ = 405 nm or an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, λ = 365 nm at 6 mW/cm(2 for 3 h. The surface modification was evaluated physically and biologically using the following parameters or tests: surface roughness, surface temperature during exposure, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, contact angle, methylene blue degradation tests, adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation, and histological examination after implantation in rats. RESULTS: No significant changes were found in the surface roughness or XRD profiles after exposure. BV-LD exposure did not raise the surface temperature of titanium. The contact angle was significantly decreased, and methylene blue was significantly degraded. The number of attached P. gingivalis organisms was significantly reduced after BV-LD exposure compared to that in the no exposure group. New bone was observed around exposed specimens in the histological evaluation, and both the bone-to-specimen contact ratio and the new bone area increased significantly in exposed groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that exposure of titanium to BV-LD can enhance the osteoconductivity of the titanium surface and induce antibacterial

  20. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ponmurugan Karuppiah; Shyamkumar Rajaram

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiberofficinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods: The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results: Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions: Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  1. Cytotoxic purine nucleoside analogues bind to A1, A2A and A3 adenosine receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kyle; Johnson, L’Aurelle A.; Jacobson, Pamala A.; Kachler, Sonja; Kirstein, Mark N.; Lamba, Jatinder; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Fludarabine, clofarabine and cladribine are anti-cancer agents which are analogues of the purine nucleoside adenosine. These agents have been associated with cardiac and neurological toxicities. Because these agents are analogues of adenosine, they may act through adenosine receptors to elicit their toxic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues to bind and activate adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3). Radioligand bindin...

  2. Nucleoside-nucleotide free diet protects rat colonic mucosa from damage induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei, A A; Morioka, T.; Ameho, C K; Yamauchi, K.; Kulkarni, A. D.; Al-Mansouri, H M; Kawajiri, A; Yamamoto, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that intestinal recovery from injury induced by radiation, endotoxin, and protein deficiency is improved by the ingestion of nucleosides and nucleotides. AIM: This study examined the effect of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides supplementation on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colonic damage in experimental colitis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into two groups and fed nucleic acid free 20% casein diet (control) or this diet supple...

  3. Modifying effects of boswellia carteri on clarithromycine action: In vitro antibacterial study against common sensitive bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M. Al-kuraishy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Plant-derived compounds have action alongside Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and numerous compounds, inhibit efflux pumps and hence have become known as efflux pump inhibitors. Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis and acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis the antibacterial range is the similar as erythromycin but it is active against Mycobacterium avium complex, M.leprae and atypical mycobacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activity results of different boswellic acid compounds discovered alpha keto-boswellic acid (AKBA to be the preponderance potent antibacterial compound alongside Grampositive pathogens, but it showed no significant antibacterial activity (MIC >128 μg/ml against the Gram negative bacteria . Aim: The aim of present study, is to illustrate the effectiveness of Boswellia carteri against Gram positive and negative bacteria alone and in combination with clarithromycine to elucidate the synergestic antibacterial effects and how Boswellia carteri modifying the antibacterial activity of clarithromycine. Material and methods: The bacteria strains used in this study included five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and three Gramnegative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa five for each strains. Antibacterial activities were evaluated by measuring inhibition zone diameters by Agar-well diffusion ,while Broth dilution method determine MIC .Then fractional inhibitory concentration determine the in vitro interaction of clarithromycine and boswellia carteri combination. Results :The result of present study showed that zone of inhibition of clarithromycine ranged from 4mg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 19mm toward Klebsiella pneumonia while zone of inhibition of Boswellia carteri

  4. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  5. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  6. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Chovanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovanová, Romana; Mikulášová, Mária; Vaverková, Stefánia

    2013-01-01

    The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

  8. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante)

    OpenAIRE

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD; Maria Fatima T. Astrero; Lenard T. Basinga; Maria Karysa G. Calang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante). The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, ...

  9. Antibacterial and Toxic Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Combined with Different Concentrations of Chlorhexidine in Comparison with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Mirhadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 has been suggested to be used in sequence or in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX to enhance the antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, but there is no research in the literature on the safety and effectiveness of this irrigation protocol. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of different concentrations of CHX combined with H2O2 in comparison with the activity of 5.25 and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. Materials and Method: Different concentrations of H2O2 (10, 5, 3 and 1% were exposed to the PDL cells. Then, the solution with minimal cytotoxicity was selected (3% H2O2. The cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of 0.1, 0.2, 1 and 2% CHX combined with 3% H2O2 were evaluated and compared with 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl. The differences in the mean viability of PDL cells were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn's tests were adopted to compare the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis. Results: The viability of PDL cells was lower when treated with 5.25 or 2.5% NaOCl than all combinations of CHX and H2O2. There was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis, except for the 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 combination, which had significantly lower efficacy than other groups. Conclusion: All combinations of CHX and H2O2 (used in this study except 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 were efficient irrigants against planktonic E.faecalis and had a better cytocompatibility with PDL cells than 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl.

  10. Effect of surface treatments on the surface morphology, corrosion property, and antibacterial property of Ti-10Cu sintered alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Liu, Cong

    2015-08-01

    Ti-10Cu sintered alloy has shown strong antibacterial properties against S. aureus and E. coli and good cell biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, displaying potential application as an implant material. Surface treatments are always applied to implants to improve the surface biocompatibility. In this paper, several typically used surface treatments, including sandblasting (SB), sandblasted and large-grits acid etching (SLA), and alkaline heat treatment (AH) were chosen to modify the Ti-10Cu. A cp-Ti (commercially pure titanium) sample was used as control sample. The effect of surface treatments on the corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of the Ti-10Cu sintered alloy was investigated. After SB and SLA treatments, a rough surface with a TiO2 layer was formed on the surface, which reduced the corrosion resistance and enhanced the Ti and Cu ion release. After AH treatment, a smooth but microporous surface with a TiO2/titanate layer was formed, which improved slightly the corrosion resistance. However, the Cu ion and Ti ion release from the Ti-10Cu sample was promoted by AH treatment due to the fact that more Ti2Cu phases were exposed on the AH-treated Ti-10Cu sample. It was demonstrated that the Ti-10Cu samples after surface treatments still exhibited good antibacterial properties against S. aureus, which indicated that the surface treatment did not reduce the antibacterial activity. The control mechanism was thought to be related to the high Cu ion release even after surface treatments. It was expected that the surface treatments provided Ti-10Cu sintered alloy with good surface bioactivity without reduction in antibacterial activity. PMID:26201969

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) Against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrose, R; Saha, S K; Banu, L A; Ahmed, A U; Shahidullah, A S; Gani, A; Sultana, S; Kabir, M R; Ali, M Y

    2015-07-01

    This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2010 to June 2011 in the Department of Pharmacology in the collaboration of Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to determine the profile of antibacterial effect of Crude Turmeric paste aqueous turmeric extract, and standard antibiotic Amikacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Three separate experiments were done e.g. (Expt- I) Inhibitory effect of Crude Turmeric paste incorporated into nutrient agar (NA) media, (Expt- II) Minimum inhibitory concentration of (a) Aqueous Turmeric extract and (b) Amikacin by broth dilution technique and (Expt-III) their subculture study in nutrient agar (NA) media for confirmation of respective results of previous experiments. Inhibitory effects were observed against the growth of Staph Aureus and Esch coli at 10% and 30% respectively of Crude Turmeric paste incorporated into NA media. The broth dilution technique was followed to determine the MIC of Aqueous Turmeric extract and Amikacin. The MIC of Aqueous Turmeric extract was 800 μg/ml against Staph aureus and that against Esch coli was 2000 μg/ml and the MIC of Amikacin was 10 μg/ml for both the bacteria. The MIC of Amikacin was the lowest in comparison to MIC of Aqueous Turmeric extract for complete inhibition of growth of Staph aureus and Esch coli. The subculture study showed similar results with that of previous experiments in terms of inhibitory effects of Crude Turmeric paste and MIC of Aqueous Turmeric extract and Amikacin against all of the organisms studied.

  12. Anti-bacterial effects of the essential oil of Teucrium polium L. on human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Results: The total oil content of Teucrium polium plant was 0.75%. Twenty eight compounds were identified in the essential oil that included 99.75% of the total oil. The major components were α-pinene (12.52%, Linalool (10.63% and Caryophyllene oxide (9.69%. For study of antimicrobial activity of the oil sample, the essential oil was tested against 9 bacteria by disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial effects of this essential oil was determined against three Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus areous (PTCC 1431, Staphylococcus epidermidis (PTCC 1436, Streptococcus faecalis (PTCC 1237; as well as six Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeroginosa (PTCC 11430, Shigella flexneri (PTCC 1716, Kellebsiella pneuomonae(PTCC=1053, Salmonella typhi (PTCC=1609, Serratia marcescens (PTCC 1187 and Escherichia coli (PTCC 1533. The antimicrobial effects of this essential oil on the Gram positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and on all the Gram negative bacteria tested was much higher than those observed by tetracycline. Conclusions: The results showed the essential oil of Teucrium polium had strong anti-bacterial effects. The relatively high contents of α-pinene and Linalool in the essential oil may be the cause of its potential medicinal effects

  13. Antibacterial effects and physical properties of glass-ionomer cements containing chlorhexidine for the ART approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, Y.; Imazato, S.; Kaneshiro, A.V.; Ebisu, S.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Tay, F.R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) involves removal of carious lesions with manual instruments, improvement of filling materials to guarantee greater success should be considered. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, physical, and bonding properties of glass-ionomer ceme

  14. Synthesis of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Benzophenoxazinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Wu Xin ZOU; Ling WU; Jin Shui LI; Ji Tao WANG; Ji Ben MENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new nucleoside derivatives containing benzophenoxazinone moiety were synthesized. Their luminescence spectra show that they have strong near infrared fluorescence. Our study provides a new method for direct introduction of near infrared fluorescent probe to bioactive molecules.

  15. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Brkić; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Marina Soković; Petar D. Marin; Jasmina Glamočlija

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

  16. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIBACTERIAL TREATED COTTON FABRICS AND EFFECT OF LAUNDRY CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALAMUTCU Sema

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A, quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B, dichlorophenol (sample C, silver (sample D, quaternary ammonium (sample E and chitosan (sample F based six different antibacterial additives were applied on 100% cotton fabrics for antibacterial treatment. All six treated fabrics and the untreated fabric (control sample were washed for 40 cycles; the antibacterial efficacies were tested; changes in tear strength and Berger whiteness values of the samples were recorded prior to washing and after 1st, 5th, 10th, 20th and 40th washing cycles. Regarding all washing cycles, a decrease in tear strength results is observed between unwashed and 40 cycle washed samples. Textile materials such as bedlinen, pillow cases, surgeon gowns for which tear strength values are important and that have antibacterial treatments should be tested for tear strength values for different washing cycles to see if they meet minimum tear strength requirements. The change in tear strength and Berger whiteness of samples shows differences according to the antibacterial agent treated and washing cycle applied. Generally, slight decreases in tear strength values are observed. And slight decreases in whiteness, except for sample F which is treated with chitosan, are observed as well. Textile materials having antibacterial treatments should be tested for the special antibacterial agent they are treated and for the number of washing cycles that is required for their product life.

  17. XML Investigating the Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Thymus Vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Valizadeh (MSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum essential oils against foodborne pathogens and Candida species in vitro. Methods: The essential oils were extracted from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and dried Cuminum Cyminum seeds using a Clevenger apparatus for 3 hours. Analysis of the essential oils’ constituents was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. The antibacterial activity of Cuminum Cyminum essential oil and essential oil of Thymus vulgaris against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in agar culture medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of these essential oils against fungal strains of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. dubliniensis was measured. Results: Thymol (64.45% and cuminaldehyde (29.02% were the main components of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum, respectively. The largest inhibition zone diameter in the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum in the agar disk diffusion method was related to B. cereus with 30 and 21 mm diameter, respectively. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter by the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris in the well diffusion method was 21 mm and against B. cereus. The MIC of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris in the microdilution method was 0.09% against all the four Candida strains. The MIC of Cuminum Cyminum essential oil against strains of C. albicans and C. tropicalis was 0.39%, while it was found as 0.19% against C. parapsilosis and C. dubliniensis. Conclusion: In this study, Cuminum Cyminum essential oil and essential oil of Thymus vulgaris show suitable inhibitory effects against the growth of bacteria using well and disk diffusion methods. Regarding the antifungal effects, the MIC of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris is

  18. Evaluation of copper ion of antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Helicobacter pylori and optical, mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Hwan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu-ri; Kim, Kwang-Mahn [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, University of Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Se-Young, E-mail: sychoi@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Helicobacter pylori of copper ion was researched. Also, additional effects of copper ion coating on optical and mechanical properties were researched as well. Copper ion was coated on glass substrate as a thin film to prevent bacteria from growing. Cupric nitrate was used as precursors for copper ion. The copper ion contained sol was deposited by spin coating process on glass substrate. Then, the deposited substrates were heat treated at the temperature range between 200 Degree-Sign C and 250 Degree-Sign C. The thickness of deposited copper layer on the surface was 63 nm. The antibacterial effect of copper ion coated glass on P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium and H. pylori demonstrated excellent effect compared with parent glass. Copper ion contained layer on glass showed a similar value of transmittance compared with value of parent glass. The 3-point bending strength and Vickers hardness were 209.2 MPa, 540.9 kg/mm{sup 2} which were about 1.5% and 1.3% higher than the value of parent glass. From these findings, it is clear that copper ion coating on glass substrate showed outstanding effect not only in antibacterial activity but also in optical and mechanical properties as well.

  19. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  20. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  1. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Combined with Ineffective Antibiotics on Drug Resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Danielle; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Hua; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic antibacterial activity of combined silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with tetracycline (polykeptide), neomycin (aminoglycoside), and penicillin (β-lactam) was tested against the multidrug resistant bacterium Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Dose-dependent inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 growth is observed for tetracycline-AgNPs and neomycin-AgNPs combination with IC50 of 0.07 μg/mL and 0.43 μg/mL, respectively. There is no inhibition by the penicillin-AgNPs combination. These results suggest that the combination of the ineffective tetracycline or neomycin with AgNPs effectively inhibits the growth of this bacterium. The synergistic antibacterial effect is likely due to enhanced bacterial binding by AgNPs assisted by tetracycline or neomycin, but not by penicillin.

  2. Atomic force microscopy study of the antibacterial effect of fosfomycin on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; DiCicco, Matthew

    2014-08-01

    The influence of fosfomycin on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) as the target cell was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nanoscale images of the effects of the antibiotic fosfomycin on this gram-positive bacterium's cell were obtained in situ without fixing agents. Our study has demonstrated substantial morphological and topographical differences between the control and fosfomycin-treated MRSP cells. The AFM investigations further revealed the rough surface morphology and a 30 % shrinkage in size of the fosfomycin-treated cell and the leakage of cytoplasmic components from the cell. The damage of cell membrane integrity and the cell surface degradation as observed elaborates the antibacterial activity of fosfomycin. The AFM image analysis also reveals that the fosfomycin inhibits cell division, and prevents the adhesion on the surface discouraging the biofilm attachment. The micro-titre plate assay results conform to the atomic force microscopy image analysis. This is the first visual demonstration of the effect of fosfomycin on MRSP cells.

  3. 常用食品防腐剂的抑菌效果%Antibacterial Effect of Commonly Used Food Preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春红; 乔琳; 古红梅; 李季平; 杨潇

    2013-01-01

    取一定量大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌菌悬液分别接种在含不同质量浓度的苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾的液体培养基中培养18h,然后测定OD值,研究两种防腐剂对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌效果.结果表明,防腐剂苯甲酸钠(≥0.2 g/L)和山梨酸钾(≥0.3 g/L)对两种菌的生长都呈显著的抑制作用,且随浓度增加抑菌作用逐渐增强;相同浓度下苯甲酸钠的抑菌效果要好于山梨酸钾.%In order to study the antibacterial effect of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Certain density bacterial suspension was added into the liquid culture medium included of different concentration of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate to cultivate for 18 hours, and then the values of OD determined. The results showed that Sodium Benzoate (≥0.2g/L) and Potassium Sorbate (≥0.3g/L) had significant antibacterial effect on the two bacteria. The antibacterial effect gradually increased along with the increasing of concentration of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate; The antibacterial effect of Sodium Benzoate was better than Potassium Sorbate at the same concentration.

  4. An in vitro study on the effects of nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhongchun; Zhang, Yuejiao; Ling, Junqi; Ma, Jinglei; Huang, Lijia; Zhang, Luodan

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis rank among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide and possesses both intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotics. Development of new antibiotics is limited, and pathogens continually generate new antibiotic resistance. Many researchers aim to identify strategies to effectively kill this drug-resistant pathogen. Here, we evaluated the effect of the antimicrobial peptide nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis. The MIC and MBC results showed that the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis OG1RF, ATCC 29212, and strain E were significantly improved in the presence of 200 U/ml nisin. Statistically significant differences were observed between the results with and without 200 U/ml nisin at the same concentrations of penicillin or chloramphenicol (pnisin and penicillin or chloramphenicol had a synergetic effect against the three tested E. faecalis strains. The transmission electron microscope images showed that E. faecalis was not obviously destroyed by penicillin or chloramphenicol alone but was severely disrupted by either antibiotic in combination with nisin. Furthermore, assessing biofilms by a confocal laser scanning microscope showed that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol all showed stronger antibiofilm actions in combination with nisin than when these antibiotics were administered alone. Therefore, nisin can significantly improve the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of many antibiotics, and certain antibiotics in combination with nisin have considerable potential for use as inhibitors of this drug-resistant pathogen.

  5. An in vitro study on the effects of nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchun Tong

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis rank among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide and possesses both intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotics. Development of new antibiotics is limited, and pathogens continually generate new antibiotic resistance. Many researchers aim to identify strategies to effectively kill this drug-resistant pathogen. Here, we evaluated the effect of the antimicrobial peptide nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis. The MIC and MBC results showed that the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis OG1RF, ATCC 29212, and strain E were significantly improved in the presence of 200 U/ml nisin. Statistically significant differences were observed between the results with and without 200 U/ml nisin at the same concentrations of penicillin or chloramphenicol (p<0.05. The checkerboard assay showed that the combination of nisin and penicillin or chloramphenicol had a synergetic effect against the three tested E. faecalis strains. The transmission electron microscope images showed that E. faecalis was not obviously destroyed by penicillin or chloramphenicol alone but was severely disrupted by either antibiotic in combination with nisin. Furthermore, assessing biofilms by a confocal laser scanning microscope showed that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol all showed stronger antibiofilm actions in combination with nisin than when these antibiotics were administered alone. Therefore, nisin can significantly improve the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of many antibiotics, and certain antibiotics in combination with nisin have considerable potential for use as inhibitors of this drug-resistant pathogen.

  6. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates from nucleotides and trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrmann, R

    1975-12-29

    When solutions of nucleoside 5'-phosphates and trimetaphosphate are dried out at room temperature, nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates are formed. The Mg++ ion shows a superior catalytic function in this reaction when compared with other divalent metal ions. Starting with nucleoside 5'-phosphates, Mg++ and trimetaphosphate, the predominant products in the nucleoside 5'-polyphosphate series pnN are p4N, P7N and p10N. Nucleoside 5'-diphosphates yield p5N and p8N, nucleoside 5'-triphosphates give p6N and p9N. The prebiological relevance of these reactions is discussed. PMID:1541

  7. SOME RECENT FINDINGS IN THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT NUCLEOSIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mikhailopulo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some recent findings in the biotechnology of biologically important nucleosides will be discussed, viz., (i a new strategy of the cascade one-pot transformation of D-pentoses into nucleosides based on the extension and deepening of the knowledge of the mechanism of functioning of the ribokinase, phosphopentomutase, and uridine, thymidine and purine nucleoside (PNP phosphorylases, and the role of different factors (structural, electronic, stereochemical in the glycoside bond formation, (ii the modern chemistries of the chemo-enzymatic syntheses of nucleosides, (iii the transglycosylation reaction using natural and sugar modified nucleosides as donors of carbohydrate residues and heterocyclic bases as acceptors catalyzed by nucleoside phosphorylases (NP.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF LEMONGRASS OIL ON ORAL MICROORGANISMS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Goyal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to know antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil on oral microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The disc diffusion test for the Streptococcus mutans, was carried out at various concentrations of lemongrass oil as neat, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1: 25. The punch hole diffusion technique was used for Prevotella intermedia and Porhyromonas gingivalis at various concentrations of lemongrass oil as neat, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1:25. The disc diffusion test for Streptococcus mutans showed the zone of inhibition of >40mm, >40mm, >20mm, 14mm,14mm at the concentration of neat, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 respectively. The punch hole diffusion technique used for Prevotella intermedia and Porhyromonas gingivalis showed Zone of inhibition of >30mm, >20mm, >10mm at the concentrations of neat, 1:2, 1:5, and 1:10 respectively. The study has demonstrated that essential oil of lemongrass has significant antimicrobial potential against oral microorganisms S.mutans, P. intermedia and P. gingivalis.

  9. Antibacterial, Antibiofilm Effect of Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) Leaf Fraction and Its Efficiency in Meat Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Li, Cheng; Kou, Xingran; Yu, Fuhao; Wang, Hongxin; Smith, Gary M; Zhu, Song

    2016-08-01

    First, the antibacterial, antibiofilm effect and chemical composition of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaf fractions were studied. Then, the efficiency of burdock leaf fractions in pork preservation was evaluated. The results showed that burdock leaf fraction significantly inhibited the growth and biofilm development of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. MICs of burdock leaf fractions on E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were both 2 mg/ml. At a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of the fraction on growth and development of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilms were 78.7 and 69.9%, respectively. During storage, the log CFU per gram of meat samples treated with burdock leaf fractions decreased 2.15, compared with the samples without treatment. The shelf life of pork treated with burdock leaf fractions was extended 6 days compared with the pork without treatment, and the sensory property was obviously improved. Compared with the control group, burdock leaf fraction treatment significantly decreased the total volatile basic nitrogen value and pH of the meat samples. Chemical composition analysis showed that the burdock leaf fraction consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, cynarin, crocin, luteolin, arctiin, and quercetin. As a vegetable with an abundant source, burdock leaf is safe, affordable, and efficient in meat preservation, indicating that burdock leaf fraction is a promising natural preservative for pork.

  10. Photoinduced green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with highly effective antibacterial and hydrogen peroxide sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Gundampati, Ravi Kumar; Singh, Devendra K; Bano, Daraksha; Jagannadham, Medicherla V; Hasan, Syed Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an eco-friendly and sustainable green route was employed for the synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta (AEE) as both reducing as well as a stabilizing agent. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy which produced a prominent SPR band at λmax 425nm after 25min of sunlight exposure. The AgNPs thus synthesized were optimized using one factor at a time approach, and these optimized conditions were 25min of sunlight exposure time, 5.0% (v/v) of AEE inoculum dose and 3.0mM of AgNO3 concentration. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) analysis confirmed the presence of spherical AgNPs with average size 15.5nm. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) pattern. Chemical and elemental compositions were determined by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) respectively. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images with average roughness 1.15nm represented the lateral and 3D topological characteristic of AgNPs. The AgNPs thus synthesized showed effective antibacterial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacteria as well as hydrogen peroxide sensing property with a minimum detection limit of 10(-7)M. PMID:27424098

  11. Antibacterial effect of ultrafine nanodiamond against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anindita; Perevedentseva, Elena; Jani, Mona; Cheng, Chih-Yuan; Ye, Ying-Siou; Chung, Pei-Hua; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the antibacterial effect of ultrafine nanodiamond particles with an average size of 5 nm against the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). UV-visible, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been employed to elucidate the nature of the interaction. The influence on bacterial growth was monitored by measuring optical densities of E. coli at 600 nm as a function of time in the presence of carboxylated nanodiamond (cND) particles (100 μg/ml) in highly nutritious liquid Luria-Bertani medium. The SEM images prove that cND particles are attached to the bacterial cell wall surface and some portion of the bacterial cell wall undergoes destruction. Due to the change of the protein structure on the bacterial wall, a small Raman shift in the region of 1400 to 1700 cm-1 was observed when E. coli interacted with cNDs. Raman mapping images show strong evidence of cND attachment at the bacterial cell wall surface. Electrotransformation of E. coli with a fluorescent protein markers experiment demonstrated that the interaction mechanisms are different for E. coli treated with cND particles, E. coli by lysozyme treatment, and E. coli that suffer lysis.

  12. Effects of chitin nano-whiskers on the antibacterial and physicochemical properties of maize starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yang; Zhang, Shuangling; Yu, Jing; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-08-20

    We investigated the effects of chitin nano-whiskers (CNWs) on the antibacterial and physiochemical properties of maize starch-based films. The microstructures, crystalline structures, and thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimeter, and texture profile analysis. The tensile strength of the maize starch films increased from 1.64MPa to 3.69MPa (Preinforcement with up to 1%. The water vapor permeability of the nanocomposite films decreased from 5.32×10(-12) to 2.22×10(-12)gm(-1)s(-1)Pa(-1) with the CNW content increasing from 0% to 2%. The onset temperature, peak temperature and the gelatinization enthalpy of the films containing CNWs were higher than those of the pure starch films. Furthermore, the nanocomposite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes but not against Gram-negative Escherichia coli.

  13. In vivo studies of antibacterial effect of human amniotic membrane use in treatment of burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study consist to put in evidence one of essential characteristic of amniotic membrane in occurrence the antibacterial effect. The article describes a study which compared the microbiological and clinical results of the application of freeze-dried gamma sterilized amniotic membrane with that of the conventional treatment(flamazine, greased gauze), in 100 patients with intermediate burns and deep burns with small surface, the bacterial population of various types of microorganisms was well controlled using quantitative bacterial culture techniques, immediately after accident, during treatment and at the last of treatment. The bacterial counts were significantly diminished mean of 10 4 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 4 days in no infected burns and mean of 10 6 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 5 days in infected burns, the same reduction was registered after 16 to 25 days with the conventional treatment. It is concluded that use of amniotic membrane control infection, minimize pain and promote wound healing

  14. Antibacterial, Antibiofilm Effect of Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) Leaf Fraction and Its Efficiency in Meat Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Li, Cheng; Kou, Xingran; Yu, Fuhao; Wang, Hongxin; Smith, Gary M; Zhu, Song

    2016-08-01

    First, the antibacterial, antibiofilm effect and chemical composition of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaf fractions were studied. Then, the efficiency of burdock leaf fractions in pork preservation was evaluated. The results showed that burdock leaf fraction significantly inhibited the growth and biofilm development of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. MICs of burdock leaf fractions on E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were both 2 mg/ml. At a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of the fraction on growth and development of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilms were 78.7 and 69.9%, respectively. During storage, the log CFU per gram of meat samples treated with burdock leaf fractions decreased 2.15, compared with the samples without treatment. The shelf life of pork treated with burdock leaf fractions was extended 6 days compared with the pork without treatment, and the sensory property was obviously improved. Compared with the control group, burdock leaf fraction treatment significantly decreased the total volatile basic nitrogen value and pH of the meat samples. Chemical composition analysis showed that the burdock leaf fraction consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, cynarin, crocin, luteolin, arctiin, and quercetin. As a vegetable with an abundant source, burdock leaf is safe, affordable, and efficient in meat preservation, indicating that burdock leaf fraction is a promising natural preservative for pork. PMID:27497128

  15. Biotechnological Screening of Microalgal and Cyanobacterial Strains for Biogas Production and Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opayi Mudimu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae and cyanobacteria represent a valuable natural resource for the generation of a large variety of chemical substances that are of interest for medical research, can be used as additives in cosmetics and food production, or as an energy source in biogas plants. The variety of potential agents and the use of microalgae and cyanobacteria biomass for the production of these substances are little investigated and not exploited for the market. Due to the enormous biodiversity of microalgae and cyanobacteria, they hold great promise for novel products. In this study, we investigated a large number of microalgal and cyanobacterial strains from the Culture Collection of Algae at Göttingen University (SAG with regard to their biomass and biogas production, as well antibacterial and antifungal effects. Our results demonstrated that microalgae and cyanobacteria are able to generate a large number of economically-interesting substances in different quantities dependent on strain type. The distribution and quantity of some of these components were found to reflect phylogenetic relationships at the level of classes. In addition, between closely related species and even among multiple isolates of the same species, the productivity may be rather variable.

  16. Green Synthesis and Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Using Vitex Negundo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Abu Bakar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs due to their multiple applications. One of the most important applications of Ag-NPs is their use as an anti-bacterial agent. The use of plants in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Vitex negundo L. extract and its antimicrobial properties has been reported. The resulting silver particles are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and UV–Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The TEM study showed the formation of silver nanoparticles in the 10–30 nm range and average 18.2 nm in size. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc structure. The silver nanoparticles showed the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Vitex negundo L. was found to display strong potential for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0.

  17. Antibacterial Activities of Selected Cameroonian Plants and Their Synergistic Effects with Antibiotics against Bacteria Expressing MDR Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Lacmata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of some Cameroonian medicinal plants and the effect of their associations with currently used antibiotics on multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-negative bacteria overexpressing active efflux pumps. The antibacterial activities of twelve methanol extracts of medicinal plants were evaluated using broth microdilution. The results of this test showed that three extracts Garcinia lucida with the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC varying from 128 to 512 μg/mL, Garcinia kola (MIC of 256 to 1024 μg/mL, and Picralima nitida (MIC of 128 to 1024 μg/mL were active on all the twenty-nine studied bacteria including MDR phenotypes. The association of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN or efflux pumps inhibitor to different extracts did not modify their activities. At the concentration of MIC/2 and MIC/5, the extracts of P. nitida and G. kola improved the antibacterial activities of some commonly used antibiotics suggesting their synergistic effects with the tested antibiotics. The results of this study suggest that the tested plant extracts and mostly those from P. nitida, G. lucida and G. kola could be used alone or in association with common antibiotics in the fight of bacterial infections involving MDR strains.

  18. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  19. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Brkić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  20. Effects of the protonation state in the interaction of an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) amino acid, Lys101, and a non nucleoside RT inhibitor, GW420867X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galembeck, Sérgio E; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Interactions between an inhibitor and amino acids from a binding pocket could help not only to understand the nature of these interactions, but also to support the design of new inhibitors. In this paper, we explore the key interaction between a second generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), GW420867X, and HIV-1 RT amino acid Lys101 (K101), by quantum mechanical methods. The neutral, protonated, and zwitterionic complexes of GW420867X-K101 were studied. The interaction energies were determined by SCS-MP2/def2-cc-pVQZ, and the electron density was analyzed by natural bond orbital (NBO), atoms in molecules (AIM) and reduced gradient analysis. A large increase in the interaction was observed with the tautomerization of neutral or neutral protonated species. The monomers interact by two medium-strength hydrogen bonds, one partially covalent and another noncovalent. There are some van der Waals intramolecular interactions that are topologically unstable. The nature of the intermolecular interactions was also analyzed using quantitative molecular orbital (MO) theory in combination with an energy decomposition analysis (EDA) based on dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) at BLYP-D/TZ2P. PMID:24965933

  1. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1% in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  2. Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Enhancing Effects of Honeybee Venom against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mi Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a significant social and clinical problem. There is thus an urgent need to develop naturally bioactive compounds as alternatives to the few antibiotics that remain effective. Here we assessed the in vitro activities of bee venom (BV, alone or in combination with ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin or vancomycin, on growth of MRSA strains. The antimicrobial activity of BV against MRSA strains was investigated using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC and a time-kill assay. Expression of atl which encodes murein hydrolase, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme involved in cell separation, was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MICs of BV were 0.085 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL against MRSA CCARM 3366 and MRSA CCARM 3708, respectively. The MBC of BV against MRSA 3366 was 0.106 µg/mL and that against MRSA 3708 was 0.14 µg/mL. The bactericidal activity of BV corresponded to a decrease of at least 3 log CFU/g cells. The combination of BV with ampicillin or penicillin yielded an inhibitory concentration index ranging from 0.631 to 1.002, indicating a partial and indifferent synergistic effect. Compared to ampicillin or penicillin, both MRSA strains were more susceptible to the combination of BV with gentamicin or vancomycin. The expression of atl gene was increased in MRSA 3366 treated with BV. These results suggest that BV exhibited antibacterial activity and antibiotic-enhancing effects against MRSA strains. The atl gene was increased in MRSA exposed to BV, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. BV warrants further investigation as a natural antimicrobial agent and synergist of antibiotic activity.

