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Sample records for anti-ulcer agents

  1. Desmodium gangeticum: a potent anti-ulcer agent.

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    Dharmani, Poonam; Mishra, Pushpesh Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh; Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Palit, Gautam

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate anti-ulcerogenic property of ethanolic extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) against cold restraint (CRU, 2 hr cold restraint stress), aspirin (ASP, 150 mg/kg orally), alcohol (AL, absolute alcohol 1 ml/200gm) and pyloric ligation (PL, 4 hr pylorus ligation) induced gastric ulcer models in Sprague Dawley rats, and histamine (HST, 0.25 mg/kg) induced duodenal ulcer in guinea pigs. We found that DG at a dose of 200mg/kg, (orally), markedly decreased the incidence of ulcers in all the above models. DG showed significant protection against CRU (68.37%), AL (88.87%), ASP (38.2%), PL (40.63%) and HST (63.15%) induced ulcer models, whereas standard drug omeprazole (OMZ) showed protection index of 83.86, 56.35, 70.31 and 84.21%, respectively in CRU, ASP, PL and HST models. Sucralfate as standard drug showed 92.64% protection in AL model. DG significantly reduced acid secretion 41.61%, whereas OMZ produced 43.13% reduction. Treatment with DG showed increase in mucin secretion by 56.17%, whereas OMZ showed 12.45% increase. Anti-ulcer effect of DG may be due to its cytoprotective effect along with antisecretory activity and could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

  2. Anti-ulcer agents: chemical aspect of solving the problem

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    Rogoza, L. N.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    The data on chemical structures and specific activities of compounds functioning as histamine H2-receptor antagonists, H+/K+-ATPase inhibitors at the exchange sites of hydrogen ions (proton pump inhibitors) and potassium ions (K+-competitive acid blockers) published from 1990 to 2013 are surveyed. The antisecretory agents with studied cytoprotective activity or with additional therapeutic properties compensating for disorders of internal defence mechanisms are presented. A separate section is devoted to the drugs that prevent or mitigate the NSAID-induced intestinal damage. All of the considered structures are classified according to the type of biological mechanism of action. Some aspects of the structure-activity relationships for such compounds are considered. The bibliography includes 83 references.

  3. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Campylobacter pylori to 24 antimicrobial and anti-ulcer agents.

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    Glupczynski, Y; Delmee, M; Bruck, C; Labbe, M; Avesani, V; Burette, A

    1988-06-01

    Forty-nine isolates of Campylobacter pylori were tested for their susceptibility to twenty antibiotics and four anti-ulcer agents by an agar dilution technique. Penicillin and amoxycillin were the most active drugs (MIC90, 0.06 microgram/ml); erythromycin, cefazolin, minocycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and gentamicin were slightly less active (MIC90, less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml). Moderate activity was found for doxycyclin, rifampin, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, pefloxacin, enoxacin, paromomycin, metronidazole and tinidazole. All strains were resistant to trimethoprim (MIC greater than 512 micrograms/ml). Nalidixic acid (MIC90, greater than 256 micrograms/ml) and colistin (MIC90, greater than 64 micrograms/ml) had little to no activity. Of four anti-ulcer drugs, only bismuth subcitrate showed activity (MIC90, 64 micrograms/ml). Strains resistant to all 4-quinolones were found in patients who had previously received ofloxacin as part of a clinical trial aimed at eradication of C. pylori. These isolates remained susceptible to amoxycillin, tetracyclines and to other classes of antibiotics.

  4. Versatile methods for synthesizing organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids as anti-ulcerative colitis agents.

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    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jing; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Hong; Song, Hong-Rui; Wang, Wen-Jie; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Two versatile methods to synthesize kinds of organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids were investigated in order to determine which is more efficient to improve the liposolubility of the target compounds and to explore the efficacy of the target compounds as anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) agents. Overall evaluation according to the reaction results and yields of the final products indicated that the synthetic method using tertiary (±)-8-acylmethyldihydroberberine-type alkaloids as key intermediates is superior to that of using tertiary dihydroberberine-type alkaloids as intermediates. Ten target compounds were synthesized using quaternary berberine chloride and quaternary coptisine chloride as starting materials, respectively, and the anti-UC activity of some target compounds was evaluated in an in vitro x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcriptional activity assay using dual luciferase reporter detection. At 10 μM, the tested compounds were found to activate the transcription of XBP1 target at almost the same level as that of quaternary coptisine chloride. The synthesized target compounds were also found to share higher liposolubility than the inorganic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloid.

  5. Anti-ulcer activity of essential oil constituents.

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    Oliveira, Francisco de Assis; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Sousa, Elida Batista Vieira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2014-05-05

    Essential oils have attracted considerable worldwide attention over the last few decades. These natural products have wide-ranging pharmacological activities and biotechnological applications. Faced with the need to find new anti-ulcer agents and the great effort on the development of drugs for the treatment of ulcers, in this review, the anti-ulcer activities of 21 bioactive compounds found in essential oils are discussed.

  6. Anti-Ulcer Activity of Essential Oil Constituents

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    Francisco de Assis Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have attracted considerable worldwide attention over the last few decades. These natural products have wide-ranging pharmacological activities and biotechnological applications. Faced with the need to find new anti-ulcer agents and the great effort on the development of drugs for the treatment of ulcers, in this review, the anti-ulcer activities of 21 bioactive compounds found in essential oils are discussed.

  7. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEGUMINOSAE PLANTS

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    Noemi D. PAGUIGAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents.

  8. Anti-ulcer potential of Oxystelma esculentum

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    Devang J Pandya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxystelma esculentum is a perennial twiner growing near water-logged areas in the Indian subcontinent. It is used traditionally in stomach ulcers. The present work deals with the investigation of anti-ulcer potential of O. esculentum. The plant was successively extracted with solvents of varying polarities, which served as the test extracts. Anti-ulcer effect was checked in Wistar rats using aspirin- and ethanol-induced acute ulcer models. The petroleum ether extract was found to possess the most effective anti-ulcer activity. This proves the traditional claim of the plant as an anti-ulcer drug. Phytochemical screening of this extract revealed the presence of important classes of compounds like cardenolides, flavonoids, phenolics, sterols and triterpenoids. This bioactivity-guided phytochemical screening can guide further therapeutic investigations and isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from Oxystelma esculentum.

  9. Anti-ulcer activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

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    Vandana Panda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcers occur in that part of the gastrointestinal tract which is exposed to gastric acid and pepsin, i.e., the stomach and duodenum. Gastric and duodenal ulcers are common pathologies that may be induced by a variety of factors such as stress, smoking and noxious agents including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato contain ample amounts of antioxidants. It has been proven already by many scientific studies that antioxidants have ulcer healing properties. In reference to this, we tried assessing the ulcer healing effect of Ipomoea batatas tubers. Methods: The anti-ulcer activity of the tubers of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato was studied in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Methanolic extracts of Ipomoea batatas tubers (TE at two doses, viz., 400 and 800 mg /kg were evaluated in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models using cimetidine and omeprazole respectively as standards. The standard drugs and the test drugs were administered orally for 7 days in the cold stressmodel and for 1 day in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model. Gastroprotective potential, status of the antioxidant enzymes {superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase(GR} along with GSH, and lipid peroxidation were studied in both models. Results: The results of the present study showed that TE possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition of mean ulcer score and ulcer index and a marked increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner.Conclusion: The present experimental findings suggest that tubers of Ipomoea batatas may be useful for treating peptic ulcers.

  10. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract

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    Marslin Gregory; B Divya; Revina Ann Mary; M M Hipolith Viji; V K Kalaichelvan; V Palanivel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods:Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results: Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2 000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions: The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids.

  11. Rocket " Eruca sativa": A salad herb with potential gastric anti-ulcer activity

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    Saleh Alqasoumi; Mohammed Al-Sohaibani; Tawfeq Al-Howiriny; Mohammed Al-Yahya; Syed Rafatullah

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To validate gastric anti-ulcer properties of Rocket " Eruca sativa" on experimentally-induced gastric secretion and ulceration in albino rats.METHODS: Gastric acid secretion studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric lesions in the rats were induced by noxious chemicals including ethanol, strong alkalis, indomethacin and hypothermic restraint stress. The levels of gastric wall mucus (GWM), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured in the glandular stomach of rats following ethanol administration. The gastric tissue was also examined histologically. The extract was used in two doses (250and 500 mg/kg body weight) in all experiments.RESULTS: In pylorus-ligated Shay rats, the ethanolic extract of Rocket " Eruca sativa L." (EER) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the basal gastric acid secretion, titratable acidity and ruminal ulceration.Rocket extract significantly attenuated gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents (80% ethanol,0.2 mol/L NaOH, 25% NaCl), indomethacin and hypothermic restraint stress. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. On the other hand,the extract significantly replenished GWM and NP.SH levels, as well as the MDA level significantly reduced by extract pretreatment.

  12. Prevalence of anti-ulcer drug use in a Chinese cohort

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    Tzeng-Ji Chen; Li-Fang Chou; Shinn-Jang Hwang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the age-specific prevalence of anti-ulcer drug use and to calculate the usage of different anti-ulcer drugs over 5 years within the universal health insurance program in Taiwan area. METHODS: The National Health Insurance Research Database in Taipei supplied the cohort data sets of 200 000people. The ambulatory and inpatient claims of the cohort from 1997 to 2001 were analyzed. The anti-ulcer drugs included all drug items of the group A02B (drugs for treatment of peptic ulcer) in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system (version 2000). The amount of drug usage was measured in unit of defined daily dose. RESULTS: Among bhe totally 13 034 393 visits wibh 56 672 631ambulatory prescription items, there were 398 150 (0.7 %)prescribed items of anti-ulcer drugs in 378 855 (2.9 %)visits. Among the 107 649 admissions with 5 762 312inpatient prescription items, there were 24 598 (0.4 %)prescribed items of anti-ulcer drugs in 11 548 (10.7 %)admissions. The annual prevalence of anti-ulcer drug use was 9.6 % in 1997, 11.6 % in 1998, 15.4 % in 1999, 14.5 %in 2000, and 15.9 % in 2001 respectively. The 5-year prevalence was 36.1%. The age-specific prevalence among the people younger than 20 years was 9.2 % in 2001 and 23.7 % during the 5-year period. Cimetidine not only was the most popular ingredient among anti-ulcer drugs (57 634cimetidine users in 70 729 all anti-ulcer drug users during the 5-year period) but also had the largest prescribed amount (42.3 % of DDDs for all anti-ulcer drug users during the 5-year period). The annually prescribed amount of anti-ulcer drugs had grown from 4.9 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day in 1997 to 7.5 in 2001. This increase was largely attributed to H2-receptor antagonists and the expanding number of users. CONCLUSION: Prescribing of anti-ulcer drugs is indeed popular among the Chinese population in Taiwan area. The disproportionate use of anti-ulcer drugs by children demands further investigation.

  13. Phytochemical screening and In vivo anti-ulcer activity of Ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum L

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    S.Nethaji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical compounds and anti-ulcer activity of leaves and root extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by in vitromethod and anti-ulcer activity was conducted by in vivomethod. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and glycosides, phytosterols, fixed oils and fats, phenolic compounds and tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids,proteins and amino acids. The ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicumleaf and root was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against pylorous ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. It was found that significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. The present study concluded that the H.indicumplant extract have various bioactivecompounds and anti-ulcer activity in animal models against the drug induced gastric ulcer.

  14. Anti-ulcer activity of Synadenium grantii latex

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    Larissa L. G. Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly known as leitosinha or janaúba. The diluted latex (18 drops/L of water is commonly used in the south of Brazil to treat gastric disturbances. This study evaluated phytochemical screening and toxicity using Artemia salina Leach of crude bark extract and also latex. The toxicity and the anti-ulcer activity of S. grantii latex were also tested in rats. Phytochemical results showed presence of tannins, terpenes, unsaponificable substances, coumarins and anthraquinones in the crude bark extract and terpenes in the latex. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of diterpene tigliane esters in the latex, identified as 12-deoxyphorbol-13-(2-metilpropionate and phorbol 12,13,20-triacetate. The toxicity results using A. salina presented CL50 26.58μg/mL and CL50 778.66μg/mL, for the latex and the crude bark extract respectively. The toxicological hepatic parameters of the diluted latex were not different to the control group (p<0.05. The eosinophils cells showed an increase in both the diluted and pure latex groups. The pure latex showed gastric protection of 90% (p<0.05 and the diluted latex showed 6% compared to the negative control. Therefore, our data indicate that S. grantii latex, under research conditions presented gastric protection. Pure latex showed more toxicity than the diluted latex.

  15. Anti-ulcer potentials of phylum mollusca (tropical snail) slime

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    Nwodo NJ; Okonta J M; Ezugwu CO; Attama AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The effectiveness of the slimy substance in snail to regenerate and repair damaged areas on its body/shell lead to this investigation.Methods:The anti-ulcer'property of snail slime extracted from phylum mollusca (tropical snail)from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata (Fam.Arionidae)was investi-gated using histamine,stress and indomethacin-induced ulcers.The solubility profile of extract was investiga-ted in different solvents and at different temperatures.Chemical analysis was carried out to determine the types of constituents present in the slim,while acute toxicity test was carried out to evaluate its profile of toxicity. The effect of the snail slim on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in mice,while the guinea pig ileum was used to study the effect of the extract on contraction produced by acetylcholine and histamine.The snail slime contained copious quantity of protein,with varying amounts of simple sugars,carbohydrates and fats.The slime was not soluble in most common solvents and increases in temperature,did not appear to increase its sol-ubility.Results:The result further indicated that although the snail slime exhibited significant (P <0.05)an-ti-ulcer induced by stress and histamine,it was most potent against ulcer induced by indomethacin.The snail slime potently inhibited gastrointestinal movement in mice in a dose-dependent manner;however,it was not a-ble to inhibit contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum.Conclusion:The snail mucin possesses potent antiulcer properties without any toxic effect.The mechanism responsible for the anti-ul-cer property may not be postulated with certainty but cytoprotective and anti-spasmodic activities are most likely to be involved.

  16. Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats

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    Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  17. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

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    Valentine Uneojo Omoja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  18. Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents

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    Samuel Adetunji Onasanwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w. anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05 is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration.

  19. Indirect role of alpha2-adrenoreceptors in anti-ulcer effect mechanism of nimesulide in rats.

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    Suleyman, Halis; Halici, Zekai; Cadirci, Elif; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet; Keles, Sait; Gocer, Fatma

    2007-05-01

    Nimesulide, a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug, produces ulcerogenic effects in adrenalectomized rats but is gastro-protective in intact rats. The objective of this study was to determine whether adrenal gland hormones are involved in the anti-ulcer effects of nimesulide. The results revealed that 100 mg/kg nimesulide produces gastric ulceration in adrenalectomized rats, which is prevented by prednisolone and adrenaline. The anti-ulcer effects of adrenaline and prednisolone in adrenalectomized rats were in turn antagonized by yohimbine, a selective alpha(2)-receptor blocker, but not by doxazosine (alpha(1)-receptor blocker) or propranolol (beta-blocker). Adrenaline prevented the formation of indomethacin-induced ulcers in both adrenalectomized and intact rats, but prednisolone increased the indomethacin-induced ulcerous area in intact rats, whereas it decreased the size of the ulcers in adrenalectomized rats. In addition, prednisolone prevented ulcer formation in intact rats in which the adrenaline concentration had been decreased by metyrosine. These results suggest that glucocorticoids are anti-ulcerogenic in not only adrenalectomized rats but also in intact rats with diminished circulating levels of adrenaline. In the light of these data, the effect of nimesulide on plasma adrenaline concentrations was studied. In comparison to the adrenaline levels found in intact control rats, the administration of nimesulide at doses of 10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/kg decreased adrenaline concentrations by 12.8, 22.6, 30.4, and 58.2%, respectively, without affecting blood corticosterone concentrations. The anti-ulcer effect of nimesulide was observed to be dose-dependent, and the strength of this effect was directly correlated the decreasing concentration of adrenaline. The concentration of adrenaline was decreased by 60.9% in rats treated with 300 mg/kg metyrosine in which prednisolone produced anti-ulcer effects. In summary, we have shown that nimesulide produces its anti-ulcer

  20. Licorice: a possible anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer drug.

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    Aly, Adel M; Al-Alousi, Laith; Salem, Hatem A

    2005-09-20

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activities of both glycerrhitinic acid (GA) and the aqueous licorice extract (ALE) in comparison with diclofenac sodium (DS) (10 mg/kg), using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in male albino rats. In addition, the anti-ulcer activities of ALE, famotidine (FT), and a combination of ALE and FT using indomethacin-induced ulceration technique in rat stomach were investigated. Conventional DS tablets containing GA, as well as DS chewable tablets containing either GA or ALE with different tastes were prepared. Also, rapidly disintegrating FT tablets were prepared using direct compression and camphor sublimation methods. ALE or GA produced significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to DS, and when taken concomitantly, there is no possible antagonism. The anti-ulcer activity of licorice was found to be similar to that of FT in indomethacin-induced ulceration technique in rat stomach. Combination therapy of both FT and licorice showed higher anti-ulcer activity than either of them alone. Generally, tablets containing the crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (AcDisol) showed more rapidly disintegrating effect than those including Sodium starch glycolate (Primojel). The oral disintegration was very rapid for all the tested formulations. Also, the amount of FT absorbed from the oral cavity was nearly 9 from 10 mg theoretically present in each formula. It could be concluded that both GA and ALE have anti-inflammatory activity comparable with DS. It may be recommended to add ALE to either FT or diclofinac for more effective anti-inflammatory or anti-ulcer formulations, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Activity of Echinops Persicus on Experimental Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats

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    Ahmad Farajzadeh-Sheikh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Echinops persicus is traditionally used for a long time in Iran for treatment of cough and constipation. This extract is produced by activity of bug (Situphilus spp. on the plant. We documented its anti-tussive effect in rats in our previous study.The aim of this study was to assess the anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus in an animal model. In this study we evaluated anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus by Shay's method in rats. In 3 groups of rats, pylorus was ligatured under anesthesia. The rats were euthanized after 19 hours later and number and level of ulcer in stomach was measured. In group 2 the extract was orally administered 45 minutes before pyloric ligature, and in group 3, it was administered intraperitoneally 20 minutes before pyloric ligature. The number of ulcers in stomach was significantly low in group 2 (P = 0.01 and 3 (P = 0.037 in comparison with group 1. The level of ulcer was significantly decreased in group 2 (P = 0.047 with comparison to group 1. We conclude that, Echinops extract can exhibit potentially cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activity.

  2. Anti-Ulcer Activity of Tuber Extracts of Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae in Rats

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    Ahmad Mohd Fasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae is a plant species widespread throughout India and world. S. tuberosum contains starch, sugar (glucose, sucrose and fructose, cellulose (10-20%, crude fibre, pectin substances (0.7-1.5% of dry weight, hemicelluloses (1%, fat (1.1% and vitamin C. The proteins of S. tuberosum tuber comprised of about 60-70% globulin and 20-40% glutelin with no albumin. For external use, the grated raw S. tuberosum is applied locally in cases of arthritis, itching, neuralgia and mild burns. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the potential of S. tuberosum for the treatment of ulcers. Ranitidine is used as a standard referenceto evaluate anti-ulcer activity in models such as pylorus ligation model and stress-induced ulcers by cold water immersion. When alcoholic extract of tubers of S. tuberosum (AETST and aqueous extract of tubers of S. tuberosum (AQETST were subjected for LD50 study at the dose level of 2,000 mg/kg body weight. Preliminary phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, sterols, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids and triterpenes in both the extracts. The dose was selected as low (100 mg/kg, medium (200 mg/kg and high (400 mg/kg, and the doses of both the extracts significantly reduced the ulcer (P < 0.05*, 0.01** and 0.001***. The present study revealed that both the AETST and AQETST possessed anti-ulcer activity. Phytochemical constituents such as tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes have already been reported for their anti-ulcer activity. These phytochemical constituents were present in both the extracts and, hence, responsible for the observed activity.

  3. Phytochemical, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, antiinflammatory and anti-ulcer properties of Helianthemum lippii

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    Sami G. Alsabr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants have been considered a healthy source of life for all people and the therapeutical properties of the medical plants are very useful in curing range of diseases. The aims of the study are to evaluate the anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties of Helianthemum lippii (MHL methanolic extracts. MHL sampleswere collected in the mountain region of Libya. The antioxidant properties of MHL were evaluated using free radical scavenging assay. Stomach ulcers were induced in rats by ethanol. Pretreatment with ranitidine and MHL samples were performed before the ulcer induction. Gastric mucosal histological changes in rat stomach tissue were evaluated. Antimicrobial efficacy of MHL was also studied against gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, gram-negative bacteria E. coli , and fungal strain C. albicans. The phytochemical screening of MHL showed presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponine and simple phenolic compounds. MHL exhibited a powerful anti-oxidant activity, where 31.17 ± 1.40 µg/ml of extract caused 50% inhibition on 2,2, Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity in comparison to standard ascorbic acid (15.35 ± 3.2 µg/ml. MHL also showed substantial anti-microbial activity against a strain of gram-positive bacteria, S. aureu, with zone of inhibition (21 mm and MIC (12.25 mg/ml and a fungal strain, C. albicans, with zone of inhibition (20 mm and MIC (6.25 mg/ml compared to ciprofloxacin or amphotericin B. MHL at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg produced statistical significant anti-inflammatory activity (23.6%, 50% in comparison to aspirin (60%. It further showed significant anti-ulcer activity in doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg with percentage of gastric lesions inhibitions of 48.78% and 76.82%, respectively, in comparison to standard anti-ulcer ranitidine (50 mg/kg, which showed 69.78%. MHL has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at

  4. Anti-ulcer xanthones from the roots of Hypericum oblongifolium Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mumtaz; Latif, Abdul; Zaman, Khair; Arfan, Mohammad; Maitland, Derek; Ahmad, Habib; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2014-06-01

    Three new xanthones, hypericorin C (1), hypericorin D (2) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone (3), along with eight known compounds; 2,3-dimethoxyxanthone (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (5), 3,5-dihydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone (6), 3-acetylbetulinic acid (7), 10H-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-b]xanthen-10-one (8), 3-hydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxyxanthone (10) and betulinic acid (11) were isolated from the roots of Hypericum oblongifolium. The structures of the new compounds 1, 2 and 3 were deduced by spectroscopic techniques [ESI MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY)]. The entire series of compounds were evaluated for anti-ulcer activity.

  5. Gastric anti-ulcerative and anti-inflammatory activity of metyrosine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Polat, Beyzagul; Cadirci, Elif; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet; Halici, Zekai; Gulapoglu, Mine; Albayrak, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative effects of metyrosine, a selective tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor, were investigated in rats. For ulcer experiments, indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer tests and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer tests were used. For these experiments, rats were fasted for 24 h. Different doses of metyrosine and 25 mg/kg doses of ranitidine were administered to rats, followed by indomethacin at 25 mg/kg for the indomethacin-induced ulcer test, or 50% ethanol for the ethanol-induced test. Results have shown that at all of the doses used (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), metyrosine had significant anti-ulcerative effects in both indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcer tests. Metyrosine doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (especially the 200 mg/kg dose) also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw inflammation even more effectively than indomethacin. In addition, to characterize the anti-inflammatory mechanism of metyrosine we investigated its effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in inflammatory tissue (rat paw). The results showed that all doses of metyrosine significantly inhibited high COX-2 activity. The degree of COX-2 inhibition correlated with the increase in anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, we found that metyrosine has more anti-inflammatory effects than indomethacin and that these effects can be attributed to the selective inhibition of COX-2 enzymes by metyrosine. We also found that adrenalin levels are reduced upon metyrosine treatment, which may be the cause of the observed gastro-protective effects of this compound.

  6. Management of NSAID/aspirin-induced small intestinal damage by GI-sparing NSAIDs, anti-ulcer drugs and food constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Takeuchi, K

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy have revealed that aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause mucosal lesions not only in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but also in the small intestine in humans. Gastric and duodenal lesions caused by NSAIDs can be treated with anti-secretory agents such as proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2-receptor antagonists; however, these drugs are ineffective in treating NSAID-induced lesions in the small intestine. Furthermore, there are few effective agents for the treatment of small intestinal lesions. Therefore, identification of effective therapies for the treatment of NSAID/aspirin-induced small intestinal lesions remains an urgent priority. In the present review, we focus on novel pharmacological treatments to prevent or reduce NSAID-induced intestinal lesions, i.e., 1) GI-sparing NSAIDs (NO- or H2S-NSAIDs, NSAIDs mixed with phosphatidylcholine); 2) anti-ulcer drugs such as mucosal protective agents (misoprostol, rebamipide, teprenone, etc.) and anti-secretory agents (lansoprazole, etc.); 3) antibiotics (metronidazole) and probiotics (Lactobacillus sp.); and 4) food constituents (lactoferrin and soluble dietary fibers). We surveyed data from clinical trials evaluating these novel treatments. Also reviewed herein were the pros and cons of the novel protective methods from the standpoint of safety, efficacy, convenience, and cost.

  7. In vitro and invivo evaluation of hepato protection and anti ulcer activities of piperine gastro retentive micropspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ramalingam Ramani; Bala Subramaniam; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the recent years of research, the interest on herbal medicine is continuously increasing. Piperine is an alkaloid extracted from ripen fruits of Piper nigram and was proved in literature for its hepato protective and anti ulcer properties majorly through anti oxidant capability. Methods: In the present investigation gastro retentive, both floating and mucoadhessive microspheres are evaluated for the hepato protection in paracetamol induced model and gastric protection in rats and a comparison was done with conventional microspheres and pure form of piperine. Results: The results clearly showed the significant decrease in the serum levels of the marker enzymes in hepato protective study supported by histopathology along with reduced ulcer index in anti ulcer activity. Conclusion: This clearly indicates that there is an increase in both activities of floating microspheres, mucoadhessive microspheres when compared with the PP and conventional microspheres.

  8. Usefulness of anti-ulcer drugs for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcers induced by low doses of aspirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayaka Nakashima; Shinichi Ota; Shin Arai; Kiyoko Yoshino; Mie Inao; Keiko Ishikawa; Nobuaki Nakayama; Yukinori Imai; Sumiko Nagoshi; Satoshi Mochida

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of anti-ulcer drugs for the prevention and treatment of low-dose aspirininduced peptic ulcer. METHODS: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in 68 patients receiving daily low-dose aspirin (81 or 100 mg/day). The endoscopic findings were classified according to the Lanza score, and the scores were compared between groups categorized according to the concomitant use of anti-ulcer drugs and the types of drugs used. In another study, 31 hemorrhagic peptic ulcer patients who had been receiving low-dose aspirin were enrolled. The patients were randomly classified into the proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-treated group and the H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA)-treated group. The administration of low-dose aspirin was continued concomitantly, and endoscopic examinations were performed 8 wk later. ``RESULTS: The Lanza scores (mean ± SD) of the gastro-mucosal lesions were 1.0 ± 1.9 and 1.9 ± 2.3 in 8 and 16 patients receiving prevention therapy with a PPI and an H2RA, respectively. Both scores were significantly smaller than the scores in 34 patients who were not receiving prevention therapy (4.7 ± 1.0) and in 10 patients receiving cytoprotective anti-ulcer drugs (4.3 ± 1.6). In the prospective study, 18 and 13 patients received a PPI and an H2RA, respectively. Endoscopic examinations revealed that the tissue in the region of the gastro-mucosal lesions had reverted to normal in all patients in the PPI-treated group and in 12 patients (92%) in the H2RA-treated group; no significant differences were observed between the groups. CONCLUSION: H2RA therapy was effective for both the prevention and treatment of low-dose aspirininduced peptic ulcer, similar to the effects of PPIs, while cytoprotective anti-ulcer drugs were ineffective in preventing ulceration.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of aparisthman: A natural product with anti-ulcer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, D. S. B.; Moreira, R. Y. O.; Müller, A. H.; Alves, C. N.

    Aparisthman is a furan diterpenoid with a clerodane skeleton isolated from Aparisthmium cordatum (Juss.) Bail. (Euphorbiaceae). This natural product presents significant anti-ulcer activity to the level of cimetidine (Tagamet®), a compound used for the treatment of ulcers provoked by stress. The structure of X-ray diffraction of the aparisthman was compared with theoretical calculations and the results showed that the theory is in accordance with the experimental data. The infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra also were obtained and compared with theoretical calculations. The B3LYP theory level, with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, leads the value to the IR absorption close to the value experimentally observed. NMR theoretical obtained with HF/6-311+G(2d,p) shows little deviation of experimental results. Calculations of molecular electrostatic potential and stabilization energies suggest that the protonation of aparisthman will be able to occur on carbonyl oxygen atom (O4).

  10. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of the leaf extract of Osyris quadripartita Decne. (Santalaceae) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebaw, Mastewal; Mishra, Bharat; Gelayee, Dessalegn Asmelashe

    2017-01-01

    Osyris quadripartita (OQ) Salzm. ex Decne. has been used to treat peptic ulcer disease in Ethiopian folk medicine, but its efficacy has not been validated. The present study was therefore carried out to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of 80% methanol leaf extract of OQ in rats. The effect of OQ extract on gastric ulcer in rats in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced models was studied using single dosing (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and repeated dosing (200 mg/kg for 10 and 20 days) approaches. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and sucralfate (100 mg/kg) were used as the standard drugs. Depending on the model, outcome measures were volume and pH of gastric fluid, total acidity, ulcer score, percent inhibition of ulcer score, ulcer index as well as percent inhibition of ulcer index. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. OQ significantly (P<0.001) reduced gastric ulcer index by 55.82% and 62.11%, respectively, in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced ulcer models at the 400 mg/kg dose, which is comparable to the standard drugs. Ten and 20 days pre-treatment with OQ200 exhibited significant (P<0.001) ulcer inhibition by 66.48% and 68.36% (pylorus ligation-induced model) as well as 71.48% and 85.35% (ethanol-induced model), respectively. OQ possesses both dose-dependent and time-dependent anti-ulcer effect in the two models. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) is estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg for the crude hydroalcoholic extract, and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, and saponins were present. The findings of this study confirmed that OQ has anti-ulcer pharmacologic activity due to one or more of the secondary metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its anti-ulcer use in Ethiopian folk medicine. Further investigations on isolation of specific phytochemicals and elucidating mechanisms of action are needed. PMID:28144167

  11. Synthesis of [sup 14]C-labelled sodium pariprazole (E3810). [Anti-ulcer agent; ATPase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Katsuya; Chiku, Shigeru; Sohda, Shigeru (Eisai Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Labs.)

    1993-09-01

    Sodium pariprazole (E3810), an inhibitor of H[sup +],K[sup +]-ATPase, was synthesized labelled with carbon-14, starting from 2-mercapto[2-[sup 14]C]-benzimidazole with a specific activity of 888 MBq/mmol. It was obtained in 49.3% radiochemical yield with a radiochemical purity of more than 98%. (author).

  12. Study of anti ulcer activity ofFicus religiosa L. on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarmistha Saha; Gagan Goswami

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the gastroprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract leaves ofFicus religiosa(F. religiosa) in different experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats.Methods: The hydroalcoholic extract leaves ofF. religiosa were studied at two dose levels (250 and500 mg/kg, oral) in rats against absolute ethanol (0.2 mL oral), aspirin (200 mg/kg) and pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (50mg/kg, oral) was used as a standard drug. Mean ulcer indices and oxidative stress were measured. Phytochemical tests and acute toxicity tests were also carried out.Results:Administration ofF. religiosa to rats significantly decreased the ulcer index value when compared with the control treated group. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg, oral) also produced a significant decrease the ulcer index value when compared with the control treated group. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins.Conclusions: The results suggest that the leaves of theF. religiosa possess significant anti ulcer activity.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS

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    Arutla Rajender

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC. Wall. ex Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases. We studied the antiulcer potential of the methanolic extract in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the above-mentioned disorders. Gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extract of Anogeissus latifolia (ALE (200 and 400 mg/kg/body weight was studied on aspirin, and ethanol-induced ulcers. The results of the present study showed for the first time that the ALE possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by chemical agents with a maximum of 88.95%. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. These findings could justify, at least partially, the inclusion of this plant in the management of gastric disorders in traditional medicine.

  14. Evaluation of gastric anti-ulcer activity in a hydro-ethanolic extract from Kielmeyera coriacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Cavalcante Fortes Goulart

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The antiulcer activity of a hydro-ethanolic extract prepared from the stems of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Guttiferae was evaluated in rats employing the ethanol-acid, acute stress and Indomethacin models to induce experimental gastric ulcers. Treatment with K coriacea hydro-ethanolic extract provided significant antiulcer protection in the ethanol-acid and Indomethacin models, but not in the acute stress model. These results suggested that the K coriacea hydro-ethanolic extract increased resistance to necrotizing agents, providing a direct, protective effect on the gastric mucosa.A atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato hidroetanólico de caule de Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Guttiferae foi avaliada em ratos por meio de três modelos experimentais: etanol-ácido, indometacina e estresse agudo. O índice ulcerativo observado após o tratamento com o extrato de Kielmeyera coriacea foi comparado com a droga de referência, cimetidina. O tratamento com o extrato mostrou significante atividade anti-ulcerogênica nos modelos de indução de lesões de mucosa gástrica produzidas por etanol-ácido e indometacina, mas não contra úlcera induzida pelo modelo de estresse agudo. Etanol-ácido e agentes antiinflamatórios, como a indometacina, são compostos que produzem úlcera de mucosa gástrica. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem uma atividade protetora de mucosa gástrica para o extrato de Kielmeyera coriacea

  15. Anti-ulcer activity of a slow-release zinc complex, zinc monoglycerolate (Glyzinc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D; Whitehouse, M W

    1992-06-01

    A slow-release zinc complex, zinc monoglycerolate (ZMG) was examined for its potential gastroprotective activity in various gastric ulcer models. These models comprised (a) oral or parenteral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) given to rats whose gastrointestinal mucosa was pre-sensitized by prior development of arthritis, oleyl alcohol-induced inflammation and cold exposure, (b) oral ethanol (12.5-100%) with and without added 4% HCl, (c) intraperitoneal reserpine (5 mg kg-1) in arthritic and normal rats and in normal mice, (d) oral NSAIDs given to mice in which acid and pepsin production was stimulated by co-administration of intraperitoneal bethanechol chloride (5 mg kg-1) to enhance ulcer development, and (e) NSAIDs given to carrageenan-inflamed rats to determine effects of ZMG on paw inflammation. In these models, ZMG given orally was effective in preventing development of gastric lesions, except with propionic acid NSAIDs; the effective doses being apparently dependent on the severity of the mucosal injury. In many of the models ZMG was superior to zinc sulphate and other zinc salts or metal ion complexes investigated but was slightly more effective or equipotent compared with zinc acexamate. ZMG did not impair the anti-oedemic effects of NSAIDs. ZMG is thus an effective agent in preventing ulcer development in a wide range of model systems and may be more effective than zinc salts because of the controlled slow-release of zinc from the complex.

  16. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

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    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  17. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: add an anti-ulcer drug for patients at high risk only. Always limit the dose and duration of treatment with NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In addition to their cardiac, renal, hepatic, cutaneous and neuropsychological adverse effects, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can have severe effects on the entire gastrointestinal tract, including bleeding, perforation and occlusion. Which anti-ulcer drugs reduce the risk of the severe gastrointestinal adverse effects of NSAIDs, and which patients should receive them? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature, using the standard Prescrire methodology. The main risk factors for severe gastrointestinal adverse effects during NSAID therapy are: a high dose regimen; age over 65 years; a history of gastric or duodenal ulcer or gastrointestinal bleeding; heavy use of both alcohol and tobacco; and concomitant treatment with a corticosteroid, antiplatelet drug, anticoagulant, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ulceration (on endoscopy) are poor predictors of severe gastrointestinal reactions. A meta-analysis examined randomised placebo-controlled trials of misoprostol in more than 11 000 patients. The results were mainly based on a large trial including about 9000 rheumatoid arthritis patients with an average age of 68 years. Misoprostol (400 microg to 800 microg/day, in 4 doses) prevented about 4 severe gastroduodenal events when 1000 patients over 60 years of age were treated for 6 months. Diarrhoea and other mild gastrointestinal disorders were frequent. There are no randomised trials comparing proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 receptor antagonists versus misoprostol or versus placebo therapy for the prevention of severe adverse effects associated with NSAIDs. PPIs and H2 antagonists both reduce the incidence of gastric or duodenal ulceration detected by routine endoscopy. A randomised trial compared an H2 antagonist (famotidine) versus a PPI (pantoprazole) in 128 patients with an average age of 69 years who had a very high risk of serious gastrointestinal

  18. Components and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and antinociceptive activities of the endemic species Stachys mialhesi de Noé

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    S. Laggoune

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One diterpenoid, horminone 1, two flavonoid glycosides, apigenin-7-O-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl-β-d-glucopyranoside 2, isoscutellarein-7-O-(6″′-O-acetyl-β-d-allopyranosyl-(1 → 2-β-d-glucopyranoside 3, were isolated from n-butanolic extract of the aerial parts of Stachys mialhesi de Noé (BESM. Their structures were established on the basis of physical and spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with the literature data. Antioxidant activity of this extract and the compound 3 was evaluated by the use of the Electron Spin Resonance method in order to visualize the inhibition of the DPPH radical. In this study, we also investigated the anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and antinociceptive activities of the BESM in experimental animal models at different doses. Our results showed that the BESM showed a strongest antioxidant activity. It decreased acetic acid induced writhing times; inhibited carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. All of these results suggested that the BESM possesses significant antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  19. [The effect of two lubricants (magnesium stearate and pruv) in the formation of tablets of four anti-ulcer agents/ by means of direct compression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Marquez, M A; Muñoz, A; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    1992-01-01

    In this research we study the influence of two lubricants-Magnesium Stearate and Pruv--on the tablets elaboration of Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine and Pirenzepine by direct compression. The presence of 0.5% of lubricants improved the flow of all the formulations, but especially the Famotidine's formulation. The formulations with Magnesium Stearate had the worst results in tests of friability and tensile strength. All tablets with drugs and Pruv had high data in indentation hardness. The tablets of Cimetidine, Famotidine and Pirenzepine with Magnesium Stearate had less time of disintegration.