  3. Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Enhancing Effects of Honeybee Venom against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Mi; Kim, Joung Min; Hong, In Pyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, He Rye; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a significant social and clinical problem. There is thus an urgent need to develop naturally bioactive compounds as alternatives to the few antibiotics that remain effective. Here we assessed the in vitro activities of bee venom (BV), alone or in combination with ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin or vancomycin, on growth of MRSA strains. The antimicrobial activity of BV against MRSA strains was investigated using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and a time-kill assay. Expression of atl which encodes murein hydrolase, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme involved in cell separation, was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MICs of BV were 0.085 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL against MRSA CCARM 3366 and MRSA CCARM 3708, respectively. The MBC of BV against MRSA 3366 was 0.106 µg/mL and that against MRSA 3708 was 0.14 µg/mL. The bactericidal activity of BV corresponded to a decrease of at least 3 log CFU/g cells. The combination of BV with ampicillin or penicillin yielded an inhibitory concentration index ranging from 0.631 to 1.002, indicating a partial and indifferent synergistic effect. Compared to ampicillin or penicillin, both MRSA strains were more susceptible to the combination of BV with gentamicin or vancomycin. The expression of atl gene was increased in MRSA 3366 treated with BV. These results suggest that BV exhibited antibacterial activity and antibiotic-enhancing effects against MRSA strains. The atl gene was increased in MRSA exposed to BV, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. BV warrants further investigation as a natural antimicrobial agent and synergist of antibiotic activity. PMID:26771592

  4. Synthesis of a New Series of Substituted Pyrimidines and Its Evaluation for Antibacterial and Antinociceptive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Akhlaq; Alorainy, Mohammad S.; Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Khan, Suroor A.; Raza, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pyrimidines are a well known group of compounds reported to have different biological activities. Prompted from the diversity of its wider use and being an integral part of genetic material, an effort was made to synthesize a novel series of amino-pyrimidine derivatives of pharmaceutical interest by condensing the guanidinyl derivative of nalidixic acid with different chalcones. Methods: The structures of all synthesized compounds were established on the basis of IR and 1HNMR spectral studies. All of the new compounds in this series were screened for antimicrobial activity. Gram +ve and Gram −ve strains were used to ascertain the spectrum of activity. ED50 values in the tail flick test were determined and recorded. Analgesic potential of compounds by using tail flick test in SWR male mice have also revealed promising results. Results: All of the derivatives were effective in Gram –ve test against E. coli. None of the compounds show any inhibition of Gram +ve strain S. aureus. m-Bromo substitution derivative of amino-pyrimidines showed appreciable activity against E. coli, while 2,4 dichloro and p-chloro substitution derivatives also demonstrated improved activity. Compound 4 was most potent. The order of potency for these derivatives was 4>5≥6>1>2>7>3. Parallel to antimicrobial activity, m-bromo substitution derivative showed significant (P<0.01) antinociceptive response in comparison to control, and this effect was comparable to aspirin group. Trimethoxy substitution of benzene ring demonstrated moderate activity, whereas p-bromo substitution essentially had no antinociceptive effects in mice. Conclusion: Comparing meta- and para- bromo substitutions, there had been significant (P<0.01) difference in the antinociceptive response of both the bromo-substituted derivatives. It was observed that bromo-substitution at meta- position demonstrated comparatively higher potential for its antibacterial as well as antinociceptive properties. PMID:21475470

  5. Ozone correlates with antibacterial effects from indirect air dielectric barrier discharge treatment of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J.; Chang, Hung-Wen; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Clark, Douglas S.; Graves, David B.

    2013-04-01

    Ambient-condition air plasma produced by indirect dielectric barrier discharges can rapidly disinfect aqueous solutions contaminated with bacteria and other microorganisms. In this study, we measured key chemical species in plasma-treated aqueous solutions and the associated antimicrobial effect for varying discharge power densities, exposure times, and buffer components in the aqueous medium. The aqueous chemistry corresponded to air plasma chemistry, and we observed a transition in composition from ozone mode to nitrogen oxides mode as the discharge power density increased. The inactivation of E. coli correlates well with the aqueous-phase ozone concentration, suggesting that ozone is the dominant species for bacterial inactivation under these conditions. Published values of ozone-water antibacterial inactivation kinetics as a function of the product of ozone concentration and contact time are consistent with our results. In contrast to earlier studies of plasma-treated water disinfection, ozone-dependent bacterial inactivation does not require acidification of the aqueous medium and the bacterial inactivation rates are far higher. Furthermore, we show that the antimicrobial effect depends strongly on gas-liquid mixing following plasma treatment, apparently because of the low solubility of ozone and the slow rate of mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid. Without thorough mixing of the ozone-containing gas and bacteria-laden water, the antimicrobial effect will not be observed. However, it should be recognized that the complexity of atmospheric pressure plasma devices, and their sensitivity to subtle differences in design and operation, can lead to different results with different mechanisms.

  6. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  7. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties.

  8. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties. PMID:27612770

  9. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hong, E-mail: hxu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Mao Zhiping, E-mail: zhpmao@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  10. The Effect of Ag Content of the Chitosan-Silver Nanoparticle Composite Material on the Structure and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Akmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the antibacterial properties and characterization of chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite materials. Chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite material was synthesized by adding AgNO3 and NaOH solutions to chitosan solution at 95°C. Different concentrations (0,02 M, 0,04 M, and 0,06 M of AgNO3 were used for synthesis. Chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite materials were characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet (UV spectrophotometer, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer techniques. Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were used to test the bactericidal efficiency of synthesized chitosan-Ag nanoparticle composite materials. The biological activity was determined by the minimum bacterial concentration (MBC of the materials. Antibacterial effect of chitosan-silver nanoparticle materials was increased by increasing Ag amount of the composite materials. The presence of small amount of metal nanoparticles in the composite was enough to significantly enhance antibacterial activity as compared with pure chitosan.

  11. Effect of zinc oxide amounts on the properties and antibacterial activities of zeolite/zinc oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Abdullah A; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Saleh, Tawfik A; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2016-11-01

    Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266. PMID:27524047

  12. MAIN FACTORS IN PREPARATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL PARTICLES/PVC COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua Chen; Chunzhong Li; Ling Zhang; Shoufang Xu; Qiuling Zhou; Yihua Zhu; Xianzhang Qu

    2004-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate containing silver was chosen as antibacterial particles in preparing antibacterial particles/PVC composite. The effect of surface property of the antibacterial particles and of their filler content on the properties of antibacterial particles/PVC composite was studied. The effect of the interfacial compatibility on mechanical properties of the composite was also discussed. Experimental results showed that the antibacterial PVC composite had good antibacterial property, reaching almost 100% bacteriostatic level at an antibacterial powder filler content of 1.5 phr.

  13. Radiographic, antibacterial and bond-strength effects of radiopaque caries tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umwali, Aurore; Askar, Haitham; Paris, Sebastian; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Selectively excavated carious lesions remain radiographically detectable. Radiopaque tagging could resolve the resulting diagnostic uncertainty. We aimed to evaluate if tagging depends on lesions depths, is antibacterial, or affects dentin bond-strengths. Artificial lesions (depth-range: 152-682 μm, n = 34/group) were induced in human dentin samples, evaluated using wavelength-independent microradiography, treated with one of two tagging materials (70% SnCl2, 30% SnF2) and re-evaluated. To evaluate antimicrobial effects, 40 dentin samples were submitted to a Lactobacillus rhamnosus invasion-model. Infected samples were treated with placebo, 0.2% chlorhexidine, SnCl2, SnF2 (n = 10/group). Dentin was sampled and colony-forming units/mg determined. Micro-tensile bond-strengths of adhesive restorations (OptiBond FL, Filtek Z250) to tagged or untagged, sound and carious dentin were assessed (n = 12/group). Tagged surfaces were evaluated microscopically and via energy-dispersive X-ray-spectroscopy (EDS). Tagging effects of both materials decreased with increasing lesion depths (p bacteria (median 7.3/3.7 × 10(5) CFU/mg) than tagged dentin (no CFU detectable, p sound (-22%/-33% for SnCl2/SnF2) and carious dentin (-50%/-54%). This might be due to widespread tin chloride or fluoride precipitation, as detected via microscopy and EDS. While radiopaque tagging seems beneficial, an optimized application protocol needs to be developed prior clinical use. PMID:27251174

  14. The antibacterial effects of engineered nanomaterials: implications for wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musee, Ndeke; Thwala, Melusi; Nota, Nomakhwezi

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology is currently at the forefront of scientific research and technological developments that have resulted in the manufacture of novel consumer products and numerous industrial applications using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). With the increasing number of applications and uses of ENMs comes an increasing likelihood of nanoscale materials posing potential risks to the environment and engineered technical systems such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Recent scientific data suggests that ENMs that are useful in, for example, medical applications due to their novel physicochemical properties, may also cause adverse effects to the bacterial populations used in wastewater treatment systems. In this review, the toxicological effects of titanium nanoparticles (nTiO(2)), zinc oxide (nZnO), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes (C(60)) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to bacteria were examined. The results suggest that the potential ENMs risks to bacteria are non-uniform (need to be assessed case-by-case), and are dependent on numerous factors (e.g. size, pH, surface area, natural organic matter). Currently available data are therefore insufficient for evaluating the risks that ENMs pose in WWTPs. To fill these knowledge gaps, we recommend scenario specific studies aimed at improving our understanding on: (i) estimated volumes of ENMs in effluents, (ii) the antibacterial sensitivity of cultures within WWTPs towards selected ENMs, and (iii) processes improving the stability of ENMs in solutions. Two factors that merit consideration for elucidating the potential risks systematically are the toxicity mechanisms of ENMs to bacteria, and the influencing factors based on inherent physicochemical properties and environmental factors. Furthermore, the complexity of behaviour and fate of ENMs in real WWTPs requires case studies for assessing the ENMs risks to bacteria in vivo. The current laboratory results derived using simplified exposure media do not reflect

  15. Antibacterial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa essential oil coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Shanthi, Sathappan; Jaishabanu, Ameeramja; Ekambaram, Perumal; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using essential oil of Nigella sativa (NsEO-AuNPs). The synthesized NsEO-AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-vis spectra of NsEO-AuNPs showed strong absorption peak at 540 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed crystalline nature of nanoparticle with distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 311 planes) of NsEO-AuNPs. The FTIR spectra recorded peaks at 3388, 2842, 1685, 1607, 1391 and 1018 cm(-1). TEM studies showed the spherical shape of nanoparticles and the particle size ranges between 15.6 and 28.4 nm. The antibacterial activity of NsEO-AuNPs was greater against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 9542 (16 mm) than Gram negative Vibrio harveyi MTCC 7771 (5 mm) at the concentration of 10 μg ml(-1). NsEO-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm formation of S. aureus and V. harveyi by decreasing the hydrophobicity index (78% and 46% respectively). The in-vitro anti-lung cancer activity confirmed by MTT assay on the cell line of A549 carcinoma cells showed IC50 values of bulk Au at 87.2 μg ml(-1), N. sativa essential oil at 64.15 μg ml(-1) and NsEO-AuNPs at 28.37 μg ml(-1). The IC50 value showed that NsEO-AuNPs was highly effective in inhibiting the A549 lung cancer cells compared to bulk Au and N. sativa essential oil. PMID:26703114

  16. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  17. Assessment of antibacterial effect of cinnamon on growth of porphyromons gingivalis from chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amoian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims : Antibiotics are commonly used for controlling the growth of porphyromons gingivalis (P.g which is one of the most important etiologic factors in the periodontal diseases. Different side effects of synthetics and chemical drugs such as increasing the drug resistancy in the human pathogens have led to study on the herbal antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of cinnamon on the growth of porphyromons gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, samples were provided from patients having pockets. After culturing the microorganism and diagnosis of P.g by gram staining and biochemical tests, cinnamon in different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1500 mg/ml with oil solvent were prepared and placed by disks in the cultures medium. Positive controls were amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamycin . Oil was negative control. Then the plates were incubated for 24 hours in 37 0 C and then non-growth halos by disk diffusion method, MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration were determined. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA test.   Results: The results showed that the cinnamon at the concentration of MIC=750 mg/ml had the inhibitory effects of bacteria and at the concentration of MIC=1500 mg/ml had killing effect. However, this antibacterial effect compared with commonly used antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, was much weaker (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Cinnamon showed an antimicrobial effect on porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets.

  18. Evaluation of anti-bacterial effects of some novel thiazole and imidazole derivatives against some pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has motivated the researchers to evaluate the novel anti-bac- terial compounds such as some thiazole and imidazole derivatives. Thereby, in this work, we investigated the anti-bacterial effects of one new thiazole and two new imidazole derivatives on Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella dysenteriae.Materials and Methods: The thiazole and imidazole derivatives were dissolved in DMSO. The disk diffusion method was utilized to measure the growth inhibition zone diameter values, and the broth micro-dilution method was applied to deter- mine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values.Results: The synthesized imidazole derivatives lacked any inhibitory effect against the tested bacteria. On the other hand, although the synthesized thiazole derivative showed no inhibitory effect against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli, it inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae, and Listeria monocytogenes with the MIC values of 1000, 125, and 1000 µg/ml, respectively, and the growth inhibition zone diameter values of 9.3 ± 0.1, 15.6 ± 0.2, and 8.1 ± 0.0 mm, respectively.Conclusion: The anti-bacterial effect of the synthesized thiazole derivative on Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus mirabilis and Listeria monocytogenes was proven. However, its inhibition effect against Shigella dysenteriae was more than that against the others. Many in-vitro and in-vivo experiments are required to evaluate the effects of this compound on the bacteria and the human body. Keywords: Anti-bacterial effects, Thiazole, Imidazole

  19. Anti-bacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T

    2011-01-01

    We discuss about the antibacterial activities of Silver nanoparticles and compare them on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in this investigation. The activities of Silver nanoparticles synthesized by electrolysis method are more in Gram (-) than Gram (+) bacteria. First time, we increase its antibacterial activities by using electrical power while on electrolysis synthesis and it is confirmed from its more antibacterial activities (For Escherichia coli bacteria). We investigate the changes of inner unit cell Lattice constant of Silver nanoparticles prepared in two different methods and its effects on antibacterial activities. We note that slight change of the lattice constant results in the enhancement of its antibacterial activities.

  20. Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Kang Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the antibacterial properties, but they are known to damage biofilm. The occurrence of nanoparticles can also improve the antibacterial properties of biomaterials through various methods. In this study, we used Escherichia coli and analyzed the microstructures of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 430 stainless steel with a 0.18 mass % N alloy element. During a lower temperature aging, the microstructure of the as-quenched specimen is essentially a ferrite and martensite duplex matrix with some Cr2N precipitates formed. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of the alloy for E. coli ranged from 3% to 60%, consistent with the presence of Cr2N precipitates. When aged at a lower temperature, which resulted in nano-Cr2N precipitation, the specimen possessed the highest antibacterial activity.

  1. Synthesis of Nucleoside Triphosphates from 2'-3'-Protected Nucleosides Using Trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamady, Samy; Taylor, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    Chemists have been attempting to triphosphorylate nucleosides and other alcohols using trimetaphosphate (TriMP) since the 1960s. However, this route appears to have been abandoned due to poor yields. The first practical syntheses of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are reported using TriMP as the key reagent. This was achieved by reacting the tetrabutylammonium salt of TriMP with mesitylenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of DABCO in pyridine followed by the addition of an appropriately protected nucleoside and phthalimide. Quenching the reaction with aqueous buffer followed by hydrolysis of the OH protecting groups gave the NTPs in good yield. PMID:26759914

  2. [Bactericid and fungicid polymers in dentistry. Polyethyleneimine, a new effective antibacterial and antifungal cationic polymer and its dental application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géczi, Zoltán; Kispélyi, Barbara; Pál, Károly; Hermann, Péter

    2016-06-01

    In the past years antibacterial and antifungal polymers had become the focus of medical research. Polyethylenimine (PEI) and poliamidoamin had been proven the most effective polymers. The data shown in this short review discuss the chemical structure, pharmacological effects and medical use of PEI. Report in the international literature only gives examples of experimental dental appliance of PEI in sealers and filling materials. Because of the growing interest in the subject of PEI we find it important to inform the domestic dental society of cationic polymers.

  3. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante. The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, the cost effectiveness was computed. Treatments were designated as follows: Treatment 1- plants sprayed with active ingredient (a.i. cartap hydrochloride; Treatment 2 - plants sprayed with a.i. indoxacarb; Treatment 3- plants sprayed with a.i. chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam; Treatment 4 - plants sprayed with a.i. dinotefuran (positive control; and Treatment 5 - no insecticide applied. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. The first three systemic insecticides with such active ingredient were not yet registered for tomato plant. Statistical analyses show that there were no significant differences among the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant for each treatment. Results showed that treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 extracts have 49.74, 44.16, 48.19, 52.57 and 50.60 μg/g of total carotenoids (TC, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that there no significant differences in the TC content of each treatment. The antibacterial activity of each plant sample showed no significant differences among treatments. Thin layer chromatographic analysis revealed that there were equal numbers of spots for all the plant samples.The study concluded that systemic insecticide with a.i. cartap hydrochloride be introduced to the farmers as insecticide for tomato plant since it shows comparable effect with the registered insecticide (T4 based on the morphological

  4. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S.; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations. PMID:26594206

  5. Apoplastic Nucleoside Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Photosynthetic Performance and Increased Susceptibility Against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumann, Manuel; Fischer, Marietta; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Girke, Christopher; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accompanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility toward Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed.

  6. Apoplastic nucleoside accumulation in Arabidopsis leads to reduced photosynthetic performance and increased susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eDaumann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accpmpanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility towards Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed.

  7. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  8. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadda eLAALLAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components.Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins and its physicochemical characteristics.Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four pathogenic bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM.Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38±0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5±550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey electrical conductivity. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1±4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive with 3.9±5.4 mm. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5±4.7 mm.Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations.Keywords: Honey characterization; antibacterial effects

  9. Antibacterial effect and cytotoxic effect of supercritical extraction of thyme and thyme extract obtained through hydrodistillation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Dušan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of antibacterial effect of supercritical extraction of thyme (TNKE and thyme extract obtained by hydrodistillation (THD covered 18 bacteria strains from the genuses Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus, including the strains MRSA, the strains VRE, as well as the reference strains S.pyogenes ATCC 19615, S. agalactiae ATCC 27959, S. aureus ATCC 11632, and S.aureus ATCC 25923. The anibacterial effect of thyme extracts was examined using the microdillution method in bouillon, and the cytotoxic effect of thyme extract was examined on the VERO cell line. The obtained values for MIC THD extract ranged from 160μg/mL to 1280μg/mL for all bacteria strains covered by the investigations. The obtained values for MIC TNKE extract were 1280 μg/mL to 2560 μg/mL for all examined strains except for 1 strain of S. intermedius of 320 μg/mL. The examined extracts revealed a cytotoxic effect on the VERO cell line in concentrations higher than 40 μg/mL.

  10. In vitro antileishmanial effects of antibacterial diterpenes from two Ethiopian Premna species: P. schimperi and P. oligotricha

    OpenAIRE

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2003-01-01

    Background Three antibacterial diterpenes: (5R,8R,9S,10R)-12-oxo-ent-3,13(16)-clerodien-15-oic acid (1), 16-hydroxy-clerod-3,13(14)-diene-15,16-olide (2) and ent-12-oxolabda-8,13(16)-dien-15-oic acid (3) were previously isolated form Premna schimperi and P. oligotricha. Since andrographolide and other structurally related diterpenes were shown to have antileishmanial activity, the aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro effect of premna diterpenes against Leishmania aethiopica; th...

  11. A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study designed to test the antibacterial potency of enrofloxacin (ENR and essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO and Trachyspermum copticum (TEO on Aeromonas hydrophila. Material and Methods: The antibacterial potency of test compounds was determined by several methods including the inhibition zone diameter determination, microbroth dilution method and colorimetric method of MTT. The cytotoxicity of test substances was assessed on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryo (CHSE-214 cells. Results: Results showed that ENR and tested essential oils exert antibacterial effect against A. hydrophila. Moreover, ENR exerted the most potent antibacterial effect with MIC values of 62.5 ng/ml. The natural compounds of ZEO and TEO also showed antibacterial effects with rather high MIC values of 0.315 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. None of the tested substances showed toxicity on CHSE-24 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.

  12. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Luděk; Valdés, James J.; Gil, Victor A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, Jiří; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of human neuroinfections in Europe and Northeast Asia. There are no antiviral therapies for treating TBEV infection. A series of nucleoside analogues was tested for the ability to inhibit the replication of TBEV in porcine kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells. The interactions of three nucleoside analogues with viral polymerase were simulated using advanced computational methods. The nucleoside analogues 7-deaza-2′-C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2′-CMA), 2′-C-methyladenosine (2′-CMA), and 2′-C-methylcytidine (2′-CMC) inhibited TBEV replication. These compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of TBEV-induced cytopathic effects, TBEV replication (50% effective concentrations [EC50]of 5.1 ± 0.4 μM for 7-deaza-2′-CMA, 7.1 ± 1.2 μM for 2′-CMA, and 14.2 ± 1.9 μM for 2′-CMC) and viral antigen production. Notably, 2′-CMC was relatively cytotoxic to porcine kidney cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] of ∼50 μM). The anti-TBEV effect of 2′-CMA in cell culture diminished gradually after day 3 posttreatment. 7-Deaza-2′-CMA showed no detectable cellular toxicity (CC50 > 50 μM), and the antiviral effect in culture was stable for >6 days posttreatment. Computational molecular analyses revealed that compared to the other two compounds, 7-deaza-2′-CMA formed a large cluster near the active site of the TBEV polymerase. High antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity suggest that 7-deaza-2′-CMA is a promising candidate for further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating TBEV infection. PMID:26124166

  13. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIBACTERIAL TREATED COTTON FABRICS AND EFFECT OF LAUNDRY CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    PALAMUTCU Sema; KESKIN Reyhan; SENGUL Mustafa; DEVRENT Nalan; Ikiz, Yuksel; HASCELIK Baris

    2014-01-01

    During daily usage of textiles, humidity and warmth conditions provide appropriate living conditions for bacteria and microorganisms in textile products. Bacteria growth, infection and cross infection by pathogens might develop due to usage of textile products. Especially since World War II, antibacterial textile products have developed as a result of the hygiene demand of the society. In this study, triclosan (sample A), quaternary ammonium plus triclosan (sample B), dichlorophenol (sample C...

  14. Effect of various capping agents on photocatalytic, antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhil, K; Jayakumar, J; Gayathri, G; Khan, S Sudheer

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are extensively used in a wide variety of commercial products including sunscreens, textiles and paints It is a known fact that ZnO NPs are not stable when dispersed in water, therefore manufacturers use several surface modifying agents to increase the stability of ZnO NPs. In the present study, ZnO NPs were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation with and without the use of surface modifying agents including ethylene glycol (EG), gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Preliminary characterization was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the particles were hexagonal in shape. The hydrodynamic size distribution was analyzed by using dynamic light scattering method and crystalline nature was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The study evaluated the photocatalytic, antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the particles with and without the addition of surface modifying agents. The capping of the particle was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was checked against methylene blue. Capping of the particles reduced the photocatalytic activity of the particles. The antibacterial and antibiofilm activities were checked against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688). Antibacterial activity was analyzed by simple plate count method both under dark as well as light condition. Antibiofilm activity was checked in both pre- and post-biofilm formation period under both dark as well as light condition. The activity was evaluated via crystal violet staining method. All the particles showed good antibacterial and antibiofilm activities. PMID:27088507

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial effect of new magnetically core-shell nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafchian, Alireza; Bahramian, Hamid; Hossein Jalali, Seyed Amir; Ahmadvand, Hossein

    2015-11-01

    A new magnetically responsive three-component nanocomposite consisting of NiFe2O4, Poly Acrylonitrile Co Maleic Anhydride (PAMA) and nanosilver was synthesized and characterized and then its antibacterial activities were tested. For the preparation of NiFe2O4@Ag, NiFe2O4 was coated by Ag and for the synthesis of NiFe2O4@PAMA@Ag, NiFe2O4 was first covered by PAMA and then silver nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of the PAMA shell. The nanocomposites were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The antibacterial activity of the synthesized nanocomposite against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria was studied and compared with that of naked NiFe2O4, NiFe2O4@Ag and NiFe2O4@PAMA. The NiFe2O4@PAMA@Ag had better antibacterial activity and could be readily isolated from the aqueous solution via magnetic decantation, thereby avoiding the contamination of the environment.

  16. Antibacterial effects of medicinal plant extracts against Lactococcus garvieae, the etiological agent of rainbow trout lactococcosis

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    Mohammad Saeid Fereidouni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight medicinal plants were assessed for antimicrobial activity against Lactococcus garvieae isolate obtained from diseased Oncorhynchus mykiss collected from rainbow trout fish farms in Iran. Lactococcus garvieae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems. The antibacterial activity of the medicinal plants against L. garvieae was evaluated using disc diffusion, well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Results showed that the extracts and essential oils had a relatively high antibacterial activity against L. garvieae. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those from the methanol extract of Peganum harmala, the essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica, the ethanol extract of Juglans regia and Trachyspermum copticum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 105, 126, 510 and 453 μg/ml, respectively. Conversly, some of the extracts such as Quercus branti Lindley and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. had lower activity against L. garvieae with MIC values of 978 and 920 μg/ml respectively. Plant extracts as natural and environment- friendly compounds can be an important source of antibacterial agents against L. garvieae. They may be used for disinfection of instruments and rainbow trout raceways or treatment of the fish.

  17. Binding Strength of Nucleobases and Nucleosides on Silver Nanoparticles Probed by a Colorimetric Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Because of their unique and tunable properties, oligonucleotide-functionalized noble metal nanoparticles have provided a versatile platform for various engineering and biomedical applications. The vast majority of such applications were demonstrated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) while only a few were demonstrated with sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This is largely due to the lack of robust protocols to functionalize AgNPs with thiol-modified oligonucleotides. Previous studies have revealed strong interactions between nucleobases and AgNPs. This could enable an alternative way to functionalize AgNPs with non-thiolated oligonucleotides. However, there is no quantitative study on the interaction strengths between AgNPs and oligonucleotides. Several methods have been used for quantitative evaluation of the interaction strengths between AuNPs and oligonucleotides. These methods often require specialized equipment that might not be widely accessible or rely on labor-intensive procedures to obtain the adsorption isotherms. Herein, we developed a colorimetric method, as a simple and high-throughput alternative of existing methods, to quantify the binding strength between AgNPs and nucleobases/nucleosides. In this colorimetric method, concentration-dependent destabilizing effects of nucleobase/nucleoside adsorption on AgNPs are utilized to indirectly quantify the amount of nucleobases/nucleosides adsorbed on AgNPs, thus deriving the binding strength between AgNPs and nucleobases/nucleosides. First, the concentration-dependent AgNP aggregation kinetics in the presence of nucleobases/nucleosides were systematically investigated. Then, this colorimetric method was used to determine the binding strengths between AgNPs and various DNA/RNA nucleobases/nucleosides. It was found that the ranking of interaction strengths between AgNPs and DNA/RNA nucleosides (dC < dT < dA, rC < rU < rA) is generally agreed with that between AgNPs and corresponding nucleobases (C < T < U < A). This

  18. Antibacterial effects of silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films sputter deposited on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Nathan A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1374 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1376 (United States); Oldinski, Rachael A. [College of Engineering and Mathematical Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States); Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D. [Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States); Williams, John D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1374 (United States); Popat, Ketul C., E-mail: Ketul.Popat@colostate.edu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1374 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1376 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since many orthopedic implants fail as a result of loosening, wear, and inflammation caused by repeated loading on the joints, coatings such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) on titanium with a unique topography have been shown to improve the interface between the implant and the natural tissue. Another serious problem with long-term or ideally permanent implants is infection. It is important to prevent initial bacterial colonization as existing colonies have the potential to become encased in an extracellular matrix polymer (biofilm) that is resistant to antibacterial agents. In this study, plasma-based ion implantation was used to examine the effects of pre-etching on plain titanium. Topographical changes to the titanium samples were examined and compared via scanning electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films were then sputter deposited on titanium substrates etched at - 700 eV. For silver-doped films, two concentrations of silver ({approx} 0.5 wt.% and {approx} 1.5 wt.%) were used. Silver concentrations in the film were determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Hydroxyapatite film thicknesses were determined by measuring the surface profile using contact profilometry. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion studies were performed on plain titanium, titanium coated with hydroxyapatite, titanium coated with {approx} 0.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium coated with {approx} 1.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite. Results indicate that less bacteria adhered to surfaces containing hydroxyapatite and silver; further, as the hydroxyapatite films delaminated, silver ions were released which killed bacteria in suspension. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have developed a combination of plasma-based ion implantation and ion beam sputter deposition technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  19. Acute Toxicity Evaluation, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melastoma malabathricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum (MM is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC, and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia. The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC50 values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g, flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g, with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones. Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC viability was increased in response to MM, IC50 values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses.

  20. Effects of an antibacterial membrane on osteoblast-like cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Ye1, Qianqian Yao1, Anchun Mo2, Jing Nie2, Wenwen Liu1, Cui Ye1, Xianji Chen11State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, 2Department of Oral Implant, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Infection around membranes is often found in guided bone regeneration (GBR. The excellent antibacterial properties of Ag-nHA-nTiO2/polyamide-66 (PA66 nanocomposite membranes have been demonstrated previously. The aim of this study was to observe the microstructure of an Ag-nHA-nTiO2/PA66 membrane and its effects on osteoblast-like cells in vitro. An Ag-nHA-nTiO2/PA66 membrane was used in the experimental group, and both nHA/PA66 and expanded poly tetrafluroethylene (e-PTFE membranes were set as control. MG63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the three kinds of membrane and tissue culture polystyrene (TCP. The microstructure of the above membranes and the cells adhered on them were detected by scanning electronic microscope (SEM. Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, cell viability with a cell viability analyzer, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and Ca2+ concentration of osteoblast-like cell matrix by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SEM showed that both Ag-nHA-nTiO2/PA66 membranes and nHA/PA66 membranes were composed of porous obverse face and smooth opposite face. The e-PTFE membranes showed elliptic surface structure with many tiny lined cracks. The MG63 cells adhered and proliferated well on all three kinds of membranes. Though cell viability on Ag-nHA-nTiO2/PA66 membranes was significantly lower than that of the control groups (P < 0.05, MTT values, ALP activity, and Ca2+ concentration did not differ significantly among the three kinds of membranes (P > 0.05. From these findings, it can be concluded that Ag-nHA-nTiO2/PA66 membranes are as biocompatible as nHA/PA66 membranes and TCP, thus may be applied safely in

  1. Effect of Relative Arrangement of Cationic and Lipophilic Moieties on Hemolytic and Antibacterial Activities of PEGylated Polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Ashish; Lee, Kevin; He, Edward; Mukherjee, Sumit; Mancuso, Andrew; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amphiphilic polymers have been established as potentially efficient agents to combat widespread deadly infections involving antibiotic resistant superbugs. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains into amphiphilic copolymers can reduce their hemolytic activity while maintaining high antibacterial activity. Our study found that the incorporation of PEG has substantially different effects on the hemolytic and antibacterial activities of copolymers depending on structural variations in the positions of cationic centers relative to hydrophobic groups. The PEG side chains dramatically reduced the hemolytic activities in copolymers with hydrophobic hexyl and cationic groups on the same repeating unit. However, in case of terpolymers with cationic and lipophilic groups placed on separate repeating units, the presence of PEG has significantly lower effect on hemolytic activities of these copolymers. PEGylated terpolymers displayed substantially lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than Escherichia coli (E. coli) suggesting the deterring effect of S. aureus' peptidoglycan cell wall against the penetration of PEGylated polymers. Time-kill studies confirmed the bactericidal activity of these copolymers and a 5 log reduction in E. coli colony forming units was observed within 2 h of polymer treatment. PMID:26473831

  2. Effect of Relative Arrangement of Cationic and Lipophilic Moieties on Hemolytic and Antibacterial Activities of PEGylated Polyacrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Punia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic amphiphilic polymers have been established as potentially efficient agents to combat widespread deadly infections involving antibiotic resistant superbugs. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol (PEG side chains into amphiphilic copolymers can reduce their hemolytic activity while maintaining high antibacterial activity. Our study found that the incorporation of PEG has substantially different effects on the hemolytic and antibacterial activities of copolymers depending on structural variations in the positions of cationic centers relative to hydrophobic groups. The PEG side chains dramatically reduced the hemolytic activities in copolymers with hydrophobic hexyl and cationic groups on the same repeating unit. However, in case of terpolymers with cationic and lipophilic groups placed on separate repeating units, the presence of PEG has significantly lower effect on hemolytic activities of these copolymers. PEGylated terpolymers displayed substantially lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus than Escherichia coli (E. coli suggesting the deterring effect of S. aureus’ peptidoglycan cell wall against the penetration of PEGylated polymers. Time-kill studies confirmed the bactericidal activity of these copolymers and a 5 log reduction in E. coli colony forming units was observed within 2 h of polymer treatment.