  20. Enrichment of anti-ulcer activity of monoammonium glycerrhizin and Aloe vera gel powder through a novel drug delivery system

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    Arati N Ranade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a 14-day "triple therapy" of two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. However, the current therapy has side-effects like stomach upset, non-compliance, incomplete absorption of drug and antibiotic resistance. To overcome these limitations, there is a need to suggest an alternative therapy. The best possible alternative is to deliver herbal constituents. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the efficacy of herbal constituents by applying the concept of a novel drug delivery system. The present investigation is designed to deliver and retain two herbal constituents in the stomach for better action against gastric ulcers. The objective was to develop a bilayer floating tablet of monoammonium glycerrhizin and Aloe vera gel powder through rational combination of excipients to give the lowest possible lag time with maximum drug release in 7 h. Formulation OF2 containing hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose E5, crospovidone and effervescent agents in the ratio 1:2 gave 98% drug release with desired floating properties. Pharmacodynamic studies in rats showed that the combination of monoammonium glycerrhizin and Aloe vera gave 99% ulcer inhibition in comparison with 51% ulcer inhibition in the group administered with monoammonium glycerrhizin alone. X-ray studies in rabbits proved the gastroretention of the tablet for more than 6 h. This suggests relevance of NDDS in delivery of herbal constituents in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  1. Pharmacological in-vitro investigation for digestive property and in-vivo anti-ulcer activity of Pep-Up Syrup

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    Hardik Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in-vitro digestive property and in-vivo anti-ulcer activity of Pep-Up Syrup in aspirin-induced acute gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: The in-vitro investigation for digestive property was performed by means of evaluating amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activity in comparison with blank. For in-vivo evaluation of Pep-Up Syrup, aspirin-induced acute gastric ulcer model in rats was used. Selected animals were divided in to three groups where each group was consisting of six animals. Group-I, II and III was considered as normal control, disease control and Pep-Up Syrup treated, respectively. Pep-Up Syrup (3 mL/kg/day treatment was provided for 7 days orally. Ulcer index, gastric wall mucus content, lipid peroxidation level in stomach tissue and tissue antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione and catalase enzyme activity were carried out. Histopathology of stomach tissue was also performed. Statistical Analysis: Statistical calculations were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni′s test and results were expressed as Mean ± SEM. Results and Discussion: Pep-Up Syrup showed noticeable amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Pre-treatment of Pep-Up Syrup showed significant protection against ulceration and aspirin-induced loss of gastric wall mucus content. Pre-treatment of Pep-Up Syrup also showed significant increase in tissue antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed that Pep-Up Syrup provides significant cyto-protection against aspirin-induced mucosal damage. Conclusions: On the basis of study data it can be concluded that Pep-Up Syrup possesses property of digesting starch, lipids and proteins. Data also revealed that Pep-Up Syrup has antiulcer activity against aspirin-induced acute gastric ulcer.

  2. The Knoevenagel reaction of cyanoacetylhydrazine with pregnenolone: Synthesis of thiophene, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine, 1,2,4-triazole, pyran and pyridine derivatives with anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nahed N E; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud A; Wardakhan, Wagnat W; Mohareb, Rafat M

    2016-03-01

    The reaction of pregnenolone with cyanoacetylhydrazine and ammonium acetate at 120°C gave the Knoevenagel condensation product 3. The latter reacted with different reagents to give thiophene, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine, 1,2,4-triazole and pyran derivatives. The anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer evaluations of the newly synthesized products were evaluated and the results showed that compounds 4, 8c, 10, 11, 13c, 15a, 15c, 17a, 17b, 17e, 18a and 18f possessed higher activity compared to the rest of the compounds. In addition to this, the toxicity of these active compounds was studied against shrimp larvae where compounds 15a, 15c and 18a showed non-toxicity against the tested organisms.

  3. Gastroprotective effect of an aqueous suspension of black cumin Nigella sativa on necrotizing agents-induced gastric injury in experimental animals

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    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Previous studies on "Black seed" or "Black Cumin" Nigella sativa (NS have reported a large number of pharmacological activities including its anti-ulcer potential. These studies employed either fixed oil, volatile oil components or different solvent extracts. In folkloric practices, NS seeds are taken as such, in the form of coarse dry powder or the powdered seeds are mixed with water. This study examines the effect of NS aqueous suspension on experimentally induced gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretion in rats to rationalize its use by herbal and Unani medicine practitioners. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by various noxious chemicals (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin in Wistar albino rats. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken in a separate group of rats. Gastric wall mucus contents and non-protein sulfhydryl concentration were estimated, and gastric tissue was examined histopathologically. Results: An aqueous suspension of Black seed significantly prevented gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents. It also significantly ameliorated the ulcer severity and basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated Shay rats. Moreover, the suspension significantly replenished the ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus content levels and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: These findings validate the use of Black seed in gastropathies induced by necrotizing agents. The anti-ulcer effect of NS is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its antioxidant and anti-secretory activities.

  4. A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity

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    Shaikh A. M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

  5. Anti-ulcer effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Rui-dong; YANG Qian-zi; XIAO Wei; LIU Fang-e; CHEN Jian-kang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The ulcers were induced by water-immersion restraint stress, acetic acid and pylorus-ligation in rats. In each model, animals were divided randomly into 4 groups and administrated with LBP of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, ranitidine 100 mg/kg (as a reference standard) and saline respectively. Mucosal lesions were scored as ulcer index. In the pylorus-ligation model, we also compared the gastric juice volume, total acidity, acid output and pepsin activity among groups. Results: Oral administration of LBP inhibited the formation of the acute gastric lesions induced by physical stress such as water-immersion restraint (P<0.05), and accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcer model induced by acetic acid (P<0.05 to P<0.01). In the pylorus-ligated rats, significant decrease was also seen in ulcer index (P<0.05 to P<0.01), total acidity (P<0.05), acid output (P<0.05 to P<0.01). LBP 300 mg/kg even showed marked reduction of the volume (P<0.05) and pepsin activity (P<0.05) in the gastric juice. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: LBP has protective effects on treating gastric ulcer and this action may relate to the reduction of acid output and pepsin activity in the gastric juice.

  6. Anti-ulcer and membrane stabilizing actions of zinc acexamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, C J; Bulbena, O; Esplugues, J V; Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Esplugues, J

    1987-01-01

    The effects of zinc acexamate on stress and reserpine ulcers as well as on gastric mast cells degranulation and membrane stability were evaluated in the rat. Zinc acexamate (100 mg/kg) has demonstrated an inhibitory effect on cold-restraint stress and reserpine-induced ulcer in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of rats, prior to cold restraint stress, reduced gastric mast cell degranulation. Zinc acexamate (10(-4) M) inhibits Triton X-100 release of beta-glucuronidase in isolated hepatic lysosomes. These observations suggest that ulcer protective actions of zinc acexamate may be exerted in part through enhancing gastric mucosal resistance by stabilizing biological membrane integrity.

  7. Radiation proctitis in the rat. Sequential changes and effects of anti-inflammatory agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1988-11-01

    Female Wistar rats were treated with single exposure irradiation to 2 cm of distal colon to cause radiation proctitis. All animals were evaluated by examination, colonoscopy and histologic evaluation for changes post-irradiation. Exposures of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy caused dose-related clinical and histologic changes peaking at 7 to 15 days post-exposure. Rats treated with 20 Gy were colonoscoped and biopsied daily and showed sequential post-irradiation endoscopic changes ranging from mucosal edema and mild inflammatory changes to erosion and ulcers. Histologically, crypt abscess and mural wall necrosis similar to changes found in the human rectum after radiotherapy were noted. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, (aspirin, indomethacin, piroxicam), misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analogue), or sucralfate (an anti-ulcer agent) did not ameliorate nor exacerbate radiation proctitis in rats exposed to 22.5 Gy. We conclude from these data that the female Wistar rat is a good model for studying radiation proctitis because endoscopic, histologic, and clinical changes seen post-exposure closely resemble those found in man.

  8. Comparison of TAK-438 (Vonoprazan) to Lansoprazole in the Treatment of Gastric Ulcer Participants With or Without Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Gastric Ulcer; Peptic Ulcer; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Digestive System Diseases; Lansoprazole; Anti-Ulcer Agents; Gastrointestinal Agents; Proton Pump Inhibitors; Enzyme Inhibitors; Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

  9. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas popularmente utilizadas como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias pela comunidade de Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento-MT, Brasil Ethnobotanical survey of plants popularly used as anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory in Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyres Zínia Taveira de Jesus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo proceder o levantamento etnobotânico das espécies vegetais utilizadas popularmente no Distrito de Pirizal - MT, no pantanal mato-grossense, como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias. A entrevista aberta foi realizada através da aplicação de um roteiro base a 38 informantes adultos, na faixa etária de 25 a 75 anos. Indagou-se o nome popular das plantas, partes utilizadas, preparados e vias de administração, e realizou-se a revisão bibliográfica das plantas mais citadas no estudo, utilizando-se as bases de dados convencionais. Foram citadas 49 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 32 famílias, destacando-se a família Fabaceae. As plantas mais citadas simultaneamente como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias foram Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (9,2%, Hyptis crenata Pohl (8,8%, Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit (6,7%, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (L.C.Rich Vahl (5,8%, Waltheria indica L. (5%, Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (4,2% e Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke (3,3%. A parte da planta mais citada foi a folha (57,1%, a via de administração mais utilizada no tratamento das úlceras gástricas foi a oral (100%, com preferência para os chás (75%, enquanto nas inflamações foram os banhos tópicos (60%.. A revisão bibliográfica apontou a necessidade de aprofundar os estudos químico-farmacológicos para Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke e Hyptis crenata Pohl.An ethnobotanical survey was conduced to study the vegetal species from Pantanal, in the district of Pirizal-MT, popularly used as anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer. Ethnobotanical data were collected through open interviews and ethnopharmacology questionnaire with 38 local informers, in the age group of 25 to 75 years old. The local name, the part normally used, the mode of preparation and the administration route were asked to them. A bibliographic review of the plants most cited in the study was carried out using the conventional databases. A total of 49 species

  10. 抗消化性溃疡药使用情况统计分析--基于“基药”与“基保”目录的差异视角%Statistical Analysis on the Usage of Anti-Ulcer Drugs of Digestive Tract --Based on the Perspective of Difference between the Directories of "National Essential Drugs" and "Basic Medical Insurance Drugs"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锦娟; 池明建; 胡世明; 康洽福

    2015-01-01

    By reviewing the usage of anti-ulcer drugs of digestive tract in hospitalized patients of 11 Second-or higher level designated hospitals of Fujian Medical Insurance Management Center in Fuzhou area, we obtained 2153 hospitalization data in 2014, to compare the amounts of medication, DDs, DDC and some other index according to the Directory of “national essential drugs” or the Directory of“local basic medical insurance”. Based on the results of comparison, we suggest that national essential drugs directory and basic medical insurance drugs directory should be connected; drug directory revision should consider clinical and practical application; medical insurance agencies, health supervision departments and medical institutions should cooperate in PPIs rational using of medicine.%本文通过分析福州地区11家二甲及以上定点医院住院医保患者抗消化性溃疡药使用情况。调取2014年度使用抗消化性溃疡药计2153份住院数据,根据是否国家基本药物、是否福建省基本医疗保险药品目录分别统计用药金额、DDDs、DDC等不同指标的统计对比,提出了国家基本药物目录与基本医疗保险药品目录应相互衔接;目录修订应考虑临床实际应用情况;医保经办机构、医疗监管部门、医疗机构要协同做好PPIs合理用药工作的建议。

  11. [Uricosuric agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Iwao

    2008-04-01

    Urate lowering treatment is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, tophi, gouty arthropathy, radiographic changes of gout, multiple joint involvement, or associated uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uricosuric agents like benzbromarone and probenecid are very useful to treat hyperuricemia as well as allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). Uricosuric agents act the urate lowering effect through blocking the URAT1, an urate transporter, in brush border of renal proximal tubular cells. In order to avoid the nephrotoxicity and urolithiasis due to increasing of urinary urate excretion by using uricosuric agents, the proper urinary tract management (enough urine volume and correction of aciduria) should be performed.

  12. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  13. Vasoactive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatmen...

  14. [Inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shigetake

    2003-05-01

    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  15. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  16. Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.

  17. Radioprotective Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    claimed to be effective are gallic acid derivatives, eg, sodium gallate 12053-21-61 (295-297) and propyl gallate 1121-79-91 (298). p...inhibition of a-adrenergic receptors can be achieved through the use of the antiradiation agents 2-(5-aminopentylamino)ethanephos- phorothioic acid ...tissue was ap- preciated immediately as a potential medical set, and they were put to use en- thusiastically. Early workers did notice an erythematous

  18. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  19. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  20. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  1. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  2. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  3. Sofalcone, a gastric mucosa protective agent, increases vascular endothelial growth factor via the Nrf2-heme-oxygenase-1 dependent pathway in gastric epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Akiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Onda, Kenji, E-mail: knjond@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kawahara, Hirofumi; Uchiyama, Yuka; Nakayama, Hiroko; Omi, Takamasa; Nagaoka, Masayoshi [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsui, Hirofumi [Division of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-nohdai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Sofalcone increases HO-1 in gastric epithelial cells. {yields} The induction of HO-1 by sofalcone treatment follows the activation of Nrf2. {yields} The production of VEGF by sofalcone treatment is mediated by HO-1 induction. -- Abstract: Sofalcone, 2'-carboxymethoxy-4,4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)chalcone, is an anti-ulcer agent that is classified as a gastric mucosa protective agent. Recent studies indicate heat shock proteins such as HSP32, also known as heme-oxygenase-1(HO-1), play important roles in protecting gastrointestinal tissues from several stresses. We have previously reported that sofalcone increases the expression of HO-1 in adipocytes and pre-adipocytes, although the effect of sofalcone on HO-1 induction in gastrointestinal tissues is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the effects of sofalcone on the expression of HO-1 and its functional role in rat gastric epithelial (RGM-1) cells. We found that sofalcone increased HO-1 expression in RGM-1 cells in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. The HO-1 induction was associated with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in RGM-1 cells. We also observed that sofalcone increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in the culture medium. Treatment of RGM-1 cells with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin-protoporphyrin), or HO-1 siRNA inhibited sofalcone-induced VEGF production, suggesting that the effect of sofalcone on VEGF expression is mediated by the HO-1 pathway. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of sofalcone are partly exerted via Nrf2-HO-1 activation followed by VEGF production.

  4. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  5. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  6. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  7. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  8. Identification of a dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer from Arctium lappa with a potent anti-ulcer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; da Silva, Luisa M; Dartora, Nessana; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sabry, Diego de A; Filho, Arquimedes P S; de Paula Werner, Maria F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R; de Souza, Lauro M

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of Arctium lappa contain several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids, as evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to investigate the protection on gastric mucosa against ulcers, rats were treated with fractions from leaf extract prior to ethanol-induced ulcers. The original fraction obtained as ethanol soluble fraction from hot aqueous extract was able to protect de gastric mucosa, and this effect was retained in the ethyl acetate fraction, obtained from liquid/liquid fractionation. The main compound in this fraction was isolated and chemically characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, assisted by isopropylidene derivatization which gave rise a mass increment of 40 units. Therefore, the underivatized compound that had m/z 515.119 [M-H](-) was shifted to m/z 555.151, being confirmed as 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, which presented an ED50 of 57 µg kg(-1) on gastric protection, lesser than the therapeutic concentration of omeprazole (40 mg kg(-1)).

  9. Design and Evaluation of Gastro retentive Drug Delivery System of Anti Ulcer Drug

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Floating matrix tablets of Lansoprezol were developed to prolong gastric residence time, leading to sustained action of the drug. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose as a polymer in two different grades, HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M. Tablets were evaluated for their physical characteristics, viz., hardness, thickness, friability, mass variation, drug content and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in vitro drug release character...

  10. Investigation of poly-herbal aqueous extract for potential anti-ulcer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polyherbal extract of betel, clove, fennel and black catechu was evaluated for gastro-protective (antiulcer activity in rats using the aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection.  Antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging procedure. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and (500 mg/kg showed dose dependent antiulcer activity and protected gastric lesions by about 65 to 75% respectively compared to standard drug Omeprazole (98%. The findings suggest that the polyherbal extract have significant gastro-protective activity.                                                                   

  11. Diosmin protects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats: novel anti-ulcer actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Hany H; Salama, Samir A; Omar, Hany A; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Diosmin (DIO) is a natural citrus flavone with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features that underlay its protection against cardiac, hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of DIO against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with DIO (100 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by lowering of ulcer index (UI) scores, area of gastric lesions, histopathologic aberrations and leukocyte invasion. These actions were analogous to those exerted by the reference antiulcer sucralfate. DIO suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels along with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expression. It also augmented the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Meanwhile, DIO halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). With respect to gastric mucosal apoptosis, DIO suppressed caspase-3 activity and cytochrome C (Cyt C) with enhancement of the anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in favor of cell survival. These favorable actions were associated with upregulation of the gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Together, these findings accentuate the gastroprotective actions of DIO in ethanol gastric injury which were mediated via concerted multi-pronged actions, including suppression of gastric inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis besides boosting of the antioxidant and the cytoprotective defenses.

  12. Review article: pharmacokinetic concerns in the selection of anti-ulcer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, E A

    1999-10-01

    Rabeprazole is a new, highly potent proton pump inhibitor (PPI) being introduced for the treatment of disorders of gastric acid hypersecretion. Rabeprazole joins other drugs in this class, such as omeprazole, pantoprazole, and lansoprazole, which share a common mechanism of action. Each of these drugs is a substituted benzimidazole, which inhibits activity of the H+, K+ -ATPase located on the apical surface of parietal cells, thereby preventing the secretion of gastric acid. As a result of structural and functional similarities, the PPIs share many pharmacokinetic features. They have comparable rates of absorption, maximum plasma concentrations, and total drug absorptions resulting in similar bioavailability after single-dose administration. With multiple dosing, rabeprazole differs from omeprazole in that its pharmacokinetic profile does not change significantly over the course of therapy. All the PPIs are metabolized rapidly, resulting in short half-lives. However, their duration of activity is much longer, due to the way in which they bind to H+, K+ -ATPase. All are metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, although only omeprazole has demonstrated significant interactions with other drugs metabolized by this pathway. Rabeprazole, which has a low potential for interacting with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450, does interfere with the absorption of digoxin and ketoconazole because of its antisecretory effects. The pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole are altered slightly in elderly subjects and in patients with renal and moderate hepatic disease. However, the pharmacokinetic findings suggest that no dosage adjustment is required in these special populations.

  13. Diosmin protects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats: novel anti-ulcer actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H Arab

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Diosmin (DIO is a natural citrus flavone with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features that underlay its protection against cardiac, hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of DIO against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with DIO (100 mg/kg p.o. attenuated the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by lowering of ulcer index (UI scores, area of gastric lesions, histopathologic aberrations and leukocyte invasion. These actions were analogous to those exerted by the reference antiulcer sucralfate. DIO suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of myeloperoxidase (MPO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels along with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 expression. It also augmented the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels. Meanwhile, DIO halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC. With respect to gastric mucosal apoptosis, DIO suppressed caspase-3 activity and cytochrome C (Cyt C with enhancement of the anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 in favor of cell survival. These favorable actions were associated with upregulation of the gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO. Together, these findings accentuate the gastroprotective actions of DIO in ethanol gastric injury which were mediated via concerted multi-pronged actions, including suppression of gastric inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis besides boosting of the antioxidant and the cytoprotective defenses.

  14. SCREENING FOR ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS USING PYLORIC LIGATION METHOD IN WISTER RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath S S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease is a chronic problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion. Herbal medicines are generally used in cases when drugs are to be used for chronic periods. The study was conducted to evaluate antiulcerogenic activity of convolvulus pluricaulis in wistar rats. The antiulcer activity was carried out employing - Pyloric ligation method. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. First group was given 1ml of 0.1% of vehicle (Tween 80; the second group was treated with ranitidine 50 mg/kg in 1 ml Tween 80. The remaining groups receive 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of Convolvulus pluricaulis alcoholic extract (CPAE in 1 ml Tween 80 respectively. All the drugs were administered orally for five days duration daily in two divided doses. Evaluation of antiulcer activity was done by Ulcer score/ulcer index. Volume of gastric juice secreted, gastric free acidity, total acidity, total protein, pepsin mucin and pH were also estimated. CPAE at a dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited ulcer index by 40.87% and at a dose of 400 mg/kg inhibited ulcer index by 26.64 %. Alcoholic extracts of Convolvulus pluricaulis have shown a significant protection against gastric ulcers in pyloric ligation model.

  15. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Prabha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD, encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research.

  16. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  17. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  18. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  19. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  20. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  1. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  2. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moergestel, Leo van; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to ti

  3. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  4. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  5. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction......Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  6. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  7. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  8. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  9. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  10. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  11. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  12. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise...

  13. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  14. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  15. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  16. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  17. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  18. Remote Agent Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  19. Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based cloud computing is concerned with the design and development of software agents for bolstering cloud service\\ud discovery, service negotiation, and service composition. The significance of this work is introducing an agent-based paradigm for\\ud constructing software tools and testbeds for cloud resource management. The novel contributions of this work include: 1) developing\\ud Cloudle: an agent-based search engine for cloud service discovery, 2) showing that agent-based negotiatio...

  20. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention......-based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...

  1. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  2. [Pharmacology of inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    High-risk patients, during anesthesia and after surgery present changes in pharmacokinetics (biotransformation reactions, renal clearance, drug interactions, etc.) modifying the usefulness of most drugs, cardiac inotropics included. This group of substances is formed by adrenergic agents, phospodiesterase inhibitors and digitalis compounds. Adrenergic agents are the catecholamines, adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (D), plus dopaminergic agonists as dobutamine and pirbuterol. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as amrinone and milrinone, produce their inotropic action by preserving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc) from its intracellular catabolism. Recent studies on the utility of digitalis compounds demonstrated the valuable applicability of digoxin in chronic and acute heart failure. Another group of substances whose mechanism of action differs from that of the inotropics, offers future utility in high risk patients, they include: inhibitors of nitric oxide sintases, natriuretic atrial peptide inhibitors, Q-10 coenzyme, endothelin antagonists, and anti-tumoral necrosis factor.

  3. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  4. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The DARPA knowledge sharing effort: Progress report. In B. Nebel , C. Rich, and W. Swartout, editors, Principles of Knowledge Representation and...and Automation, pages 2,785-2,788. IEEE CS Press. [18] Carl Hewitt. Offices are open systems. Communications of the ACM, 4(3):271-287, July 1986...19] Carl Hewitt and Jeff Inman. DAI betwixt and be- tween: From "intelligent agents" to open systems sci- ence. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man

  5. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  6. NOVEL ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are a group of drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat psychosis. Antipsychotic agents are grouped in two categories: Typical and Atypical antipsychotics. The first antipsychotic was chlorpromazine, which was developed as a surgical anesthetic. The first atypical anti-psychotic medication, clozapine, was discovered in the 1950s, and introduced in clinical practice in the 1970s. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are effective in reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Blockade of D2 receptor in mesolimbic pathway is responsible for antipsychotic action. Typical antipsychotics are not particularly selective and also block Dopamine receptors in the mesocortical pathway, tuberoinfundibular pathway, and the nigrostriatal pathway. Blocking D2 receptors in these other pathways is thought to produce some of the unwanted side effects. Atypical antipsychotics differ from typical psychotics in their "limbic-specific" dopamine type 2 (D2-receptor binding and high ratio of serotonin type 2 (5-HT2-receptor binding to D2. Atypical antipsychotics are associated with a decreased capacity to cause EPSs, TD, narcoleptic malignant syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. Atypical antipsychotic agents were developed in response to problems with typical agents, including lack of efficacy in some patients, lack of improvement in negative symptoms, and troublesome adverse effects, especially extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs and tardive dyskinesia (TD.

  7. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  8. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  9. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  10. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence...

  11. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  12. Agentes selladores en endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Recibido: Noviembre 2002 Aceptado: Enero 2003 La gutapercha sigue siendo uno de los materiales predilectos, pero debido a su falta de adhesión a las paredes dentinarias, debe estar siempre combinada con un sellador que actúe como interfase entre la masa de gutapercha y la estructura dentaria. El uso de un agente sellador para obturar los conductos radiculares es esencial para el éxito del proceso de obturación. Un buen sellador debe ser biocompatible y bien tolerado por los tejid...

  13. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  14. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  15. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  16. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  17. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  18. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  19. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  20. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  1. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  2. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  3. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  4. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  5. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  6. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  7. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  8. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection.

  9. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EFFERVESCENT GASTRO-RETENTIVE FLOATING TABLETS FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF AN ANTI-ULCER COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Aleksovski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effervescent floating gastro-retentive matrix tablets present novel and promising approach towards targeted and controlled drug delivery in the stomach and in the upper part of the small intestine. This kind of dosage form could be obtained by combining in a suitable ratio effervescent compounds and hydrophilic/hydrophobic polymer/s. The aim of our investigation was to develop controlled release effervescent matrix tablet which will float over the gastric media for longer than 8 hours and will release the active compound in a continuous manner over 8 hours period. We used ranitidine HCl as a model drug which has narrow absorption window in the upper small intestine, and is a good candidate for this type of dosage forms. We employed sodium bicarbonate and citric acid as effervescent compounds and two different types of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M as a controlled release hydrophilic polymer. Three batches of tablets were produced (one containing HPMC K4M, other containing HPMC K15M, and the third containing 1:1 mixture of these two polymers and every batch was compressed with two different forces 5.5 kN and 4.7 kN, so completely six probes of tablets were made. All six probes complied the pharmacopoeial requirements concerning mass uniformity, content, friability and hardness. All six probes tended to float fast to the surface of the medium and tend to hydrate and swell fast enough which actions provided controlled release of the compound over period of 8 hours. No significant differences in the dissolution profiles of all six probes were noticed during the investigation.

  10. Enrichment of anti-ulcer activity of monoammonium glycerrhizin and Aloe vera gel powder through a novel drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Ranade, Arati N.; Nisharani S Ranpise; Chakrapani Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a 14-day "triple therapy" of two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. However, the current therapy has side-effects like stomach upset, non-compliance, incomplete absorption of drug and antibiotic resistance. To overcome these limitations, there is a need to suggest an alternative therapy. The best possible alternative is to deliver herbal constituents. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the efficacy of he...

  11. Anti-ulcer treatment during pregnancy induces food allergy in mouse mothers and a Th2-bias in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Isabella; Ackermann, Ute; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Blümer, Nicole; Dicke, Tanja; Sel, Serdar; Sel, Sarper; Wegmann, Michael; Szalai, Krisztina; Knittelfelder, Regina; Untersmayr, Eva; Scheiner, Otto; Garn, Holger; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Renz, Harald

    2007-04-01

    The treatment of dyspeptic disorders with anti-acids leads to an increased risk of sensitization against food allergens. As these drugs are taken by 30-50% of pregnant women due to reflux and heartburn, we aimed here to investigate the impact of maternal therapy with anti-acids on the immune response in the offspring in a murine model. Codfish extract as model allergen was fed with or without sucralfate, an anti-acid drug, to pregnant BALB/c mice during pregnancy and lactation. These mothers developed a codfish-specific allergic response shown as high IgG1 and IgE antibody levels and positive skin tests. In the next step we analyzed whether this maternal sensitization impacts a subsequent sensitization in the offspring. Indeed, in stimulated splenocytes of these offspring we found a relative Th2-dominance, because the Th1- and T-regulatory cytokines were significantly suppressed. Our data provide evidence that the anti-acid drug sucralfate supports sensitization against food in pregnant mice and favors a Th2-milieu in their offspring. From these results we propose that anti-acid treatment during pregnancy could be responsible for the increasing number of sensitizations against food allergens in young infants.

  12. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  13. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  14. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  15. Activity Recognition for Agent Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    seek to use in the upcoming confrontation. There is not a simple mapping between a character capabilities and this policy; an effective team role must...additional research challenges, specific to the team role assumed by the agent. Agents that support individual human team members face the following chal

  16. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  17. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...

  18. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  19. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  20. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  1. Anti-Clotting Agents Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or may require special dosage adjustments. Anticoagulants While antiplatelets keep clots from forming by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, anticoagulants target clotting factors, which are other agents that are crucial to the blood-clotting process. ...

  2. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  3. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  4. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  5. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  6. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  7. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  8. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  9. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  10. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  11. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... of the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic encephalopathy...

  12. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  13. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  14. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.

  15. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  16. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-02

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents.

  17. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  18. Agentes infecciosos y enfermedades autoinmunes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Riebeling; Vicente Madrid; Beatriz Elena Camarena; Oscar Peralta; Raúl Barrera

    1992-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los aspectos molecidares de la relación entre agentes infecciosos y enfermedades autoinrnitnes; los mecanismos de respuesta inmune a los agentes infecciosos, y las Iiiyótesis más recientes de la causa de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Los antígenos son procesados y seleccionados por su inmitnogenicidad, ypresentadospor lasmolécitlasde HLA a los receptores de antígeno de los linfocitos T. Aunque existen rnuclias hipótesk sobre el origen de las enfermedades arrtoinmu...

  19. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  20. 13 CFR 120.952 - Fiscal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agent. 120.952 Section 120... Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.952 Fiscal agent. SBA shall appoint a Fiscal Agent to assess the financial markets, minimize the cost of sales, arrange for the production...

  1. Biotech drugs : biological therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Godfrey; Fenech, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The recent years has seen significant growth in a new therapeutic approach to the management of disease. Biological therapeutic agents, constitute a broad category of drugs, usually generated by recombinant techniques from living organisms. These therapies revolutionise the traditional approaches to drug design and development, and regulatory agencies have been swift in developing the necessary structures to ensure their optimal use.

  2. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  3. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  4. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  5. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  6. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  7. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  8. An Introduction to Software Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    applicable to modelling red force entities for VMSA. This paper provides an overview of software agents and represents the first step in the...ordinateur, et que la simulation en cours modélise leurs capteurs , leurs armes et leurs caractéristiques matérielles. vi DRDC Atlantic TM...34 9 Sample Applications

  9. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agents...

  10. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  11. Multi-Agent Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; Witteveen, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a distributed transport planning problem with competitive autonomous actors that carry out time-constrained pick-up delivery orders from customers. The agents have to find conflict-free routes to execute a series of orders they have accepted. Hatzack and Nebel [2] were the first to sugges

  12. Persuasive Teachable Agent for Intergenerational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Su Fang

    2016-01-01

    Teachable agents are computer agents based on the pedagogical concept of learning-by-teaching. During the tutoring process, where students take on the role of the tutor to teach a computer agent tutee, learners have been observed to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Teachable agents are commonly used in the areas of science and mathematics learning where learners are able to learn complex concepts and deep reasoning by teaching the teachable agent through graphic representation...

  13. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  14. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  15. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  16. Needs, Pains, and Motivations in Autonomous Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James; Puzio, Leszek

    2016-08-17

    This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.

  17. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  18. Subharmonic imaging of contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, F; Shi, W T; Goldberg, B B

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents promise to improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. It is of great importance to adapt ultrasound equipment for optimal use with contrast agents e.g., by exploiting the nonlinear properties of the contrast microbubbles. Harmonic imaging is one technique that has been extensively studied and is commercially available. However, harmonic imaging is associated with problems, due to second harmonic generation and accumulation within the tissue itself. Given the lack of subharmonic generation in tissue, one alternative is the creation of subharmonic images by transmitting at the fundamental frequency (fo) and receiving at the subharmonic (fo/2). Subharmonic imaging should have a much better lateral resolution and may be suitable for scanning deep-lying structures owing to the higher transmit frequency and the much smaller attenuation of scattered subharmonic signals. In this paper, we will review different aspects of subharmonic imaging including implementation, in-vitro gray-scale imaging and subharmonic aided pressure estimation.

  19. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  20. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... by developments within semantics for logic programming within computational logic and formal theories of truth within philosophical logic. The thesis provides a number of examples showing how the developed theories can be used as reasoning frameworks for agents with introspective abilities. In Danish...

  1. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  2. Heterogeneous Agents, Distribution and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Paquin, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    We modify the Uzawa-Lucas representative agent model of endogenous economic growth to allow for a variety of differences among households: differences in their tastes, in their human capital production technologies, and in their initial endowments. Some differences are incompatible with the existence of a steady- state equilibrium, while others have no effect upon the steady-state growth rate. However, a variety of differences give rise to inequalities in the distribution of income and to var...

  3. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way.

  4. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  5. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  6. New agents in HSC mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Nilsson, Susan K; Cao, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is the most common source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplantation. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent, yet despite its widespread use, a considerable number of patients still fail to mobilize. Recently, a greater understanding of the interactions that regulate HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has enabled the development of new molecules that mobilize HSC through specific inhibition, modulation or perturbation of these interactions. AMD3100 (plerixafor), a small molecule that selectively inhibits the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is approved for mobilization in combination with G-CSF in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, identifying mobilization strategies that not only enhance HSC number, but are rapid and generate an optimal "mobilized product" for improved transplant outcomes remains an area of clinical importance. In recent times, new agents based on recombinant proteins, peptides and small molecules have been identified as potential candidates for therapeutic HSC mobilization. In this review, we describe the most recent developments in HSC mobilization agents and their potential impact in HSC transplantation.

  7. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  8. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3].......This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  9. FUZZY LOGIC MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Atef GHARBI; Ben Ahmed, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with distributed planning in a Multi-Agent System (MAS) constituted by several intelligent agents each one has to interact with the other autonomous agents. The problem faced is how to ensure a distributed planning through the cooperation in our multi-agent system. To do so, we propose the use of fuzzy logic to represent the response of the agent in case of interaction with the other. Finally, we use JADE platform to create agents and ensure the communication be...

  10. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age......Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives...

  11. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  12. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  13. Borrelioses, agentes e vetores Borrelioses, agents and vectors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber O. Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As borrelioses são enfermidades infecciosas determinadas por espiroquetas do gênero Borrelia, agentes transmissíveis, principalmente, por carrapatos aos animais e/ou ao homem. Nesta revisão são apresentadas e discutidas as enfermidades determinadas por borrélias, bem como as características gerais das espiroquetas, os aspectos relacionados a transmissão por artrópodes, as enfermidades nos animais domésticos e silvestres, quanto aos aspectos biológicos e patológicos, a doença de Lyme como principal zoonose do grupo, a associação de borrélia com outros agentes hematozoários e os métodos diagnósticos e a epidemiologia comparativa entre dados obtidos no Brasil com os de outros países. Estas borrelioses possuem características patológicas, clínicas e epidemiológicas variadas de acordo à região fisiográfica, devido à existência de distintas espécies, genoespécies e cepas; estes aspectos variam ainda em função dos artrópodes vetores, da interação vetor-patógeno e dos ecossistemas distintos.Borrelioses are infectous diseases caused by spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. They are born mainly through ticks at animals and/or human beings. In this review are shown and discussed five groups of diseases determined by borrelia, general characteristics of the spirochaetes, aspects related to transmission by arthropods, biological and pathological aspects of the diseases in domestic and wild animals, Lyme disease as an important zoonosis, the association of borrelia with other hematozoa agents, the diagnostic methods and the comparative epidemiology with data obtained from Brazil and other countries. The borrelioses have pathological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics which vary according to physiographic regions due to the existence of different species, genospecies and strains of borrelia, of arthropod vectors, vector-agent relationship and of different ecocystems.

  14. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  15. Preoperative management of anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Lauren Jan; Friedman, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    This article describes current literature and treatment plans for managing anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents in patients presenting with hip fractures. Indications for anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are discussed, and management techniques for when patients present with hip fractures are reviewed.

  16. What Are Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by heart Treatments + Tests What Are Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents? Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are medicines that reduce blood clotting in an artery, a vein or the heart. Blood clots can block the ...

  17. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  18. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  19. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  20. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  1. Kansei Evaluation in Agent Rearing Game

    OpenAIRE

    野路, 浩一朗; 西野, 順二; 小高, 知宏; 小倉, 久和; NOJI, Koichiro; NISHINO, Junji; ODAKA, Tomohiro; OGURA, Hisakazu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, We have studied the Kansei evaluation of the agent rearing game. The agent rearing game is a game by which the characters who are the agents are brouht up. The Kansei evaluation is an evaluation by Kansei engineering like the sensibility and feelings, etc. to treat technological1y. In this research, We produced the agent rearing game. We propose the method of the interesting the game using the technique of Kansei engineering for the evaluation.

  2. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  3. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  4. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  5. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  6. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...

  7. Do pedagogical agents enhance software training?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether a tutorial for software training can be enhanced by adding a pedagogical agent, and whether the type of agent matters (i.e., cognitive, motivational, or mixed). The cognitive agent was designed to stimulate students to process their experiences actively. The motivatio

  8. Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.

  9. A principal-agent model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  10. 31 CFR 332.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 332.12 Section 332.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  11. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, as fiscal agents of the United...

  12. 31 CFR 352.13 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 352.13 Section 352.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....13 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  13. 31 CFR 316.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 316.12 Section 316.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  14. Touching virtual agents: embodiment and mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Bruijnes, Merijn; Kolkmeier, Jan; Jung, Merel; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Rybarczyk, Yves

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we outline the design and development of an embodied conversational agent setup that incorporates an augmented reality screen and tactile sleeve. With this setup the agent can visually and physically touch the user. We provide a literature overview of embodied conversational agents, as

  15. Agents and Lattice-valued Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Germanno Resconi

    2006-01-01

    In fuzzy set theory, instead of the underlying membership set being a two -valued set it is a multi-valued set that generally has the structure of a lattice L with a minimal element O and the maximal element I. Furthermore if ∧, ∨, → and (「) are defined in the set L, then we can use these operations to define, as in the ordinary set theory, operations on fuzzy subsets. In this paper we give a model of the Lattice-Valued Logic with set of agents.Any agents know the logic value of a sentence p. The logic value is compatible with all of the accessible conceptual models or worlds of p inside the agent. Agent can be rational or irrational in the use of the logic operation.Every agent of n agents can have the same set of conceptual models for p and know the same logic for p in this case the agents form a consistent group of agents.When agents have different conceptual models for p,different subgroup of agents know different logic value for p. In this case the n agents are inconsistent in the expression of the logic value for p. The valuation structure of set of agents can be used as a semantic model for the Lattice-valued Logic and fuzzy logic.

  16. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  17. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedale, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    This research book proposes a general conceptual framework for the development of automation in human-agents environments that will allow human- agent teams to work effectively and efficiently. We examine various schemes to implement artificial intelligence techniques in agents.  The text is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors and students of all disciplines, interested in the agency methodology and applications.

  18. Deliberative evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Evolution of automated systems, in particular evolution of automated agents based on agent deliberation, is the topic of this paper. Evolution is not a merely material process, it requires interaction within and between individuals, their environments and societies of agents. An architecture for an

  19. Compositional Design of a Generic Design Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a generic architecture for a design agent, to be used in an Internet environment. The design agent is based on an existing generic agent model, and includes a refinement of a generic model for design, in which strategic reasoning

  20. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  1. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  2. Animated BDP agents in virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Egges, A.; Akker, op den H.J.A.; Zwiers, J.; Krose, B.; de Rijke, M.; Schreiber, G.; van Someren, M.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a Believes, Desires and Plans (BDP) agent that acts in a virtual environment using multi-modal interaction with the user. The environment is our virtual theatre environment. In this environment different agents have been introduced. In order to obtain a more uniform framework for agent

  3. Multi agent gathering waste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro LOZANO MURCIEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data available and with the purpose of identifying limitations of the system.

  4. Social communication with virtual agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction has been changed as a whole...... response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e. a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards...