  3. Incorporation of oxygen-18 into nucleosides and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzo, G; Schram, K H; McCloskey, J A

    1977-06-01

    Extensive incorporation of oxygen-18 at position O4 of the pyrimidine nucleus results from exchange between H218O and nucleosides or bases in 1N HC1 at 100 degrees. The reaction is hindered by substitution at C-5 with the greatest effect shown in pseudouridine (R = ribosy1) and the least in uridine (R = H). Maximum incorporation in the latter compound was 94%, and in uricil was 98%. The method is experimentally simple and the incorporation is readily monitored by mass spectrometry. PMID:896486

  4. Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fankam Aimé G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR phenotypes is a major public health problem today in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of eleven Cameroonian spices on a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including MDR strains. Methods The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out by standard tests meanwhile the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays. Results Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and tannins in all plants extracts. The results of the antibacterial assays indicated that all tested extracts exert antibacterial activities, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values varying from 32 to 1024 μg/ml. The extracts from Dichrostachys glomerata, Beilschmiedia cinnamomea, Aframomum citratum, Piper capense, Echinops giganteus, Fagara xanthoxyloïdes and Olax subscorpioïdea were the most active. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor, PAßN, the activity of the extract from D. glomerata significantly increased on 69.2% of the tested MDR bacteria. At MIC/5, synergistic effects were noted with the extract of D. glomerata on 75% of the tested bacteria for chloramphenicol (CHL, tetracycline (TET and norfloxacin (NOR. With B. cinnamomea synergy were observed on 62.5% of the studied MDR bacteria with CHL, cefepime (FEP, NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP and 75% with erythromycin (ERY. Conclusion The overall results provide information for the possible use of the studied extracts of the spices in the control of bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes.

  5. Effect of pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide with or without the inclusion of an antibacterial agent on nursery pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G M; Mahan, D C; Carter, S D; Cromwell, G L; Ewan, R C; Harrold, R L; Lewis, A J; Miller, P S; Shurson, G C; Veum, T L

    2001-04-01

    A study involving nine research stations from the NCR-42 Swine Nutrition Committee used a total of 1,978 crossbred pigs to evaluate the effects of dietary ZnO concentrations with or without an antibacterial agent on postweaning pig performance. In Exp. 1, seven stations (IA, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, and OH) evaluated the efficacy of ZnO when fed to nursery pigs at 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 mg Zn/kg for a 28-d postweaning period. A randomized complete block experiment was conducted in 24 replicates using a total of 1,060 pigs. Pigs were bled at the 28-d period and plasma was analyzed for Zn and Cu. Because two stations weaned pigs at 20 d (18 replicates) of age, the two sets of data were analyzed separately. The early-weaned pig group had greater (P weaned pigs also had increased (P pig groups seemed to reach a plateau at 2,000 mg Zn/kg. Plasma Zn concentrations quadratically increased (P 1,000 mg Zn/kg. Experiment 2 was conducted at seven stations (KY, MI, MO, NE, ND, OH, and OK) and evaluated the efficacy of an antibacterial agent (carbadox) in combination with added ZnO. The experiment was a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design conducted in a total of 20 replicates. Carbadox was added at 0 or 55 mg/kg diet, and ZnO was added at 0, 1,500, or 3,000 mg Zn/ kg. A total of 918 pigs were weaned at an average 19.7 d of age. For the 28-d postweaning period, gains (P pig performance, and its combination with an antibacterial agent resulted in additional performance improvements. PMID:11325200

  6. Antibacterial and anti-adhesion effects of the silver nanoparticles-loaded poly(L-lactide) fibrous membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shen [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhao, Jingwen [Orthopedic Institute, Soochow University, 708 Renmin Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215007 (China); School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ruan, Hongjiang; Wang, Wei [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wu, Tianyi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 2nd Affiliated hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Medical University, 121 Jiang Jia Yuan, Nanjing 210011 (China); Cui, Wenguo, E-mail: wgcui80@hotmail.com [Orthopedic Institute, Soochow University, 708 Renmin Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215007 (China); School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Fan, Cunyi, E-mail: fancunyi888@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2013-04-01

    The complications of tendon injury are frequently compromised by peritendinous adhesions and tendon sheath infection. Physical barriers for anti-adhesion may increase the incidence of postoperative infection. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) electrospun fibrous membranes to prevent adhesion formation and infection. Results of an in vitro drug release study showed that a burst release was followed by sustained release from electrospun fibrous membranes with a high initial silver content. Fewer fibroblasts adhered to and proliferated on the AgNP-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes compared with pure PLLA electrospun fibrous membrane. In the antibacterial test, the AgNP-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes can prevent the adhesion of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AgNP-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes have the convenient practical medical potential of reduction of infection and adhesion formation after tendon injury. - Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are directly electrospun into PLLA fibrous membrane. ► Long-lasting release of Ag + ions is achieved. ► Cytotoxicity of silver ions benefits the anti-proliferation of physical barriers. ► Broad anti-microbial effect of drug-loaded fibrous membrane is revealed. ► Antibacterial and anti-adhesion effects of the physical barriers are combined.

  7. Antibacterial and anti-adhesion effects of the silver nanoparticles-loaded poly(L-lactide) fibrous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complications of tendon injury are frequently compromised by peritendinous adhesions and tendon sheath infection. Physical barriers for anti-adhesion may increase the incidence of postoperative infection. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) electrospun fibrous membranes to prevent adhesion formation and infection. Results of an in vitro drug release study showed that a burst release was followed by sustained release from electrospun fibrous membranes with a high initial silver content. Fewer fibroblasts adhered to and proliferated on the AgNP-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes compared with pure PLLA electrospun fibrous membrane. In the antibacterial test, the AgNP-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes can prevent the adhesion of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AgNP-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes have the convenient practical medical potential of reduction of infection and adhesion formation after tendon injury. - Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are directly electrospun into PLLA fibrous membrane. ► Long-lasting release of Ag + ions is achieved. ► Cytotoxicity of silver ions benefits the anti-proliferation of physical barriers. ► Broad anti-microbial effect of drug-loaded fibrous membrane is revealed. ► Antibacterial and anti-adhesion effects of the physical barriers are combined

  8. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  9. The evaluation of antibacterial effect of a special kind of bio-mineral source organic and inorganic antibacterial ceramics%特殊生物矿物源双机抗菌陶瓷的除菌性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于维森; 崔瑛; 秦晓贝; 林治

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect of the special bio - mineral source organic and inorgan-ic antibacterial ceramics. Methods: Quantitative sterilization test, stability test and durability test were performed by using impregnation oscillatory method to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the special ceramics. Results: The average rates of 10 - minute sterilization with regard to the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida al-bicans were all 99. 99% ; The average rate of 10 - minute sterilization still remained 99. 99% after the special ce-ramics' incubation in a 54℃ incubator for 14 days; The 24 - hour sterilization rates of the special ceramics (after soaked in acid and alkaline medium for 3 hours and 90 days) with regard to Escherichia coli were 99. 99% and 99. 9% , respectively. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of the special bio - mineral source organic and inorganic antibacterial ceramics is quick, efficient, stable and durable.%目的:对特殊生物矿物源双机抗菌陶瓷的除菌性能进行评估.方法:采用浸渍振荡法进行定量除菌试验、稳定性试验和耐久性试验.结果:对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌以及白色念珠菌的10 min平均除菌率均为99.99%;在54℃恒温培养箱中存放14d后,10 min平均除菌率仍为99.99%;经酸性和碱性介质浸泡3h和90 d后,对大肠杆菌作用24 h的除菌率分别均为99.99%和99.9%.结论:特殊生物矿物源双机抗菌陶瓷具有快速、高效、稳定以及耐久的除菌性能.

  10. Binding of nucleotides to nucleoside diphosphate kinase: a calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, L; Lascu, I; Xu, Y; Gonin, P; Morr, M; Merouani, M; Janin, J; Giartosio, A

    2001-04-17

    The source of affinity for substrates of human nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases is particularly important in that its knowledge could be used to design more effective antiviral nucleoside drugs (e.g., AZT). We carried out a microcalorimetric study of the binding of enzymes from two organisms to various nucleotides. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been used to characterize the binding in terms of Delta G degrees, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees. Thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of ADP with the hexameric NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum and with the tetrameric enzyme from Myxococcus xanthus, at 20 degrees C, were similar and, in both cases, binding was enthalpy-driven. The interactions of ADP, 2'deoxyADP, GDP, and IDP with the eukaryotic enzyme differed in enthalpic and entropic terms, whereas the Delta G degrees values obtained were similar due to enthalpy--entropy compensation. The binding of the enzyme to nonphysiological nucleotides, such as AMP--PNP, 3'deoxyADP, and 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP, appears to differ in several respects. Crystallography of the protein bound to 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP showed that the drug was in a distorted position, and was unable to interact correctly with active site side chains. The interaction of pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates with the hexameric enzyme is characterized by a lower affinity than that with purine nucleotides. Titration showed the stoichiometry of the interaction to be abnormal, with 9--12 binding sites/hexamer. The presence of supplementary binding sites might have physiological implications. PMID:11294625

  11. Apoptosis induced by nucleosides in the human hepatoma HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suh-Ching Yang; Che-Lin Chiu; Chi-Chang Huang; Jiun-Rong Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effects of nucleosides on the human hepatoma HepG2.METHODS: The nucleosides included inosine (I), cytidine(C), uridine (U), thymidine (T), adenosine (A), and guanosine (G). Cells were incubated by the mediums with or without nucleosides at 37 ℃ in a 50 mL/L CO2 humidified atmosphere.RESULTS: It was found that the cell viabilities were significantly decreased, when cells were treated with 30 mmol/L I, 30 mmol/L C, 30 mmol/L U, 30 mmol/L T,0.5 mmol/L A, and 0.5 mmol/L G after 12 h incubation (P<0.05). About the apoptotic phenomenon, the cell percentages of sub-G1 cells were significantly increased in the mediums containing nucleosides such as C, U, T,A, and G (P<0.05). Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity was increased, when the cells were incubated with T(P<0.05). The protein expressions of p53 and p21 showed no difference in each group. To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by nucleosides, it was found that the contents of soluble Fas ligand contents were increased in HepG2 cells following I, U, T, and A treatment (P<0.05).But, TNF-α and cytochrome c were undetectable.CONCLUSION: Thymidine may induce the apoptosis in HepG2, but the effective dosages and reactive time must be investigated in the future study. However, the apoptosis-inducing abilities of other nucleosides were still unclear in this study.

  12. A murine model to study the antibacterial effect of copper on infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Riti; Chhibber, Sanjay; Reed, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of copper as an antibacterial agent on the infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mice were infected orally with a standardized dose of unstressed Salmonella Typhimurium and copper-stressed cells of Salmonella Typhimurium. Bacterial counts in ileum, blood, liver and spleen were observed up to 168 h under normal aerobic conditions. Serum sensitivity, phagocytosis, malondialdehyde levels and histopathology were studied for both set of animals. A decreased bacterial count in the organs with mild symptoms of infection and a complete recovery by 48 h was observed in mice infected with copper-stressed bacteria. Histopathological examination of ileum tissue demonstrated regeneration of damaged tissue post-infection with copper-stressed bacteria and no malondialdehyde levels were detected after 24 h in ileum, spleen and liver. Exposure to copper sensitized Salmonella Typhimurium to the lytic action of serum and intracellular killing by peritoneal macrophages. It can be concluded that copper stress confers a decrease in the infectivity of healthy Salmonella Typhimurium in normal mice. This study highlights the significance of use of copper as an antibacterial agent against Salmonella Typhimurium in reducing the risk of incidence of Salmonella infections from contaminated water.

  13. A Murine Model to Study the Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Infectivity of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Reed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of copper as an antibacterial agent on the infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mice were infected orally with a standardized dose of unstressed Salmonella Typhimurium and copper-stressed cells of Salmonella Typhimurium. Bacterial counts in ileum, blood, liver and spleen were observed up to 168 h under normal aerobic conditions. Serum sensitivity, phagocytosis, malondialdehyde levels and histopathology were studied for both set of animals. A decreased bacterial count in the organs with mild symptoms of infection and a complete recovery by 48 h was observed in mice infected with copper-stressed bacteria. Histopathological examination of ileum tissue demonstrated regeneration of damaged tissue post-infection with copper-stressed bacteria and no malondialdehyde levels were detected after 24 h in ileum, spleen and liver. Exposure to copper sensitized Salmonella Typhimurium to the lytic action of serum and intracellular killing by peritoneal macrophages. It can be concluded that copper stress confers a decrease in the infectivity of healthy Salmonella Typhimurium in normal mice. This study highlights the significance of use of copper as an antibacterial agent against Salmonella Typhimurium in reducing the risk of incidence of Salmonella infections from contaminated water.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF SENNA HIRSUTA MILL USING ANIMAL MODEL-MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial and biochemical activities of 50, 100 and 200mg.mL-1 concentrations of ethanol leaf extract of Senna hirsuta (hairy senna against seven human pathogenic bacteria species namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhi. The in-vitro bioassay revealed the leaf extracts of valuable antibacterial activity where zones of inhibition ranging from 12.1mm to 39.1mm were observed on the test bacteria species. Among the test bacteria, K. pneumoniae was the most inhibited and S. typhi the least inhibited. On mice infection with the bacteria species for three days, decrease in weight of mice was observed. The in-vivo therapeutic use of the extracts in mice infected with the bacteria pathogens resulted to weight gain of the mice and other physiological changes that indicated health improvement of the mice and was also of hepatoprotective potential. The in-vivo antioxidant assay exhibited satisfactory therapeutic effects where improvement in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP status of mice was observed on comparing results of the positive and negative controls.

  15. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  16. Effect of Zirconium Dioxide Nanoparticles as a Mordant on Properties of Wool with Thyme: Dyeing, Flammability and Antibacterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the zirconium dioxide nanoparticle was synthesized and the effect of these particles as a mordant on properties of wool fabric in dying process with a natural dye,also flammability and antibacterial properties were studied. The wool fabrics were treated with different concentrations of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles including 1, 3, 6 and 9% o.w.f. and the dyeing process was carried out on the fabrics in the states before, simultaneously and after mordanting with Thyme. The chemical characteristics and the changes induced by zirconium were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR.The influence of the amount of nano-ZrO2 and the type of mordanting treatment on dye absorbency were studied by reflectance spectrophotometer (RS. Flammability of samples was investigated by horizontal flammability test (HFT.The antibacterial properties were determined by reduction growth of a Gram-negative bacterium E. coli and a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The surfaces of untreated and treated fabrics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphological changes.

  17. A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we present a review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials, including proposed antibacterial mechanisms and possible toxicity to higher organisms. For purpose of this review, silver nanomaterials include silver nanoparticles, stabilized silver salts, silver-dendrimer, polymer and metal oxide composites, and silver-impregnated zeolite and activated carbon materials. While there is some evidence that silver nanoparticles can directly damage bacteria cell membranes, silver nanomaterials appear to exert bacteriocidal activity predominantly through release of silver ions followed (individually or in combination) by increased membrane permeability, loss of the proton motive force, inducing de-energization of the cells and efflux of phosphate, leakage of cellular content, and disruption DNA replication. Eukaryotic cells could be similarly impacted by most of these mechanisms and, indeed, a small but growing body of literature supports this concern. Most antimicrobial studies are performed in simple aquatic media or cell culture media without proper characterization of silver nanomaterial stability (aggregation, dissolution, and re-precipitation). Silver nanoparticle stability is governed by particle size, shape, and capping agents as well as solution pH, ionic strength, specific ions and ligands, and organic macromolecules-all of which influence silver nanoparticle stability and bioavailability. Although none of the studies reviewed definitively proved any immediate impacts to human health or the environment by a silver nanomaterial containing product, the entirety of the science reviewed suggests some caution and further research are warranted given the already widespread and rapidly growing use of silver nanomaterials.

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  19. [Current status and further prospects of dental resin-based materials with antibacterial properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Lu, H B; Mao, J; Gong, S Q

    2016-09-01

    The mode of dental antibacterial resin-based materials can be divided into two types, namely, single and combined antibacterial mode. With regard to single antibacterial mode, only one kind of antibacterial agent is added into the resin, which can be released or act as contacting antibacterial agent. The single mode resin has limitation in sterilization methods and effect. As for combined antibacterial mode, it is a combination of different types of biocides and thus maximizes the sterilizing effect, including the releasing antibacterial agent incorporated with the contacting antibacterial agent or antibacterial agents combined with calcium compound possessing biological mineralization function. In this paper, current status and further prospects of dental resin-based materials with antibacterial properties are reviewed from the perspectives of single and combined antibacterial modes to provide guidance for dental antibacterial resin material research.

  20. Study on Antibacterial Effect of Theaflavins%茶黄素抑菌作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金恩惠; 吴媛媛; 屠幼英

    2011-01-01

    通过体外试验研究茶黄素(纯度40%)对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、黑曲霉、变形链球菌和远缘链球菌的抑菌作用.采用牛津杯测定法及最低抑菌浓度(MIC)测定法研究茶黄素的抑菌作用及对变链菌产酸能力的影响.结果表明,茶黄素对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌有较强的抑菌作用,并与其浓度呈正相关,而对黑曲霉无抑菌作用;荼黄素能明显抑制口腔中主要的致龋菌变形链球菌和远缘链球菌的生长及产酸(P<0.05),提高菌液pH值,具有一定的防龋效果.荼黄素是一种天然抗菌剂,作为食品添加剂可以提高食品的安全、卫生.%The antibacterial effects of Theaflavins (purity 40%) on five major bacterium, namely Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger and Streptococcus mutan Ingbritt and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 were investigated in vitro. Antibacterial action of theaflavins and the effect of theaflavins on acid-producing capacity of strep-towccus mutaningbritt were studied by Oxford plate and MIC methods. Results indicated that the theaflavins had the potent inhibiting activity on Esckerichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with positive relationship, but it had no effect on Aspergillus niger. Theaflavins also had the inhibitory effect on the growth and acid production of Streptococcus mutan Ingbritt in mouth significantly (P<0.05), and had a certain decayed tooth proof effect. Theaflavin is a natural antibacterial agent. Using theaflavin as food additives, food safety and hygiene can be increased.

  1. Antibacterial and COX-1 Inhibitory Effect of Medicinal Plants from the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. Jeppesen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants used to treat inflammatory ailments, pain, fever and infections in the Pamir Mountains in northeastern Afghanistan, were tested for antibacterial and COX-1 inhibitory activity. Water and ethanol extracts of 20 species were tested for antibacterial activity against two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria. The ethanol extract of Arnebia guttata inhibited Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC of 6 µg/mL. Water and ethanol extracts of Ephedra intermedia and the ethanol extracts of Lagochilus cabulicus and Peganum harmala inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at 0.5 mg/mL, and the P. harmala extract further inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli, also with MICs of 0.5 mg/mL. Ethanol extracts of Artemisia persica (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL, Dragocephalum paulsenii (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL, Ephedra intermedia (IC50: 3.8 µg/mL, Hyoscyamus pusillus, Nepeta parmiriensis (IC50: 0.7 µg/mL and Rumex patientia subsp. pamiricus (IC50: 3.5 µg/mL exhibited COX-1 inhibitory activity. The observed in vitro activities support the use of some of the plant species in the traditional medicine systems of the Pamir Mountains.

  2. In vitro antibacterial effect of Withania somnifera root extract on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, an Indian traditional medicinal plant against Escherichia coli O78, a pathogenic strain. Materials and Methods: Two-fold serial dilutions of 20% aqueous W. somnifera root (WSR extract were inoculated with E. coli O78 @ 1x107 colony forming units grown in nutrient broth. Following inoculation, turbidity optical density was measured by spectrophotometer at 600 nm in all the tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Result: The results revealed that the maximum inhibition of bacterial growth was observed at 1:8 dilution of WSR extract. The highest dilution of the extract that showed inhibited growth of the test organism when compared with control was 1:16. Therefore, the minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous extract of WSR is 1:16. Conclusion: It is concluded that WSR possessed good antibacterial activity, confirming the great potential of bioactive compounds and its rationalizing use in health care.

  3. Synthesis of 1,4-Diazepine Nucleosides

    OpenAIRE

    M Zia-Ul-Haq; Hameed, Shahid

    2002-01-01

    The phenolic b-diketones I prepared by modified Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement were converted to the flavones II in acidic medium which on treatment with aqueous ethylenediamine/propylenediamine gave diazepine derivatives III. After coupling with acetobromo sugars in the presence of mercuric cyanide and nitromethane, deacetylation in methanolic ammonia yielded nucleosides V. The structures of all the intermediates and final products were confirmed with the help of modern spectrosc...

  4. THE ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (INULA VISCOSA, ANACYCLUS VALENTINUS AND THEIR SYNERGISTIC INTERACTION WITH ANTIBIOTIC DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Side Larbi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms, combining medicinal plants with synthetic medicines against resistant bacteria becomes necessary. In this study, Synergism between plant extracts (methanolic extract and essential oils of Inula viscosa and Anacyclus valentinus and two commonly used antibiotics (gentamycin, oxacillin were investigated on three bacterian strains (E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus. In the first time, the antibacterial effect of extracts alone was tested against 7 strains by disc diffusion and microdilution methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of methanolic extracts ranged between 6.25 and 50mg/ml while that of the essential oils varied between 12.5 and 100µL/mL. Interactions extracts /antibiotics and extracts/extracts by checkboard. The results show that the synergistic effect of combinations plant extracts/antibiotics was more important than extracts/extracts.

  5. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients : model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activ

  6. Investigating the Antibacterial Effects of Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Scientists are seeking an appropriate alternative method for curing infections caused by resistant bacteria, since drug resistance is continually increasing. Objectives This research aims to discover the function of some medicine plants on pestiferous Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in humans. Materials and Methods Bacterial strains were obtained from a standard laboratory. The strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 and E.coli ATCC25922 bacteria were used for antimicrobial testing of the extractions. Results Our results showed that Teucrium polium extracts have the minimum density of inhibitory for Escherichia coli, 25 ppm, whereas the maximum of this is for Peganum harmala and Prangos ferulaceae with 100 ppm. The lowest minimum concentration inhibitory value of extracts P. harmala, T. polium, T. pratensis and Rumex was found in 25 ppm against P.aeruginosa. Conclusions The results of our study showed that plant extracts have good antibacterial properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

  7. Antibacterial effect of silver modified TiO2/PECVD films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájková, P.; Patenka, P. Å.; Krumeich, J.; Exnar, P.; Kolouch, A.; Matoušek, J.; Kočí, P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper deals with photocatalytic activity of silver treated TiO2 films. The TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a vacuum reactor with radio frequency (RF) low temperature plasma discharge in the mixture of oxygen and titanium isopropoxide vapors (TTIP). The depositions were performed under different deposition conditions. Subsequently, the surface of TiO2 films was modified by deposition of silver nanoparticles. Photocatalytic activity of both silver modified and unmodified TiO2 films was determined by decomposition of the model organic matter (acid orange 7). Selected TiO2 samples were used for tests of antibacterial activity. These tests were performed on Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The results clearly proved that presence of silver clusters resulted in enhancement of the photocatalytic activity, which was up to four times higher than that for pure TiO2 films.

  8. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and free radical scavenging effects of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus-An in-vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arokiyaraj S; Sripriya N; Bhagya R; Radhika B; Prameela L; Udayaprakash NK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methanolic extracts of leaves of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity and free radical scavenging activity. Methods: Antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method against two gram positive and four gram negative strains. Free radical scavenging potential was evaluated using total antioxidant activity (thiocyanate method) and diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: Results of the present study showed that Clerodendrum siphonanthus exhibited significant antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 mm), Proteus mirabilis (16 mm), Salmonella typhi (16 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm), Escherichia coli (11.5 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm). Mimosa pudica and Artemisia nilagirica showed good antibacterial effects. Clerodendrum siphonanthus was found to be extremely effective in scavenging lipid peroxide (IC50 8 mg/mL) and DPPH radicals (IC50 7 mg/mL), whereas Artemisia nilagirica andMimosa pudica showed moderate activity. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Conclusions: This study showed that Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus may serve as a potential agent for new therapeutics.

  9. Effect of Ti(+4) on in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of silicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Ikhram, Hafeez

    2016-12-01

    A novel glass-ceramic series in (48-x) SiO2-36 CaO-4 P2O5-12 Na2O-xTiO2 (where x=0, 3.5, 7, 10.5 and 14mol %) system was synthesized by crystallization of glass powders, obtained by melt quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC) was used to study the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the as prepared glasses. The crystallization behaviour of glasses was analyzed under non-isothermal conditions, and qualitative phase analysis of glass-ceramics was made by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro bioactivity of synthesized glass-ceramics was studied in stimulated body fluid at 37°C under static condition for 24days. The formation of hydroxyl-carbonated apatite layer; evident of bioactivity of the material, was elucidated by XRD, FTIR, AAS, SEM and EDX analysis. The result showed that partial substitution of TiO2 with SiO2 negatively influenced bioactivity; it decreased with increase in concentration of TiO2. As Ti(+4) having stronger field strength as compared to Si(+4) so its replacement became the cause for reduction in degradation that in turn improved the chemical stability. The compressive strength was also enhanced with progress addition of TiO2 in the system. The antibacterial properties were examined against Staphylococcus Epidermidis. Strong antibacterial efficacy was observed with the addition of TiO2 in the system. PMID:27612803

  10. Radiolabeled nucleoside analogs in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, A I; Adelstein, S J; Mariani, G

    1996-09-01

    Radiolabeled nucleosides, specifically 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) radioiodinated with the Auger-electronemitting 123I or 125I, have been shown to produce extensive DNA damage in mammalian cell systems in vitro. Such nucleosides are cycle-dependent agents that are taken up by mitotically dividing cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. The degree of damage that occurs is related to the fact that these nucleosides bind covalently to DNA bringing the decaying Augerelectron-emitting radionuclide in close proximity to the genome. The use of these radiohalogenated nucleosides in vivo is associated with several problems. The first relates to their extremely short biologic half-life in blood (T1/2 of minutes in humans). The second involves achieving therapeutic ratios in tumor cells in the face of efficient hepatic dehalogenation. The third concerns the uptake of these radiopharmaceuticals by actively proliferating normal cell renewal systems, thus potentially causing toxic side effects. The fourth, one shared with other cycle-dependent drugs, relates to the matter of labeling the whole tumor cell population. To facilitate targeting to tumors, investigators have been examining the direct introduction of these agents into the targeted area or into an arterial blood supply that immediately precedes the target. For example, radiopharmaceutical administration could be intracavitary (bladder, spinal fluid, peritoneum), intralesional (brain tumor, breast mass) or intra-arterial (liver, pancreas). In all these situations, the following conditions must be met: (a) once within the vicinity of the tumor the agent can freely diffuse through the tissues and is selectively taken up by cancerous cells; (b) once the agent has left the target area it is converted quickly into a nontoxic form and/or excreted from the body; and finally, (c) the biologic behavior of the agent is not altered by repeated injections. We report herein our experience and that of others with [123I/125I/131I

  11. Surveying the Effect of the Phenol Compounds on Antibacterial Activity of Herbal Extracts: In vitro Assessment of Herbal Extracts in Fasa-Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was studied by disk diffusion, well, and MIC methods in compare with 13 standard antibiotics against S. aureus and E. coli as control bacteria. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods using Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: Inhibition zone of bacterial growth  against S. aureus in well and disk methods were 32 and 22 mm in using Zataria multiflora, respectively .And there were 23 and 16 mm against E. coli in Zataria multiflora, respectively. Less effects and inhibition zones, less than 15mm on both strains, were seen in using  Saturina hortensis, Cinamomum zeylanicum, ­Artemisia absinthium, ­Urtica dioica, Carum carvi L. cyminum Cuminum, Achillea fragrantissimia, Marticaria chamomilla, Zingiber officinale, Origanum majorana, and Plantago psyllium. Most effective MIC results, 7.8 µg/ml, were related to the extracts of Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum L. Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Laurus nobilis L. Phenol compound amounts were approximately between 66.51±1.9 and 233.15±5.1 mg/gr extract in Zataria multiflora and Plantago psyllium, respectively. Conclusion: Results of antibacterial activity of extracts and relation with phenol compound amounts indicate the antibacterial effect of phenol compounds in herbal extracts.

  12. What makes a natural clay antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Port-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (2+ solubility.

  13. Anti-bacterial effect of essential oil from Xanthium strumarium against shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Soufi, L; Ayatollahi, S A M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Varoni, E M; Shahri, F; Esposito, S; Kuhestani, K; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 is one of the most important human pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause life-threatening infections. Xanthium strumarium L. is a plant with anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This study aims to demonstrate in vitro efficacy of the essential oil (EO) extracted from Xanthium strumarium L. against E. coli O157:H7. Using the agar test diffusion, the effect of Xanthium strumarium L. EO (5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/mL) was verified at each of the four different growth phases of E. coli O157:H7. Cell counts of viable cells and colony forming unit (CFU) were determined at regular time points using Breed's method and colony counting method, respectively. No viable cell was detectable after the 1 hour-exposure to X. strumarium EO at 30, 60, and 120 mg/mL concentrations. No bacterial colony was formed after 1 h until the end of the incubation period at 24 h. At lower concentrations, the number of bacteria cells decreased and colonies could be observed only after incubation. At the exponential phase, the EO at 15 mg/mL was only bacteriostatic, while from 30 mg/mL started to be bactericidal. X. strumarium EO antibacterial activity against Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 is dependent on EO concentration and physiological state of the microorganisms tested. The best inhibitory activity was achieved during the late exponential and the stationary phases. PMID:27650979

  14. Experimental studies on antipyretic, analgesic and antibacterial effects of GK 001, a poly-prescription of traditional chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Su-yun; ZhANG Ting-ting; DING Hong-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the anti-inflammatory effect of a poly-prescription of traditional Chinese medicine GK001. Methods 1. Inhibitory effect on pain in mice: The pain was induced by i. p. 0.2 ml of 0.6 % HAc per mouse 1 h post dosing GK001. The writhing numbers of mice were recorded in 10 minutes and the inhibitory rate of pain was calculated compared with the control group. 2. Antipyretie effect In single dose experiment 15 healthy rabbits weighing 1.7-2.8 kg with body temperature(BT) measured in the experiment day meeting to the requirements were selected for the experiment and divided into 5 groups(3 in each group), which were dosed orally with GK001 and 1 h later followed by i. p. injection of 40 EU bacterial endotoxin standard·kg-1. Then, the BT of rabbits was measured every 30 min during 1-3 h after administration. The difference between the highest BT post-dose and the average BT pre-dose was calculated. In multi-dose experiment rabbits were selected and grouped as well as received i. p. endotoxin in the same way as above, but were administered with GK001 for consecutive 5 day. 3. Bacteriostatie effect. The antibacterial activities of GK001 on Bacillus Pumilus, Bacillus Subtilis and Micrococcus Luteus were measured in vitro at concentrations of 0.125-1.0 g·mL-1. Results 1. The GK001 showed a significant and dose-dependent painsuppressant effect, with inhibitory rate being 45.2 %, 31.2 % and 20.8 % at high, medium and low dose, respectively (P< 0.05). 2. Both single and multiple administration of GK001 had no effect on rabbit pyrogen response caused by endotoxin. 3. GK001 had bacteriostatic effects on the aforementioned 3 bacteria significantly and in dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions GK001 has analgesic and in vitro antibacterial but no antipyretie effects.