  5. Multi agent gathering waste system

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Murciego, Álvaro; Gabriel VILLARRUBIA GONZÁLEZ; Alberto LÓPEZ BARRIUSO; Daniel HERNÁNDEZ DE LA IGLESIA; Jorge REVUELTA HERRERO

    2015-01-01

    Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data avai...

  6. [Antiangiogenic agents in ARMD treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroi, Mihaela-Cristiana; Demea, Sorina; Todor, Meda; Apopei, Emmanuela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of antiangiogenic agents in the treatment of age related senile macular degeneration is to destroy coroidian neoformation vessels by minimally affecting the central vision. We present a case of important central vision recovery after 3 intravitreal injections of Avastin. The therapeutic decision and patient monitoring have been made using imaging studies, such as OCT and AFG. A modern therapeutic approach of neovascular forms of age related macular degeneration, backed up by AFG and OCT is a modern treatment method of this disabling illness which brings patients optimal functional and structural improvement.

  7. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  8. Triazole: A Promising Antitubercular Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Siddappa A; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with comparatively high mortality worldwide. The statistics shows that around three million people throughout the world die annually from tuberculosis and there are around eight million new cases each year, of which developing countries showed major share. Therefore, the discovery and development of effective antituberculosis drugs with novel mechanism of action have become an insistent task for infectious diseases research programs. The literature reveals that, heterocyclic moieties have drawn attention of the chemists, pharmacologists, microbiologists, and other researchers owing to its indomitable biological potential as anti-infective agents. Among heterocyclic compounds, triazole (1,2,3-triazole/1,2,4-triazole) nucleus is one of the most important and well-known heterocycles, which is a common and integral feature of a variety of natural products and medicinal agents. Triazole core is considered as a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry and is widely used as 'parental' compounds to synthesize molecules with medical benefits, especially with infection-related activities. In the present review, we have collated published reports on this versatile core to provide an insight so that its complete therapeutic potential can be utilized for the treatment of tuberculosis. This review also explores triazole as a potential targeted core moiety against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole-based antituberculosis drugs.

  9. A Review of Luting Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis H. Pameijer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability of a large number of luting agents (dental cements proper selection can be a daunting task and is usually based on a practitioner’s reliance on experience and preference and less on in depth knowledge of materials that are used for the restoration and luting agent properties. This review aims at presenting an overview of current cements and discusses physical properties, biocompatibility and other properties that make a particular cement the preferred choice depending on the clinical indication. Tables are provided that outline the different properties of the generic classification of cements. It should be noted that no recommendations are made to use a particular commercial cement for a hypothetical clinical situation. The choice is solely the responsibility of the practitioner. The appendix is intended as a guide for the practitioner towards a recommended choice under commonly encountered clinical scenarios. Again, no commercial brands are recommended although the author recognizes that some have better properties than others. Please note that this flowchart strictly presents the author’s opinion and is based on research, clinical experience and the literature.

  10. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  11. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  12. A framework for organization-aware agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    ’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...... boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we present the AORTA reasoning framework and show how it can be integrated into typical BDI-agents. We provide operational semantics that enables agents to make organizational decisions in order to coordinate and cooperate without...

  13. Building Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the Jason-DTU system, including the used methodology, tools as well as team strategy. We also discuss the experience gathered in the contest. In spring 2009 the course “Artificial Intelligence and Multi- Agent Systems” was held for the first time...... on the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). A part of this course was a short introduction to the multi-agent framework Jason, which is an interpreter for AgentSpeak, an agent-oriented programming language. As the final project in this course a solution to the Multi-Agent Programming Contest from 2007, the Gold...

  14. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents followed by six explanatory notes. Note three (3) states that the...

  15. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  16. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  17. Model Based Testing for Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Thangarajah, John; Padgham, Lin

    Although agent technology is gaining world wide popularity, a hindrance to its uptake is the lack of proper testing mechanisms for agent based systems. While many traditional software testing methods can be generalized to agent systems, there are many aspects that are different and which require an understanding of the underlying agent paradigm. In this paper we present certain aspects of a testing framework that we have developed for agent based systems. The testing framework is a model based approach using the design models of the Prometheus agent development methodology. In this paper we focus on model based unit testing and identify the appropriate units, present mechanisms for generating suitable test cases and for determining the order in which the units are to be tested, present a brief overview of the unit testing process and an example. Although we use the design artefacts from Prometheus the approach is suitable for any plan and event based agent system.

  18. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  19. Agent-Oriented Probabilistic Logic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Shi-Er Ju; Chun-Nian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, agent-based computing is an active research area, and great efforts have been made towards the agent-oriented programming both from a theoretical and practical view. However, most of them assume that there is no uncertainty in agents' mental state and their environment. In other words, under this assumption agent developers are just allowed to specify how his agent acts when the agent is 100% sure about what is true/false. In this paper, this unrealistic assumption is removed and a new agent-oriented probabilistic logic programming language is proposed, which can deal with uncertain information about the world. The programming language is based on a combination of features of probabilistic logic programming and imperative programming.

  20. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  1. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  2. Survey of agent for intelligent information retrieval; Chiteki kensaku no tame no agent no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazawa, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Development of agent systems has been surveyed, to classify and arrange characteristic functions of the agents, and to grasp the realization situation of these agents in their development. In addition, prospective functions of information retrieval systems using the agents at maximum and functions to be developed among these in the future are clarified. The agents are characterized by the expression function, communication function, planning function, adaptive function, and learning function. The agents are desired to be classified into interface agents whose works are to respond to individual workers, coordinator agents which conduct works with high pervasion, such as assignment of works and their control, and task agents which conduct specialized works for individual examples. Thus, design and configuration of the agent system, and improvement and expansion of system functions can be effectively and easily conducted. 52 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  4. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  5. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  6. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  7. [Risk assessment of chemical agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2011-01-01

    The risk assessment of chemical agents is a well known and applied process carried out by Industrial Hygienists and Occupational Physicians based on exposure evaluation. The application of REACH (CE 1907/2006), CLP (CE 1272/2008) and SDS (UE 453/2010) introduces some changes and instruments to carry out the occupational exposure assessment, like new classification of substances, Exposure Scenario, suggested control measures that the Industrial Hygienist and the Occupational Physician must evaluate. If there is not a similar Exposure Scenario to apply a new risk assessment must carried out also by recommended software (ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment; Easy to use workplace EMKG; Stoffenmanager). Looking at the relevance of the control measures and evaluation of Exposure Scenario we report the flowchart of risk assessment and management by the Method of Organisational Congruencies carried out with the Prevention and Protection Service and Occupational Physician Office of the Health Service of the Azienda Provinciale of Trento.

  8. [Fiber as a carcinogenic agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, F

    1987-04-01

    According to the findings that long, thin, and durable fibres have a high carcinogenic potency after intrapleural and intraperitoneal administration, the elongated shape of a particle represents a carcinogenic agent; this physical phenomenon is a special cause of cancer. It induces a biological process which can lead to cancer by several as yet unknown steps. However, the properties of the material the fibres are made of determine the carcinogenic potency of a fibre in a secondary way although they do not seem to be responsible for the true carcinogenic agent. For example, these properties determine the degree of solubility and flexibility. The persistence of fibres in the tissue is a very important property with regard to their carcinogenic effect because the formation of a tumour takes many years or some decades. It can be assumed that a fibre has to remain by the bronchial or serosa tissue until the induction of tumour cells occurs. If this hypothesis is correct, there could be a "durability threshold value" for fibres whose length and diameter would otherwise indicate a high carcinogenic potency. There are indications that other fibre properties apart from length, diameter and durability are important for tumour induction, however, at present, they cannot be included in a definition of carcinogenic fibres. It is proposed to classify all natural and man-made mineral fibres with an aspect ratio of greater than 5:1 as carcinogenic when they are longer than 3 microns, thinner than 1 micron (or can split into such fine fibres) and when they can persist in the tissue for more than 3 years.

  9. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  10. Agent Grid技术研究初探%Initial Research on Agent Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英朝; 张维明; 肖卫东; 沙基昌

    2003-01-01

    The term "Grid" is increasingly appearing in computer literature, generally referring to some form of system framework into which hardware, software, or information resources can be plugged, and which permits easy configuration and creation of new functionality from existing resources. In this article, first, we introduce the concepts of Grid and Agent Grid based on our own understanding. Then we compare Agent Grid with the traditional Multi-Agent System to make the concept and characters of Agent Grid much clearer. Next, the key techniques of Agent Grid, such as Agent Grid System Architecture, System Models, Intelligent Agents and Agent-Based System Resource Management, are thoroughly illustrated. Finally, we briefly discusse the future applications of Agent Grid.

  11. MATRIX-AGENT FRAMEWORK:A VIRTUAL PLATFORM FOR MULTI-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lan ZHANG; Clement H.C. LEUNG; Gitesh K. RAIKUNDALIA

    2006-01-01

    Multi-agent technology has been applied extensively to many areas, including Decision Support Systems (DSS). However, the applications of multi-agent technology in DSS are still very preliminary.Most of the current agent frameworks, such as middle-agent-based or agent-facilitator-based frameworks, are basically agent-to-agent model. These agent-based frameworks often neglect the living environment for agents and they suffer from: (i) inability to adapt to the environment, (ii)inability to self-upgrade, and (iii) inefficiency in information acquisition. Here, we introduce a recently proposed multi-agent framework, namely Agent-based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD). In this new framework, the communication and cooperation between agents are through a key component, the Matrix, which provides a virtual platform for agents. We use a unified Matrices framework to solve the bottleneck problem in the AOCD framework. Our experimental results based on different agent network topologies indicate that the hybrid topology presents superior performance compared with the centralised and decentralised topologies.

  12. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  13. Diuretic Agents in Treatment of Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-you; LI Hong-tao; ZHOU Ding-rong; CHEN Ji-chuan; WANG Yi-nan; GUAN Li-qian; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the role of diuretic agents in treating sudden deafness (SD) and explore the possibility of endolymphatic hydrops as a potential cause of SD. Methods Twenty-eight SD cases were reviewed. In 23 cases, treatment was initiated with routine agents. Diuretic agents were later added in 8 of these cases that failed to respond to routine treatment agents. Diuretic agents were included in the initial treatment in the rest 5 cases. In total, 13 cases received diuretics in addition to routine treatment agents and 15 cases received conventional treatment only. Results In the 8 cases who received diuretics after failed conventional treatments, 4 showed hearing improvement, whereas all 5 cases in which diuretics were included in the initial treatment demonstrated hearing improvement. Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of endolymphatic hydrops in the pathophysiologic course of SD. Diuretics should be considered when clear indications exist with no conflicts to other medical conditions.

  14. Multi-Agent Information Classification Using Dynamic Acquaintance Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Peng, Shengquan; Raje, Rajeev; Palakal, Mathew; Mostafa, Javed

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of automated information services focuses on information classification and collaborative agents, i.e. intelligent computer programs. Highlights include multi-agent systems; distributed artificial intelligence; thesauri; document representation and classification; agent modeling; acquaintances, or remote agents discovered through…

  15. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  16. Web-Based Computing Resource Agent Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Web-based Computing Resource Publishing is a efficient way to provide additional computing capacity for users who need more computing resources than that they themselves could afford by making use of idle computing resources in the Web.Extensibility and reliability are crucial for agent publishing. The parent-child agent framework and primary-slave agent framework were proposed respectively and discussed in detail.

  17. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  18. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed...

  19. Resource Adaptive Agents in Interactive Theorem Proving

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a resource adaptive agent mechanism which supports the user in interactive theorem proving. The mechanism uses a two layered architecture of agent societies to suggest appropriate commands together with possible command argument instantiations. Experiments with this approach show that its effectiveness can be further improved by introducing a resource concept. In this paper we provide an abstract view on the overall mechanism, motivate the necessity of an appropriate resource concept and discuss its realization within the agent architecture.

  20. Affective Embodied Conversational Agents for Natural Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo, Eva; Baldassarri, Sandra; Hupont, Isabelle; Seron, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a completely automated real-time character-based interface, where a scriptable affective humanoid 3D agent interacts with the user. Special care has been taken in making it possible multimodal natural user-agent interaction: communication is accomplished via text, image and voice (natural language). Our embodied agents are equipped with an emotional state which can be modified throughout the conversation with the user, and depends on the emotional state detected from the...

  1. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  2. Glaucoma: role of neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, considered as the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and a progressive loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is one of the most important risk factors for developing glaucoma and hence we mainly focus on lowering IOP to arrest the progression of glaucoma. However, many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite the control of initially raised IOP. In fact, some patients develop what is called normal tension glaucoma, not associated to an increased IOP. This emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous neuropathy and that high IOP and vascular insufficiency in the optic nerve head are only risk factors for the development of glaucoma, and are not the only target for the treatment of glaucoma. The reason is that the process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic, and the primary injury is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to a noxious environment surrounding the apoptotic cells. This environment is characterized by changes in the extra-cellular ionic concentrations, increased amounts of free radicals, neurotrophins (NT depletion and increased glutamate-induced excitotoxicity due to high extra-cellular glutamate levels, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors leading to an abnormally high intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the remaining cells that are still vulnerable to damage, and the main aim of neuroprotective therapy is to employ pharmacologic or other means to attenuate the hostility of the environment surrounding the degenerating cells, or to supply the cells with the tools to deal with this aggression, providing resilience to the insult. Several agents have been reported neuroprotective in glaucoma, both in clinical assays

  3. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2009-01-01

    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  4. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  5. Active evacuation guidance using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Daiki; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Evacuation systems for buildings are designed based on event scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events that are not included in the scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new active evacuation guidance system using sensor agent robots. We first introduce a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to be used in conjunction with sensor agent robots for active evacuation guidance. Then the role of sensor agent robots is explained. An algorithm to immediately access the safety of the building after a large earthquake is also proposed using only the information taken by a sensor agent robot.

  6. Multi-agent and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Fenghui; Fujita, Katsuhide; Zhang, Minjie; Ito, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a description of advanced multi-agent and artificial intelligence technologies for the modeling and simulation of complex systems, as well as an overview of the latest scientific efforts in this field. A complex system features a large number of interacting components, whose aggregate activities are nonlinear and self-organized. A multi-agent system is a group or society of agents which interact with others cooperatively and/or competitively in order to reach their individual or common goals. Multi-agent systems are suitable for modeling and simulation of complex systems, which is difficult to accomplish using traditional computational approaches.

  7. The Research on Mobile-agent Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a program, in the form of a software agent, can suspend its execution in a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host in the network, and resume execution of the new host. As the sophistication of mobile software has increased with the time, so have the associated threats to security. This paper provides an overview of the range of threats facing the designers of mobile agent. The paper also identifies generic security objectives, and a range of measures for countering the identified threats.

  8. Integrating Interaction Framework for Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正光; 王振杰; 徐良贤

    2003-01-01

    Agent negotiation has become increasingly important since the advent of electronic commerce.There are two kinds of interactions in the process of agent negotiation.One is the interaction between different agents,and the other is the interaction between the agent and the human user.In this paper,firstly,we introduce Q language,a scenario description language for designing interactions between agents and human users.Then we propose an integrating interaction framework for agent negotiation,in which both kinds of interactions are described by Q scenario.Our framework can make the interaction process open and easy to be understood by the users.Users can understand how the negotiation process goes and what is happening in the system including some erroneous or inappropriate actions caused by the negotiation agent.This gives the users a chance to terminate or change the behavior of negotiation agent in time to avoid unfavorable negotiation outcome.In addition,users can customize the agent's behaviors through visible interactions with it.

  9. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  10. Dronedarone: a new antiarrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Ola O; Rogers, Carrie E; Hofmann, Prudence O

    2010-09-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The drug is a derivative of amiodarone and has been modified to reduce the organ toxicities frequently encountered with amiodarone. Dronedarone exerts its antiarrhythmic effects through multichannel blockade of the sodium, potassium, and calcium channels and also possesses antiadrenergic activity, thereby exhibiting pharmacologic effects of all four Vaughan Williams classes of antiarrhythmics. The efficacy of dronedarone for the maintenance of sinus rhythm, ventricular rate control, and reduction in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Although a high rate of gastrointestinal events (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) has been associated with dronedarone, more serious adverse events such as thyroid, liver, or pulmonary toxicities have not been observed. Because of a possible increase in mortality, dronedarone should be avoided in patients with New York Heart Association class IV or II-III heart failure with a recent decompensation. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, dronedarone represents a reasonable alternative for maintenance of sinus rhythm in appropriately selected patients.

  11. Departments as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  12. Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R

    2012-02-01

    The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.

  13. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent...

  14. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Group Behavior Learning in Multi-Agent Systems Based on Social Interaction Among Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Research on multi-agent systems, in which autonomous agents are able to learn cooperative behavior, has been the subject of rising expectations in recent years. We have aimed at the group behavior generation of the multi-agents who have high levelsof autonomous learning ability, like that of human beings, through social interaction between agents to acquire cooperative behavior. The sharing of environmentstates can improve cooperative ability, andthe changing state of the environment in the i...

  16. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  17. Security of Mobile Agents on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca; Stefanelli, Cesare

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet focuses on new programming paradigms based on mobile agents. Considers the security issues associated with mobile agents and proposes a security architecture composed of a wide set of services and components capable of adapting to a variety of applications, particularly electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  18. Agent Based Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    to launch the MFM Workbench into an agent based environment, which can complement disadvantages of the original software. The agent-based MFM Workbench is centered on a concept called “Blackboard System” and use an event based mechanism to arrange the reasoning tasks. This design will support the new...

  19. Modelling cooperative agents in infrastructure networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, A.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of concepts of cooperation into an agent-based model of an industrial network. It first addresses the concept of cooperation and how this could be captured as heuristical rules within agents. Then it describes tests using these heuristics in an abstract model of

  20. Freeze conditioning agents ease winter railcar unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.E.

    1982-02-01

    A US midwest utility's freeze control programme is described. All coal is treated with a glycol-based freeze control agent. Some rail wagons were treated with a side release agent which stops coal sticking to the metal wagon. The use of calcium chloride or heat to thaw frozen coal is also discussed.

  1. Cognitive agent programming : A semantic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, M.B. van

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we are concerned with the design and investigation of dedicated programming languages for programming agents. We focus in particular on programming languages for rational agents, i.e., flexibly behaving computing entities that are able to make "good" decisions about what to do. An imp

  2. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  3. On conversational agents with mental states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Provoost, S.

    2015-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) have been put forward as a promising means for the training of social skills. The traditional approach to drive the behaviour of ECAs during human-agent dialogues is to use conversation trees. Although this approach is easy to use and very transparent, an import

  4. Towards Emergent Energy Synchronization using Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.; Warnier, M.E.; Brazier, F.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of energy consumption is a key determinant for the stabilization of smart energy grids. This paper proposes software agents that locally synchronize the energy usage of appliances to minimize the oscillations in global energy consumption. Agents can manage demand-side devices with pe

  5. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  6. Marine natural products as prototype agrochemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A; Dunbar, D Charles; Perry, Tony L; Wilkins, Scott P; Hamann, Mark T; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A

    2003-04-09

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  7. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; Khalid A. El Sayed; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  8. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currentl...

  9. Modelling social agents: Communication as actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Linder, B. van; M. Wooldridge J. Muller and N. Jennings

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a formal framework for social agents. The social agents consist of four components: the information component (containing knowledge and belief), the action component, the motivational component (where goals, intentions, etc. play arole) and the social component (containing a

  10. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agent membership. 725.4 Section 725.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.4 Agent membership. (a) A central credit union or a group...