  15. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application.

  16. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniyandi Velusamy

    Full Text Available In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%, volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL, and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s. The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications.

  17. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications.

  18. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:27304672

  19. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and antibacterial/probacterial effects of a grape seed extract in complex with lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Braicu, Cornelia; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B 41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

  20. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS, and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE, were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS or in extract (LE to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  1. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determin

  2. Antibacterial effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe and bioactive chemical analysis using Gas chromatography mass spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanain Khaleel Shareef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research was to determine the chemical composition of roscoe extract from methanol and evaluation of antibacterial activity. The phytochemical compound screened by GC-MS method. Forty eight bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight, molecular formula, MS Fragment-ions and pharmacological actions. GC-MS analysis of Zingiber officinale revealed the existence of the Octanal, 2-Naphthalenamine,1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-4a-methyl, 1-(Cyclopropyl-nitro-methyl-cyclopentanol, Endo-Borneol, Decanal, 1,2-15,16-Diepoxyhexadecane, Propanal,2-methyl-3-phenyl, Benzeneacetic acid ,4-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-1-yl, Ascaridole epoxide, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 6-epi-shyobunol, Phenol,2-methoxy-5-(1-propenyl-,E, Alfa.-Copaene, 8-Isopropenyl-1,5-dimethyl-cyclodeca-1,5-diene, Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-6-methanol,2-hydroxy-1,4,4-trimethyl, 7-epi-cis-sesquisabinene hydrate, Alloaromadendrene, Benzene,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl-4-methyl, 1,3-Cyclohexadiene ,5-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl-2methyl-,[S-(R*,S*], Aromadendrene oxide, 1,6,10-Dodecatrien-3-ol,3,7,11-trimethyl-,(E, 4-((1H-3-Hydroxy-1-propenyl-2-methoxyphenol, Butan-2-one,4-(3-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl, Longipinocarveol,trans, Cholestan-3-ol,2-methylene-,(3ß,5α-, Bicyclo[4.4.0]dec-2-ene-4-ol,2-methyl-9-(prop-1-en-3-ol-2-yl-, Corymbolone, Estra-1,3,5(10-trien-17ß-ol, 1-Heptatriacotanol, Fenretinide, Folic acid, Spiro[4.5]decan-7-one,1,8-dimethyl-8,9-epoxy-4-isopropyl-, 7H-6,9a-Methano-4H-cyclopenta[9,10] cyclopropa[5,6]cyclodeca[1, Gingerol, 1b,4a-Epoxy-2H-cyclopenta[3,4]cyclopropa [8,9]cycloundec[1,2-b]o, Cyclopropa[5,6]-A-nor-5α-androstane-3,7-dione,3´,6ß-dihydro-17ß-h, Olean-12-ene-3,15,16,21,22,28-hexol,(3ß,15α,16α,21ß,22α-, Benz[e]azulen-3(3aH-one,4,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b-octahydro-3a,8,1, Naphthalene, decahydro-1-pentadecyl-, 13

  3. Effects of fractionation and combinatorial evaluation of Tamarindus indica fractions for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U; Ngene, Augustine A; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-06-09

    Six fractions, named TiA - TiF, were obtained by fractionating the crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica using column chromatographic techniques. On TLC, fraction TiB showed five bands, TiC three bands, while TiD and TiE showed two bands each. TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent systems to yield two fractions each, while TiB yielded four. These subfractions were designated B1-B4; C1-C2; D1-D2 and E1-E2, respectively. Tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids, among other components, were detected, albeit in different proportions with respect to fractions and subfractions and were compartmentalized with respect to the solvent systems used. The in vitro antibacterial activity of fractions and subfractions was tested separately and in combinations using the agar well diffusion technique. The susceptibly of test strains (expressed as %) were: 83.3% (TiA and TiB), 75.0% (crude extract and TiC), 66.7% (TiD), 50.0% (TiE) and 16.7% (TiF) when used singly, whereas in combination, the corresponding susceptibilities were 100% (CE), 83.3% (DE), 66.7% (AB, AF, BC, BD, DE and EF), 50% (AC and CD), 33.3% (BE and BF) and 16.7% (AD) against Gram negative bacteria strains and 100% (EF), 80% (DE), 60% (AB, BC and CE), 40% (AC, BD, BF, CF and DF) and 20% (AE, AF, BE and CD) against Gram positive strains. Percentage susceptibility with combinatorial use of re-fractions ranged from 85.7-57.1% and 60-40% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiB subfractions), respectively, 100-85.7% and 40-0% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiC, TiD and TiE sub-fractions).

  4. Antibacterial effects of monascu and its application%红曲防腐效应及其应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳; 高洁; 林吉恒; 徐娟; 周陈伟; 陈美龄; 阮晖

    2012-01-01

    Food fermentation microorganisms and their metabolites have become a hot research topic due to their natural antibacterial effects. Monascus is a Chinese traditional fermented food, its preservative effect has been reported. Microorganism - inhibiting substances are formed in Monascu fermentation process. Monascu preservatives could be prepared by either solid -fermentation or liquid -fermentation. The development trend of food additive is natural, safe and efficient. Genetic modified techniques use cell fusion, recombination of DNA, followed by separation and high -throughput screening to select the best colony. Monascu with high activity has been successfully constructed through genome shuffling. The result from this study provided foundation for future development. The antibacterial effect, production technology and application of are summarized. The high active monascus preservatives technology is also prospect.%食品发酵微生物及其代谢产物具有一定的抑菌功效,由于其安全性成为发展食品级安全生物拮抗的热点,并且成为寻找开发天然防腐剂的重要源泉.红曲是我国传统发酵食品,其天然防腐作用已有报道.红曲霉发酵体系中含有抑菌成分,固态或液态发酵方式均可生产红曲防腐剂.食品添加剂的发展方向是天然、安全、高效,开发食品级安全的天然红曲防腐剂具有广阔应用前景.基因改组技术能够通过细胞融合、传达分离、高通量筛选,将来源于出发菌群各菌株的优势基因集中于一个后代菌,采用基因组改组技术选育成功高活力红曲,为开发高活力红曲防腐剂奠定了基础.本文对红曲防腐剂的抑菌防腐效应、红曲防腐剂的生产工艺及应用作一简单综述,并探索高活力红曲防腐剂的研发策略.

  5. Antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde and clove oil: effect on selected foodborne pathogens in model food systems and watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, S; Anusha, B A; Ashwini, L S; Negi, P S

    2015-09-01

    Natural additives for the control of microbial growth are in demand because consumers prefer them over synthetic ones. In the present investigation, the antibacterial activity of two natural preservatives, cinnamaldeyde and clove oil alone or in combinations was studied, and their potential as food preservative in model food systems and watermelon juice was evaluated. The cinnamaldehyde and clove essential oil showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at or below 5000 mg/l, and fractional inhibitory studies using both the oils showed synergistic effect. In artificially inoculated barley model food system and cabbage model food system, 2 MIC of oils was able to reduce the growth of the tested bacteria (more than 5 log) during 4 weeks storage at 37 °C, and similar reduction was also observed when combinations of oils were used at one eighth of MIC against Bacillus cereus and Yersinia enterocolitica, and one fourth of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Natural contaminants of watermelon juice were also reduced by the combination of one fourth of MIC of the oils, which was more effective than individual 2 MICs. These findings may be useful for food applications, but their effect on sensory quality of various foods need to be studied. PMID:26344998

  6. The effect of doping titanium dioxide nanoparticles on phase transformation, photocatalytic activity and anti-bacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, Scott Edward

    . Dopant ions with larger radii than titanium stress the crystal lattice promoting anatase formation, since it has a larger c/a ratio than rutile does. The cation dopants were also found to decrease the average particle size of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The defect sites caused by the doping prevent the nucleation and retard particle growth of titanium dioxide particles. Cation doping of titanium dioxide nanoparticles affect other properties of the nanoparticles besides the phase transitions. For example titanium dioxide doped with magnetic materials such as Fe, Ni, Co or Cr has been shown to display room temperature ferromagnetism which are currently being studied for use in spintronic devices. The antibacterial studies of silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were carried out against Escherichia coli, both in nutrient solution and on agar-plates. Both studies show that while pure titanium dioxide has no antibacterial effect, when doped with as little as 0.72 atomic % silver becomes more effective than pure silver nanoparticles of similar size. It has been observed that with concentrations as low as 25mug/cm 2 of silver doped titanium dioxide, completely antibacterial surfaces may be synthesized.

  7. From the traditional Chinese medicine plant Schisandra chinensis new scaffolds effective on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resistant to non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijia; Grandi, Nicole; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Mandas, Daniela; Corona, Angela; Piano, Dario; Esposito, Francesca; Parolin, Cristina; Tramontano, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is still an extremely attractive pharmaceutical target for the identification of new inhibitors possibly active on drug resistant strains. Medicinal plants are a rich source of chemical diversity and can be used to identify novel scaffolds to be further developed by chemical modifications. We investigated the ability of the main lignans from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. fruits, commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, to affect HIV-1 RT functions. We purified 6 lignans from Schisandra chinensis fruits and assayed their effects on HIV-1 RT and viral replication. Among the S. chinensis fruit lignans, Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin selectively inhibited the HIV-1 RT-associated DNA polymerase activity. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of cyclooctadiene ring substituents for efficacy. In addition, Schisandrin B was also able to impair HIV-1 RT drug resistant mutants and the early phases of viral replication. We identified Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin as new scaffold for the further development of novel HIV-1 RT inhibitors.

  8. A Rapid Screening Assay Identifies Monotherapy with Interferon-ß and Combination Therapies with Nucleoside Analogs as Effective Inhibitors of Ebola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D S McCarthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To date there are no approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD. While a number of candidate drugs have shown limited efficacy in vitro and/or in non-human primate studies, differences in experimental methodologies make it difficult to compare their therapeutic effectiveness. Using an in vitro model of Ebola Zaire replication with transcription-competent virus like particles (trVLPs, requiring only level 2 biosafety containment, we compared the activities of the type I interferons (IFNs IFN-α and IFN-ß, a panel of viral polymerase inhibitors (lamivudine (3TC, zidovudine (AZT tenofovir (TFV, favipiravir (FPV, the active metabolite of brincidofovir, cidofovir (CDF, and the estrogen receptor modulator, toremifene (TOR, in inhibiting viral replication in dose-response and time course studies. We also tested 28 two- and 56 three-drug combinations against Ebola replication. IFN-α and IFN-ß inhibited viral replication 24 hours post-infection (IC50 0.038μM and 0.016μM, respectively. 3TC, AZT and TFV inhibited Ebola replication when used alone (50-62% or in combination (87%. They exhibited lower IC50 (0.98-6.2μM compared with FPV (36.8μM, when administered 24 hours post-infection. Unexpectedly, CDF had a narrow therapeutic window (6.25-25μM. When dosed >50μM, CDF treatment enhanced viral infection. IFN-ß exhibited strong synergy with 3TC (97.3% inhibition or in triple combination with 3TC and AZT (95.8% inhibition. This study demonstrates that IFNs and viral polymerase inhibitors may have utility in EVD. We identified several 2 and 3 drug combinations with strong anti-Ebola activity, confirmed in studies using fully infectious ZEBOV, providing a rationale for testing combination therapies in animal models of lethal Ebola challenge. These studies open up new possibilities for novel therapeutic options, in particular combination therapies, which could prevent and treat Ebola infection and potentially reduce drug

  9. An improved method for the enzymatic transformation of nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Vladimir N; Kvach, Sergei V; Zinchenko, Anatoli I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2004-12-01

    An improved method to transform nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates using nucleoside phosphotransferase from Erwinia herbicola is reported. The method is based on the shift in the equilibrium state of the reaction to the formation of desired product due to its precipitation by Zn2+. Under optimal conditions, the extent of nucleoside transformations into nucleoside-5'-monophosphates were 41-91% (mol). PMID:15672226

  10. Effect of a novel quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) on adhesion and antibacterial properties of dental adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupo, Yasmine M; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M; Simão, Luzia C; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    evaluated bacterial strains. The use of QAMP in an adhesive system demonstrated effective bond strength, a suitable degree of conversion, and adequate antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may be useful as a new approach to provide long-lasting results for dental adhesives. PMID:24853131

  11. Antibacterial Effect of CrO and CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles upon Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Imani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The use of metal oxide nanoparticles can be effective to eliminate the bacterial infections, as an alternative to antibiotics. In this study, antibacterial properties of nonmaterials of CrO and CoFe2O4 are investigated against Staphylococcus aureus as a major and prevalent pathogenic bacterium to achieve sterile nano-containers. Materials & Methods: Different concentrations of CrO and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1% of each, were examined with respect to their optical density (OD culture separately. Different percentages of each nanoparticles were also examined together for the best antibacterial combination. Kinetics of Bactericidal of nanoparticles were calculated in two-hour periods and were compared with the power of other common antibiotics. Ratios of MIC/MBC were calculated by Micro dilution method, to demonstrate the bactericidal power of nanoparticles. Results: The best concentration of the nanoparticles with the highest effect of bactericidal was obtained in the presence of 1% concentration of CrO that the OD of S. aureus culture medium had reduced 4/6 times than the control group (p<0/001.Ratio of 70% CrO to 30% CoFe2O4 was the best of the Bacteriostatic properties that OD was reduced 3/3 times than the control group (p<0/05. Best kinetics of bactericidal with survival rate in the presence of 1% CrO and CoFe2O4 were obtained in 24 and 36 hours respectively. In critical concentration of 1% CrO and CoFe2O4 bactericidal power was about 67 and 56 % respectively. The MIC/MBC rate for CrO and CoFe2O4 was obtained 0/2 and 0/4 respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that CrO nanoparticle compared with CoFe2O4 has a higher bactericidal power for S. aureus infection. Therefore, by completion of these experiments and the use of metal oxide nanoparticles complex in sensitive environments such as food storage containers, etc. are suggested.

  12. Effect of a Novel Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylate Polymer (QAMP on Adhesion and Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine M. Pupo

    2014-05-01

    control for all evaluated bacterial strains. The use of QAMP in an adhesive system demonstrated effective bond strength, a suitable degree of conversion, and adequate antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may be useful as a new approach to provide long-lasting results for dental adhesives.

  13. A novel nucleoside kinase from Burkholderia thailandensis: a member of the phosphofructokinase B-type family of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroko; Sakasegawa, Shin-Ichi; Yasuda, Yuko; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2008-12-01

    The genome of the mesophilic Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis contains an open reading frame (i.e. the Bth_I1158 gene) that has been annotated as a putative ribokinase and PFK-B family member. Notably, although the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene showed only 29% similarity to the recently identified nucleoside kinase from hyperthermophilic archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, 15 of 17 residues reportedly involved in the catalytic activity of M. jannaschii nucleoside kinase were conserved. The gene was cloned and functionally overexpressed in Rhodococcus erythropolis, and the purified enzyme was characterized biochemically. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was unusually broad for a bacterial PFK-B protein, and the specificity extended not only to purine and purine-analog nucleosides but also to uridine. Inosine was the most effective phosphoryl acceptor, with the highest k(cat)/K(m) value (80 s(-1).mm(-1)) being achieved when ATP served as the phosphoryl donor. By contrast, this enzyme exhibited no activity toward ribose, indicating that the recombinant enzyme was a nucleoside kinase rather than a ribokinase. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of a bacterial nucleoside kinase in the PFK-B family.

  14. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Beheshti-Rouy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective:  The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM causing dental plaque in school-aged children.Material and Methods: A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35 using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35 using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001. Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn’t significant.Conclusion: The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.Keywords: anti-bacterial agents; dental plaque; Salvia officinalis; Streptococcus mutans

  15. Antibacterial and synergistic effects of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus under light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hee; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shin, Dong-Young; Chun, Soon-Sil; Yu, Young-Beob; Shin, Dong-Won

    2010-04-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) is a perennial plant mostly cultivated in South America, primarily for use of the tubers as a food crop and the leaves as fodder for livestock. The antibacterial activities of the methanol extract of yacon leaves (S. sonchifolius) and its n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were evaluated against 6 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 1 standard methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain by using the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay in the presence and absence of light. No activity was detected when the two methods were performed without light; however, under illumination at 4000 lux, the n-hexane fraction of yacon (HFY) had a MIC of 15.6 microg/ml. HFYL, prepared by exposure of HFY to 4000 lux for 18 h, was more effective than HFY in terms of antimicrobial activity against the 6 MRSA strains and 1 standard MSSA strain. HFYL mixed with ampicillin or oxacillin showed a synergistic effect with all fractional inhibitory concentrations values being below 0.5. The present study demonstrates the enhancement and antimicrobial activity of yacon leaves against MRSA in the presence of light. PMID:20119720

  16. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. PMID:25764982

  17. Antibacterial Effects and Mode of Action of Selected Essential Oils Components against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lopez-Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals, may be used to surpass or reduce this problem. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect and mode of action of selected essential oils (EOs components: carveol, carvone, citronellol, and citronellal, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were assessed for the selected EOs components. Moreover, physicochemical bacterial surface characterization, bacterial surface charge, membrane integrity, and K+ leakage assays were carried out to investigate the antimicrobial mode of action of EOs components. Citronellol was the most effective molecule against both pathogens, followed by citronellal, carveol, and carvone. Changes in the hydrophobicity, surface charge, and membrane integrity with the subsequent K+ leakage from E. coli and S. aureus were observed after exposure to EOs. This study demonstrates that the selected EOs have significant antimicrobial activity against the bacteria tested, acting on the cell surface and causing the disruption of the bacterial membrane. Moreover, these molecules are interesting alternatives to conventional antimicrobials for the control of microbial infections.

  18. Effects of Fractionation and Combinatorial Evaluation of Tamarindus indica Fractions for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine A. Ngene

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Six fractions, named TiA – TiF, were obtained by fractionating the crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica using column chromatographic techniques. On TLC, fraction TiB showed five bands, TiC three bands, while TiD and TiE showed two bands each. TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent systems to yield two fractions each, while TiB yielded four. These subfractions were designated B1-B4; C1-C2; D1-D2 and E1-E2, respectively. Tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids, among other components, were detected, albeit in different proportions with respect to fractions and subfractions and were compartmentalized with respect to the solvent systems used. The in vitro antibacterial activity of fractions and subfractions was tested separately and in combinations using the agar well diffusion technique. The susceptibly of test strains (expressed as % were: 83.3% (TiA and TiB, 75.0% (crude extract and TiC, 66.7% (TiD, 50.0% (TiE and 16.7% (TiF when used singly, whereas in combination, the corresponding susceptibilities were 100% (CE, 83.3% (DE, 66.7% (AB, AF, BC, BD, DE and EF, 50% (AC and CD, 33.3% (BE and BF and 16.7% (AD against Gram negative bacteria strains and 100% (EF, 80% (DE, 60% (AB, BC and CE, 40% (AC, BD, BF, CF and DF and 20% (AE, AF, BE and CD against Gram positive strains. Percentage susceptibility with combinatorial use of re-fractions ranged from 85.7–57.1% and 60–40% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiB subfractions, respectively, 100–85.7% and 40–0% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiC, TiD and TiE sub-fractions.

  19. Effect of Infusions of Non-Antibiotic Antibacterials Alone and in Combination with Cephradine on Milk Yield of Buffaloes Affected with Clinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousaf*, G. Muhammad1, M. Z. Khan2 and S. U. Rahman3

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four non-antibiotic antibacterials alone or in combination with cephradine in buffaloes on milk yield of mastitis affected quarters. For this purpose, 270 clinically mastitic quarters were grouped in randomized pattern. Non-antibiotic antibacterials viz., 2.5% chlorpromazine (2 ml, 4% lidocaine (10 ml, 10% povidone-iodine (10 ml and 99.5% dimethylsulphoxide (20 ml alone and in combination with first generation cephalosporin (cephradine 500 mg were instilled into clinically mastitic quarters daily for five days. The group administered cephradine alone served as control. Mean milk yield (L/quarter per day was recorded before administration of treatment and over a period of 4 weeks post initiation of treatment. Among the 4 non-antibiotic antibacterials tested alone, chlorpromazine (CPZ showed significantly higher (P<0.05 recuperative effect on the milk yield of clinically mastitic quarters of dairy buffaloes. However, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO when infused alone, further aggravated (P<0.05 the milk yield loss, indicating negative effect on milk yield improvement. Adjuncting cephradine with each of the non-antibiotic antibacterials, the lidocaine-cephradine group showed the highest effect (p<0.05 on net recovery of milk yield on day 28 post initiation of treatment. It was concluded that that CPZ can be used in clinical mastitis in buffaloes as a low cost alternative to expensive branded antibiotics. Further, the use of lidocaine with cepheradnie was superior to all other combination regimens in milk yield recovery.

  20. An in Vitro Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida L. and Quercus Infectoria Olivier Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Sanguis

    OpenAIRE

    Fani; Bazargani; Farboodniay Jahromi; Hasanpour; Zamani; Yousefi Manesh

    2015-01-01

    Background From the ancient times, medicinal herbs have been regarded as efficient resources for the treatment of diseases. Among the diseases that can be treated by medicinal herbs, infectious diseases like oral ones are of notable importance. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Ferula assa-foetida L (F. assa-foetida L.) and Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria Olivier) aqueous and e...

  1. Antibacterial effects of mixtures of extracts of usnea, thyme and angelica obtained using different technological processes against certain types of bacteria of importance in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Dušan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of plant extracts were examined using mixtures of extracts obtained using different technological processes: usnea extract was obtained using the process of supercritical extraction (NKE, angelica extract was obtained through supercritical extraction processes (NKE and ultrasound extraction using ethanol (UZ, and thyme extract was obtained using the process of hydrodistillation (HD. Mixtures of the listed extracts were examined in various ratios: U (NKE and T (HD in a ratio of 1:1, U (NKE and T (HD in a ratio of 7:3, U (NKE, T (HD and A (NKE in a ratio of 2:2:1, and U (NKE, T (HD and A (UZ in a ratio of 2:2:1. The investigations covered 15 strains of bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Enterococus, including the strains MRSA, VRE as well as reference strains of S. pyogenes ATCC 19615, S. agalactiae ATCC 27959 and S. aureus ATCC 11632. The antibacterial action of mixes of plant extracts was examined using the microdilution method in bouillon, and the examined mix concentrations were from 1.25 g/mL to 1280 g/mL. The strongest antibacterial effect was exhibited by mixes of usnea (NKE and thyme (HD in ratios of 1:1 and 7:3 with obtained MIC values from 5 g/mL to 160 g/mL, but the MIC value of the listed mixtures for the biggest number of strains amounted to 40 g/mL. A somewhat weaker effect was exhibited by the other examined extract mixtures with obtained MIC values of 10 g/mL to 320 g/mL. Based on the obtained MIC values and the results of previous investigations, it can be concluded that the examined mixtures of plant extracts exhibited a very strong antibacterial effect on the examined bacteria strains. .

  2. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Sahebi S.; Khosravifar N.; SedighShamsi M.; Motamedifar M.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for...

  3. 21种中草药提取物对MRSA的抗菌作用研究%Antibacterial Effects of 21 Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine on MRSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅若秋; 余琼; 孟德胜; 卢来春; 张雪梅

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究21种中草药提取物对11株耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的体外抗茵作用.方法:采用96孔板培养法和涂片法测定各提取物对MRSA的抑茵率及杀菌率.结果:仙鹤草、半枝莲、夏枯草等8种中草药对MRSA具有较强的抗菌活性,其中仙鹤草醇提物、半枝莲水提物抑茵活性最强,浓度为6.25 mg·mL-1时抑茵率均达100%;仙鹤草水提物的杀茵活性最强,浓度为25 mg·mL-1时杀菌率迭100%.结论:仙鹤草、半枝莲提取物具有明显的抗MRSA作用.%OBJECTIVE: To study the antibacterial effects of 21 extracts of Chinese herbal medicine on MRS A in vitro. METHODS: The antibacterial ratio and bactericidal rate of each extract of Chinese herbal medicine were determined by 96-well multiwell plates and direct smear method. RESULTS: 8 Chinese herbal medicines had antibacterial activities on MRSA, such as Agrimoniapi-losa, Scutellaria barbata and Prunella vulgaris. The ethanol extracts of A. Pilosa and water extracts of S. Barbata had the strongest antibacterial activity, and the antibacterial ratio of them reached 100% as the concentrations of them were 6.25 mg·mL'-1 The bactericidal rate of water extracts of A. Pilosa was the highest, reaching 100% as the concentration of it was 25 mg·mL'-1 CONCLUSION: The extracts of A. Pilosa and S. Barbata show clear antibacterial effects on MRSA.

  4. 香辛料精油复配抑菌效果研究%Research on the Antibacterial Effect of Essential Oil from Spices and Herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 张一; 王磊; 陈宇飞; 李玉邯; 边忠博; 李秉峰

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of essential oil from spices and herbs is studied.Through the antibacterial test of the single essential oil from clove,cinnamon,nutmeg,cumin and fennel on Escherichiacoli,Staphylococcusaureus,Saccharomycescerevisiae and Aspergillusniger, the antibacterial test of clove,cinnamon and their compound essential oils on four types of bacteria and the antibacterial stability test of the compound essential oils on Escherichiacoliand Aspergillusniger under different temperatures and pH,the results show that the antibacterial abilities of clove and cinnamon essential oils are strong,which are stronger than several other essential oils from spices and herbs.The effect of the compound essential oils inhibiting Escherichiacoliand Aspergillusnigeris obvious.The antibacterial activity of the compound essential oils under different temperatures and pH is stable,which has provided a reference for the application of compound essential oils as bacteriostat in food.%研究香辛料精油复配的抑菌效果。利用丁香、肉桂、豆蔻、孜然、茴香5种香辛料分别对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、啤酒酵母、黑曲霉菌单一精油的抑菌试验;丁香、肉桂及二者复配3种精油验对4种菌的抑菌试验;复配精油在不同温度、pH 下对大肠杆菌和黑曲霉菌的抑菌稳定性试验,得出丁香精油抑制细菌、肉桂精油抑制真菌的能力较强,均高于其他几种香辛料精油的抑菌能力;复配精油对大肠杆菌、黑曲霉的抑菌效果明显;且复配精油在不同温度和pH 下抑菌性较为稳定,为复配精油作为抑菌剂在食品中的应用提供参考。

  5. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated...... intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion...

  6. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  7. Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant Effect and Chemical Composition of Propolis from the Región del Maule, Central Chile

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    Nélida Nina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is commercialized in Chile as an antimicrobial agent. It is obtained mainly from central and southern Chile, but is used for the same purposes regardless of its origin. To compare the antimicrobial effect, the total phenolic (TP, the total flavonoid (TF content and the phenolic composition, 19 samples were collected in the main production centers in the Región del Maule, Chile. Samples were extracted with MeOH and assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram (+ and Gram (− bacteria. TP and TF content, antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC methods were also determined. Sample composition was assessed by HPLD-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Differential compounds in the samples were isolated and characterized. The antimicrobial effect of the samples showed MICs ranging from 31.5 to > 1000 µg/mL. Propolis from the central valley was more effective as antibacterial than those from the coastal area or Andean slopes. The samples considered of interest (MIC ≤ 62.5 µg/mL showed effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enteritidis. Two new diarylheptanoids, a diterpene, the flavonoids pinocembrin and chrysin were isolated and elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. Some 29 compounds were dereplicated by HPLC-MS and tentatively identified, including nine flavones/flavonol derivatives, one flavanone, eight dihydroflavonols and nine phenyl-propanoids. Propolis from the Región del Maule showed large variation in antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and composition. So far the presence of diarylheptanoids in samples from the coastal area of central Chile can be considered as a marker of a new type of propolis.

  8. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL-1. C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  9. Synthesis, structural characterization of nano ZnTiO3 ceramic: An effective azo dye adsorbent and antibacterial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Raveendra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline meta-zinc titanate (ZnTiO3 ceramic was prepared using a self-propagating solution combustion synthesis (SCS for the first time using urea as fuel. The product was calcined at 800 °C for 2 h to improve the crystallinity. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the final product. PXRD results show that the ilmenite type rhombohedral structure was formed when the sample was calcined at 800 °C for 2 h. Adsorption experiments were performed with cationic malachite green (MG dye. ∼96% dye was adsorbed onto nanocrystalline ZnTiO3 ceramic at pH 9 for 30 min of the contact time. The optimum adsorbent dose was found to be 0.45 g/L of dye. Langmuir–Hinshelwood model was used to study adsorption kinetics and first order kinetic model best describes the MG adsorption on ZnTiO3. Antibacterial activity was investigated against gram negative Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas desmolyticum, Escherichia coli, and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by agar well diffusion method. Nanocrystalline ZnTiO3 ceramic showed significant effect on all the four bacterial strains at the concentration of 1000 and 1500 μg per well.

  10. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product. PMID:27478218

  11. The effect of visible-light intensity on shape evolution and antibacterial properties of triangular silver nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar

    2016-08-01

    Triangular silver nanostructures represent a novel class of nanomaterials with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By controlling the size and geometry of these structures, their SPR peaks could be tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region with numerous applications in optoelectronic, sensors, nanomedicine and specially cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, triangular silver nanostructures were prepared by photoinducing of spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) with an average diameter of 10 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were used to characterize silver triangles. We have found that uniform triangular silver nanostructures can be obtained using an appropriate visible-light illumination to the primary spherical silver NPs. TEM images indicated that formation of triangular structures depends on the intensity of light source. The effect of intensity of visible-light source on the geometry and size distribution of silver triangles was investigated. It was found that formation of triangular structures in addition to their size and shape evolution strongly depends on the intensity of the light illumination. Furthermore, a comparative study on the antibacterial activities of silver triangles of different sizes reveals that silver triangles experience a size-dependent interaction with the gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria.

  12. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product.

  13. The Effectiveness of Poly-(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridiniumbromide as an Antibacterial Implant Coating: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ringenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical success of osseointegrated dental implants depends on the strong attachment of the surrounding hard and soft tissues. Bacterial adhesion on implant surfaces can cause inflammatory reactions and may influence healing and long-term success of dental implants. Promising implant coatings should minimize bacterial adhesion, but allow epithelial and connective tissue attachment. Therefore, the present study has examined the bioactive effect of poly-(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridiniumbromide regarding typical oral bacteria as well as cytotoxicitiy to human cells considering different methods of connecting polymers to silicate-containing surfaces. The results revealed that the application of putative antibacterial and biocompatible polymer in coating strategies is affected by a variety of parameters. Published findings regarding reduced bacterial adhesion could not be verified using oral pathogens whereas hexylated polymers seem problematic for strong adhesion of soft tissue. Concerning innovative coatings for dental implants basic aspects (surface roughness, thickness, alkylation, combination with other polymers have to be considered in further investigations.

  14. Study on the antibacterial effect and the effective chemical constituents of Radix%黄芩的抑菌作用及有效化学成分的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析黄芩的抑菌作用及有效化学成分.方法:以超声法和水煮法对黄芩的有效成分进行提取,通过硅胶等获取结晶物,并展开抑菌对比分析. 结果:①最低抑菌浓度MIC比较:经过实验操作研究,验证了黄芩当中的结晶物所融合的提取液存在抑菌作用,而超声法提取的黄芩抑菌效果明显高于水煮法,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);②两组提取结晶物的抑菌浓度比较:通过两种不同的提取方法所获得的提取液对肠炎沙门氏菌的抑菌效果也有所不同,在具有抑菌效果的同时,超声法提取的黄芩结晶物的抑菌效果明显高于水煮法,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论:黄芩具有良好的抑菌作用,通过超声法可以更有效提取出黄芩中的抑菌成分,值得临床推广.%AIM:To study the antibacterial effect and the effective chemical constituents of skullcap. METHODS: The effective components of skullcap were extracted by ultrasonic method and water boiling method. RESULTS: First, the MIC comparison of minimum inhibitory concentration: after the experiment research, it was validated the extraction of skullcap crystal had an antibacterial effect, the antibacterial effect of the extracts from skullcap was significantly higher than that of water boiling method, the difference was statistically significant ( P<0. 05 ) . Second, comparison of antibacterial concentrations of extracts from two groups:the inhib-itory concentration of extracts from two kinds of different methods was different, as the same time with the antibacterial effect, the antibacterial effect of ultrasonic extraction of skullcap crystal was significantly higher than water boiling method. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:It has a good antibacterial effect, and it can be effectively extracted of the antibacterial components from the root, which is worthy of clinical promotion.