  11. Agent programming languages: programming with mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Agents are personal assistants which can provide proactive support to users by executing routine activities like searching on the Internet, the scheduling of meetings, etc. The concept of an Intelligent Agent has its roots in Artificial Intelligence and provides a basis for the con

  12. Agent based computational model of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gorobets (Alexander); B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper employs the methodology of Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) to investigate under what conditions trust can be viable in markets. The emergence and breakdown of trust is modeled in a context of multiple buyers and suppliers. Agents adapt their trust in a partner, the w

  13. PU Sizing Agent Sector Starts Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane (PU) sizing agent is a thermoplastic PU elastomer extensively used in synthetic leather, artificial deerskin and electrostatic flocking sectors. The drastic production and demand increase of synthetic leather in China in recent years has promoted rapid consumption growth of PU sizing agent.

  14. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  15. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Jörg; Rodríguez, Juan; Pérez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  16. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  17. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  18. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  19. Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Miguel; Mathieu, Philippe; Rodríguez, Juan; Adam, Emmanuel; Ortega, Alfonso; Moreno, María; Navarro, Elena; Hirsch, Benjamin; Lopes-Cardoso, Henrique; Julián, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  20. Automated Agent Ontology Creation for Distributed Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Query Agent ..……………………………………………………47 3.3 Database Agent Implementation…………………………………………………..48 3.3.1 Leader Election Procedure...algorithm. Section 3.3.1 details the leader election process, Section 3.3.2 discusses the Jaro method, and Section 3.3.3 details the ontology creation...Receives new number Receives new number from Agent2 from Agent2 Figure 3-2. Agent leader communication 49 3.3.1 Leader Election Procedure Figure

  1. Agent-oriented modeling of the dynamics of complex biological processes I: single agent models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the pair of papers of which this is Part I, the agent-oriented modeling perspective to cope with biological complexity is discussed. Three levels of dynamics are distinguished and related to each other: dynamics of externally observable agent behavior, dynamics of internal agent processes, and dy

  2. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  3. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Nestor; Cesar, Jonatas; Vicente, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with more conservative-like agents treating it more equally than liberal-like agents. This is consistent with the correlation between political affiliation and the Openness personality trait reported in the literature. 3. Under the increase of a model parameter interpreted as an external pressure, the statistics of liberal agents resemble more those of conservative agents, consistent with reports on the consequences of external threats on measures of conservatism. We also show that in the social influence phase liberal-like agents readapt much faster than conservative-like agents when subjected to changes on the relevant set of moral issues. This suggests a verifiable dynamical criterium for attaching liberal or conservative labels to groups.

  4. Polyphenols as cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, G D; Mukhtar, H

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes available data on the chemopreventive efficacies of tea polyphenols, curcumin and ellagic acid in various model systems. Emphasis is placed upon the anticarcinogenic activity of these polyphenols and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. Tea is grown in about 30 countries and, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea is manufactured as either green, black, or oolong; black tea represents approximately 80% of tea products. Epidemiological studies, though inconclusive, suggest a protective effect of tea consumption on human cancer. Experimental studies of the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of tea have been conducted principally with green tea polyphenols (GTPs). GTPs exhibit antimutagenic activity in vitro, and they inhibit carcinogen-induced skin, lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum and colon tumors in rodents. In addition, GTPs inhibit TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in mice. Although several GTPs possess anticarcinogenic activity, the most active is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent in the GTP fraction. Several mechanisms appear to be responsible for the tumor-inhibitory properties of GTPs, including enhancement of antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and quinone reductase) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) enzyme activities; inhibition of chemically induced lipid peroxidation; inhibition of irradiation- and TPA-induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclooxygenase activities; inhibition of protein kinase C and cellular proliferation; antiinflammatory activity; and enhancement of gap junction intercellular communication. Curcumin is the yellow coloring agent in the spice tumeric. It exhibits antimutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella test and has anticarcinogenic activity, inhibiting chemically induced preneoplastic lesions in the breast and colon and neoplastic lesions in the skin, forestomach, duodenum and colon of rodents. In addition

  5. An Application of Mobile Agent System in Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGChen-xiang; DUJun-ping; YINYi-xin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an application of a reusable mobile agent system in network management. A mobile agent reusable system is constructed to realize a new method in forming mobile agent systems. By using this method, an agent can change its route dynamically without making any change to its specific behavior. By classifying mobile agents into two categories, the task agent can be reusable in different networks. In this way, a mobile agent system can easily carry out network management tasks.

  6. Dynamic Channel Allocation Management Using Agents Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOGDAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Channel allocation schemes are management techniques meant to solve the radio access problem in the telecommunications area. There are several known schemes namely: static, dynamic, hybrid and flexible channel allocation schemes. In our work we developed the channel allocation scheme using a decentralized structure, based on software agents. In order to create such a structure, some functions must be carried out by some specialized functional entities. Each functional entity is implemented with an agent, having a specific role. Using this manner of implementation, different functions of the system can be implemented at different sites, located apart and also the structure can be modularized. In our work we have created the agents structure and the communications between agents, on the use of Multiagent Systems Engineering Technology. We also involved the AgentTool platform to automate the creation of the agents structure and the code resulted was in Java. In order to realize the test of our system we considered a shape of 21 radio areas, each including a number of users. Each wireless user can initiate a number of calls per hour and each call last a holding time. The communications between agents were realized for the TCP/IP protocol, based on socket connections.

  7. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  8. Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rastgoftar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...

  9. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  10. Agents described in the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database for imaging carbonic anhydrase IX expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Deborah; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2014-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is selectively expressed in a range of hypoxic tumours and is a validated endogenous hypoxia marker with prognostic significance; hence, CA IX is of great interest as a molecular imaging target in oncology. In this review, we present an overview of the different imaging agents and imaging modalities that have been applied for the in vivo detection of CA IX. The imaging agents reviewed are all entries in the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) and comprise antibody, antibody fragments and small molecule imaging agents. The effectiveness of these agents for imaging CA IX in vivo gave variable performance; however, a number of agents proved very capable. As molecular imaging has become indispensable in current medical practice we anticipate that the clinical significance of CA IX will see continued development and improvements in imaging agents for targeting this enzyme.

  11. Agent and multi-Agent systems in distributed systems digital economy and e-commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Hartung, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technology, in particular artificial intelligence, can be used to support economy and commerce using digital means. This book is about agents and multi-agent distributed systems applied to digital economy and e-commerce to meet, improve, and overcome challenges in the digital economy and e-commerce sphere. Agent and multi-agent solutions are applied in implementing real-life, exciting developments associated with the need to eliminate problems of distributed systems.   The book presents solutions for both technology and applications, illustrating the possible uses of agents in the enterprise domain, covering design and analytic methods, needed to provide a solid foundation required for practical systems. More specifically, the book provides solutions for the digital economy, e-sourcing clusters in network economy, and knowledge exchange between agents applicable to online trading agents, and security solutions to both digital economy and e-commerce. Furthermore, it offers soluti...

  12. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the

  13. Steganographic Routing in Multi Agent System Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an idea of trusted communication platform for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) called TrustMAS. Based on analysis of routing protocols suitable for MAS we have designed a new proactive hidden routing. Proposed steg-agents discovery procedure, as well as further routes updates and hidden communication, are cryptographically independent. Steganographic exchange can cover heterogeneous and geographically outlying environments using available cross-layer covert channels. Finally we have specified rules that agents have to follow to benefit the TrustMAS distributed router platform.

  14. Software agents for distributed load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernstedt, F.; Davidsson, P. [Department of Systems and Software Engineering, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Ronneby (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    We present results from experiments where the effects of flow control at a single substation are compared to distributed flow control at multiple substations. The latter approach is made possible by equipping individual substations with some computing power and integrating them into a communications network. Software agents, who cooperate with other software agents (substations) and invoke time limited reductions to consumption, are embedded in each substation. The experiments show that it is possible to automatically load balance a small district heating network using agent technology, e.g., to perform automatic peak clipping and load shifting. (orig.)

  15. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  16. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  17. Agent Based Processing of Global Evaluation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing across a networked environment is a monotonous job. Moreover, if the job to be distributed is a constraint satisfying one, the distribution of load demands core intelligence. This paper proposes parallel processing through Global Evaluation Function by means of randomly initialized agents for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. A potential issue about the number of agents in a machine under the invocation of distribution is discussed here for securing the maximum benefit from Global Evaluation and parallel processing. The proposed system is compared with typical solution that shows an exclusive outcome supporting the nobility of parallel implementation of Global Evaluation Function with certain number of agents in each invoked machine.

  18. Towards Culturally-Aware Virtual Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    of different systems using virtual agents need to be considered. Therefore, the authors reflect in this chapter on how virtual agents can help to learn about culture, scan definitions of culture from the social sciences, give an overview on how multiagent systems developed over time and classify the state...... of the art that integrates culture in multiagent systems. In addition, an approach of simulating culture-specific behavior using such a multiagent system is introduced and future trends in enculturating virtual agent systems are outlined....

  19. Information Service Model with Mobile Agent Supported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 王继成; 张福炎

    2000-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a kind of novel agent technology characterized by mobile, intelligent, parallel and asynchronous computing. In this paper, a new information service model that adopts mobile agent technology is introduced first,and then an experimental system DOLTRIA system that is implemented based on the model is described. The DOLTRIA system implemented by WWW framework and Java can search for relevant HTML documents on a set of Web servers. The result of experiments shows that performance improvement can be achieved by this model, and both the elapsed time and network traffic are reduced significantly.

  20. RESEARCH ON A SOCCER SERVER TEAM WITH ENVIRONMENTAL-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposed a new agent model, which applies the agent-oriented paradigm to represent multiple objects. This agent model consists of three types of agents as follows: (a) an upperagent which describes an autonomous and dynamic object; (b) a lower-agent which describes a reactive and static object; and (c) an environ-mental-agent which describes the environment of the other agents. As an example, it considered soccer players (a kind of multiple objects) in environmental-agent. Three kinds of soccer agents were constructed with different powers. With soccer server the soccer games were simulated to confirm the effectiveness of our model.

  1. Multi-target pursuit formation of multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jing; Guan Xin-Ping; Luo Xiao-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to design a team of agents that can accomplish multi-target pursuit formation using a developed leader-follower strategy. It is supposed that every target can accept a certain number of agents. First, each agent can automatically choose its target based on the distance from the agent to the target and the number of agents

  2. Continuous Explanation Generation in a Multi-Agent Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi - Agent Systems (pp. 989-996). Valencia, Spain: IFAAMAS. Molineaux, M., Klenk, M., & Aha, D.W. (2010...Continuous Explanation Generation in a Multi - Agent Domain Matthew Molineaux MATTHEW.MOLINEAUX@KNEXUSRESEARCH.COM Knexus Research Corporation, 9120...Abstract An agent operating in a dynamic, multi - agent environment with partial observability should continuously generate and maintain an explanation

  3. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative…

  4. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  5. Influence-based autonomy levels in agent Decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Meyer, A.P.; Neef, R.M.; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Autonomy is a crucial and powerful feature of agents and it is the subject of much research in the agent field. Controlling the autonomy of agents is a way to coordinate the behavior of groups of agents. Our approach is to look at it as a design problem for agents. We analyze the autonomy of an agen

  6. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic plausibility models are Kripke models agents use to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of themselves and each other. Restricting ourselves to the single-agent case, we determine when such models are indistinguishable in the logical language containing conditional belief, i.e., we...... define a proper notion of bisimulation, and prove that bisimulation corresponds to logical equivalence on image-finite models. We relate our results to other epistemic notions, such as safe belief and degrees of belief. Our results imply that there are only finitely many non-bisimilar single......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  7. Multi-Agent System for Resource Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1 research and development of a prototype for network resource reliability has laid the groundwork for the Phase 2 implementation of MASRR, a Multi - Agent System for Resource Reliability, and its eventual commercialization.

  8. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salih, Nadir K; Viju, PG K; Mohamed, Abdelmotalib A

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems

  9. A Highly Secure Mobile Agent System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okataku, Yasukuni; Okutomi, Hidetoshi; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Ohgishi, Nobuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    We propose a system architecture for mobile agents to improve their security in the environments of insecure networks and non-sophisticated terminals such as PDAs. As mobile agents freely migrate onto their favorite terminals through insecure networks or terminals, it is not appropriate for them to store some secret information for authentication and encryption/decryption. We introduce one and more secure nodes(OASIS NODE) for securely generating and verifying authentication codes. The each agent’s data are encrypted by a pseudo-chaos cipher mechanism which doesn’t need any floating processing co-processor. We’ve constructed a prototype system on a Java mobile agent framework, “Bee-gent" which implements the proposed authentication and cipher mechanisms, and evaluated their performances and their applicability to business fields such as an auction system by mobile agents.

  10. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Muchnik, I. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  11. Empowerment for Continuous Agent-Environment Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Tobias; Stone, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops generalizations of empowerment to continuous states. Empowerment is a recently introduced information-theoretic quantity motivated by hypotheses about the efficiency of the sensorimotor loop in biological organisms, but also from considerations stemming from curiosity-driven learning. Empowemerment measures, for agent-environment systems with stochastic transitions, how much influence an agent has on its environment, but only that influence that can be sensed by the agent sensors. It is an information-theoretic generalization of joint controllability (influence on environment) and observability (measurement by sensors) of the environment by the agent, both controllability and observability being usually defined in control theory as the dimensionality of the control/observation spaces. Earlier work has shown that empowerment has various interesting and relevant properties, e.g., it allows us to identify salient states using only the dynamics, and it can act as intrinsic reward without requi...

  12. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC stra

  13. Spions as nano-theranostics agents

    CERN Document Server

    Zarepour, Atefeh; Khosravi, Arezoo

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs), the different synthesis approaches, their applications in the field of diagnostics and treatment and finally as theranostic agents in cancer.

  14. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    CERN Document Server

    Caticha, Nestor; Vicente, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with mo...

  15. NETWORK MANAGEMENT WITH SECURED MOBILE AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迈克尔; 徐良贤

    2002-01-01

    Network management scheme must consider security challenges for the Mobile Agent paradigm to be accepted in the Internet computing world. Techniques to provide security solutions have been proposed and some have achieved good results. For example, it is possible to launch a code with a guarantee that it cannot attack the hosting sites. The main problem remaining, however, is protecting the mobile code against malicious service providers, the host problem. This paper proposed a Mobile Agent management scheme in a hierarchical level that provides to user a reliable and flexible global access to internet/network information services. We further described a protection mechanism to Mobile Agents against malicious hosts. As an effort to address host problems we first identify the kinds of attack that may be performed by malicious hosts, and propose a mechanism to prevent these attacks. At each agent host we introduce a trusted third party entity on each server called Secure Service Station (SSS) to carry out security actions.

  16. Agentes de software móviles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisman Martínez Barrera

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes móviles son programas de software inteligentes que realizan un objetivo que involucran desarrollos soportados en técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial, los cuales pretenden facilitar la interoperabilidad de sistemas. Este artículo define las disciplinas, plataformas y herramientas necesarias para el desarrollo de agentes móviles, sus características principales y las arquitecturas predominantes de éstas; presenta además una evaluación de sus perspectivas futuras.Mobile agents are intelligent software programs that can obtain an objective that involucrates developments supported in Artificial Intelligence techniques. These pretend to facilitate the interoperability of systems. This article defines disciplines, platforms and tools necessary for the development of mobile agents, their principal characteristics and the predominant architectures of these. A final evaluation and future perspectives are offered.

  17. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  18. Behavior-based dual dynamic agent architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵博; 吴敏; 曹卫华

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the architecture is to make agent promptly and adaptively accomplish tasks in the real-time and dynamic environment. The architecture is composed of elementary level behavior layer and high level be-havior layer. In the elementary level behavior layer, the reactive architecture is introduced to make agent promptlyreact to events; in the high level behavior layer, the deliberation architecture is used to enhance the intelligence ofthe agent. A confidence degree concept is proposed to combine the two layers of the architecture. An agent decisionmaking process is also presented, which is based on the architecture. The results of experiment in RoboSoccer simu-lation team show that the proposed architecture and the decision process are successful.

  19. Spatial interactions in agent-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Merlone, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Agent Based Modeling (ABM) has become a widespread approach to model complex interactions. In this chapter after briefly summarizing some features of ABM the different approaches in modeling spatial interactions are discussed. It is stressed that agents can interact either indirectly through a shared environment and/or directly with each other. In such an approach, higher-order variables such as commodity prices, population dynamics or even institutions, are not exogenously specified but instead are seen as the results of interactions. It is highlighted in the chapter that the understanding of patterns emerging from such spatial interaction between agents is a key problem as much as their description through analytical or simulation means. The chapter reviews different approaches for modeling agents' behavior, taking into account either explicit spatial (lattice based) structures or networks. Some emphasis is placed on recent ABM as applied to the description of the dynamics of the geographical distribution o...

  20. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice.

  1. Improving Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen; Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    We describe the approach used to develop the multi-agent system of herders that competed as the Jason-DTU team at the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2010. We also participated in 2009 with a system developed in the agentoriented programming language Jason which is an extension of AgentSpeak. We...... used the implementation from 2009 as a foundation and therefore much of the work done this year was on improving that implementation. We present a description which includes design and analysis of the system as well as the main features of our agent team strategy. In addition we discuss...... the technologies used to develop this system as well as our future goals in the area....

  2. Disease-modifying agents in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyle P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1993, six disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS have been proven to be of benefit in rigorous phase III clinical trials. Other agents are also available and are used to treat MS, but definitive data on their efficacy is lacking. Currently, disease-modifying therapy is used for relapsing forms of MS. This includes clinically isolated syndrome/first-attack high-risk patients, relapsing patients, secondary progressive patients who are still experiencing relapses, and progressive relapsing patients. The choice of agent depends upon drug factors (including affordability, availability, convenience, efficacy, and side effects, disease factors (including clinical and neuroimaging prognostic indicators, and patient factors (including comorbidities, lifestyle, and personal preference. This review will discuss the disease-modifying agents used currently in MS, as well as available alternative agents.

  3. Empirically Based, Agent-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Ostrom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing drive to combine agent-based models with empirical methods. An overview is provided of the various empirical methods that are used for different kinds of questions. Four categories of empirical approaches are identified in which agent-based models have been empirically tested: case studies, stylized facts, role-playing games, and laboratory experiments. We discuss how these different types of empirical studies can be combined. The various ways empirical techniques are used illustrate the main challenges of contemporary social sciences: (1 how to develop models that are generalizable and still applicable in specific cases, and (2 how to scale up the processes of interactions of a few agents to interactions among many agents.

  4. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  5. Nominaliseeritud protsessi agent meediauudistes / Reet Kasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasik, Reet, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Ajalehe "Postimees" 2005. aasta materjalile toetudes vaadeldakse, mis tüüpi on nominalisatsioonides representeeritavad protsessid ja mis kujul on esitatud protsessi agent ehk tegija. Aluseks on võetud funktsionaalse grammatika põhimõtted.