  15. Quantification of the 2-Deoxyribonolactone and Nucleoside 5 '-Aldehyde Products of 2-Deoxyribose Oxidation in DNA and Cells by Isotope-Dilution Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry: Differential Effects of gamma-Radiation and Fe[superscript 2+]-EDTA

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Wan Simon; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; DeMott, Michael S.; Peter C. Dedon

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of 2-deoxyribose in DNA has emerged as a critical determinant of the cellular toxicity of oxidative damage to DNA, with oxidation of each carbon producing a unique spectrum of electrophilic products. We have developed and validated an isotope-dilution gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (GC−MS) method for the rigorous quantification of two major 2-deoxyribose oxidation products: the 2-deoxyribonolactone abasic site of 1′-oxidation and the nucleoside 5′-aldehyde of 5′-ox...

  16. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5’-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: Differential effects of γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; DeMott, Michael S.; Peter C. Dedon

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of 2-deoxyribose in DNA has emerged as a critical determinant of the cellular toxicity of oxidative damage to DNA, with oxidation of each carbon producing a unique spectrum of electrophilic products. We have developed and validated an isotope-dilution gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the rigorous quantification of two major 2-deoxyribose oxidation products: the 2-deoxyribonolactone abasic site of 1’-oxidation and the nucleoside 5’-aldehyde of 5’-ox...

  17. Study on the effect of chitosan on antibacterial stability of Nisin%壳聚糖对Nisin抑菌稳定性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾清清; 张立彦; 刘启莲

    2012-01-01

    Abstract.The effect of chitosan on antibacterial stability of Nisin was investigated,and the protection mechanism of chitosan to the Nisin was also explored by infrared(IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). The results showed that chitosan could significantly improve the antibacterial stability of Nisin.This effect had some discrepancies with different temperature and pH values.The antibacterial stability of Nisin was the best when the concentration of chitosan was ]%.The IR spectra and DSC thermogram showed that the form of hydrogen bonds between chitosan and Nisin could stabilize the structure of Nisin and improve its thermal stability,thus antibacterial stability of Nisin got better.%研究了壳聚糖对乳酸链球菌肽(Nisin)抑菌稳定性的作用,并利用红外光谱仪和差式扫描量热仪(DSC)分析了壳聚糖对Nisin保护作用的机理。结果表明:壳聚糖可以显著提高Nisin的抑菌稳定性,在不同的温度及pH范围内,其保护效果有所差异;壳聚糖浓度在1%时效果最好;红外光谱和DSC图谱研究显示,壳聚糖能与Nisin形成氢键,稳定Nisin的空间结构,并能提高Nisin的热稳定性,从而改善了其抑菌稳定性。

  18. Effect of surface passivation on corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of Cu-bearing 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Xu, Dake; Shahzad, M. Babar; Kang, Qiang; Sun, Ying; Sun, Ziqing; Zhang, Shuyuan; Ren, Ling; Yang, Chunguang; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    The resistance for pitting corrosion, passive film stability and antibacterial performance of 316L-Cu SS passivated by nitric acid solution containing certain concentration of copper sulfate, were studied by electrochemical cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and co-culture with bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the Cu2+ ions release from 316L-Cu SS surface. XPS analysis proved that the enrichment of CuO, Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3 on the surface of specimen could simultaneously guarantee a better corrosion resistance and stable antibacterial properties. The biocompatibility evaluation determined by RTCA assay also indicated that the 316L-Cu SS after antibacterial passivation was completely biocompatible.

  19. Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties of Injection Molded Polypropylene/TiO2 Nano-Composites: Effects of Surface Modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirigul Altan; Huseyin Yildirim

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-composites were prepared by melt compounding with a twin screw extruder. Nanoparticles were modified prior to melt mixing with maleic anhydride grafted styreneethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS-g-MA) and silane. The composites were injection molded and mechanical tests were applied to obtain tensile strength, elastic modulus and impact strength. Antibacterial efficiency test was applied on the injection molded composite plaques by viable cell counting technique. The results showed that the composites including SEBS-g-MA and silane coated TiO2 gave better mechanical properties than the composites without SEBS-g-MA. Antibacterial efficiency of the composites varied according to the dispersion and the concentration of the particles and it was observed that composites at low content of TiO2 showed higher antibacterial property due to the better photocatalytic activity of the particles during UV exposure.

  20. Effect of vanadic anhydride and copper oxide on the development of hard porcelain composite and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan Kool

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mullite-reinforced porcelain composite with antibacterial properties has been developed using transition metal oxides by solid state sintering. The composite has been characterized in terms of mullite content, hardness, color and antibacterial properties. The physico-chemical properties of the porcelain were substantially increased in the presence of V2O5 and CuO. Well-crystallized needle shaped mullite of average length ∼ 3 μm was observed in the porcelain body at 1300 °C and 1500 °C after the addition of V2O5 and CuO. Vickers hardness of the composite increased 4.2 times for 2% V2O5 at 1500 °C. The porcelain composites showed satisfactory antibacterial activity on gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli with mortality rates of 45% and 22% for V2O5 and CuO doped porcelain respectively.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Modification of Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Shaughnessy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  2. Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues are first line chemotherapy in various severe diseases: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, cytomegalovirus infections, cancer, etc. However, many nucleoside analogues exhibit poor oral bioavailability because of their high polarity and low intestinal permeability. In order to get around this drawback, prodrugs have been utilized to improve lipophilicity by chemical modification of the parent drug. Alternatively, prodrugs targeting transporters present in the intestine have been applied to promote the transport of the nucleoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valganciclovir are two classic valine ester prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter 1. The ideal prodrug achieves delivery of a parent drug by attaching a non-toxic moiety that is stable during transport, but is readily degraded to the parent drug once at the target. This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues.

  3. The synergistic effects of CO2 laser treatment with calcium silicate cement of antibacterial, osteogenesis and cementogenesis efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T.-T.; Kao, C.-T.; Chen, Y.-W.; Huang, T.-H.; Yang, J.-J.; Shie, M.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Calcium silicate-based material (CS) has been successfully used in dental clinical applications. Some researches show that the antibacterial effects of CO2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm, due to a photo-thermal mechanism. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS, with regard to both material characterization and human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLs) viability. CS was irradiated with a dental CO2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm2, and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37 °C for 1 d to set. The hPDLs cultured on CS were analyzed, along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the CO2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the CS, and regulated cell behavior. CO2 laser-irradiated CS promoted cementogenic differentiation of hPDLs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate’s surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of cementogenic and the expression of cementum attachment protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from CS with laser irradiated may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue.

  4. Antibacterial effects of gum kondagogu reduced/stabilized silver nanoparticles in combination with various antibiotics: a mechanistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Lori; Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Sashidhar, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Gum kondagogu reduced/stabilized silver nanoparticles (GK-AgNPs) were evaluated for their increased antibacterial and antibiofilm activities in combination with various antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and gentamicin) against Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus 25923, Staphylococcus aureus 49834) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853) bacteria. The micro-broth dilution assay suggested an enhanced antibacterial activity of GK-AgNPs in combination with ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides (streptomycin and gentamicin) against tested strains. Though the antibacterial activity of GK-AgNPs was found to increase significantly in the presence of antibiotics, the % enhancement was found to depend on both types of antibiotic and bacterial strain. It was also found that GK-AgNPs (1 µg/mL) in combination with various antibiotics at sub-MIC concentrations could inhibit 70 % of the bacterial biofilm formation as compared to respective controls. The enhanced antibacterial activity was due to the increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in bacteria when treated with a combination of GK-AgNPs and streptomycin as compared to individual treatment. The increased oxidative stress led to increased membrane damage as assessed by live/dead assay and higher levels of potassium ion release from the cells treated with both silver nanoparticles and streptomycin. The results suggested that the combination of antibiotics with GK-AgNPs has an enhanced antibacterial action. Further, the GK-AgNPs were found to be biocompatible up to a concentration of 2.5 µg/mL as assessed with MTT assay on HeLa cell line. The results suggest that GK-AgNPs could potentially be used as in vivo antibacterial agent in combination with antibiotics to overcome the problem of antibiotic resistance.

  5. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong (Duke)

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  6. Sinefungin, a Natural Nucleoside Analogue of S-Adenosylmethionine, Inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Seok-Won Park; Sung-Won Chae; Jae-Jun Song

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal colonization and disease is often associated with biofilm formation, in which the bacteria exhibit elevated resistance both to antibiotics and to host defense systems, often resulting in infections that are persistent and difficult to treat. We evaluated the effect of sinefungin, a nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, on pneumococcal in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization. Sinefungin is bacteriostatic to pneumococci and significantly decreased biofilm growth ...

  7. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the DNA alkylating agent busulfan, nucleoside analogs and SAHA in lymphoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Murray, David; Nieto, Yago; Li, Yang; Wang, Guiyun; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising treatment for lymphomas. Its success depends on effective pre-transplant conditioning regimens. We previously reported on the efficacy of DNA alkylating agent-nucleoside analog (NA) combinations for conditioning in AML. We hypothesized that a similar combinatory approach can be used for lymphomas. A combination of busulfan (Bu) with two NAs – clofarabine (Clo), fludarabine (Flu) or gemcitabine (Gem) – resulted in synergistic cytoto...

  8. Antibacterial phenolics from the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.; PrabhaDevi

    ether (3→8″)quercetin –3O-rhamnoside 8] from the mangrove plant, L. racemosa22. Quercetin besides being antibacterial is an effective antioxidant. Its glycosidic form should also be equally effective since in biological system glycosides undergo... enzymatic hydrolysis to the corresponding aglycone23 and thus contribute to some extent to the observed antibacterial activity. A variety of biological activities for biflavonoids have been published including anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidants...

  9. Antibacterial Properties and Effects of Fruit Chilling and Extract Storage on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content of Four Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muhammad Azizan; Hashim, Siti Hajar; Simarani, Khanom; Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products. PMID:27023514

  10. Influence of powder characteristic of ZnO on antibacterial activity. Effect of specific surface area; Kokin kassei ni oyobosu sanka aen funmatsu tokusei no eikyo. Hihyomenseki no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, O.; Hotta, M.; Sasamoto, T.; Kojima, H. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    The effects of shape, crystallinity and specific surface area of ZnO powder on antibacterial activity were studied by measuring the change in the electrical conductivity with bacterial growth. From the results, it was clarified that the antibacterial activity increased with the increase of powder concentration in the physiological saline. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli strongly depended on the specific surface area of the powder; the activity increased with the increase of the surface area, irrespective of the shape and the crystallinity of their powders. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, however, it was found that there was no difference in the activity according to the characteristic of the powders. The appearance of antibacterial activity was found to be due to the generation of H2O2 from the surface of ZnO powder. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Antibacterial Effects of Gold Nanoparticles on Multi-sdrug Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Escherichia Coli and Its Effect on the Liver of Balb/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rahimzade Torabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The gold nanoparticles as other nanoparticles have catalytic, magnetic, optical, and biological (antimicrobial properties. On the other hand, resistance to antibiotics is one of the greatest public health problems posed in the world. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial effects of gold nanoparticles on multi-drug resistant klebsiella pneumoniae as well as escherichia coli and its effect on the liver of balb/c mice. Methods: In this study, multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bacteria clinical samples were utilized that were isolated from several hospitals in Isfahan and then the toxic effects of nanoparticles were investigated on the Balb / C mice. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were also applied with spherical shape and a concentration of 200 ppm in size of 10 nm, using two wells and disk agar diffusion method. Antibacterial properties of the nanoparticles were evaluated within 1-3 days with 37 ˚c temperature, and diameter of inhibitory zone of growth was measured every day. Tissue and liver enzymes of the mice were examined, as well. Results: The greatest diameter of inhibitory zone was detected in multi drug resistant E. coli. Most of the MIC and MBC were found in multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria .Gold nanoparticles did not reveal any significant changes on the weight, liver enzymes and liver tissue of Balb / C mice after one month. Conclusion: As the findings of the current study revealed, inhibitory effect of gold nanoparticles was observed on the axamined microorganism. Although the laboratories findings are promising, more studies should be conducted in regard with therapeutic standardization.

  12. Urinary nucleosides as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fang Zheng; Jun Yang; Xin-Jie Zhao; Bo Feng; Hong-Wei Kong; Ying-Jie Chen; Shen Lv; Min-Hua Zheng; Guo-Wang Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fourteen urinary nucleosides, primary degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated to know the potential as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer.METHODS: The concentrations of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides from 52 patients with colorectal cancer, 10patients with intestinal villous adenoma and 60 healthy adults were determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method.RESULTS: The mean levels of 12 kinds of urinary nucleosides (except uridine and guanosine) in the patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with intestinal villous adenoma or the healthy adults. Using the levels of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides as the data vectors for principal component analysis, 71% (37/52) patients with colorectal cancer were correctly classified from healthy adults, in which the identification rate was much higher than that of CEA method (29%).Only 10% (1/10) of patients with intestinal villous adenoma were indistinguishable from patients with colorectal cancer. The levels of m1G, Pseu and m1A were positively related with tumor size and Duke's stages of colorectal cancer. When monitoring the changes in urinary nucleoside concentrations of patients with colorectal cancer associated with surgery, it was found that the overall correlations with clinical assessment were 84% (27/32)and 91% (10/11) in response group and progressive group, respectively.CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that urinary nucleosides determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method may be useful as biological markers for colorectal cancer.

  13. Synthesis of coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides via Staudinger ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kois Pavol

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reaction of azides with triaryl phosphines under mild conditions gives iminophosphoranes which can react with almost any kind of electrophilic reagent, e.g. aldehydes/ketones to form imines or esters to form amides. This so-called Staudinger ligation has been employed in a wide range of applications as a general tool for bioconjugation including specific labeling of nucleic acids. Results A new approach for the preparation of labeled nucleosides via intermolecular Staudinger ligation is described. Reaction of azidonucleosides with triphenylphosphine lead to iminophosphorane intermediates, which react subsequently with derivatives of coumarin or ferrocene to form coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides. Fluorescent properties of coumarin labeled nucleosides are determined. Conclusion New coumarin and ferrocene labeled nucleosides were prepared via intermolecular Staudinger ligation. This reaction joins the fluorescent coumarin and biospecific nucleoside to the new molecule with promising fluorescent and electrochemical properties. The isolated yields of products depend on the structure of azidonucleoside and carboxylic acids. A detailed study of the kinetics of the Staudinger ligation with nucleoside substrates is in progress.

  14. Study on the in vitro antibacterial effects of rutin%芸香苷的体外抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚萍; 葛新; 董小青; 陈虹

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial effects of rutin on pathogenic strains and provide theoretical data for application. Methods: Rutin was extracted by alkali - solution and acid - isolation from the barks of Sophora japonica Linn, then further purified. The broth microdilution was used to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the tested strains. The skin simulation and antibacterial effects on the natural bacteria of skin were observed. Results: The purified extract contained 95.2% of rutin. The MICs of rutin solution for Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were 0.5 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 1.0 g/L, 0.25 g/L, and 0.25 g/L, respectively. 2.0 g/L of rutin showed no simulations to the rat skin, and reduced the natural bacteria of forearm skin of volunteers from 244 cfu/cm2 to 16 cfu/cm2 after smeared for 2 min. Conclusion: Rutin had obvious inhibitory effects on bacterial vegetative form, especially on Gram positive bacteria.%目的:观察芸香苷对常见致病菌体外抑制效果,为实际应用研究提供依据.方法:采用碱溶酸沉法从槐树皮中提取芸香苷并进一步纯化,采用微量稀释法对精制芸香苷进行实验室抑菌试验,并检测其皮肤刺激性与皮肤抗菌效果.结果:精制芸香苷有效成分含量95.2%,其溶液对大肠杆菌和福氏志贺菌MIC值为0.5 g/L,对奇异变形杆菌MIC值为1.0 g/L,对金黄色葡萄球菌和表皮葡萄球菌的MIC值为0.25 g/L.2.0 g/L精制芸香苷溶液对大鼠皮肤无刺激性,涂擦人体前臂皮肤作用2min,可使皮肤上自然菌由处理前的244 cfu/cm2降低到16 cfu/cm2.结论:芸香苷对细菌繁殖体有明显抑菌作用,对革兰阳性菌抑制作用强于革兰阴性菌.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and effects on bowel and throat microflora of oral levofloxacin as antibacterial prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, G J; Dijstelbloem, Y; Simoons-Smit, A M; van Winkelhoff, A J; Touw, D J; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Huijgens, P C

    2004-01-01

    Gram-positive breakthrough infections pose a major drawback to the use of quinolones for antibacterial prophylaxis in neutropenic patients. Levofloxacin offers the advantage of an augmented Gram-positive spectrum and may potentially overcome this problem. In an open-label, clinical pilot study, we i

  16. Pharmacokinetics and effects on bowel and throat microflora of oral levofloxacin as antibacterial prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, G.J.; Dijstelbloem, Y; Simoons - Smit, A.M.; Winkelhoff, van A.J.; Touw, D.J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Huijgens, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Gram-positive breakthrough infections pose a major drawback to the use of quinolones for antibacterial prophylaxis in neutropenic patients. Levofloxacin offers the advantage of an augmented Gram-positive spectrum and may potentially overcome this problem. In an open-label, clinical pilot study, we i

  17. Toxicity of nucleoside analogues used to treat AIDS and the selectivity of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harold; Hanes, Jeremiah; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2003-12-23

    Incorporation of nucleoside analogues by the mitochondrial DNA polymerase has been implicated as the primary cause underlying many of the toxic side effects of these drugs in HIV therapy. Recent success in reconstituting recombinant human enzyme has afforded a detailed mechanistic analysis of the reactions governing nucleotide selectivity of the polymerase and the proofreading exonuclease. The toxic side effects of nucleoside analogues are correlated with the kinetics of incorporation by the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, varying over 6 orders of magnitude in the sequence zalcitabine (ddC) > didanosine (ddI metabolized to ddA) > stavudine (d4T) > lamivudine (3TC) > tenofovir (PMPA) > zidovudine (AZT) > abacavir (metabolized to carbovir, CBV). In this review, we summarize our current efforts to examine the mechanistic basis for nucleotide selectivity by the mitochondrial DNA polymerase and its role in mitochondrial toxicity of nucleoside analogues used to treat AIDS and other viral infections. We will also discuss the promise and underlying challenges for the development of new analogues with lower toxicity.

  18. Effect of Sub-Lethal Environmental Stresses on the Cell Survival and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes PTCC1297

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faezi-Ghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeria monocytogenes is slowly becoming drug resistant, study on resistance of this pathogen is important to ensure effective treatment of human listeriosis. The aim of this work was evaluating the changes in susceptibility to antibiotics and cell survival of L. monocytogenes PTCC1297 (serotype 4a after exposure to some stresses. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study L. monocytogenes PTCC1297 subjected to sub-lethal environmental stresses including ethanol (5% v/v, sodium chloride (7% w/v, acid (HCl, pH=5.0, hydrogen peroxide (600 ppm and heat (45ºC. After the stress treatments, antibacterial susceptibility and cell survival were determined. Results: Exposing to hydrogen peroxide (600 ppm and heat (45ºC significantly (p<0.05 increased resistance to all selective antibiotics. But treating to stresses such as hydrochloric acid (pH=5.0, sodium chloride (7% w/v and ethanol (5% v/v decreased resistance (p<0.05 to antibiotics. L. monocytogenes PTCC1297 cell survival was decreased at 60ºC which is considered as lethal condition. Exposing to sub-lethal acid stress increased survival to high acidic conditions (pH=3.0. But upon increasing hydrogen peroxide the viability of cell decreased. Treating the cells with ethanol (14% v/v and NaCl (20% w/v increased cell survival. Conclusion: Adaptation to some stresses including hydrogen peroxide and heat increase resistance to antibiotics. Stresses such as ethanol, hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride act in adverse. Exposing to some sub-lethal stresses increased cell survival when lethal doses of the same stress such as acid, ethanol and sodium chloride were used. But, when we treating the cells to sublethal doses of H2O2 and heat the cell survival decreased.

  19. Survey of Antibacterial Effect of Methanolic Extract of Fulgensia fulgens through in Vitro and in Vivo Conditions

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    tahereh valdbeigi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Daily increasing of bacteria resistance (specially Staphylococcus aureus to various antibiotics in particular penicillin and methicillin has always led the scientists to look for new medicines. Materials and methods: 600 g of Fulgensia fulgens was collected from KaneGonbad mountains in Ilam province, the methanol extract was prepared by soxhle. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the extract against two gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and Entrococcus faecalis and two gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherchia coli was tested by the use of disc diffusion method and microdilution (with determination of MIC and MBC. Wound was made on the dorsal surface of therat and wound infections caused by S.aureus for determination of in vivo antibacterial effect. Than rats were randomly divided into three groups; control, treated with tetracycline ointment and treated with 10% ointment of F. fulgens extract. Finally, wound areas wear measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. Results: Average inhibitory zone diameter of methanolic F. fulgens extract against S. aureus ranged between 11.21 mm to 33.01 mm. According to the wound area on 11th day, it could be concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the control group (0.63 cm2 and two treatment groups (0 (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between a group treated with tetracycline ointment and a group treated with 10% ointment of extract. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, the methanol extract of F. fulgens in the treatment of infections as S. aureus can be replaced by chemical antibiotics.

  20. Effect of bile on nisin-mediated antibacterial activity and the expression of nisin genes of Lactococcus lactis W8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Suranjita; Mukhopadhyay, Bidhan Chandra; Chakrabartty, Pran Krishna; Biswas, Swadesh Ranjan

    2013-12-01

    The capability of Lactococcus lactis to produce nisin in the presence of bile in the intestinal environment remains an intriguing question. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bile on production of nisin and the mRNA expression of nisin genes of L. lactis W8. The strain L. lactis W8 was grown on glucose in the absence and presence of bile (0.005-0.08 %) and the antibacterial activities of culture supernatants were determined. In culture with 0.035 % bile, the nisin activity was significantly reduced (400 AU/mL) within 5 h compared to that in the control without bile (2000 AU/mL), while growth of the cells was only slightly affected. In the presence of 0.07 % bile no nisin activity of the strain was manifested. Consistent with these results, mRNA expression of nisin-biosynthetic genes nisZ, nisRK, nisI, and nisF was down-regulated by 7.5-, 2.5-, 1.7-, and 6.0-fold, respectively in cells grown in the presence of bile (0.07 %) as compared to control culture without bile. The present study suggested that bile inhibited transcription of nisin genes. Nisin-production in intestine by orally administered L. lactis, thus, does not occur since complete inhibition of nisin-production by bile is observed at a concentration much lower than the physiological concentration (0.3 %) of bile present in the human intestine. The molecular mechanism underlying the bile-mediated inhibition of nisin genes remains to be elucidated. This is the first report on bile-mediated inhibition of nisin genes.

  1. An in Vitro Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida L. and Quercus Infectoria Olivier Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Sanguis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background From the ancient times, medicinal herbs have been regarded as efficient resources for the treatment of diseases. Among the diseases that can be treated by medicinal herbs, infectious diseases like oral ones are of notable importance. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Ferula assa-foetida L (F. assa-foetida L. and Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria Olivier aqueous and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis. Materials and Methods The studied plants were F. assa-foetida L. and Q infectoria Olivier. Their extracts with different concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 mg/mL were prepared in culture medium, with well diffusion method, and, for control, their antibacterial effects were compared with chlorhexidine. For each extract, the antibacterial ability was determined based on the created inhibition zone diameter in the microbial culture medium. Results The aqueous and ethanolic extract of F. assa-foetida L. lacked the inhibitory effect against the growth of S. mutans and S. sanguis bacteria. There was a significant difference among the inhibitory zones created by dissimilar concentrations of Q. infectoria (P = 0.025. Also, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts’ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for S. mutans bacterium was calculated to be 12.5 mg/mL, while its value for S. sanguis bacterium was 6.25 mg/mL. Conclusions The results of our study, regarding the observed effects based on differences in concentrations, suggest that further and more comprehensive studies should be undertaken to determine the appropriate concentration for obtaining the effect of the extract of F. assa-foetida L. and Q infectoria Olivier on S. mutans and S. sanguis.

  2. Microbiological analysis and antibacterial effects of the indigenous fermented Puer tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Xu, X.Q.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological analysis was done on samples from an indigenously fermented tea - Puer. Microbial counting and identification revealed that Aspergillus niger was the dominating microorganism during the fermentation. Antimicrobial activity of fermentation samples showed inhibitory effect on several f

  3. EFFECT OF CARBOXYLIC IONOPHOROUS ANTIBACTERIALS ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED MICROALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboxylic ionophorous antibiotics are routinely used in cattle, chicken and turkey concentrated feedlot operations as anticoccidial and growth promotant feed additives and may, through runoff and effluents, enter adjacent waterways. The effects of these compounds on the growth o...

  4. Impact of curcumin supersaturation in antibacterial photodynamic therapy-effect of cyclodextrin type and amount

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegge, A.B.; Nielsen, T.T.; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen;

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin has been investigated as a potential photosensitizer (PS) in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The phototoxic effect of curcumin is dependent on proper formulations of the compound because of the lipophilic nature of the molecule and the extremely low water solubility at physiol......Curcumin has been investigated as a potential photosensitizer (PS) in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The phototoxic effect of curcumin is dependent on proper formulations of the compound because of the lipophilic nature of the molecule and the extremely low water solubility...

  5. In Vitro and in Silico Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect of Methanolic Extracts of Prangos Ferulacea on Single and Biofilm Structure of Streptococcus Mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nosrati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigating efficacy of natural products, especially plant materials in dental caries is of great significance. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in silico anti bacterial effects of methanolic extracts of Prangos ferulacea on single and biofilm structure of streptococcus mutans. Methods: In this experimental study, after collecting the plants and determining their variety, they were air- dried and powdered. Then, the plants were extracted with methanol by the maceration method. In order to determine antibacterial activity as well as antibiofilm activity of the extracts, disk diffusion and micro titer assay were applied respectively. Regarding in silco analysis, the molecular docking was also preformed by iGemdock 2.1 software between Glucosyltransferases and 20 phytochemicals of the mentioned plants. SPSS software was utilized to statistically analyze the study data applying variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results: The results of the present study showed that studied extracts specially their roots extract up to250-3000 μg/ml have significant antibacterial effects against the single form of becteria, which lead to inhibition of biofilm structures formation of the tested strain, though it can not damage biofilm structures of the bacteria. In addition, MIC and MBC minimum values were determined in 250-1000 μg/ml and 500-3000 μg/ml spectera respectively. Then, silico analysis confirmed that studied phytochemical compounds, especially α-pinen, Pesoralen and Limonene revealed an appropriate interaction to Glucosyltransferases,  which could be regarded as an inhibitor for this enzyme. Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, P.ferulacea has significant antibacterial effects against single structure of S.mutans. However, it does not produce any significant effects on the biofilms structured from this bacteria.

  6. Evaluation of chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Aloysia citrodora extract on colon cancer cell line using Real Time PCR and Flow-cytometry methods

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    Amir Mirzaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Aloysia citrodora belongs to the Verbenaceae family of plants, a well-known herbal medicine in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of A. citrodora extract against human colon cancer using real time PCR and flow cytometry methods. Materials and Methods: this experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from March to September of 2014. At first, the A. citrodora chemical constituents were analyzed by GC/MS technique. In addition, antioxidant assay, antibacterial and anti-cancer effect was performed using DPPH, disk diffusion and MTT methods, respectively. Finally, the apoptosis gene (Bax and Bcl2 expression was performed by real time PCR and apoptotic effects was analyzed using Flow-cytometry technique. Results:  GC/MS analysis of A. citrodora extract was shown 37 major components and the most frequent component was belonged to Spathulenol (17.57% and Caryophyllene oxide (15.15%. The antioxidant activity of the extract was IC50=0.6 ±0.03. The maximum and minimum antibacterial effects of extract were belonged to Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, respectively. Cytotoxic results revealed that the extract have IC50= 20.1± 0.78 mg/ml against colon cell line and Real Time PCR results showed the expression level of Bax and Bcl2 was increased and decreased respectively in colon cancer cell line (3.470 ± 0.72 (P<0.05, 0.43 ± 0.35 (P< 0.05. In addition, the flow-cytometry results indicated the 38.66 % apoptosis in colon cancer cell line. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that A. citrodora extract has potential uses for pharmaceutical industries and it suggested that further studies were performed for A. citrodora pharmaceutical importance.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of antibacterials on human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Hatz Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Bronchial epithelial cells (hu-BEC have been claimed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases like COPD. In this context IL-8 and GM-CSF have been shown to be key cytokines. Some antibiotics which are routinely used to treat lower respiratory tract infections have been shown to exert additional immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether these effects can also be detected in hu-BEC. Methods Hu-BEC obtained from patients undergoing lung resections were transferred to air-liquid-interface (ALI culture. These cultures were incubated with cefuroxime (CXM, 10-62.5 mg/l, azithromycin (AZM, 0.1-1.5 mg/l, levofloxacin (LVX, 1-8 mg/l and moxifloxacin (MXF, 1-16 mg/l. The spontaneous and TNF-α (10 ng/ml induced expression and release of IL-8 and GM-CSF were measured using PCR and ELISA in the absence or presence of these antibiotics. Results The spontaneous IL-8 and GM-CSF release was significantly reduced with MXF (8 mg/l by 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 31%, respectively (both p Conclusion Using ALI cultures of hu-BEC we observed differential effects of antibiotics on spontaneous and TNF-α induced cytokine release. Our data suggest that MXF and AZM, beyond bactericidal effects, may attenuate the inflammatory process mediated by hu-BEC.

  8. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, T., E-mail: teresa.huppmann@tum.de; Leonhardt, S., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Krampe, E., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Wintermantel, E., E-mail: wintermantel@tum.de [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Technische Universität München (Germany); Yatsenko, S., E-mail: s.yatsenko@skz.de; Radovanovic, I., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de [SKZ- German Plastics Center, Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO{sub 2} for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO{sub 2} coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO{sub 2} particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO{sub 2} P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO{sub 2}-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  9. 紫色甘薯原花青素抑菌效果的研究%Study on Antibacterial Effect of Proanthocyandins from Purple Sweet Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婵; 丁玲; 黄琼; 彭宏

    2014-01-01

    研究紫色甘薯原花青素对大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌以及青霉菌的抑菌作用。结果表明:紫色甘薯的原花青素对大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌具有良好的抑菌效果,与其浓度呈正相关,对青霉菌的抑菌效果不显著。10 mg/mL紫色甘薯原花青素对所试大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌以及沙门氏菌的抑菌效果与0.5μg/mL的尼泊金乙酯以及5μg/mL的苯甲酸钠相当,但不如5μg/mL山梨酸钾。%This paper studied the antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Salmonella and Penicillium of proanthocyandins from Purple Sweet Potato. The results showed that proanthocyanidins from purple sweet potato showed significant antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Salmonella,and showed a positive correlation with the concentration of purple sweet potato proanthocyandins.The effect of Antibacterial about 10 mg/mL purple sweet potato procyanidins on the Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella equivalent to 0.5 μg/mL ethylparaben and 5 μg/mL Sodium benzoate,but less than 5 μg/mL potassium sorbate.