  6. inventory management, VMI, software agents, MDV model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Wieczerzycki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: As it is well know, the implementation of instruments of logistics management is only possible with the use of the latest information technology. So-called agent technology is one of the most promising solutions in this area. Its essence consists in an entirely new way of software distribution on the computer network platform, in which computer exchange among themselves not only data, but also software modules, called just agents. The first aim is to propose the alternative method of the implementation of the concept of the inventory management by the supplier with the use of intelligent software agents, which are able not only to transfer the information but also to make the autonomous decisions based on the privileges given to them. The second aim of this research was to propose a new model of a software agent, which will be both of a high mobility and a high intelligence. Methods: After a brief discussion of the nature of agent technology, the most important benefits of using it to build platforms to support business are given. Then the original model of polymorphic software agent, called Multi-Dimensionally Versioned Software Agent (MDV is presented, which is oriented on the specificity of IT applications in business. MDV agent is polymorphic, which allows the transmission through the network only the most relevant parts of its code, and only when necessary. Consequently, the network nodes exchange small amounts of software code, which ensures high mobility of software agents, and thus highly efficient operation of IT platforms built on the proposed model. Next, the adaptation of MDV software agents to implementation of well-known logistics management instrument - VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory is illustrated. Results: The key benefits of this approach are identified, among which one can distinguish: reduced costs, higher flexibility and efficiency, new functionality - especially addressed to business negotiation, full automation

  7. A Direct Comparison of Anti-ulcer Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Rat: A Controlled Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indomethacin increases generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS which have a crucial role in the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Coenzyme Q10 has an antioxidant activity on mitochondria and cell membranes and protects lipids from oxidation and is essential for stabilizing biological membranes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD acts as one of the defense mechanisms against free radicals. When the generation of ROS overwhelms, the antioxidant defense, lipid peroxiation of cell membrane occurs and cause cell damage. Materials and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats were divided into A and B groups. The rats in group A were then further divided into three subgroups of 6 animals each and received one of the following treatments: Animals in the first subgroup received saline. Animals in the second subgroup received saline and indomethacin. Animals in the third subgroup received vitamin C and indomethacin. The rats in group B were also further divided into 3 subgroups of 6 rats each and treated with one of the following treatments: Animals in first subgroup received 1% Tween 80 as vehicle. Animals In second subgroup received 1% Tween 80 and indomethacin. Animals in third subgroup received CoQ10 and indomethacin. Four hours after the last treatment, animals were killed and the stomachs removed were cut and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Ulcer indexes were determined and SOD activity measured in plasma                                                             Results: Pretreatment with both vitamin C and coenzyme Q10 was associated with attenuation of ulcer index and increased SOD activity compared with animals treated with indomethacin alone (P

  8. PA01.62. Mukta-sukti bhasma; nectar for acid peptic disorders, w.s.r to its anti-ulcer activity - an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Sreejith, R; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Mukta Shukti (Pearl oyster shell); a sudha varga dravya, attains better therapeutic properties with proper sodhana and marana processes. It is indicated in Amlapitta, Parinamashoola and Annadravashoola. Acharya Susruta mentioned; Amla is the property of Vidagdha Pitta. The term Amlapitta may be correlated with Acid reflux syndrome which comprises of various types of Gastro esophageal reflux diseases like Gastritis, Peptic ulcer etc. A peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of the stoma...

  9. Creating Real-Time Embodied Autonomous Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ A challenging research area for computer graphics and virtual environments (VE) is training interpersonal interactions. In such a system, at least one person is the VE participant, while several more virtual human agents (represented by human-like, embodied models) are engaged in activities in the same virtual space. The participants, whether live or virtual, should interact as if all were real. This means that the virtual agents must have several characteristics afforded to real people, including the following:

  10. Research on Virtual Agent Perception Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiu-fang; GAO Bao-lu

    2006-01-01

    An intelligent virtual environment is described for training users in the operation of complex engineering systems. After analyzing the original model of virtual environment, a virtual agent perception model was put forward. The information layer was inserted into original virtual environment. The model classifies all kinds of information and offers a way for knowledge description of virtual environment, and contributes to set up feeling model for the Virtual Agent within virtual environment.

  11. An Agent for the Prospect Presentation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    example is a medical system which assists a doc- tor or patient in deciding whether to use a certain medica - tion. The medication is associated with one...affects the users’ interaction with the agent. We chose the pie charts (combined and separate) in order to enhance com- prehension of the proposed...Z. Rabinovich, S. Kraus, C. V. Goldman, and Y. Gal. Strategic advice provision in repeated human-agent interactions . In AAAI, 2012. [5] A. Azaria, Z

  12. Agent-oriented commonsense knowledge base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汝钤; 石纯一; 张松懋; 毛希平; 徐晋晖; 杨萍; 范路

    2000-01-01

    Common sense processing has been the key difficulty in Al community. Through analyzing various research methods on common sense, a large-scale agent-oriented commonsense knowledge base is described in this paper. We propose a new type of agent——CBS agent, specify common sense oriented semantic network descriptive language-Csnet, augment Prolog for common sense, analyze the ontology structure, and give the execution mechanism of the knowledge base.

  13. Coordinating Learning Agents for Active Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ranging from robocup soccer [26, 27], to rover coordination [19], to trading agents [25, 43], to air traffic management [32]. What makes this problem...Bazzan, A. and Ossowski, S. (eds.), Applications of Agent Technology in Traffic and Transportation ( Springer , 2005). [19] Mataric, M. J., Coordination...of Complex Systems ( Springer , 2004). September 16, 2009 16:40 WSPC/169-ACS 00230 472 K. Tumer and N. Khani [24] Pynadath, D. and Tambe, M., The

  14. Inaccessibility in Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    reliable. Software agents may need to migrate e.g. in the situations where the information needs to be transformed between two mutually inaccessible...integrate the software prototype from the MRinMAS project in a timely fashion. An important development period of this project has been devoted to...footprint and message sending speed). For selected agent platforms - JADE, FIPA-OS, ZEUS, JACK, GRASSHOPPER and A–globe - the results of benchmarking are

  15. A Estreptozootocina Como Agente Diabetogênico

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan,Maria Montserrat Diaz Pedrosa

    2008-01-01

    Os quadros experimentais de diabetes mellitus permitem observar as diversas variáveis envolvidas na fisiopatologia desta doença sob condições controladas. Entretanto, conhecer as características do agente químico usado na indução do diabetes é importante para uma análise coerente dos resultados obtidos. Esta revisão apresenta aspectos relacionados à estreptozootocina, um agente diabetogênico amplamente u...

  16. Solving Integer Programming by Evolutionary Soft Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jian

    2003-01-01

    Many practical problems in commerce and industry involve finding the best way to allocate scarce resources a mong competing activities. This paper focuses on the problem of integer programming, and describes an evolutionary soft agent model to solve it. In proposed model, agent is composed of three components: goal, environment and behavior. Experirnental shows thne model has the characters of parallel computing and goal driving.

  17. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  18. Innovative Design and Synthesis of Antiparasite Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    chalcones (including 2’,3’,4’-trihydroxychalcone) for inhibition of heme polymerization. None of these compounds exhibited activity at concentrations as high...artemisinin analogs in vitro. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 38:1813-9. 87. Winter, R., M. Ignatushchenko, 0. Ogundahunsi, K. Cornell, A. Oduola...D. Hinrichs, and M. Riscoe. 1997. Potentiation of an antimalarial oxidant drug. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 41: in press (July issue). 88

  19. Perpetual Self-Aware Cognitive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    To construct a perpetual self-aware cognitive agent that can continuously operate with independence, an introspective machine must be produced. To assemble such an agent, it is necessary to perform a full integration of cognition (planning, understanding, and learning) and metacognition (control and monitoring of cognition) with intelligent behaviors. The failure to do this completely is why similar, more limited efforts have not succeeded in the past. I outline some key computational require...

  20. Scheduling Activity in an Agent Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    Agents for applications in dynamic environments require artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems to achieve their objectives. For example, they must develop plans of actions to carry out missions in their environment, in other words, to achieve some state in the world. But also, the agents must fulfill real-time requirements that arise because the characteristics of the applications and the dynamism of the environment. In this paper we analyze the use of a schedule of activity in ...

  1. Towards Emergent Energy Synchronization using Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Pournaras, E.; Warnier, M.E.; Brazier, F.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of energy consumption is a key determinant for the stabilization of smart energy grids. This paper proposes software agents that locally synchronize the energy usage of appliances to minimize the oscillations in global energy consumption. Agents can manage demand-side devices with periodic operation and synchronize their consumption locally resulting in an emerging global stability of energy consumption. The benefits and challenges of such an approach are discussed in this paper.

  2. Bacteriophages as recognition and identification agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorescu, M.C.; Gaspar, A.

    1987-04-23

    Bacteriophages are employed as agents for recognition and identification of molecules and cellular materials, using their ability to recognize their bacterial host, by coating them with antibodies or by selecting them to perform in a manner analogous to antibodies. Visibility for identification is effected by incorporating a fluorescent agent, a radioisotope, a metal, an enzyme, or other staining material. The method of this invention may be utilized in selected clinical procedures, and is adaptable to use in an assay kit.

  3. Pyridinium Oxime Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    incident combinant les agents neurotoxiques et biologiques ne serait probablement pas efficace contre l’agent biologique, surtout s’il s’agit du charbon ...Nelson, K., and Beverley, S. M. (1993). Evolution of the nuclear ribosomal RNAs in kinetoplastid protozoa: perspectives on the age and origins of...indexing annotation must be entered when the overall document is classified) ORIGINATOR (The name and address of the organization preparing the document

  4. Robust Multi-Agent Sensor Network Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    Decision and Control December 15-17, 2010 Hilton Atlanta Hotel , Atlanta, GA, USA 978-1-4244-7744-9/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE 402 II. PRELIMINARIES We will...interference caused by other simultaneously active transmissions. • We derived analytical expression for the capacity of the above network. • Considering...which are robust against the loss of multiple agents. A formation is said to be rigid if by actively maintaining a designated set of inter-agent

  5. Knowledge Representation for Decision Making Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Knowledge Representation for Decision Making Agents MAJ Peter Nesbitt Dr. Tom Anderson LTC Jonathan Alt Mr. David Ohmen Mr. Kyle Quinnell Mr. Mario...Torres TRADOC Analysis Center - Monterey 700 Dyer Road Monterey, California 93943 PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Peter A. Nesbitt Jonathan K. Alt MAJ, AR LTC...Include area code) 07/15/2013 Technical Report APR 2013 - JUN 2013 Knowledge Representation for Decision Making Agents MAJ Peter Nesbitt Dr Tom Anderson

  6. Organophosphate Nerve Agent Detection with Europium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Schwierking, Jake R.; Laird W. Menzel; E. Roland Menzel

    2004-01-01

    We explore the detection of paraoxon, a model compound for nonvolatile organophosphate nerve agents such as VX. The detection utilizes europium complexes with 1,10 phenanthroline and thenoyltrifluoroacetone as sensitizing ligands. Both europium luminescence quenching and luminescence enhancement modalities are involved in the detection, which is simple, rapid, and sensitive. It is adaptable as well to the more volatile fluorophosphate nerve agents. It involves nothing more than visual lumines...

  7. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  8. The Behaviors Decision of Agent in Multi-agent System%多agent系统中agent的行为决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新军; 王怀民; 楚蓓蓓; 王逸欣

    2003-01-01

    The behavior decision of agent in multi-agent system is dependent on the task of individual agent ,the cooperation with other agents,and the multi-agent system' constraints. The paper presents three abstract concept models of achievement intention,joint intention and maintenance intention representing the factors that affect agent's behaviors respectively,to investigate autonomous agent's behaviors decision in support of agent-oriented software development. The paper discusses and analyzes how they will affect agent's behavior decision and the relationship among them,defines their formal and rigorous semantics,finally specifies and proves a number of important properties.

  9. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  10. Multi Agent system Randomized in Road Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouiouez Mounir,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rapid growth of road traffic density in theworld generates a rising request for tools that can be used toanalyze and control the traffic networks. Microscopic trafficsimulation[1,2,3] has proven to be one of the most useful toolsfor analysis of various traffic systems. Thus microscopic trafficsimulation has become an ever increasing field of research anddevelopment. In this paper we present a new model formicroscopic traffic simulation; Traditional traffic simulationmodels neglect some real-life factors that need to be considered,such as the effect of random distribution in the entry of lanehence ,this paper presents the development of a concept and anassociated architecture called the MAS2RT (Multi Agentsystem Randomized in Road Traffic, which is based on thecombination of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS [4,5], Poissondistribution in urban Traffic and a stochastic model [6,7] tocapture the randomness of individual agent. The secondcontribution of this paper is about the internal structure ofmobile agents[8], initially reacts according to the instructions ofthe Main agent (MA and in the case of a lack of dynamicinformation, the mobile agents take decisions based on theirexperiences accumulated during previous interactions.The obtained results illustrate that using the randomness in thereaction of agent enhanced greatly the performance ofsimulation.

  11. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  12. Scolicidal Agents in Hydatid Cyst Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Besim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Injecting scolicidal solutions into the hydatid cyst and packing the operative field with sponges soaked in scolicidal agents have been used to avoid dissemination of the parasite during surgery. In the first part of this invitro study, we tried to determine the scolicidal property of various agents in different concentrations and exposure times. In the second part, we tested whether sponges soaked in different type and concentrations of scolicidal agents have any role beyond being a mechanical barrier. 20% saline, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 1.5% cetrimide-0.15% chlorhexidine (10% Savlon®, 95% ethyl alcohol, 10% polyvinylpirrolidone-iodine (Betadine® and their further dilutions were used in this study. Protoscoleces were obtained from the cyst containing livers of the sheep and viability was determined with dye-uptake (0.1% Eosin and flame cell activity. Savlon® was found to be the least concentration dependent scolicidal agent among those studied. Scoleces sprayed on sponges soaked in 20% saline, 95% ethyl alcohol, Betadine® and 3% hydrogen peroxide were killed after 15 minutes. 3% and 10% saline and normal saline were ineffective. Sponges work not only as a mechanical barrier but also as a chemical one if the agent is chosen correctly. In purely cystic hydatid liver disease, the risk of dissemination of the cyst contents can be avoided by injection of a potent scolicidal agent such as Savlon®.

  13. A Comparison of Organization-Centered and Agent-Centered Multi-Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most classical multi-agent systems have the agent in center, there has recently been a development towards focusing more on the organization of the system, thereby allowing the designer to focus on what the system goals are, without considering how the goals should be fulfilled. We have d...... that the agent-oriented approach has a number of advantages when it comes to game-like scenarios with just a few different character types....... developed and evaluated two teams of agents for a variant of the well-known Bomberman computer game. One team is based on the basic Jason system, which is an implementation in Java of an extension of the logic-based agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak. The other team is based...

  14. Intelligent Agent-Based System for Digital Library Information Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师雪霖; 牛振东; 宋瀚涛; 宋丽哲

    2003-01-01

    A new information search model is reported and the design and implementation of a system based on intelligent agent is presented. The system is an assistant information retrieval system which helps users to search what they need. The system consists of four main components: interface agent, information retrieval agent, broker agent and learning agent. They collaborate to implement system functions. The agents apply learning mechanisms based on an improved ID3 algorithm.

  15. Research and Application of Multi-Agent Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Zhang Fengming

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the background and conception of Agent and Multi-Agent technology and compares the frameworks of Agent system and MAS. Analyzing the framework of Agent secondly. Then explaining the communication language used in the Multi-Agent society where knowledge communication plays a key role among Agents. Finally, some applications are enumerated and the future direction of this technology is prospected.

  16. The Agent Modeling Language AML A Comprehensive Approach to Modeling Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cervenka, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are already a focus of studies for more than 25 years. Despite substantial effort of an active research community, modeling of multi-agent systems still lacks complete and proper definition, general acceptance, and practical application. Due to the vast potential of these systems e.g., to improve the practice in software and to extent the applications that can feasibly be tackled, this book tries to provide a comprehensive modeling language - the Agent Modeling Language (AML) - as an extension of UML 2.0, concentrating on multi-agent systems and applications.

  17. Mobile Agent Based on Internet%基于Internet的移动Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐练; 周龙骧; 王翰虎

    2001-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a hybrid of Internet technology and Artificial Intelligence. Today there are tremendous amount of information resources distributing among Internet ,but it's very difficult to find the wanted-thing. Internet has increasingly become a vital compute platform for electron commercial which has highly popular through the world. Developing new Internet-based application programs such as shopping online,e-business,search engine etc pose new task. Mobile Agent proffers new clue and technology. Considering Internet,this thesis conducts a research on architecture,mobile mechanism in mobile Agent system. Based on the Agent theory research and engineering ,the thesis focuses point at researching Mobile Agents,which have the ability to rove through the network. Using OMG's "Mobile Agent Facility Specification" for reference,we design a model architecture of Mobile Agent System. Based on the architecture ,the article analyzes the key technology and gives methods to resolving them ,emphases on mobility mechanism of Agent and implementing it. At last a model of java-based Mobile Agent System is given.

  18. An Interactive Tool for Creating Multi-Agent Systems and Interactive Agent-based Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing principles from parallel and distributed processing combined with inspiration from modular robotics, we developed the modular interactive tiles. As an educational tool, the modular interactive tiles facilitate the learning of multi-agent systems and interactive agent-based games....... The modular and physical property of the tiles provides students with hands-on experience in exploring the theoretical aspects underlying multi-agent systems which often appear as challenging to students. By changing the representation of the cognitive challenging aspects of multi-agent systems education...

  19. Challenges of agent banking experiences in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gichana Atandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available More than ever before there is a global concern to entrench financial deepening access to previously ignored areas due to some areas considered economically unviable where majority of the MSEs operate their businesses. There is an increasing need to promote technological and institutional innovation as a means to expand financial system access and usage, including addressing infrastructure weaknesses and empowering business enterprises by developing financial literacy and financial capability programs to bring all people on board and all to participate in economic development of a country, perhaps agent banking will offer a solution to slow pace of individuals enterprise development especially from the rural areas. The uptake of agent banking in Kenya has not been well appreciated by the target beneficiaries who include among others the micro and small enterprises in the rural areas in Kenya who were expected to benefit from this technologically innovative service. In as much as it has been witnessed that there is an increase in penetration of agent banking services clients have not fully made use of the available agents at their localities to cut down on transaction costs occasioned by travelling to traditional branches and also time wasted on queuing for services . It can also be noted that, the banks have not fully taken advantage of agent banking to explore all market segments at a low operating costs. The researcher also identified some of the factors hindering the well functioning of agent banking despite mounting financial literacy training to Equity bank clients. Lack of mobile network services and float, lack of capital, issues of insecurity and fear of robbery. The paper is based on a study conducted to reveal the challenges which are hindering the rural people of Kenya from benefiting from agent banking.

  20. Growth of the Pittsburgh Pneumonia Agent in Animal Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldo, Charles R.; Pasculle, A. William; Myerowitz, Richard L.; Gress, Francis M.; Dowling, John N.

    1981-01-01

    Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (Legionella micdadei) grew in monkey, chicken, and human cell cultures. Pittsburgh pneumonia agent grew predominantly in the cytoplasm, resulting in a nonfocal, mild cytopathic effect.

  1. Environmental Agents Service (EAS) Registry System of Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Environmental Agent Service (EAS) Registries is the information system encompassing the Ionizing Radiation Registry (IRR), the Agent Orange Registry (AOR), and...

  2. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  3. 2015 Special Sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Josefa; Mathieu, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Moreno, María; Julián, Vicente; Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo; Jiménez-López, María; Botti, Vicente; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems and Sustainability : the PAAMS Collection

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2015 special sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at 3rd-5th June, 2015: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and Recommender systems (WebMiRes); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Agent-based Modeling of Sustainable Behavior and Green Economies (AMSBGE); Emotional Software Agents (SSESA) and Intelligent Educational Systems (SSIES). The volume also includes the paper accepted for the Doctoral Consortium in PAAMS 2015. PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest develo...