  10. Inhibitory effect of super-hydrophobicity on silver release and antibacterial properties of super-hydrophobic Ag/TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Licheng; Zhang, Lihai; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Houchen; Yang, Fei; Lin, Changjian; Tang, Peifu

    2016-07-01

    The antibacterial properties of super-hydrophobic silver (Ag) on implant surface have not yet to be fully illuminated. In our study, we investigate the protective effects of super-hydrophobic coating of silver/titanium dioxide (Ag/TiO2 ) nanotubes against bacterial pathogens, as well as its pattern of Ag release. Ag/TiO2 nanotubes are prepared by a combination of electrochemical anodization and pulse electrodeposition. The super-hydrophobic coating is prepared by modifying the surface of Ag/TiO2 nanotubes with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl-triethoxysilane (PTES). Surface features and Ag release are examined by SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact-angle measurement, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The antibacterial activity of super-hydrophobic coating Ag/TiO2 nanotubes is investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, the super-hydrophobic coating on Ag/TiO2 nanotubes shows a regularly arranged structure; and nano-Ag particles (10-30 nm) are evenly distributed on the surface or inside the nanotubes. The contact angles of water on the super-hydrophobic coating Ag/TiO2 nanotubes are all above 150°. In addition, the super-hydrophobic character displays a certain conserved effect that contributes to the sustained release of Ag. The super-hydrophobic Ag/TiO2 nanotubes are also effective in inhibiting bacterial adhesion, killing the adhering bacteria and preventing postoperative infection in rabbits. Therefore, it is expected that the super-hydrophobic Ag/TiO2 nanotubes which can contain the release of Ag, leading to stable release, may show a consistent surface antibacterial capability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1004-1012, 2016. PMID:25995046

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N. Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D.; Rani, M.; Rani, S. Sudha, E-mail: sadrassudha@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46 nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67 μg/ml/24 h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. - Highlights: • 46 nm spherical shaped P. longum fruit silver nanoparticles was prepared. • Capping and reducing bioactive plant compounds with in nanoparticles were condensed tannins. • Particles are potent antioxidant and anti microbial in biological systems. • They are cytotoxic against MCF-7 cell lines.

  12. Antibacterial, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects of Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffmanns. et Link leaves' fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iauk, Liliana; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Amodeo, Andrea; Pugliese, Michela; Ragusa, Monica; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the bioactivity of the methanol fraction (MF) and n-hexane fraction (HF) of Thymus capitatus leaves in relation to their constituents analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of T. capitatus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria associated with respiratory diseases (13 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative) were determined using a microdilution method. The MF was particularly effective on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), ferric-reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching assays. A strong activity using β-carotene bleaching test was observed with the MF (IC50 of 0.7 μg/mL after 30 min of incubation). In the hypoglycaemic test, a selective α-amylase inhibitory activity was detected with the HF begging the most active (IC50 of 422.5 μg/mL). T. capitatus may represent a source of natural bioactive compounds. PMID:25032744

  13. PENGARUH pH, NaCl DAN PEMANASAN TERHADAP STABILITAS ANTIBAKTERI BUNGA KECOMBRANG DAN APLIKASINYA PADA DAGING SAPI GILING [Effects of pH, Nacl and Teating on the Antibacterial Stability of Kecombrang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifda Naufalin1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pH (4-9, NaCl concentration (1-5%, temperature and heating time (80, 100 and 1210C for 10, 20 and 30 minute on the antibacterial effectivity of ethyl acetate and ethanol kecombrang extract were analysed. Both ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed antibacterial activity at pH 4-8, but its activity gradually decreased at higher pH. At pH 9, only ethanol extract still showed antibacterial activity. Addition of 1-4% NaCl on ethyl acetate and ethanol extract still showed antibacterial activity. Heating the extracts at 80-100 0C for 10-30 minutes and 1210C for 10 minutes did not haves significantly affect on the antibacterial activity of both ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts. Application of ethyl acetate extract at the concentration of 1 and 3 MIC on minced meat were still effective to reduce the viable bacteria until 7 days and 5 MIC was still effective until 9 days.

  14. Effect of capping agents on optical and antibacterial properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepika; Rakesh Dhar; Suman Singh; Atul Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) were synthesized in aqueous phase by the freezing temperature injection technique using different capping agents (viz. thioglycolic acid, 1-thioglycerol, L-cysteine). Absorption spectra of CdSe QDs exhibited a blue shift as compared to its bulk counterpart, which is an indication of quantum confinement effect. The photoluminescence spectra of CdSe QDs confirmed that the particles are poly-dispersed and possess enhanced luminescent property, depending upon the chemical nature of capping agents. The QDs have been characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Further, antimicrobial activity of as-prepared QDs has also been investigated using the disk diffusion method.

  15. Intrinsic Hydrophobic Cairnlike Multilayer Films for Antibacterial Effect with Enhanced Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Heo, Jiwoong; Son, Boram; Choi, Daheui; Park, Tai Hyun; Chang, Minwook; Hong, Jinkee

    2015-12-01

    One important aspect of nanotechnology includes thin films capable of being applied to a wide variety of surfaces. Indispensable functions of films include controlled surface energy, stability, and biocompatibility in physiological systems. In this study, we explored the ancient Asian coating material "lacquer" to enhance the physiological and mechanical stability of nanofilms. Lacquer is extracted from the lacquer tree and its main component called urushiol, which is a small molecule that can produce an extremely strong coating. Taking full advantage of layer-by-layer assembly techniques, we successfully fabricated urushiol-based thin films composed of small molecule/polymer multilayers by controlling their molecular interaction. Unique cairnlike nanostructures in this film, produced by urushiol particles, have advantages of intrinsic hydrophobicity and durability against mechanical stimuli at physiological environment. We demonstrated the stability tests as well as the antimicrobial effects of this film.

  16. Intrinsic Hydrophobic Cairnlike Multilayer Films for Antibacterial Effect with Enhanced Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Heo, Jiwoong; Son, Boram; Choi, Daheui; Park, Tai Hyun; Chang, Minwook; Hong, Jinkee

    2015-12-01

    One important aspect of nanotechnology includes thin films capable of being applied to a wide variety of surfaces. Indispensable functions of films include controlled surface energy, stability, and biocompatibility in physiological systems. In this study, we explored the ancient Asian coating material "lacquer" to enhance the physiological and mechanical stability of nanofilms. Lacquer is extracted from the lacquer tree and its main component called urushiol, which is a small molecule that can produce an extremely strong coating. Taking full advantage of layer-by-layer assembly techniques, we successfully fabricated urushiol-based thin films composed of small molecule/polymer multilayers by controlling their molecular interaction. Unique cairnlike nanostructures in this film, produced by urushiol particles, have advantages of intrinsic hydrophobicity and durability against mechanical stimuli at physiological environment. We demonstrated the stability tests as well as the antimicrobial effects of this film. PMID:26561514

  17. The effect of antibacterial soap with 1.5% triclocarban on Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, D L; Hanifin, J M; Berge, C A; Keswick, B H; Neumann, P B

    2000-10-01

    This double-blind study determined whether daily bathing with an antibacterial soap would reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin and result in clinical improvement of atopic dermatitis. For 9 weeks, 50 patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis bathed daily with either an antimicrobial soap containing 1.5% triclocarban or the placebo soap. They also used a nonmedicated moisturizer and 0.025% triamcinolone acetonide cream as needed, but the availability of the corticosteroid cream was discontinued after 6 weeks. The antimicrobial soap regimen caused significantly greater improvement in the severity and extent of skin lesions than the placebo soap regimen, which correlated with reductions both in S aureus in patients with positive cultures at baseline and in total aerobic organisms. Outcome measures included reductions in S aureus, total aerobic organisms, and dermatologic assessments. Overall, daily bathing with an antibacterial soap was well tolerated, provided clinical improvement, and reduced levels of skin microorganisms. PMID:11109156

  18. Efficient drug delivery to alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial lining fluid following pulmonary administration of liposomal ciprofloxacin in rats with pneumonia and estimation of its antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio; Tanino, Tomoharu; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2008-10-01

    The efficacy of pulmonary administration of liposomal ciprofloxacin (CPFX) in pneumonia was evaluated. In brief, the pharmacokinetics following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX (particle size, 1,000 nm; dose, 200 microg/kg) were examined in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced pneumonia as an experimental pneumonia model. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of liposomal CPFX against the pneumonic causative organisms were estimated by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. The time-courses of the concentration of CPFX in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX to rats with pneumonia were markedly higher than that following the administration of free CPFX (200 microg/kg). The time course of the concentrations of CPFX in plasma following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX was markedly lower than that in AMs and ELF. These results indicate that pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX was more effective in delivering CPFX to AMs and ELF compared with free CPFX, and it avoids distribution of CPFX to the blood. According to PK/PD analysis, the liposomal CPFX exhibited potent antibacterial effects against the causative organisms of pneumonia. This study indicates that pulmonary administration of CPFX could be an effective technique for the treatment of pneumonia.

  19. The effect of chronic exposure to tobacco smoke on the antibacterial defenses of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, G L; Pochay, V E; Mahajan, V K; McCarthy, C R; Hinds, W C; Davies, P; Drath, D B; Sornberger, G C

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on the host defenses of the lung, male CD rats were exposed to fresh whole smoke for up to 60 consecutive days. Intrapulmonary deposition of smoke and animal exposure levels, quantified with decachlorobiphenyl and other smoke tracers, indicated a daily cigarette exposure equivalent to approximately a pack and a half per day in man. Pulmonary alveolar macrophage function in situ was quantified by the inactivation of an aerosolized challenge of Staphylococcus aureus six hours after inoculation. Controls (n=120) inactivated 88.8+/-0.64% of the staphylococci. Exposure to whole smoke did not impair intrapulmonary antistaphylococcal defenses, with inactivation rates of 89.8+/-0.97% (n=49) and 89.1+/-0.46% (n=74) at 30 and 60 days, respectively. Inactivation distribution frequency analysis in controls revealed that 7% of animals had inactivation values greater than two standard deviations from the mean. With prolonged exposure mean with less skewing towards the abnormal. Alveolar macrophages harvested from smoked animals were comparable in viability and in vitro antistaphylococcal activity to controls, appeared to be metabolically activated and had specific stereologic ultrastructural alterations. These studies indicate that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke does not impair, and in fact may stimulate, the host defenses of the lung, as evaluated by in vivo and in vitro pulmonary alveolar macrophage function. PMID:843645

  20. 芦荟蒽醌类物质的提取及其抑菌性研究%Extraction of Aloe Anthraquinones and Analysis of Its Antibacterial Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 乔丹; 宝力德

    2011-01-01

    本试验利用超声波提取库拉索芦荟中蒽醌类物质,测定其含量,并对枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌进行抑菌性研究.用滤纸片法、固体稀释法及最小抑菌浓度法(MIC)分别检测芦荟蒽醌类物质对各种菌的抑菌性,并比较分析3种方法的抑菌效果.由固体稀释法测定芦荟蒽醌提取液的抑菌效果可知,蒽醌类物质百分浓度越高,菌落数越少,显示出越高的抑菌性.最小抑菌浓度法(MIC)测出,芦荟蒽醌提取液对大肠杆菌、金色葡萄球菌的MIC为90%,对枯草芽孢杆菌的MIC为80%,显示出MIC都较高,说明低浓度的芦荟蒽醌类抑菌能力有限,需要较高的浓度才能抑制菌生长.%In this study, the Aloe vera L. anthraquinones had been extracted by ultrasonic extraction and its content had been determined. The antibacterial effect of the Aloe anthraquinones on the Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus had been investigated. The filter paper method, solid dilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method had been used to determine the antibacterial effect of the Aloe anthraquinones, and the efeects of this three methods had been compared. The solid dilution method showed that the high concentration of Aloe anthraquinone extract had the significant antibacterial effect. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 90% for E. coli and S. aureus, and 80% for B. subtilis. The MIC of the Aloe anthraquinones showed a higher values, that meant antibacterial activity of Aloe anthraquinones was limited, only the Aloe anthraquinones with higher concentrations could inhibit the bacteria growth.

  1. The Antibacterial Effect of Ethanol Extract of Polish Propolis on Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli Isolated from Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries occurrence is caused by the colonization of oral microorganisms and accumulation of extracellular polysaccharides synthesized by Streptococcus mutans with the synergistic influence of Lactobacillus spp. bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine ex vivo the antibacterial properties of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP, collected in Poland, against the main cariogenic bacteria: salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The isolation of mutans streptococci group bacteria (MS and Lactobacillus spp. (LB from stimulated saliva was performed by in-office CRT bacteria dip slide test. The broth diffusion method and AlamarBlue assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EEP, with the estimation of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The biochemical composition of propolis components was assessed. The mean MIC and MBC values of EEP, in concentrations ranging from 25 mg/mL to 0.025 mg/mL, for the MS and LB were found to be 1.10 mg/mL versus 0.7 mg/mL and 9.01 mg/mL versus 5.91 mg/mL, respectively. The exposure to an extract of Polish propolis affected mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. viability, exhibiting an antibacterial efficacy on mutans streptococci group bacteria and lactobacilli saliva residents, while lactobacilli were more susceptible to EEP. Antibacterial measures containing propolis could be the local agents acting against cariogenic bacteria.

  2. Feasibility, efficacy, and adverse effects of outpatient antibacterial prophylaxis in children with acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroto; Gaur, Aditya H; Cao, Xueyuan; Flynn, Patricia M; Pounds, Stanley B; Avutu, Viswatej; Marszal, Lindsay N; Howard, Scott C; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ribeiro, Raul C; Hayden, Randall T; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intensive chemotherapy for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) incurs the risk of infectious complications, but the benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis remain unclear. METHODS In 103 children treated on the AML02 protocol between October 2002 and October 2008 at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, we retrospectively assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia, clinically or microbiologically confirmed infections (including bacteremia), and antibiotic resistance, and on the results of nasal and rectal surveillance cultures. Initially, patients received no prophylaxis or oral cephalosporin (Group A). Then the protocol was amended to give intravenous cefepime alone or intravenous vancomycin plus either oral cephalosporin, oral ciprofloxacin, or intravenous cefepime (Group B). RESULTS There were 334 infectious episodes. Group A had a significantly greater frequency of documented infections and bacteremia (both P < .0001) (including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteremia, P = .0003 and .001, respectively) than Group B, especially viridans streptococcal bacteremia (P = .001). The incidence of febrile neutropenia without documented infection was not different between the two groups. Five cases of bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurred in group B (vs. none in Group A), without related mortality. Two of these cases were preceded by positive VRE rectal surveillance cultures. CONCLUSIONS Outpatient intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is feasible in children with AML and reduces the frequency of documented infection but not of febrile neutropenia. Despite emergence of VRE bacteremia, the benefits favor antibiotic prophylaxis. Creative approaches to shorten the duration of prophylaxis and thereby minimize resistance should be explored. PMID:24677028

  3. Butyrate enhances antibacterial effects while suppressing other features of alternative activation in IL-4-induced macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Maria R; Saxena, Alpana; Reyes, José-Luis; McKay, Derek M

    2016-05-15

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is produced by fermentation of dietary fiber by the intestinal microbiota; butyrate is the primary energy source of colonocytes and has immunomodulatory effects. Having shown that macrophages differentiated with IL-4 [M(IL-4)s] can suppress colitis, we hypothesized that butyrate would reinforce an M(IL-4) phenotype. Here, we show that in the presence of butyrate M(IL-4)s display reduced expression of their hallmark markers Arg1 and Ym1 and significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, IL-12p40, and IL-10 production. Butyrate treatment likely altered the M(IL-4) phenotype via inhibition of histone deacetylation. Functionally, M(IL-4)s treated with butyrate showed increased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, compared with M(IL-4) and this was not accompanied by enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Culture of regulatory T cells with M(IL-4)s and M(IL-4 + butyrate)s revealed that both macrophage subsets suppressed expression of the regulatory T-cell marker Foxp3. However, Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4 + butyrate) produced less IL-17A than Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4). These data illustrate the importance of butyrate, a microbial-derived metabolite, in the regulation of gut immunity: the demonstration that butyrate promotes phagocytosis in M(IL-4)s that can limit T-cell production of IL-17A reveals novel aspects of bacterial-host interaction in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

  4. Light-activated polymethylmethacrylate nanofibers with antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashnikov, Roman; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Ulbrich, Pavel; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2016-07-01

    The creation of an antibacterial material with triggerable properties enables us to avoid the overuse or misuse of antibacterial substances and, thus, prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. As a potential light-activated antibacterial material, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanofibers doped with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) were prepared by electrospinning. TPP was chosen as an effectively reactive oxygen species (ROS) producer. Antibacterial tests on Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) showed the excellent light-triggerable antibacterial activity of the doped materials. Upon light irradiation at the wavelength corresponding to the TPP absorption peak (405nm), antibacterial activity dramatically increased, mostly due to the release of AgNPs from the polymer matrix. Furthermore, under prolonged light irradiation, the AgNPs/TPP/PMMA nanofibers, displayed enhanced longevity and photothermal stability. Thus, our results suggest that the proposed material is a promising option for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteria. PMID:27127048

  5. Preparation of cellulose fibres with antibacterial Ag-loading nano-SiO2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Shuhua; Niu Runlin; Jia Husheng; Wei Liqiao; Daijinming; Liu Xuguang; Xu Bingshe

    2011-07-01

    The antibacterial cellulose fibres with acrylamide polymerization and Ag-loading SiO2 nanoantibacterial materials were successfully prepared. The chemical structures and morphologies of antibacterial cellulose fibres were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that acrylamide was adsorbed on the surface of the cellulose fibres and formed a layer with thickness of 50–100 nm. The nano-SiO2 composite antibacterial materials were combined with cellulose fibres firmly by infiltrating into polyacrylamide layer about 100 nm. The antibacterial cellulose fibres with antibacterial layer owned excellent antibacterial effect.

  6. The synthesis and characterization of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Kao, T H; Tsai, T Y; Chiu, C P; Kumar, R; Chen, B H, E-mail: 002622@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-18

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly({gamma}-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both {gamma}-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  7. The synthesis and characterization of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, B. Stephen; Kao, T. H.; Tsai, T. Y.; Chiu, C. P.; Kumar, R.; Chen, B. H.

    2011-02-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both γ-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  8. Metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides in the coryneform bacteria Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Micrococcus luteus.

    OpenAIRE

    Auling, G; Moss, B

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of exogenous pyrimidine bases and nucleosides was investigated in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Micrococcus luteus with fluorinated analogs and radioactive precursors. Salvage of thymine and thymidine was found in M. luteus, but not in B. ammoniagenes. Exogenous uracil or uracil nucleosides, but not cytosine or cytosine nucleosides, were nucleic acid precursors for both bacteria. By examining the possible nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes, it can be suggested that the pyrimidin...

  9. Phosphorylation of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides by isolated rat liver mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaba,Kozo

    1975-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of 5'-AMP, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP and 5'UMP was confirmed in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with alpha-ketoglutarate, inorganic phosphate, purine nucleoside and pyrimidine nucleoside. Increased incorporation of 32Pi into ATP, GTP and UTP was observed by adding purine- and pyrimidine nucleosides. The phosphorylation of nucleosides was inhibited severely by arsenite and affected slightly by the addition of nuclear or post-mitochondrial fraction.

  10. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of 3-Aminoindole Nucleosides of 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, Adel A. H.; Elessawy, Farag A.; Barakat, Yousif A. [Menoufia Univ., Shebin El-Koam (Egypt); Ellatif, Mona M. Abd [The British Univ. in Egypt, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-15

    A new method for the construction of 3-aminoindole nucleosides of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose based is presented. Nitration and acetylation of the indole nucleosides by acetic anhydride-nitric acid mixture followed by reduction using silver catalyst (SNSM) impregnated on silica gel, afforded the corresponding amino indole nucleosides. The nucleosides were tested for antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) to show different degrees of antiviral activities or inhibitory actions.

  11. Milestones in the discovery of antiviral agents: nucleosides and nucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik de Clercq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, a number of milestones in the antiviral research field on nucleosides and nucleotides are reviewed in which the author played a significant part, especially in the initial stages of their development. Highlighted are the amino acyl esters of acyclovir, particularly valacyclovir (VACV, brivudin (BVDU and the valine ester of Cf1743 (FV-100, the 2′,3′-dideoxynucleosides (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTIs, the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (S-HPMPA, (S-HPMPC (cidofovir and alkoxyalkyl esters thereof (HDP-, ODE-CDV, adefovir and adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, combinations containing TDF and emtricitabine, i.e., Truvada®, Atripla®, Complera®/Eviplera® and the Quad pill, and the phosphonoamidate derivatives GS-7340, GS-9131, GS-9191 and GS-9219.

  12. Lysozyme-Based Antibacterial Nanomotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiristi, Melek; Singh, Virendra V; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Uygun, Murat; Soto, Fernando; Aktaş Uygun, Deniz; Wang, Joseph

    2015-09-22

    An effective and rapid bacterial killing nanotechnology strategy based on lysozyme-modified fuel-free nanomotors is demonstrated. The efficient antibacterial property of lysozyme, associated with the cleavage of glycosidic bonds of peptidoglycans present in the bacteria cell wall, has been combined with ultrasound (US)-propelled porous gold nanowire (p-AuNW) motors as biocompatible dynamic bacteria nanofighters. Coupling the antibacterial activity of the enzyme with the rapid movement of these p-AuNWs, along with the corresponding fluid dynamics, promotes enzyme-bacteria interactions and prevents surface aggregation of dead bacteria, resulting in a greatly enhanced bacteria-killing capability. The large active surface area of these nanoporous motors offers a significantly higher enzyme loading capacity compared to nonporous AuNWs, which results in a higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Detailed characterization studies and control experiments provide useful insights into the underlying factors controlling the antibacterial performance of the new dynamic bacteria nanofighters. Rapid and effective killing of the Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus bacteria (69-84% within 1-5 min) is demonstrated. PMID:26308491

  13. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  14. PROPERTIES OF ANTIBACTERIAL MEDICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko N. N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use vector algebra theory for quantitative description of antibacterial medications and comparison of their properties has been shown. Mathematic formulas for description of medications’ antibacterial action basing on data of simple to use well method have been presented. This method allows evaluation of medications’ antibacterial activity and opportunity to choose the most active ones, as well as compare them with each other. It is noted that medications of natural origin are inferior to those of synthetic origin as for their antibacterial activity, and new galenic medications possess the most antimicrobial properties. The prospects of this method for pharmacoeconomic analysis of medications conducted in order to chose optimal cost/quality ratio has been demonstrated.

  15. Synthesis of some novel hydrazono acyclic nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Soltani Rad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses of novel hydrazono acyclic nucleosides similar to miconazole scaffolds are described. In this series of acyclic nucleosides, pyrimidine as well as purine and other azole derivatives replaced the imidazole function in miconazole and the ether group was replaced with a hydrazone moiety using phenylhydrazine. To interpret the dominant formation of (E-hydrazone derivatives rather than (Z-isomers, PM3 semiempirical quantum mechanic calculations were carried out which indicated that the (E-isomers had the lower heats of formation.

  16. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extracts of Clitoria ternatea and Solanum nigrum and Study of Its Antibacterial Effect against Common Nosocomial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanaswamy Krithiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nanotechnology for developing biosynthetic and environmental friendly technology for synthesis of nanomaterials. Silver has been known to have effective bactericidal properties for centuries. Nowadays, silver based topical dressings have been widely used as a treatment for infection in burns, open wounds, and chronic ulcer. As the pathogenic organisms are getting evolved day by day due to mutation and gaining antibiotic resistance, an important industrial sector of nanoscience deals with the preparation and study of nanoparticles in antibacterial clothing, burn ointments, and coating for medical device. The size of nanomaterials is much smaller than that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful in both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research application. The purpose of the study is to synthesize and characterize the plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Clitoria ternatea and Solanum nigrum. Further investigation of the shape and size of nanoparticle was done by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies. A silver nanoparticle at different concentration was assessed for its antibacterial effect, against various nosocomial pathogens.

  17. Early Cellular Responses of Purine Nucleoside-mediated Protection of Hypoxia-induced Injuries of Neuronal PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Tomaselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in brain may lead to cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. In parallel adenosine, a powerful endogenous neuroprotectant is formed. We wanted to investigate the effect of adenosine and its purine nucleoside relatives, inosine and guanosine on early cellular responses to hypoxia. O2-sensitive neuronal PC12-cells were subjected to chemical hypoxia induced with rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I. Loss of viability after hypoxic insult was impressively rescued by adenosine, guanosine and inosine. PC12-cells mainly express the A2A adenosine receptor. Its inhibition with a specific antagonist (CSC induced cell death of PC12-cells, which could be salvaged by adenosine but not with guanosine or inosine. We have previously demonstrated the important role of mitogen activated protein kinases 1/2 (p42/44 MAPK in purine-mediated rescue. In this study we were interested in the involvement of protein kinases whose activities mediate these processes, including protein kinase A (PKA, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K and protein kinase C-related kinases (PRK 1/2. Pharmacological inhibition of PKA and PI3-K increased hypoxia-induced toxicity and likewise also affected the rescue by purine nucleosides. Nerve growth factor (NGF and purine nucleosides induced an activation of PRK 1/2, which to our knowledge indicates for the first time that these kinases are potentially involved in purine nucleoside-mediated rescue of hypoxic neuronal cells. Results suggest that A2A receptor expressing cells are mainly dependent on the purine nucleoside adenosine for their rescue after hypoxic insult. In addition to PKA, PI3-K is an important effector molecule in A2A-mediated signaling and for the rescue of PC12-cells after hypoxic insult.

  18. Effect of Extraction Conditions on Measured Total Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Black Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Gokce Polat; Ferda Sari; Y Sedat Velioglu; Nihal Turkmen

    2007-01-01

    Black tea was extracted for 2, 8 and 18 h with absolute acetone, N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF), ethanol and methanol and their 50% aqueous solutions. The extracts were screened for total polyphenol contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The polyphenol content of the extracts was found to be in the range of 0.44-114.01 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight tea, depending on the solvent used and the length of the extraction process. In general, aqueous acetone or DMF extract...

  19. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  20. Core–shell magnetic nanoparticles display synergistic antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus when combined with cathelicidin LL-37 or selected ceragenins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Piktel, Ewelina; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Z; Markiewicz, Karolina H; Durnaś, Bonita; Wątek, Marzena; Puszkarz, Irena; Wróblewska, Marta; Niklińska, Wiesława; Savage, Paul B; Bucki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Core–shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are promising candidates in the development of new treatment methods against infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, the bactericidal activity of human antibacterial peptide cathelicidin LL-37, synthetic ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131, and classical antibiotics vancomycin and colistin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Xen 30 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen 5, was assessed alone and in combination with core–shell MNPs. Fractional inhibitory concentration index and fractional bactericidal concentration index were determined by microdilution methods. The potential of combined therapy using nanomaterials and selected antibiotics was confirmed using chemiluminescence measurements. Additionally, the ability of tested agents to prevent bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using crystal violet staining. In most conditions, synergistic or additive effects were observed when combinations of core–shell MNPs with ceragenins or classical antibiotics were used. Our study revealed that a mixture of membrane-active agents such as LL-37 peptide or ceragenin CSA-13 with MNPs potentialized their antibacterial properties and might be considered as a method of delaying and overcoming bacterial drug resistance. PMID:27799768

  1. Nahua indian medicinal plants (Mexico): Inhibitory activity on NF-κB as an anti-inflammatory model and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, P M; Schmitz, M L; Weimann, C; Kist, M; Heinrich, M

    1996-11-01

    Selected plants documented as medicinal in an ethnobotanical study with the Nahua of the Sierra de Zongolica (Veracruz, Mexico) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. One of the potential sides of action of anti-inflammatory drugs is the transcription factor NF-κB. This factor is essential for the immune, inflammatory, and acute phase responses. We therefore tested extracts from a total of 28 plants used by the Nahua Indians for their potential effect on the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (Asteraceae) was the only extract which showed inhibitory activity. Nonspecific DNA binding activities were not noticably influenced. Phytochemical studies to isolate the active principle and further biochemical studies in order to better understand the mode of action of this NF-κB inhibitor have been initiated. Five plants showed noteworthy antibacterial activity against some pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25933 and Yersinia enterocolitica 03) and nonpathogenic (E. coli DSM 1077, Micrococcus luteus DSM 348) microorganism: Acacia cornigera, Cuscuta tinctoria, Ludwigia octovalvis, Lysiloma divaricata, and Tithonia diversifolia. PMID:23195081

  2. Effect of NaOH concentration on structural, surface and antibacterial activity of CuO nanorods synthesized by direct sonochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, S.; Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Suresh Kumar, P.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2014-02-01

    Highly efficient Copper oxide (CuO) nanorods were synthesized by using one step sonochemical method under room temperature with change in NaOH concentration. XRD confirms the prepared nanorods are in pure monoclinic phase with lattice constants a = 4.68 Å, b = 3.42 Å, and c = 5.13 Å and FESEM analysis reveals an average diameter of 50-100 nm. Optical absorption spectra exhibits the strong blue shift compared with bulk and the bandgap increases with decreasing the size of the nanorods which is due to the nanosize effect. The composition of CuO nanorods were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirms the formation of monoclinic phase of CuO and the Thermal analysis was done by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The antibacterial properties of copper oxide nanorods were investigated using human pathogens and was compared based on diameter of inhibition zone using agar well diffusion method. The synthesized copper oxide nanostructures show excellent antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium than Staphylococcus aureus strain.

  3. Comparative Phenolic Fingerprint and LC-ESI+QTOF-MS Composition of Oregano and Rosemary Hydrophilic Extracts in Relation to their Antibacterial Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Bunghez; Mihaela Ancuţa Morar; Raluca Maria Pop; Florina Romanciuc; Florina Csernatoni; Florinela Fetea; Zoriţa Diaconeasa; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) are known aromatic plants used as spice, with good flavoring, preservative, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Beside their known terpenoid content responsible for the antibacterial activity, the water-soluble compounds (phenolic derivatives) are of high interest not only for their antioxidant activity but as a good alternative or as a hydrophilic new antibacterial solution. Two hydrophilic extracts from each plant were obt...

  4. 竹醋液在净味抗菌内墙乳胶漆中的应用%The Application of Bamboo Vinegar in Interior Latex Paint with Clean Taste and Antibacterial Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲; 胡中源; 王德华

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种新型的净味抗菌内墙乳胶漆,精选纯天然竹醋液,采用中空聚合物包埋,延缓了天然竹醋液的挥发。保证了长期的抗菌作用。%A new interior latex paint with clean taste and antibacterial effect was introduced. The latex paint was possessed of long antibacterial activity by selection of natural bamboo vinegar and embedding with hollow polymer as to delay the evaporation of natural bamboo vinegar.

  5. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases activate nucleoside antibiotics in severely pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Shannon, O.; Clausen, A.R.;

    2007-01-01

    Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against...... alternative for combating pathogenic bacteria....

  6. Synthesis, bioanalysis and pharmacology of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are an important class of drugs in anticancer and antiviral therapy. The compounds are, however, only active after intracellular conversion to their mono-, di- and triphosphate nucleotide form. In this thesis the development of sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mas

  7. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Combretum edwardsii, Combretum krausii, and Maytenus nemorosa and Their Synergistic Effects in Combination with Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwujekwu, Jude C; van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the antibacterial activity of crude extracts of C. edwardsii, Combretum krausii, and Maytenus nemorosa as well as their interactions with selected antibiotics against drug resistant bacterial strains. Using the rapid p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride colorimetric assay, minimum inhibitory concentration values of plant extracts and antibiotics were determined. The interactions of plant extracts and antibiotics were studied using a checkerboard method. The MICs of the plant extracts and antibiotics were in the range of 0.037-6.25 and 0.001-2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The plant fractions tested in the present study displayed varying levels of antibacterial activity depending on the bacterial strains. Generally, Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible of the three strains of bacteria while the other two beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria were the most resistant. The hexane leaf extract of M. nemorosa was the most active (MIC = 37 μg/ml) against S. aureus. Ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. krausii was the most active against Klebsiella pneumoniae and ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. edwardsii was the most active against Escherichia coli. Synergistic interactions were detected in 13% of the combinations against E. coli, 27% of the combinations against K. pneumoniae and 80% of the combinations against S. aureus. The few synergistic interactions observed in the present study suggest that the crude extracts of the leaves of M. nemorosa, C. edwardsii, and C. krausii could be potential sources of broad spectrum antibiotic resistance modifying compounds. PMID:27471466

  8. Cationic amphiphilic non-hemolytic polyacrylates with superior antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Ashish; He, Edward; Lee, Kevin; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Acrylic copolymers with appropriate compositions of counits having cationic charge with 2-carbon and 6-carbon spacer arms can show superior antibacterial activities with concomitant very low hemolytic effect. These amphiphilic copolymers represent one of the most promising synthetic polymer antibacterial systems reported. PMID:24854366

  9. Novel reactivity of Fhit proteins: catalysts for fluorolysis of nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates and nucleoside 5'-phosphosulfates to generate nucleoside 5'-phosphorofluoridates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyła-Mamoń, Anna M; Zimny, Jarosław; Romanowska, Joanna; Kraszewski, Adam; Stawinski, Jacek; Bieganowski, Paweł; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Fragile histidine triad (HIT) proteins (Fhits) occur in all eukaryotes but their function is largely unknown. Human Fhit is presumed to function as a tumour suppressor. Previously, we demonstrated that Fhits catalyse hydrolysis of not only dinucleoside triphosphates but also natural adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH2-pA) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (SO4-pA) as well as synthetic adenosine 5'-phosphorofluoridate (F-pA). In the present study, we describe an Fhit-catalysed displacement of the amino group of nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates (NH2-pNs) or the sulfate moiety of nucleoside 5'-phosphosulfates (SO4-pNs) by fluoride anion. This results in transient accumulation of the corresponding nucleoside 5'-phosphorofluoridates (F-pNs). Substrate specificity and kinetic characterization of the fluorolytic reactions catalysed by the human Fhit and other examples of involvement of fluoride in the biochemistry of nucleotides are described. Among other HIT proteins, human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein (Hint1) catalysed fluorolysis of NH2-pA 20 times and human Hint2 40 times more slowly than human Fhit. PMID:25826698

  10. Resistance issues with new nucleoside/nucleotide backbone options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Mark A; Turner, Dan

    2004-09-01

    The nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) remain an enduring feature of combination therapy. As NRTI/NtRTI options continue to expand, questions arise about how best to combine these agents to create effective dual NRTI/NtRTI backbones in antiretroviral regimens while avoiding treatment-emergent drug resistance. Clinicians must consider how NRTIs/NtRTIs such as tenofovir DF (TDF), abacavir (ABC), and emtricitabine (FTC), as well as new once-daily and coformulated NRTIs/NtRTIs, interact with older agents when combined in novel regimens and how sequencing the new NRTIs can preserve future treatment options. Resistance data from clinical trials have revealed important information on the patterns, prevalence, and effects of resistance seen among patients experiencing virologic failure. In recent years, the prevalence of some mutations such as M184V and Q151M has remained relatively constant, while the L74V mutation, the 69 insertions, and thymidine analogue mutations have decreased in prevalence. Other mutations such as K65R and Y115F, while still relatively uncommon, are increasing in prevalence. This increase may be due to the use of new treatment combinations that select for these mutations at a higher rate. Clinical trials suggest that new regimens containing TDF or ABC select for K65R and that this mutation is observed more frequently with TDF; in contrast, L74V is observed more frequently in ABC-containing regimens but is not commonly selected by TDF-containing regimens. Several lines of evidence are converging to suggest that the presence of zidovudine may decrease the risk of L74V and K65R in ABC- or TDF-containing regimens. This review summarizes the clinical implications of resistance profiles associated with new NRTI/NtRTI regimens in current use and in advanced clinical studies. PMID:15319668

  11. Focus on Chirality of HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Famiglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chiral HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs are of great interest since one enantiomer is often more potent than the corresponding counterpart against the HIV-1 wild type (WT and the HIV-1 drug resistant mutant strains. This review exemplifies the various studies made to investigate the effect of chirality on the antiretroviral activity of top HIV-1 NNRTI compounds, such as nevirapine (NVP, efavirenz (EFV, alkynyl- and alkenylquinazolinone DuPont compounds (DPC, diarylpyrimidine (DAPY, dihydroalkyloxybenzyloxopyrimidine (DABO, phenethylthiazolylthiourea (PETT, indolylarylsulfone (IAS, arylphosphoindole (API and trifluoromethylated indole (TFMI The chiral separation, the enantiosynthesis, along with the biological properties of these HIV-1 NNRTIs, are discussed.

  12. Metabolic Abnormalities Associated with the Use of Protease Inhibitors and Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu N. Rao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS has been associated with multiple abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism. Specifically, these abnormalities include insulin resistance, increased triglycerides and increased LDL cholesterol levels. The metabolic disturbances are due to a combination of factors, including the direct effect of medications, restoration to health and HIV disease, as well as individual genetic predisposition. Of the available anti-retroviral medications, indinavir has been associated with causing the most insulin resistance and ritonavir with causing the most hypertriglyceridemia.

  13. Long-term effectiveness of initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- versus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy: implications for first-line therapy choice in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane D Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In many resource-limited settings, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART failure is diagnosed clinically or immunologically. As such, there is a high likelihood that patients may stay on a virologically failing regimen for a substantial period of time. Here, we compared the long-term impact of initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI- versus boosted protease inhibitor (bPI-based cART in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods: We followed prospectively 3925 ART-naïve patients who started NNRTIs (N=1963, 50% or bPIs (N=1962; 50% from 1 January 2000 until 30 June 2013 in BC. At six months, we assessed whether patients virologically failed therapy (a plasma viral load (pVL >50 copies/mL, and we stratified them based on the pVL at the time of failure ≤500 versus >500 copies/mL. We then followed these patients for another six months and calculated their probability of achieving subsequent viral suppression (pVL 500 copies/mL, they had a 20% lower probability of suppressing at 12 months than pVL-matched bPI initiators (0.37 (0.29–0.45 vs. 0.46 (0.38–0.54. In terms of evolving HIV drug resistance, those who failed on NNRTI performed worse than bPI in all scenarios, especially if they failed with a viral load >500 copies/mL. Conclusions: Our results show that patients who virologically failed at six months on NNRTI and continued on the same regimen had a lower probability of subsequently achieving viral suppression and a higher chance of evolving HIV drug resistance. These results suggest that improving access to regular virologic monitoring is critically important, especially if NNRTI-based cART is to remain a preferred choice for first-line therapy in resource-limited settings.

  14. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebi S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera so-lution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. Results: The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966. The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  15. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebi S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. Only teeth without conditions such as cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification were included in the study. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subse-quent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number colonies of the bacte-ria were then counted. Results: The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent T-test (p= 0.966. The in-hibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator but it is suggested for the future studies to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera for longer durations and as an intracanal medicament.

  16. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism.

  17. Two nucleoside uptake systems in Lactococcus lactis: Competition between purine nucleosides and cytidine allows for modulation of intracellular nucleotide pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Hammer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    in Lactococcus lactis were investigated by measuring the uptake of radioactively labeled nucleosides. The K. for for inosine, cytidine, and uridine was determined to be in the micromolar range. Furthermore, it was found that cytidine and inosine are competitive inhibitors of each other, whereas no competition...

  18. Comparative study of the effects of ceftizoxime, piperacillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam concentrations on antibacterial activity and selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants of Enterobacter cloacae and Bacteroides fragilis in vitro and in vivo in mixed-infection abscesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.T. Stearne (Lorna); D. van Boxtel (Doret); N. Lemmens; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.W. Mouton (Johan); I.C. Gyssens (Inge)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of ceftizoxime (CZX), piperacillin (PIP), and PIP-tazobactam (PT) concentrations on the antibacterial activity and selection of resistant mutants of Bacteroides fragilis and Enterobacter cloacae were investigated in vitro in a mixed-culture anaerobic time-ki

  19. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L.; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Nucleoside drugs induce cellular differentiation by caspase-dependent degradation of stem cell factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Musch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stem cell characteristics are an important feature of human cancer cells and play a major role in the therapy resistance of tumours. Strategies to target cancer stem cells are thus of major importance for cancer therapy. Differentiation therapy by nucleoside drugs represents an attractive approach for the elimination of cancer stem cells. However, even if it is generally assumed that the activity of these drugs is mediated by their ability to modulate epigenetic pathways, their precise mode of action remains to be established. We therefore analysed the potential of three nucleoside analogues to induce differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 and compared their effect to the natural ligand retinoic acid. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All nucleoside analogues analyzed, but not retinoic acid, triggered proteolytic degradation of the Polycomb group protein EZH2. Two of them, 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (decitabine, also induced a decrease in global DNA methylation. Nevertheless, only decitabine and 1beta-arabinofuranosylcytosine (cytarabine effectively triggered neuronal differentiation of NT2 cells. We show that drug-induced differentiation, in contrast to retinoic acid induction, is caused by caspase activation, which mediates depletion of the stem cell factors NANOG and OCT4. Consistent with this observation, protein degradation and differentiation could be counteracted by co-treatment with caspase inhibitors or by depletion of CASPASE-3 and CASPASE-7 through dsRNA interference. In agreement with this, OCT4 was found to be a direct in-vitro-target of CASPASE-7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that drug-induced differentiation is not a consequence of pharmacologic epigenetic modulation, but is induced by the degradation of stem-cell-specific proteins by caspases. Our results thus uncover a novel pathway that induces differentiation of embryonic cancer stem cells and is triggered by

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of antibacterial effect of Ag nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Daissy Paredes,1 Claudia Ortiz,2 Rodrigo Torres1 1Escuela de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia; 2Escuela de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been shown great interest because of their potential antibacterial effect. Recently, this has been increased due to resistance in some pathogenic bacteria strains to conventional antibiotics, which has initiated new studies to search for more effective treatments against resistant microorganisms. For these reasons, AgNPs have become an important approach for applications in nanobiotechnology in the development of antibiotic treatment of different bacterial infections. This study was aimed at synthesizing AgNPs using cysteine as a reducer agent and cetyl-tri-methyl-ammonium bromide as a stabilizer in order to obtain more efficient treatment against the pathogen bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7. These AgNPs were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. From these analyses, formation of spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 55 nm was confirmed. Finally, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC of these AgNPs against pathogenic strains E. coli O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA were determined in both solid and liquid media. MIC and MBC values were around 0.25 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. These parameters were comparable to those reported in the literature and were even more effective than other synthesized AgNPs. Keywords: nanomaterials, antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC, minimal bactericide concentration, MBC

  2. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity. PMID:26057244

  3. Effect of In doping on the properties and antibacterial activity of ZnO films prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, C; Pavithra, G; Dhanapandian, S; Dhamodharan, P

    2015-10-01

    Pure and In-doped ZnO thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results showed that all films were polycrystalline in nature with the wurzite structure. A change in preferential orientation from (002) to (101) plane was observed with increase in content of Indium. A reduce in crystallite size was observed with increase of In content. The small sized grains with the porous nature of the film was observed from SEM analysis. AFM study depicted polycrystalline nature and uniformly distributed grains with small pores in the doped film. A decrease in band gap was noticed with increase in In content. The absence of green emission in PL spectra indicated the decreased oxygen defects. The decrease in the resistivity with increase of Hall mobility was noted for the doped film. A better antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus by doped ZnO thin film. PMID:25997176

  4. Copper(II) and uranyl(II) complexes with acylthiosemicarbazide: synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activity and effects on the growth of promyelocytic leukemia cells HL-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelusiu, Madalina Veronica; Almajan, Gabriela Laura; Rosu, Tudor; Negoiu, Maria; Almajan, Eva-Ruxandra; Roy, Jenny

    2009-08-01

    New chelates of N(1)-[4-(4-X-phenylsulfonyl)benzoyl]-N(4)-butyl-thiosemicarbazide (X=H, Cl, Br) with Cu(2+) and UO(2)(2+) have been prepared and characterized by analytical and physico-chemical techniques such as magnetic susceptibility measurements, elemental and thermal analyses, electronic, ESR and IR spectral studies. Room temperature ESR spectra of Cu(II) complexes yield {g} values characteristic of distorted octahedral and pseudo-tetrahedral geometry. Infrared spectra indicate that complexes contain six-coordinate uranium atom with the ligand atoms arranged in an equatorial plane around the linear uranyl group. Effects of these complexes on the growth of human promyelocytic leukemia cells HL-60 and their antibacterial activity (against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 strains) were studied comparatively with that of free ligands. PMID:19356828

  5. Systematic analysis of enzymatic DNA polymerization using oligo-DNA templates and triphosphate analogs involving 2′,4′-bridged nucleosides

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwahara, Masayasu; Obika, Satoshi; Nagashima, Jun-ichi; Ohta, Yuki; Suto, Yoshiyuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sawai, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    In order to systematically analyze the effects of nucleoside modification of sugar moieties in DNA polymerase reactions, we synthesized 16 modified templates containing 2′,4′-bridged nucleotides and three types of 2′,4′-bridged nucleoside-5′-triphospates with different bridging structures. Among the five types of thermostable DNA polymerases used, Taq, Phusion HF, Vent(exo-), KOD Dash and KOD(exo-), the KOD Dash and KOD(exo-) DNA polymerases could smoothly read through the modified templates ...

  6. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M.; Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it; Miola, M.; Perero, S.; Balagna, C.; Verne, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering (Italy); Gautier, G. [IMAMOTER Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (Italy); Manfredotti, Ch.; Battiato, A.; Vittone, E. [University of Torino, Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM (Italy); Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK (Italy); Bogdanovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Experimental Physics Department (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150-450 Degree-Sign C were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  7. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150–450 °C were examined by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 °C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 °C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 °C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  8. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  9. Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.L. Parente

    2009-01-01

    resulting in less edematous crusts. There was also an increase in collagen in the granulation tissue and an antibacterial effect. Therefore, calendula ethanolic extract positively acted on the healing process of cutaneous wounds of rats and presented in vitro antibacterial activity.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Punica granatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Tunç

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was investigated that the extracts (ethanol, aceton, methanol, ethyl acetat obtained from fruit peels of the plant to whether has antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mitis CNCTC 4/77, Streptococcus salivarius CNCTC 64/59, Streptococcus mutans CNCTC 8/77, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 bacteria strains in vitro. The antibacterial activity of extracts was evaluated according to disc diffusion method. It has been determined that pomegranate peel's extract had the highest inhibition zone diameters ( 18-30 mm against S. epidermidis and S. aureus bacteria strains. The antibacterial activity of plant against Streptococcus mitis is determined in this study for the first time.

  11. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins. PMID:27284054

  12. TDP1 repairs nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage induced by chain-terminating anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shar-yin N.; Murai, Junko; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Naumova, Alena; Gmeiner, William H.; Pommier, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs) that cause stalling or premature termination of DNA replication forks are widely used as anticancer and antiviral drugs. However, it is not well understood how cells repair the DNA damage induced by these drugs. Here, we reveal the importance of tyrosyl–DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) in the repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage induced by CTNAs. On investigating the effects of four CTNAs—acyclovir (ACV), cytarabine (Ara-C), zidovudine (AZT...

  13. Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: a multi-country, prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10% higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART over the first 48 wk of therapy than would women without a prior exposure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled 355 NVP-exposed and 523 NVP-unexposed women at two sites in Zambia, one site in Kenya, and two sites in Thailand into a prospective, non-inferiority cohort study and followed them for 48 wk on ART. Those who died, discontinued NNRTI-containing ART, or had a plasma viral load >or=400 copies/ml at either the 24 wk or 48 wk study visits and confirmed on repeat testing were characterized as having failed therapy. Overall, 114 of 355 NVP-exposed women (32.1% and 132 of 523 NVP-unexposed women (25.2% met criteria for treatment failure. The difference in failure rates between the exposure groups was 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%-13.0%. The failure rates of women stratified by our predefined exposure interval categories were as follows: 47 of 116 women in whom less than 6 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (40%; p<0.001 compared to unexposed women; 25 of 67 women in whom 7-12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (37%; p = 0.04 compared to unexposed women; and 42 of 172 women in whom more than 12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (24%; p = 0.82 compared to unexposed women. Locally weighted regression analysis also indicated a clear inverse relationship between virologic failure and the exposure interval. CONCLUSIONS: Prior exposure to single-dose NVP was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure; however, this

  14. Ethenoguanines undergo glycosylation by nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases at non-natural sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Ye

    Full Text Available Deoxyribosyl transferases and functionally related purine nucleoside phosphorylases are used extensively for synthesis of non-natural deoxynucleosides as pharmaceuticals or standards for characterizing and quantitating DNA adducts. Hence exploring the conformational tolerance of the active sites of these enzymes is of considerable practical interest. We have determined the crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution of Lactobacillus helveticus purine deoxyribosyl transferase (PDT with the tricyclic purine 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine (N2,3-ethenoguanine at the active site. The active site electron density map was compatible with four orientations, two consistent with sites for deoxyribosylation and two appearing to be unproductive. In accord with the crystal structure, Lactobacillus helveticus PDT glycosylates the 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine at N7 and N1, with a marked preference for N7. The activity of Lactobacillus helveticus PDT was compared with that of the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase enzymes (DRT Type II from Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus fermentum, which were somewhat more effective in the deoxyribosylation than Lactobacillus helveticus PDT, glycosylating the substrate with product profiles dependent on the pH of the incubation. The purine nucleoside phosphorylase of Escherichia coli, also commonly used in ribosylation of non-natural bases, was an order of magnitude less efficient than the transferase enzymes. Modeling based on published active-site structures as templates suggests that in all cases, an active site Phe is critical in orienting the molecular plane of the purine derivative. Adventitious hydrogen bonding with additional active site residues appears to result in presentation of multiple nucleophilic sites on the periphery of the acceptor base for ribosylation to give a distribution of nucleosides. Chemical glycosylation of O9-benzylated 8,9-dihydro-9-oxoimidazo[2,1-b]purine also resulted

  15. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlamborová, Irena; Zajícová, Veronika; Karpíšková, Jana; Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 °C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 °C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale. PMID:25428071

  16. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamborova, Irena [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Zajicova, Veronika, E-mail: veronika.zajicova@tul.cz [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Karpiskova, Jana [Institute of Novel Technologies and Applied Informatics, Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 Degree-Sign C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale.

  17. Effects of Cd and Al stress on secondary metabolites, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. & C.A. Mey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okem, Ambrose; Stirk, Wendy A; Street, Renée A; Southway, Colin; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) and aluminium (Al) on the accumulation of phenolics, flavonoids and the bioactive compound hypoxoside in Hypoxis hemerocallidea. In addition, antioxidant scavenging and antibacterial activity were assessed to evaluate if Cd and Al stress affect the accumulation of bioactive compounds in H. hemerocallidea. In vitro grown plantlets of H. hemerocallidea were acclimatized for seven months in a greenhouse. Thereafter plants were exposed to various concentrations of Cd and Al both singularly and in combination in the form of Cd(NO3)2 (2, 5, 10 mg Cd/L); Al3(NO3)3 (500, 1000, 1500 mg Al/L) and combinations of Cd and Al (Cd 2:Al 500, Cd 5:Al 1000 and Cd 10:Al 1500 mg/L) for a further six weeks. The highest amounts of Cd and Al translocated to the shoot were 34 and 1608 mg/L respectively. Phytochemical screening showed significantly high amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids at the moderate Cd treatment (5 mg/L) compared to the controls. Exposure to Cd and Al significantly decreased the accumulation of hypoxoside. There was a significant increase in diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant scavenging activity in most of the metal-treated plants compared to the positive control ascorbic acid. Extracts from Cd 2 mg/L treatment exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus compared to the control. The results of the present study revealed that cultivating H. hemerocallidea on metal contaminated soils affects the accumulation of the bioactive compound, hypoxoside.

  18. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol–gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 °C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 °C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus — MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale.

  19. Developing of a novel antibacterial agent by functionalization of graphene oxide with guanidine polymer with enhanced antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Sun, Shiyu; Dong, Alideertu; Hao, Yanping; Shi, Shuangqiang; Sun, Zijia; Gao, Ge; Chen, Yuxin

    2015-11-01

    New materials with excellent antibacterial activity attract numerous research interests. Herein, a facile synthetic method of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHGC) dual-polymer-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) (GO-PEG-PHGC), a novel antibacterial material, was reported. The as-prepared products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray pattern (XRD) and elemental analysis. The antibacterial effect on the bacterial strain was investigated by incubating both Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The results show that GO-PEG-PHGC has enhanced antibacterial activity when compared to GO, GO-PEG or GO-PHGC alone. The improved antibacterial activity was described to be related to a better dispersion of GO-PEG-PHGC in the presence of PEG. This better dispersion leads to a greater contact between the bacteria membrane and nanomaterials, therefore leading to greater cell damage. Not only Gram-negative bacteria but also Gram-positive bacteria are greatly inhibited by this antibacterial agent. With the powerful antibacterial activity as well as its low cost and facile preparation, the GO-PEG-PHGC as a novel antibacterial agent can find potential application in the areas of healthcare and environmental engineering.

  20. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L G; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  1. Mildiomycin: a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Cosín, M; Carrasco, L

    1985-03-01

    Mildiomycin, a new nucleoside antibiotic, selectively inhibits protein synthesis in HeLa cells, and is less active in the inhibition of RNA or DNA synthesis. An increased inhibition of translation by mildiomycin is observed in cultured HeLa cells when they are permeabilized by encephalomyocarditis virus. This observation suggests that this antibiotic does not easily pass through the cell membrane, as occurs with other nucleoside and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The inhibition of translation is also observed in cell-free systems, such as endogenous protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or the synthesis of polyphenylalanine directed by poly (U). Finally the mode of action of mildiomycin was investigated and the results suggest that the compound blocks the peptidyl-transferase center.

  2. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates from nucleotides and trimetaphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates (N5PP) formed when solutions of nucleoside 5'-phosphates (N5P) and trimetaphosphate (TMP) are dessicated at room temperature are studied by paper chromatography, electrophoresis, and metal catalytic reactions. Divalent Mg ion exhibited superior catalytic function to other divalent metal ions in the reaction. Major reaction products are indicated. The importance of the N5PP series, TMP, and N5-triphosphate as substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis, and under postulated prebiotic conditions likely to obtain during prebiological ages of the earth, is emphasized and discussed. Alternate drying and wetting, evaporation from a prebiotic puddle, concentration of solubles in the remaining liquid phase, metal catalysis, and the role of these substances in the formation of amino acids and long-chain polyphosphates are considered.

  3. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L. G.; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  4. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  5. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  6. Locked and unlocked nucleosides in functional nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Holger; Vester, Birte

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic acids are able to adopt a plethora of structures, many of which are of interest in therapeutics, bio- or nanotechnology. However, structural and biochemical stability is a major concern which has been addressed by incorporating a range of modifications and nucleoside derivatives. This rev...... review summarizes the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) and un-locked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers in functional nucleic acids such as aptamers, ribozymes, and DNAzymes....

  7. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  8. A comparison of enzymatic phosphorylation and phosphatidylation of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birichevskaya, Larisa L; Kvach, Sergei V; Sivets, Grigorii G; Kalinichenko, Elena N; Zinchenko, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic 5'-monophosphorylation and 5'-phosphatidylation of a number of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides was investigated. The first reaction, catalyzed by nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPT) from Erwinia herbicola, consisted of the transfer of the phosphate residue from p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to the 5'-hydroxyl group of nucleoside; the second was the phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation of L-alpha-lecithin with a series of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides as the phosphatidyl acceptor resulted in the formation of the respective phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates. Some beta-L-nucleosides displayed similar or even higher substrate activity compared to the beta-D-enantiomers. PMID:17206374

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Silicate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; NING Congqin; ZHOU Yue; CHEN Lei; LIN Kaili; CHANG Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of pure silicate ceramic particles, CaSiO3, Ca3SiO5, bredigite and akermanite were prepared and their bactericidal effects were systematically investigated. The phase compositions of these silicate ceramics were characterized by XRD. The ionic concentration meas urement revealed that the Calcium (Ca) ion concentration were relatively higher in Ca3SiO5 and bredigite, and much lower in CaSiO3 and akermanite. Accordingly, the pH values of the four silicate ceramics extracts showed a positive correlation with the particle concentrations. Meanwhile, by decreasing the particle size, higher Ca ion concentrations can be achieved, leading to the increase of aqueous pH value as well. In summary, all of the four silicate ceramics tested in our study showed antibacterial effect in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, the order of their antibacterial activity against E.coli from strong to weak is Ca3SiO5, bredigite, CaSiO3 and akermanite.

  10. Antibacterial synergic effect of honey from two stingless bees: Scaptotrigona bipunctata Lepeletier, 1836, and S. postica Latreille, 1807

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, E. K.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Oliveira, A. G.; Andrade, C. G. T. J.; Proni, E. A.; Kobayashi, R. K. T.; Nakazato, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have tested antimicrobial activity of combinations of honey and various substances. In this study, we tested a combination of two stingless bee honeys against various bacterial strains. In particular: the antibacterial activity of honeys produced by Scaptotrigona bipunctata (SB) and Scaptotrigona postica (SP) was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by agar well diffusion assays, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment, construction of growth and viability curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interaction of the two honeys was also evaluated by the checkerboard assay. Inhibition zones ranged from 8 to 22 mm. The MIC values of the individual honeys ranged from 0.62 to 10% (v v-1) and decreased to 1/4 to 1/32 when the honeys were combined. SEM images showed division inhibition and cell wall disruption for the SB and SP honeys, respectively, and these alterations were observed in same field when the SB and SP honeys were combined. This study demonstrated that the natural honeys possess in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. Combination of the SB and SP honeys could lead to the development of new broad-spectrum antimicrobials that have the potential to prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains.

  11. Exopolysacharides from White Rot Fungi and Their Antibacterial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pranitha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In current investigation exopolysacharides are produced from the Trametes sp. and antibacterial activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS was studied. The antibacterial effect of EPS was observed that they were most effective against gram-positive bacteria, especially B. subtilis and S.aureaus with a zone of inhibition 24 mm and 28 mm, respectively, at a concentration of 80 mg/ml. Moreover, with the increasing concentration, the EPS showed significant increase in antibacterial activity. The activity was lowest in the inhibition of gram-negative bacterium, E. coli and P aerogenosa at a low concentration whose inhibition zones are between 5 to 15mm.

  12. ABC Transporters and their Role in Nucleoside and Nucleotide Drug Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Yu; Schuetz, John D.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters confer drug resistance against a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents, including nucleoside and nucleotide based drugs. While nucleoside based drugs have been used for many years in the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies as well as viral and autoimmune diseases, the potential contribution of ABC transporters has only recently been recognized. This neglect is likely because activation of nucleoside derivatives require an initial carrier-m...

  13. Antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture, chlorhexidine gel, and two natural materials Propolis and Aloe vera against Enterococcus faecalis: An ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bazvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of triantibiotic paste, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis in deep dentin. Materials and Methods: Ninety fresh extracted single-rooted teeth were used in a dentin block model. Seventy-five teeth were infected with E. faecalis and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15. Experimental groups were treated with triantibiotic mixture with distilled water, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, 70% ethanol + Propolis and Aloe vera. Fifteen teeth treated with distilled water as the positive control and 15 samples, free of bacterial contamination, were considered as the negative control. Gates-Glidden drill #4 was used for removal of surface dentin and Gates-Glidden drill #5 was used to collect samples of deep dentin. The samples were prepared and colony-forming units were counted. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was defined at P 0.05. Aloe vera had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, but in comparison with other medicaments, it was less effective (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This experimental study showed that triantibiotic mixture, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aleo vera were relatively effective against E. faecalis. All the intracanal medicements had similar effects on E. faecalis in deep dentin except for Aloe vera.

  14. A randomized trial comparing initial HAART regimens of nelfinavir/nevirapine and ritonavir/saquinavir in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Pedersen, Court;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A triple-class HAART regimen may be associated with a better virological effect than conventional regimens, but may also lead to toxicity and more profound resistance. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, open-label trial of 233 protease inhibitor- and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase...

  15. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Usach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type-1 non-nucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs are key drugs of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the clinical management of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV infection. Discussion: First-generation NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP, delavirdine (DLV and efavirenz (EFV are drugs with a low genetic barrier and poor resistance profile, which has led to the development of new generations of NNRTIs. Second-generation NNRTIs, etravirine (ETR and rilpivirine (RPV have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Union, and the next generation of drugs is currently being clinically developed. This review describes recent clinical data, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of commercialized NNRTIs, including the effects of sex, race and age differences on pharmacokinetics and safety. Moreover, it summarizes the characteristics of next-generation NNRTIs: lersivirine, GSK 2248761, RDEA806, BILR 355 BS, calanolide A, MK-4965, MK-1439 and MK-6186. Conclusions: This review presents a wide description of NNRTIs, providing useful information for researchers interested in this field, both in clinical use and in research.

  16. Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors differentially inhibit human LINE-1 retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Brad Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intact LINE-1 elements are the only retrotransposons encoded by the human genome known to be capable of autonomous replication. Numerous cases of genetic disease have been traced to gene disruptions caused by LINE-1 retrotransposition events in germ-line cells. In addition, genomic instability resulting from LINE-1 retrotransposition in somatic cells has been proposed as a contributing factor to oncogenesis and to cancer progression. LINE-1 element activity may also play a role in normal physiology. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an in vitro LINE-1 retrotransposition reporter assay, we evaluated the abilities of several antiretroviral compounds to inhibit LINE-1 retrotransposition. The nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTIs: stavudine, zidovudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and lamivudine all inhibited LINE-1 retrotransposition with varying degrees of potencies, while the non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine showed no effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrates the ability for nRTIs to suppress LINE-1 retrotransposition. This is immediately applicable to studies aimed at examining potential roles for LINE-1 retrotransposition in physiological processes. In addition, our data raises novel safety considerations for nRTIs based on their potential to disrupt physiological processes involving LINE-1 retrotransposition.

  17. Expectorant, Analgesic and Antibacterial Effects of Yanshuning Granules%咽舒宁颗粒祛痰镇痛及抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗友华; 杨辉; 黄亦琦; 黄恺飞; 曾伟成; 许光辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察咽舒宁颗粒的祛痰、镇痛、抑菌等药效.方法:将小鼠随机分为对照、阳性药和咽舒宁颗粒高、中、低剂量组(11.00,5.50,2.75 g·kg-1),ig7 d,采用小鼠气管酚红排泌实验观察其祛痰作用,小鼠热板实验和醋酸扭体实验观察其镇痛作用,采用体外抗菌实验观察其对相关细菌的抑菌作用.结果:咽舒宁颗粒可增加小鼠离体气管酚红排泌量(P <0.05或P<0.01);提高热板所致小鼠的痛阈值(P<0.05);对抗醋酸所致小鼠扭体次数增加(P <0.05或P<0.01);对金黄色葡萄球菌[最小抑菌浓度(MIC)0.250 g·mL-1,最小杀菌浓度(MBC)0.500 g·mL-1]、甲型溶血性链球菌(MIC 0.062 g·mL-1,MBC0.250 g·mL-1)、乙型溶血性链球菌(MIC 0.031 g·mL-1,MBC 0.062 g·mL-1)、变形杆菌(MIC 0.125 g·mL-1,MBC 0.250 g·mL-1)、肺炎链球菌(MIC 0.125 g·mL-1,MBC 0.500 g·mL-1)有较强的体外抑菌作用.结论:咽舒宁颗粒具有明显的祛痰、镇痛和抑菌作用.%Objective: To study the expectorant, analgesic and antibacterial effects of Yanshuning granules. Method: Mice were divided into 6 groups randomly: normal control group, positive groups, high dose group, middle dose group and low dose group of Yanshuning granules ( 11. 00 , 5. 50 , 2. 75 g ·kg -1 ) , after 7 d by ig administration, the expectorant effect was studied by a mouse model of phenol red test. The analgesic effect was studied by mouse models of hot-plate induced pain and acetic acid-induced writhing reaction. Experimental research on antibacterial action in vitro of Yanshuning granules was applied to observe the antibacterial effect. Result: The experimental results showed that Yanshuning granules could significantly increase phenol red excretion in mice ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ) . It could significantly prolong the latent time of reaction on hot-plate in mice ( P < 0. 05) , reduce the writhing times in mice (P < 0. 05 or P < 0.01). The granules showed obvious

  18. Involvement of Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 in Intestinal Absorption of Trifluridine Using Human Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Chiba, Masato; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-09-01

    TAS-102, which is effective for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, is a combination drug of anticancer trifluridine (FTD; which is derived from pyrimidine nucleoside) and FTD-metabolizing enzyme inhibitor tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) at a molecular ratio of 1:0.5. To evaluate the intestinal absorption mechanism of FTD, the uptake and transcellular transport of FTD by human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. The uptake and membrane permeability of FTD by HIEC monolayers were saturable, Na(+) -dependent, and inhibited by nucleosides. These transport characteristics are mostly comparable with those of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs). Moreover, the uptake of FTD by CNT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was the highest among human CNT transporters. The obtained Km and Vmax values of FTD by CNT1 were 69.0 μM and 516 pmol/oocyte/30 min, respectively. The transcellular transport of FTD by Caco-2 cells, where CNT1 is heterologously expressed, from apical to basolateral side was greater than that by Mock cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that FTD exhibits high oral absorption by the contribution of human CNT1.

  19. Increasing conclusiveness of metabonomic studies by chem-informatic preprocessing of capillary electrophoretic data on urinary nucleoside profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, E; Markuszewski, M J; Capron, X; van Nederkassel, A-M; Heyden, Y Vander; Markuszewski, M; Krajka, K; Kaliszan, R

    2007-01-17

    Nowadays, bioinformatics offers advanced tools and procedures of data mining aimed at finding consistent patterns or systematic relationships between variables. Numerous metabolites concentrations can readily be determined in a given biological system by high-throughput analytical methods. However, such row analytical data comprise noninformative components due to many disturbances normally occurring in analysis of biological samples. To eliminate those unwanted original analytical data components advanced chemometric data preprocessing methods might be of help. Here, such methods are applied to electrophoretic nucleoside profiles in urine samples of cancer patients and healthy volunteers. The electrophoretic nucleoside profiles were obtained under following conditions: 100 mM borate, 72.5 mM phosphate, 160 mM SDS, pH 6.7; 25 kV voltage, 30 degrees C temperature; untreated fused silica capillary 70 cm effective length, 50 microm I.D. Different most advanced preprocessing tools were applied for baseline correction, denoising and alignment of electrophoretic data. That approach was compared to standard procedure of electrophoretic peak integration. The best results of preprocessing were obtained after application of the so-called correlation optimized warping (COW) to align the data. The principal component analysis (PCA) of preprocessed data provides a clearly better consistency of the nucleoside electrophoretic profiles with health status of subjects than PCA of peak areas of original data (without preprocessing).

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Cements Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are commonly used for cementing full cast crown restorations. Regrettably, although the dental cements fill the gap between the tooth and the crown, bacterial microleakage may occur, resulting in secondary caries. As microleakage cannot be completely prevented, GICs possessing antibacterial properties are in demand. In the present study the antibacterial activity of insoluble, cross-linked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI nanoparticles incorporated at 1% w/w in two clinically available GICs were studied. The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei using the direct contact test (DCT and the agar diffusion test (ADT. Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (<0.05 was found in both tested GICs with incorporated QPEI nanoparticles, the effect lasting for at least one month. However, the ADT showed no inhibition halo in the test bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial nanoparticles do not diffuse into the agar. The results show that the incorporation of QPEI nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements has a long-lasting antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Changing the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by incorporating QPEI antibacterial nanoparticles may prolong the clinical performance of dental crowns.

  1. Study of Antibacterial Effect and Prolonged Effect of PMMA Denture Base Containing Ag-TiO2 in Vitro%Ag-Ti02树脂基托抗菌性及长效性的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛亚丽; 刘杰; 徐连立; 岳长军

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antibacterial effect and prolonged effect of PMMA denture base with Ag-TiO2 against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans in vitro. Methods: 2. 5%(w/w) Ag-TiO2 were added into PMMA resin base. Then, they were dealt by natural olding process, accelerated olding process respectively. In vitro analysis of antibacterial effect and prolonged effect of the resin base was assayed with the pellicle-sticking method. Furthermore, the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacterial plaque on the antibacterial resin base were examined by SEM. Results: Compared with the control group, the antibacterial ratio (R%) for Staphylococcus mutans was 98. 1% , 97. 1% , 96. 3% , for Candida albicans 90. 3% , 89. 4% , 88. 7% by the new prepared group, the natural olding process group and the accelerated olding process group. There are no difference in antibacterial ratio (R%) of the three groups, and Streptococcus mutans bacterial plaque were inhibited effectively. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect and prolonged property of the Ag-TiO2 resin base is remarkable.%目的:研究纳米Ag- TiO2树脂基托对口腔2种常见致病菌的抗菌性及抗菌长效性.方法:将2.5%(w/w)的纳米Ag- TiO2抗菌剂添加到热凝型树脂基托中,再对其分别进行自然老化和加速老化处理.采用薄膜密贴法分别检测老化处理组和新制备的抗菌基托组对变异链球菌、白色念珠菌单一菌种的抗菌性;并用扫描电镜(SEM)观察抗菌基托表面变异链球菌菌斑生物膜的粘附生长情况.结果:与未添加抗菌剂的树脂基托相比,新制备的抗菌基托对变异链球菌、白色念珠菌的抗菌率分别为98.1%、90.3%;自然老化组的为97.1%、89.4%;加速老化组的为96.3%、88.7%,3组抗菌基托的抗菌率之间无显著差异性;扫描电镜(SEM)可见抗菌基托表面粘附的变异链球菌数量明显减少.结论:纳米Ag-TiO2抗菌树脂基托抗菌性能良好,且抑制细菌、真菌作用长久.

  2. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

  3. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs) revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

  4. 临床分离肠球菌的体外抗菌效果研究%Effect Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Enterococci in Vitro Antibacterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曲波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of different antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of enterococci in vitro antibacteri-al. Methods The relevant information of 122 specimens' enterococci potential risk factors for infection clinical departments and affiliat-ed ICU from January 2013 to September 2014 in People's Hospital of Baise and patients present in the site or sites of infection iso-lated were statistically analyzed. Results Gatifloxacin,moxifloxacin against enterococci had the best antibacterial activity,Ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin,norfloxacin against enterococci also had strong effect,5 kinds of antimicrobial agents against enterococci had the same MBC and MIC,MBC or slightly higher than 1-2 times the MIC;feces enterococci 5 kinds of antimicrobial drug resistance were sig-nificantly higher than E. faecalis( P < 0. 05);5 antimicrobial agents against enterococci MBC50 feces were significantly higher than en-terococcus faecalis( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of different antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of enterococci in vitro should be given full attention,so as to provide an effective basis for scientific and rational use of antibiotics.%目的:分析不同抗菌药物对临床分离肠球菌的体外抗菌效果。方法统计分析2013年1月至2014年9月广西百色市人民医院各临床科室及所属监护室患者,有潜在感染危险因素存在的部位或感染部位标本所分离的122株肠球菌的相关资料。结果加替沙星、莫西沙星对肠球菌具有最好的抗菌活性,氧氟沙星、环丙沙星、诺氟沙星对肠球菌也具有较强的作用,5种抗菌药物对肠球菌具有相同的最低杀菌浓度( MBC)和最低抑菌浓度( MIC),或 MBC比 MIC高1~2倍;屎肠球菌对5种抗菌药物的耐药性显著高于粪肠球菌( P<0.05);5种抗菌药物对屎肠球菌 MBC50均显著高于粪肠球菌( P<0.05)。结论临床应给予不同抗菌药物对临床分离肠

  5. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  6. 聚乙烯亚胺包埋无色纳米银抗菌剂制备及协同抗菌效果研究∗%Preparation of colorless polyethyleneimine-silver nanoparticles antibacterial agent and their synergistic antibacterial effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤建新; 董林利; 苏伟; 王霜霜; 许利剑

    2015-01-01

    In this study,polyethyleneimine (PEI)-capped silver nanoparticles (PEI-AgNPs)antibacterial agent were synthesized in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 )and PEI by chemical reduction method.Ultra-violet spectrophotometer and SEM were used to study the influence of temperature and molar radio of PEI and Ag+ on synthesis of antibacterial agent.Moreover,in order to get the best preparation technology of PEI-Ag-NPs antimicrobial agent with good antimicrobial activity and excellent colloidal stability,activity of silver nano-particles and PEI was also carried out using inhibition zones test method.The results indicated that the PEI-Ag-NPs antibacterial agent which had core shell structure,good antimicrobial activity and excellent colloidal stabili-ty because of PEI.The silver nanoparticles biocides with good property could be synthesized when the molar ra-dio of PEI and Ag+ was 2∶1-0.6∶1 at 45 ℃.Meanwhile,the synergistic antibacterial effect of PEI on silver antibacterial was also revealed.%以高枝化聚乙烯亚胺(PEI)为稳定剂,硼氢化钠为还原剂,利用化学还原法制备了纳米银抗菌剂。探讨了温度、PEI与 Ag+的摩尔比对纳米银抗菌剂合成的影响,利用紫外分光光度法及扫描电镜对合成纳米银抗菌剂进行了表征,利用抑菌圈实验分别对纳米银及PEI进行了抑菌性能测试,筛选出稳定性好抑菌性强的纳米银抗菌剂制备工艺。实验结果表明,在45℃,PEI与Ag+的摩尔配比在2∶1~0.6∶1条件下能制备无色透明且抑菌性强的具有核壳结构的纳米银抗菌剂,PEI对纳米银抗菌剂具有协同作用。

  7. Antibacterial effect of an herbal product persica on porphyromonas gingivalis and aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jelvehgaran Esfahani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Salvadora persica is used for oral hygiene in many parts of the world. It has been suggested that it has antibacterial properties, in addition to its ability to mechanically remove plaques. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of the herbal product Persica containing Salvadora persica against periodontopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro.Fifty patients with moderate and severe periodontitis were recruited. Using paper points, subgingival plaque samples were taken from pockets with attachment loss ≥ 3mm. The samples were subjected to microbial culture to yield P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The ditch plate method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacteria to Persica compared to chlorhexidine and distilled water. The growth inhibition zones of microorganisms around the ditches were measured in millimeters. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Freidman test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test with Bonferroni adjustment were used for analysis of variance with 5% significance level. P<0.05 for main comparisons and P< 0.017 for multiple comparisons were considered statistically significant.P. gingivalis was sensitive to chlorhexidine and persica. There was a significant difference (P=0.001 between antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (mean 28.733mm, SD 5.216 and Persica (mean 16.333mm, SD 5.259 compared to water against P. gingivalis. There was a significant difference (P< 0.001 between the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (24.045mm, SD 3.897 and Persica (0.545mm, SD 2.558 with respect to A. actinomycetemcomitans. There was no significant difference (P=0.317 between the antimicrobial activity of Persica and water against A. actinomycetemcomitans.The herbal product Persica had significant antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and negligible antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans compared to 0

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Dadashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are few therapeutic options for treatment of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates as a hospital infectious agent (nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 K. pneumoniae isolates from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods and detection of ESBL was carried out according to CLSI guidelines. The blaCTX-M-15plasmid genewas detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Extracts susceptibility test was performed by broth microdilution method.  Results: Among 100 K. pneumoniae strains, 48 (48% were ESBL positive. In this study, fosfomycin, colistin and tigecycline were more active than other antibiotics. The existence of blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 30 (62.5% of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. The chloroformic extract showed potent activity against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50 = 1.56 mg/ml and MIC90=3.12mg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 (The MIC50 represents the MIC value at which ≥50% of the isolates in a test population are inhibited and the MIC90 represents the MIC value at which ≥90% of the strains within a test population are inhibited were 3.12 and 6.25 mg/ml and 6.25  and 12.5 mg/ml for methanolic and acetonic extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae is very high. Therefore, detection of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in K. pneumoniae isolates and in control of infections. Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae.

  9. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chirag Modi; Shailesh Mody; Hitesh Patel; Ghanshyam Dudhatra; Avinash Kumar; Madhavi Awale

    2012-01-01

    Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and...

  10. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06157a

  11. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus santalinus

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunatha B

    2006-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of leaf and stem bark of Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) was investigated. The antibacterial activity was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Among the two extracts tested, stem bark extract exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against the tested organisms. The stem bark extract showed maximum activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cere...

  12. Comparison of antibacterial ability of copper and stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Ping; ZHANG Wen; TANG Hui; ZHANG Xinai; JIN Litong; FENG Zhen; WU Zirong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the electro-analysis and spectrophotometric analysis methods were used to study the antibacterial ability of copper and stainless steel materials.When Escherichia coli (E.coli) and photo-bacteria were used as samples,the antibacterial effect of stainless steel was very weak,while the percentage of bacteria dying from exposure to metallic copper for 30 min was over 90%.The antibacterial ability of copper has a potential application in the field of disinfection,food packaging and piping of drinking water.

  13. Characterization of antibacterial silver coated yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, M; Russo, M; Licciulli, A; Sannino, A; Maffezzoli, A

    2009-11-01

    Surface treatments of textile fibers and fabrics significantly increase their performances for specific biomedical applications. Nowadays, silver is the most used antibacterial agent with a number of advantages. Among them, it is worth to note the high degree of biocompatibility, an excellent resistance to sterilization conditions, antibacterial properties with respect to different bacteria associated with a long-term of antibacterial efficiency. However, there are only a few antibacterial fibres available, mainly synthetic with high production cost and limited effectiveness. Cotton yarns with antimicrobial properties are most suitable for wound healing applications and other medical treatments thanks to their excellent moisture absorbance while synthetic based fibres are most suitable for industrial applications such as automotive tapestry and air filters. The silver-coated fibers were developed applying an innovative and low cost silver deposition technique for natural and synthetic fibers or yarns. The structure and morphology of the silver nanoclusters on the fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) and XRD analysis, and quantitatively confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. Good silver coating stability has been confirmed performing several industrial washing. Antimicrobial tests with Escherichia coli were performed. PMID:19526328

  14. Antibacterial activity of selected Egyptian ethnomedicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashait, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activities of plant extracts used as ethnomedicinal in Egypt. Methodology and Results: Investigations were carried out to assess the antibacterial efficiency of 11 plant extracts used as ethnopharmacological among Egyptian native people against infectious diseases. Crude methanol, ethanol,chloroform, hexane, acetone and aqueous extract of plants were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against ten bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion method test. Discs were impregnated with 2 mg/mL of different solvent extracts. Among all the crude extracts, the methanol extract showed the highest activity than other extracts. P. harmala and S. officinalis exhibited highest antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria while the remainingplants extracts showed less activity. All the plant extracts showed no significant effect against the Bordetella bronchisepta ATCC 4617 except the extracts of M. fragrans and L. sativum. E. coli is the most sensitive microorganism tested, with the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL in the presence of the plant extract of P. harmala and S. officinalis.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Results obtained herein, may suggest that the ethnomedicinal Egyptian plants possess antimicrobial activity and therefore, they can be used in biotechnological fields as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: a two-time points experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Hwa; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Jui-Chen; Tang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chien, Li-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study determined the in-use effects of dry-fast and traditional hand-washing surgical scrubs among operating room staff members. This is a static group comparison study with purposive sampling. A total of 156 staff members were recruited in an operating room in a medical center located in southern Taiwan. The participants were divided into traditional and dry-fast hand-washing groups. Microbial counts were measured right after the two groups finished surgical scrubbing and at the completion of surgery. The results showed that the use of dry-fast antisepsis has a better persistent effect (P = 0.001), more nurses chose dry-fast antisepsis than surgeons (P = 0.012), and the post-operation number of colonies for nurses was significantly higher than that for surgeons (P = 0.003). Operating room nurses are long-term and frequent users of antibacterial agents, and their requirement of skin protection is higher. The dry-fast technique has the advantage of being less irritating to the skin and less time consuming; therefore, brush-free and dry-fast antisepsis is recommended. PMID:23992610

  16. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meixiu; Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu; Chen, Tingtao; Xin, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2 (•-) (85%), (•)OH (76%), and Fe(2+) chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  17. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2•− (85%), •OH (76%), and Fe2+ chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  18. Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases in Bacillus subtilis. Purification and some properties of the adenosine-specific phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) were purified from vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. One enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, showed great similarity to the homologous enzyme of Bacillus cereus. It appeared...

  19. 4种中药对耐药肺炎链球菌的抑菌作用%Study on the antibacterial effect of 4 kinds of herbs on drug re-sistant streptococcus pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔亚峰; 叶振东

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the antibacterial effect of herbs on streptococcus pneumonic in vitro. Methods By agar dilution method, the minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC) of the Chinese traditional medicines on streptococcus pneumonic were determined. Results Four kinds of herbs decoction had different antibacterial effects on streptococcus pneumonic. Inhibition of Coptis chinensis Franch was the strongest. The range of Coptis chinensis Franch MIC was7. 8 ~ 15.63g/L, MIC50 was 8g/L, MIC90 was 8g/L. Phellodendron chinense Schneid and Scutellaria baicalensis Georigi also had strong antibacterial effects. Conclusion Four kinds of herbs all have good antibacterial effects on streptococcus pneumonic in vitro.%目的 探讨中草药对肺炎链球菌的体外抑菌作用.方法 用临床分离细菌为受试菌,采用琼脂稀释法,观察黄连、黄岑、黄柏、连翘等4种中草药水煎剂的最低抑菌浓度.结果 4种中草药水煎剂均有不同程度的抑菌作用,其中黄连抑菌效果最好,黄连水煎剂对肺炎链球菌最低抑菌浓度(MIC)范围达7.8~15.63g/L,MIC50为8g/L,MIC90为8g,/L.黄岑、黄柏也有较好的抑菌效果,连翘抑菌效果较弱.结论 黄连等中药在体外试验对肺炎链球菌均有良好抑菌作用.

  20. Pharmacokinetic optimisation of antibacterial treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis. Current practice and suggestions for future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Vinks, A A; Mouton, J W; Horrevorts, A M

    1998-01-01

    Antibacterials play a central role in the medical management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Administration of adequate dosages of antibacterials results in pronounced beneficial effects on the morbidity and mortality of this patient group. The dosage of the antibacterial that is needed for o

  1. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  2. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egeblad

    Full Text Available To identify interactions a nucleoside analog library (NAL consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay. The method was validated with deoxycytidine kinase; eight interactions known from the literature were detected and five additional interactions were revealed after the addition of ATP, the second substrate. The NAL screening gave relatively few significant hits, supporting a low rate of "off target effects." However, unexpected ligands were identified for two catabolic enzymes guanine deaminase (GDA and uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1. An acyclic guanosine prodrug analog, valaciclovir, was shown to stabilize GDA to the same degree as the natural substrate, guanine, with a ΔT(agg around 7°C. Aciclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were also identified as ligands for GDA. The crystal structure of GDA with valaciclovir bound in the active site was determined, revealing the binding of the long unbranched chain of valaciclovir in the active site of the enzyme. Several ligands were identified for UPP1: vidarabine, an antiviral nucleoside analog, as well as trifluridine, idoxuridine, floxuridine, zidovudine, telbivudine, fluorouracil and thioguanine caused concentration-dependent stabilization of UPP1. A kinetic study of UPP1 with vidarabine revealed that vidarabine was a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the natural substrate uridine. The unexpected ligands identified for UPP1 and GDA imply further metabolic consequences for these nucleoside analogs, which could also serve as a starting point for future drug design.

  3. Comparative Phenolic Fingerprint and LC-ESI+QTOF-MS Composition of Oregano and Rosemary Hydrophilic Extracts in Relation to their Antibacterial Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bunghez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and oregano (Origanum vulgare are known aromatic plants used as spice, with good flavoring, preservative, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Beside their known terpenoid content responsible for the antibacterial activity, the water-soluble compounds (phenolic derivatives are of high interest not only for their antioxidant activity but as a good alternative or as a hydrophilic new antibacterial solution. Two hydrophilic extracts from each plant were obtained (15% plant in hot water and the phytochemicals were fingerprinted by UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry and quantified. The total phenolic content was higher in case of oregano (54.2 mg GAE/g DW comparing to rosemary (54.25 vs 15.35 mg GAE/g dry matter. By LC-ESI+QTOF-MS analysis there were identified mainly, in both extracts, flavonoid and diterpene derivatives, mainly carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, kaempferol 3-O-glucuronide. Other flavonoid glucuronides were more specific to one or the other plant, e.g. Luteolin 3'-(4''-acetylglucuronide for rosemary and Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide for oregano. Water favorized increased extraction of flavonoid derivatives and soluble diterpenes, but not non-soluble  terpenes. The antibacterial activity of both extracts was tested against B.cereus, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, S. aureus and E.coli. Both oregano and rosemary extracts showed a slight antibacterial activity, which can be related to the low concentration of terpenoids, known to have the most important antibacterial activity in these plants. Nevertheless, the antibacterial activity seems to be strain dependent, Bacillus cereus being the most sensitive bacterial strain comparing with the other four bacteria, the oregano extract having a slightly superior activity comparing to the rosemary extract.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the bacterial pathogens are resistant to existing synthetic antibacterial agents demanding an increasing effort to seek effective phytochemicals as antibacterial agents against such pathogens. Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seeds play an important role in folk medicine and some of its major constituents are reported to be pharmacologically active. In this present work, black cumin seed extracts were obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 and conventional soxtec extraction using various organic solvents. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were investigated by the agar dilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus F 4810 and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 108 and Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859. SCCO2-1 (120 bar/40ºC extract showed effective growth inhibition than conventional solvent extracts against all the tested bacteria. Further the antibacterial principle present in the extract was isolated and characterized found to be thymoquinone.

  5. A procedure for the preparation and isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J. Korhonen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tris[bis(triphenylphosphoranylideneammonium] pyrophosphate (PPN pyrophosphate was used in the SN2 displacements of the tosylate ion from 5’-tosylnucleosides to afford nucleoside-5’-diphosphates. Selective precipitation permitted the direct isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates from crude reaction mixtures.

  6. Synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside analogs with five-membered heterocyclic nucleobases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jong hyun; Coats, Steven J.; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    New carbocyclic nucleoside analogs with five-membered heterocyclic nucleobases were synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-HIV and anti-HCV agents. Among the synthesized carbocyclic nucleoside analogs, the pyrazole amide 15f exhibited modest selective anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 24 µM). PMID:26028788

  7. A procedure for the preparation and isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Heidi J; Bolt, Hannah L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tris[bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium] pyrophosphate (PPN pyrophosphate) was used in the SN2 displacements of the tosylate ion from 5’-tosylnucleosides to afford nucleoside-5’-diphosphates. Selective precipitation permitted the direct isolation of nucleoside-5’-diphosphates from crude reaction mixtures. PMID:25977720

  8. Antibacterial effect of cinnamic aldehyde and its derivatives on four pathogens%肉桂醛及其衍生物对四种病原菌的抑菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永帅; 王淼焱; 孙俊良; 梁新红; 王田林

    2014-01-01

    测定了肉桂醛及其衍生物对4种致病菌(金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌、炭疽杆菌)的最小抑菌浓度(MIC).结果表明:肉桂醛、α-溴代肉桂醛、肉桂酸对4种致病菌都有明显的抑菌效果,肉桂醇仅对金黄色葡萄球菌有抑菌效果.4种化合物中抑菌效果最好的是肉桂酸,对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌、炭疽杆菌的抑菌浓度分别为0.4、0.4、0.6、0.4 mmol/L.%The minimum inhibitory concentratio of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives on four pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli,Salmonella,Bacillus anthracis) were determined in this paper.The results showed that:cinnamic aldehyde,α-bromo cinnamic aldehyde,cinnamic acid alcohol had significant antibacterial effect on four pathogens,cinnamic alcohol only had antibacterial effect on S. aureus.The antibacterial effect of cinnamic acid was the best.The antibacterial concentrations of cinnamic acid on S. aureus,E. coli,Salmonella,B. anthracis were 0.4,0.4,0.6,0.4 mmol/L,respectively.

  9. 肉豆蔻精油抑菌效果及其在发酵香肠中的应用%Research on the Antibacterial Effect of Nutmeg Essential Oil and Its Application in Fermented Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 陈宇飞

    2014-01-01

    对肉豆蔻精油的抑菌效果及其在香肠发酵中的应用进行了研究。通过肉豆蔻精油与抗生素及制霉菌素的对比抑菌试验、最低抑菌浓度检测、不同温度和 pH 对肉豆蔻精油的影响试验、添加肉豆蔻精油的香肠与普通香肠对比试验,得出肉豆蔻精油具有广谱的抗菌活性,其中对酿酒酵母的抑菌效果最佳,为肉豆蔻精油作为食品抑菌剂提供了理论依据。%The antibacterial effect of nutmeg essential oil and its application in fermented sausages are studied in the paper.Through the comparative antibacterial test between the nutmeg essential oil and antibiotics and nystatin, the check of minimum inhibitory concentration, the effect of different temperatures and pH values on nutmeg essential oil and the comparative test between the sausage with adding nutmeg essential oil and ordinary sausage,it is concluded that the nutmeg essential oil has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.Among them,the antibacterial effect of nutmeg essential oil on saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best.All provides a theoretical basis for the application of nutmeg essential oil as food bacteriostat.

  10. Antibacterial effect of an extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata and its cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 tumour cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZHIL ARIVUDAINAMBI U.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for new and effective antimicrobial agents to treat life-threatening diseases. Fungal endophytes are receiving increasing attention by natural product chemists due to the diverse and structurally unprecedented compounds, which make them interesting candidates for drug discovery. The present study evaluates the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata VN3 on multi-resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as its cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 tumour cell lines of breast cancer. The maximum inhibition zone of 21.4±0.07 mm and 21.5±0.25 mm was observed for S. aureus strain 10 and P. aeruginosa strain 2, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 100 to 900 μg/ml for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Further, the ethyl acetate extract of A. alternata VN3 exhibited moderate anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cell lines. At 30 μg/ml the cell viability was decreased to 75.5% and 71.8% for MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the metabolites of A. alternata VN3 are a potential source for production of new drugs.

  11. Green Route for Efficient Synthesis of Novel Amino Acid Schiff Bases as Potent Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents and Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemical one-pot multicomponent condensation reaction of substituted 1H-indole-2,3-diones (1, various amino acids (2, and thiosemicarbazide (3 is found to be catalyzed by lemon juice as natural acid using water as a green solvent to give the corresponding Schiff bases (4 in good to excellent yields. This method is experimentally simple, clean, high yielding, and green, with reduced reaction times. The product is purified by simple filtration followed by washing with water and drying process. The synthesized compounds are characterized by FT-IR, 13CNMR, and 1HNMR spectroscopy and are screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria brassicicola, Chaetomium orium, and Lycopodium sp. and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Compounds have also been evaluated for cytotoxic effects against human colon cancer cell line Colo205.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Ethanol Extract against Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani; Farzaneh Zeighampour; Elaheh Shams; Nafiseh Sadat NaghaviP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Burn wound is a suitable site for incidence of resistant infections; thus, the research for finding effective drugs against this infection is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of Isfahan bee propolis extracts against beta-lactamase producing bacteria isolated from burn wound infections. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of Isfahan bee propolis was prepared by 28 g of propolis in 100 ml of 70% ethanol. Antibacterial activity of eth...

  13. A high-yielding, strictly regioselective prebiotic purine nucleoside formation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sidney; Thoma, Ines; Deutsch, Amrei; Gehrke, Tim; Mayer, Peter; Zipse, Hendrik; Carell, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission. This nucleoside formation pathway can be fused to sugar-forming reactions to produce pentosides, providing a plausible scenario of how purine nucleosides may have formed under prebiotic conditions. PMID:27174989

  14. 肉桂丁香精油复合抑菌效果及在香肠中的应用%Research on the Antibacterial Effect of Cinnamon and Clove Compound Essential Oils and Its Appl ication in Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 陈宇飞

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of cinnamon, clove and their compound essential oils and its application in sausages are studied in the paper.The antibacterial test of the combination of three essential oils on Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae,the effect test of essential oil action time on antibacterial effect,the effect test of added ratios of essential oils on the total number of colonies and pH in sausages are conducted.The result shows that the antibacterial effect of cinnamon and clove (1∶1)is better.With the increase of action time,the antibacterial effect is obvious.The comparative test between the sausage of adding essential oil and ordinary sausage indicates the total number of colonies and pH are relatively low.All of that provides a theoretical basis for the application of compound essential oils as food bacteriostat.%研究肉桂、丁香及其复配精油的抑菌效果及在香肠中的应用。做了3种精油组合对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、酿酒酵母的抑菌试验,精油作用时间对抑菌效果的影响试验,精油添加在香肠中对菌落总数、pH 的影响试验。结果显示:肉桂、丁香精油按1∶1复配抑菌效果较好,作用时间增长,抑菌效果明显,添加精油后的香肠与普通香肠比,菌落总数和 pH 均较低。为复配精油作为食品抑菌剂提供了理论依据。

  15. 纳米银温敏喷雾凝胶与环丙沙星联合应用体外抑菌作用%THE ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE -SENSITIVE GEL CONTAINING SILVER NANOPARTICLES COMBINED WITH CIPROFLOXACIN in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美婉; 刘长秀; 余思琴; 杨志文; 吴传斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察纳米银温敏喷雾凝胶与环丙沙星联合应用的体外抑菌作用,探讨其抗菌应用价值.方法 用K-B纸片扩散法,对上述两种制剂联合应用抑菌效果进行了测定.结果 纳米银温敏喷雾凝胶抗菌效果良好,可以增强环丙沙星对金黄色葡萄球菌,大肠埃希菌和铜绿假单胞菌的抑制作用.结论 纳米银温敏喷雾凝胶联用环丙沙星体外的联合应用具有良好的可行性.%Objective To study the antibacterial effect of temperature - sensitive gel containing silver nanoparticles combined with ciprofloxacin in vitro and to investigate its potential value. Methods The K - B test was used to observe the antibacterial effect of temperature - sensitive gel containing silver nanoparticles combined with ciprofloxacin. Results The temperature - sensitive gel containing silver nanoparticles could strengthen the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus auresus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion The application of temperature - sensitive gel containing silver nanoparticles combined with ciprofloxacin in vitro is feasible.

  16. Biosynthesis, Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Effects Against Prostate Cancer (PC-3) Cells of Silver Nanoparticles Using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. Peel Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Cheng, Shupeng; Jiang, Sen; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Metal nanoparticles, particularly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are developing more important roles as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancers with the improvement of eco-friendly synthesis methods. This study demonstrates the biosynthesis, antibacterial activity, and anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. peel aqueous extract. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR). The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNPs were observed via the agar dilution method and the growth inhibition test. The cytotoxicity effect was explored on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro by trypan blue assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat 3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. The longan peel extract acted as a strong reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. Water-soluble AgNPs of size 9-32 nm was gathered with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs had potent bactericidal activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with a dose-related effect. AgNPs also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells through a decrease of stat 3, bcl-2, and survivin, as well as an increase in caspase-3. These findings confirm the bactericidal properties and explored a potential anticancer application of AgNPs for prostate cancer therapy. Further research should be focused on the comprehensive study of molecular mechanism and in vivo effects on the prostate cancer. PMID:27316741

  17. Biosynthesis, Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Effects Against Prostate Cancer (PC-3) Cells of Silver Nanoparticles Using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. Peel Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Cheng, Shupeng; Jiang, Sen; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles, particularly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are developing more important roles as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancers with the improvement of eco-friendly synthesis methods. This study demonstrates the biosynthesis, antibacterial activity, and anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. peel aqueous extract. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR). The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNPs were observed via the agar dilution method and the growth inhibition test. The cytotoxicity effect was explored on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro by trypan blue assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat 3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. The longan peel extract acted as a strong reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. Water-soluble AgNPs of size 9-32 nm was gathered with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs had potent bactericidal activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with a dose-related effect. AgNPs also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells through a decrease of stat 3, bcl-2, and survivin, as well as an increase in caspase-3. These findings confirm the bactericidal properties and explored a potential anticancer application of AgNPs for prostate cancer therapy. Further research should be focused on the comprehensive study of molecular mechanism and in vivo effects on the prostate cancer.