  4. Agent Based Modeling Applications for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    Agent-based modeling techniques have successfully been applied to systems in which complex behaviors or outcomes arise from varied interactions between individuals in the system. Each individual interacts with its environment, as well as with other individuals, by following a set of relatively simple rules. Traditionally this "bottom-up" modeling approach has been applied to problems in the fields of economics and sociology, but more recently has been introduced to various disciplines in the geosciences. This technique can help explain the origin of complex processes from a relatively simple set of rules, incorporate large and detailed datasets when they exist, and simulate the effects of extreme events on system-wide behavior. Some of the challenges associated with this modeling method include: significant computational requirements in order to keep track of thousands to millions of agents, methods and strategies of model validation are lacking, as is a formal methodology for evaluating model uncertainty. Challenges specific to the geosciences, include how to define agents that control water, contaminant fluxes, climate forcing and other physical processes and how to link these "geo-agents" into larger agent-based simulations that include social systems such as demographics economics and regulations. Effective management of limited natural resources (such as water, hydrocarbons, or land) requires an understanding of what factors influence the demand for these resources on a regional and temporal scale. Agent-based models can be used to simulate this demand across a variety of sectors under a range of conditions and determine effective and robust management policies and monitoring strategies. The recent focus on the role of biological processes in the geosciences is another example of an area that could benefit from agent-based applications. A typical approach to modeling the effect of biological processes in geologic media has been to represent these processes in

  5. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  6. Cyclosarin-An Organophosphate Nerve Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krejcova

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compounds ascribed to as nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, cyclosarin are highly toxic, and are considered to be the most dangerous chemical compounds. All apparently share a common mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition and can cause similar sv.m .ot oms. The standard therapy, in the case of organophosphorus poisoning, has the prophylactic use of reversibly acting AChE inhibitors and antidotal administration of AChE reactivators-oximes. Unfortunately, none of these oximes can be regarded as a broad spectrum antidote, ie, effective against all nerve agents. While the presently available oximes (pralidoxime, ohidoxime are not considered to be sufficiently effective against nerve agents, especially in the case of soman poisoning, the H oximes (HI-6, HLo7 appear to,be very promising antidotes against nerve agents because these are able to protect the experimental animals from toxic effects and improve survival of animals poisoned with supralethal doses. A lot of research has been pursued on the treatment of sarin, soman, and tabun, but cyclosarin was not considered for such a study for a long time. Recently, attention of researchers has also turned to cyclosarin because of its potential use as a chemical warfare agent. Cyclosarin is highly toxic organophosphorus compound which is resistant to conventional oxime therapy. This paper reviews the latest positionof cyclosarin in standpoint of medical treatment by various reactivators considering the ability of various oximes, HI-6, HS-6, BI-6, and KO33 of their reactivation potency.

  7. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  8. Dispatching mobile Agents for DDM applicationss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-ning; Guillaume Autran

    2008-01-01

    Techniques for mining information from distributed data sources accessible over the Internet are a growing area of research. The mobile Agent paradigm opens a new door for distributed data mining and knowledge discovery applications. In this paper we present the design of a mobile agent system which couples service discovery, using a logical language based application programming interface, and database access. Combining mobility with database access provides a means to create more efficient data mining applications. The processing of data is moved to network wide data locations instead of the traditional approach of bringing huge amount of data to the processing location. Our proposal aims at implementing system tools that will enable intelligent mobile Agents to roam the Internet searching for distributed data services. Agents access the data, discover patterns, extract useful information from facts recorded in the databases, then communicate local results back to the user. The user then generates a global data model through the aggregation of results provided by all Agents. This overcomes barriers posed by network congestion, poor security, and unreliability.

  9. Use of antimicrobial agents in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, S W; Gautier, P

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial agents, especially antibacterial agents, are used throughout the world, across a diverse array of extensive and intensive livestock production systems, to protect the health and welfare of livestock and to improve their performance. While some agents that are used in livestock belong to classes that have no counterpart in human medicine, this is not the case for the most widely used agents: the tetracyclines, penicillins, macrolides and sulphonamides. Many bacterial diseases of livestock cause devastating losses of animal life and productivity. As a result, their keepers can lose their livelihoods and see a dramatic reduction in income, so there is often a great sense of urgency to treat affected animals early. However, there are a large number of bacterial pathogens that cause disease and it is frequently difficult to reach a conclusive diagnosis prior to instituting treatment. There are many ways in which existing uses of antimicrobial agents can be improved, amongst the most important are increased utilisation of veterinary professional services, the introduction of enhanced infection control measures, improved point-of-care diagnostic tests, and the application of physiologically based population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling.

  10. A Multi-Agent Approach for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tiejun; TAN Yihong; XING Lining

    2006-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a classical optimization problem and it is one of a class of NP-Problem. This paper presents a new method named multi-agent approach based genetic algorithm and ant colony system to solve the TSP. Three kinds of agents with different function were designed in the multi-agent architecture proposed by this paper. The first kind of agent is ant colony optimization agent and its function is generating the new solution continuously. The second kind of agent is selection agent, crossover agent and mutation agent, their function is optimizing the current solutions group. The third kind of agent is fast local searching agent and its function is optimizing the best solution from the beginning of the trial. At the end of this paper, the experimental results have shown that the proposed hybrid approach has good performance with respect to the quality of solution and the speed of computation.

  11. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  12. Price Prediction in a Trading Agent Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Lochner, K M; Vorobeychik, Y; Wellman, M P; 10.1613/jair.1333

    2011-01-01

    The 2002 Trading Agent Competition (TAC) presented a challenging market game in the domain of travel shopping. One of the pivotal issues in this domain is uncertainty about hotel prices, which have a significant influence on the relative cost of alternative trip schedules. Thus, virtually all participants employ some method for predicting hotel prices. We survey approaches employed in the tournament, finding that agents apply an interesting diversity of techniques, taking into account differing sources of evidence bearing on prices. Based on data provided by entrants on their agents' actual predictions in the TAC-02 finals and semifinals, we analyze the relative efficacy of these approaches. The results show that taking into account game-specific information about flight prices is a major distinguishing factor. Machine learning methods effectively induce the relationship between flight and hotel prices from game data, and a purely analytical approach based on competitive equilibrium analysis achieves equal ac...

  13. Toward Agent Programs with Circuit Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1992-01-01

    New ideas are presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments-environments in which the agent's current situation cannot always be accurately discerned and in which the effects of actions cannot always be reliably predicted. The notion of 'circuit semantics' for programs based on 'teleo-reactive trees' is introduced. Program execution builds a combinational circuit which receives sensory inputs and controls actions. These formalisms embody a high degree of inherent conditionality and thus yield programs that are suitably reactive to their environments. At the same time, the actions computed by the programs are guided by the overall goals of the agent. The paper also speculates about how programs using these ideas could be automatically generated by artificial intelligence planning systems and adapted by learning methods.

  14. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  15. Multi-Agent Simulation and Management Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Celia, Helen; Clegg, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent agents offer a new and exciting way of understanding the world of work. Agent-Based Simulation (ABS), one way of using intelligent agents, carries great potential for progressing our understanding of management practices and how they link to retail performance. We have developed simulation models based on research by a multi-disciplinary team of economists, work psychologists and computer scientists. We will discuss our experiences of implementing these concepts working with a well-known retail department store. There is no doubt that management practices are linked to the performance of an organisation (Reynolds et al., 2005; Wall & Wood, 2005). Best practices have been developed, but when it comes down to the actual application of these guidelines considerable ambiguity remains regarding their effectiveness within particular contexts (Siebers et al., forthcoming a). Most Operational Research (OR) methods can only be used as analysis tools once management practices have been implemented. Ofte...

  16. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties.

  17. Antiseptic skin agents for percutaneous procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Norman E; Madyoon, Hooman

    2009-01-01

    Infections associated with percutaneously implanted devices, such as pacemakers, internal cardiac defibrillators, and endovascular prostheses, create difficult and complex clinical scenarios because management can entail complete device removal, antibiotic therapy, and prolonged hospitalization. A source for pathogens is often thought to be the skin surface, making skin preparation at the time of the procedure a critical part of minimizing implantation of infected devices and prostheses. The most common skin preparation agents used today include products containing iodophors or chlorhexidine gluconate. Agents are further classified by whether they are aqueous-based or alcoholbased solutions. Traditional aqueous-based iodophors, such as povidone-iodine, are one of the few products that can be safely used on mucous membrane surfaces. Alcohol-based solutions are quick, sustained, and durable, with broader spectrum antimicrobial activity. These agents seem ideal for percutaneous procedures associated with prosthesis implantation, when it is critical to minimize skin colony counts to prevent hardware infection.

  18. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  19. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  20. Existence of Multiagent Equilibria with Limited Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Bowling, M; 10.1613/jair.1332

    2011-01-01

    Multiagent learning is a necessary yet challenging problem as multiagent systems become more prevalent and environments become more dynamic. Much of the groundbreaking work in this area draws on notable results from game theory, in particular, the concept of Nash equilibria. Learners that directly learn an equilibrium obviously rely on their existence. Learners that instead seek to play optimally with respect to the other players also depend upon equilibria since equilibria are fixed points for learning. From another perspective, agents with limitations are real and common. These may be undesired physical limitations as well as self-imposed rational limitations, such as abstraction and approximation techniques, used to make learning tractable. This article explores the interactions of these two important concepts: equilibria and limitations in learning. We introduce the question of whether equilibria continue to exist when agents have limitations. We look at the general effects limitations can have on agent b...

  1. Intelligent Virtual Agents Architecture in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the contemporary performing behavior in the reciprocity of virtual agents is glazed excessively and can't satisfy complex unknown environment, the research of Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA with active learning and local apperception must be accelerated. In this paper, we design and implement a new IVA system architecture, for which active learning and local apperceive interaction were approached. Active learning using knowledge acquisition and knowledge evolution improved the self-regulation of behavior mechanism significantly, while local apperceive interaction could sense disturbances of the simulated environment and interactively communicate with other simulated agents within perception dimension effectively. Ultimately, the experimental result provides effectiveness and practicability of the performance in our prototype IVA system.

  2. NATURAL AGENTS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darji Vinay Chhanalal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract. It comprises the two conditions, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, characterized by chronic recurrent ulceration of the bowel. Conventional drugs for colitis treatment include aminosalicylate, corticosteroids,antibiotics & immunomodulators. 5- Amino salicylic acid having side effects in 30% of the patients. Systemic corticosteroids producing incidence of complication is 4.3%. Antibiotic therapy is beneficial in 70% of the patients & Immunomodulators having 50 to 70% beneficial effects. This report shows that there is no any appropriate treatment available to treat IBD without side effects. A natural agent with reduced or no toxicity is therefore essential. In nature there are so many types of natural agents which are used as protective agents in IBD. This article emphasizes many natural products obtained from plant & other sources, which possess potent activity against experimentally induced IBD.

  3. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor DUQUE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  4. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo ISAZA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  5. Learning Pet -- Intelligent Agents for WBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玮; 俞方桦

    2001-01-01

    An intelligent agent is any program that can be considered by the user to be acting as an assistant or helper, rather than as a tool in the manner of a conventional direct-manipulation interface. An agent should as well display some, but perhaps not all, of the characteristics that are associated with human intelligence: learning, inference, adaptability,independence, creativity, etc.. In order to make webbased education (WBE) more vividly and instructionally with learner's independence at the same time, the intelligent agent can act as a learning pet, which is affiliated with learner's score or grades and will grow up with learner's achievement. And during the course of study, the learning pet can provides any information required by the learner, gives hints if necessary when the learner doing his/her assignment, offers instructional guide for further study etc..

  6. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  7. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed.

  8. Microbial biofilms: biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Quinn, Gerry A

    2014-12-01

    Current microbial inhibition strategies based on planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilm communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. All aspects of biofilm measurement, monitoring, dispersal, control, and inhibition are becoming issues of increasing importance. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms in addition to many other advantages. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival those of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial and yeast biofilms. This makes them suitable candidates for use in new generations of microbial dispersal agents and for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. In this review, we explore aspects of biofilm characteristics and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (biosurfactants) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms.

  9. A Multi Agent System for MS Windows using Matlab-enabled Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, Th.M.; Thaens, R.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described to program the properties of agents of a multi agent system by using Matlab instructions or Matlab m-files. Apart from the obvious advantage that all Matlab functionality is immediately available, there is the added advantage that all debugging capabilities that Matlab provides

  10. Nondestructive intervention to multi-agent systems through an intelligent agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents). However, we add one intelligent agent, called 'shill', which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior.

  11. Agent Behavior alignment : A mechanism to overcome problems in agent interactions during runtime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Gerben G.; Szirbik, Nick B.; Klusch, M; Hindriks, K; Papazoglou, MP; Strerling, L

    2007-01-01

    When two or more agents interacting, their behaviors are not necessarily matching. Automated ways to overcome conflicts in the behavior of agents can make the execution of interactions more reliable. Such an alignment mechanism will reduce the necessary human intervention. This paper shows how to de

  12. Research of Communication Mechanism of the Multi-agent in Multi-agent Robot Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cooperation of multi-robot that is based on the multi-agent system (MAS) theory of distributed artificial intelligence has become a hotspot in the robotics R&D. In the research the multi-robot is regarded as multi-agent. So the communication and cooperation of multi-agent become the key problem for gaining the dynamic running information of cooperating robots. In this paper the authors introduce the communication modes for agent and provide a common strategy which aims at the communication resources of multi-agent model-the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol which is based on the transmittal medium. It supports the cable-communication of multi-robot and the experiments prove its validity.

  13. 10th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    The modern economy is driven by technologies and knowledge. Digital technologies can free, shift and multiply choices, often intruding on the space of other industries, by providing new ways of conducting business operations and creating values for customers and companies. The topics covered in this volume include software agents, multi-agent systems, agent modelling, mobile and cloud computing, big data analysis, business intelligence, artificial intelligence, social systems, computer embedded systems and nature inspired manufacturing, etc. that contribute to the modern Digital Economy. This volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent, new digital and knowledge economy research and includes 28 papers classified in the following specific topics: business process management, agent-based modeling and simulation, anthropic-oriented computing, learning paradigms, business informatics and gaming, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published papers were selected for presentatio...

  14. Novel anti-inflammatory agents in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukides, Stelios; Bartziokas, Konstantinos; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD related inflammation is less responsive to inhaled steroids compared to asthma. There are three major novel anti-inflammatory approaches to the management of COPD. The first approach is phosphodiesterase...... on these strategies exist at the moment. A third potential approach involves novel agents whose mechanism of action is closely related to COPD mechanisms and pathophysiology. Such novel treatments are of great interest since they may treat both COPD and co-morbidities. Several novel agents are currently under...

  15. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonshik Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to create optimum traffic signals in congested conditions. The effectiveness of this method was shown through simulation of multiple intersections.

  16. Integrating Reactive and Deliberative Planning for Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    eff’ectivelv. \\Ve integrate these two systems so as to retain the strengths of each by giving primary control of the agent to Hlap . Hap keeps the tree of...predefined subset of the agent’s goals. Because Hap and Prodigy have somewhat different notions of what goals are, not all Hlap goals are expressible as...for executing these subgoals in the dynamic world. Hap is able to fill in the dynamic details that Prodigy’ did not plan for. Also, Hlap will often

  17. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  18. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  19. New agents: great expectations not realized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancet, Jeffrey E

    2013-09-01

    A number of new agents in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have held much promise in recent years, but most have failed to change the therapeutic landscape. Indeed, with the exception of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (which was subsequently voluntarily withdrawn from the commercial market), no new agent has been approved for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) beyond the 7 + 3 regimen, which was has been in use for over 40 years. This review touches upon the potential reasons for these failures and explores the newer therapeutic approaches being pursued in AML.

  20. Agendas for Multi-Agent Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    for our agents to learn to achieve high rewards. 2 Unfortunately, the current state of the art for testing whether we have done a good job is to hand...our model to some learning agents and see how much reward they can earn. This sort of test isn’t a good way to draw general con- clusions: if the... Barany . Fair distribution protocols or how the players replace fortune. Mathematics of Operations Research, 17(2):327–340, 1992. [32] Yevgeniy Dodis

  1. Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e os sentidos de "ser agente" Community Health Agents and the meanings of "being an agent"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Milan Pupin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Saúde da Família constitui-se enquanto estratégia de mudança do modelo assistencial. O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa sobre os sentidos de "ser agente" produzidos, por meio de entrevistas abertas, com Agentes Comunitários de Saúde que trabalham nos cinco Núcleos de Saúde da Família da cidade de Ribeirão Preto - São Paulo, vinculados à Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - USP. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas na íntegra e analisadas segundo princípios da análise de conteúdo. A análise permitiu a descrição de sentidos acerca de ser agente subdivididos em: Sentidos produzidos na relação com a comunidade e Sentidos produzidos na relação com a equipe. A análise dos sentidos de ser agente possibilitou construir um diálogo sobre as tensões relacionadas a um fazer em saúde ora permeado por concepções atreladas ao modelo biomédico, ora atrelado aos novos paradigmas em saúde.The Family Health Program consists of a strategy to change the health care model. This article presents the results from a qualitative study about the meanings of "being an agent" obtained through open interviews with Community Health Agents who work in five Family Health Centers of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine (University of São Paulo, located in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. Interviews were tape recorded, fully transcribed, and then content analyzed. The analysis allowed for descriptions of meanings toward "being an agent", subdivided into: Meanings produced by relationships with the community, and Meanings produced by relationships with the team. Analyzing the meanings of being an agent provided the establishment of a dialogue about the tensions related to a health practice that is at times influenced by conceptions associated with the biomedical method, and at other times with the new health paradigm.

  2. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  3. Liposome imaging agents in personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Hansen, Anders Elias; Gabizon, Alberto;

    2012-01-01

    that selectively localize in tumor tissue can transport both drugs and imaging agents, which allows for a theranostic approach with great potential in personalized medicine. Radiolabeling of liposomes have for many years been used in preclinical studies for evaluating liposome in vivo performance and has been...... start to consider how to use imaging for patient selection and treatment monitoring in connection to nanocarrier based medicines. Nanocarrier imaging agents could furthermore have interesting properties for disease diagnostics and staging. Here, we review the major advances in the development...... of radiolabeled liposomes for imaging as a tool in personalized medicine....

  4. Organophosphate Nerve Agent Detection with Europium Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Schwierking

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the detection of paraoxon, a model compound for nonvolatile organophosphate nerve agents such as VX. The detection utilizes europium complexes with 1,10 phenanthroline and thenoyltrifluoroacetone as sensitizing ligands. Both europium luminescence quenching and luminescence enhancement modalities are involved in the detection, which is simple, rapid, and sensitive. It is adaptable as well to the more volatile fluorophosphate nerve agents. It involves nothing more than visual luminescence observation under sample illumination by an ordinary hand-held ultraviolet lamp.

  5. Intrathecal chemotherapy. Selection of cytostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, T; Yamada, R; Kanai, N; Kuroda, R; Ushio, Y; Higashi, H; Mogami, H

    1970-09-01

    Selection of cytostatic agents for intrathecal administration is the subject of this paper.Both the toxic side effects-destruction of blood-brain barrier and change of body weight-and the cytostatic effects on intracranially transplanted Yoshida ascites sarcoma were investigated of intrathecal administration of various cytostatic agents. As a result, it may be concluded that Methotrexate and Endoxan and lower dose of mitomycin C are suitable drugs for intrathecal chemotherapy.Based on these findings, clinical cases of malignant brain tumours were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy.Grateful acknowledgement is made to Professor Dennosuke Jinnai for his constant interest and guidance in this investigation.

  6. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  7. A dialogue agent for navigation support in virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luin, van J.; Akker, op den H.J.A.; Nijholt, A.; Jacko, J.; Sears, A.

    2001-01-01

    We describe our work on designing a natural language accessible navigation agent for a virtual reality (VR) environment. The agent is part of an agent framework, which means that it can communicate with other agents. Its navigation task consists of guiding the visitors in the environment and to answ

  8. Current multiple myeloma treatment strategies with novel agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Heinz; Beksac, Meral; Bladé, Joan;

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has undergone significant developments in recent years. The availability of the novel agents thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide has expanded treatment options and has improved the outcome of patients with MM. Following the introduction of these agents...... presents an overview of the most recent data with these novel agents and summarizes European treatment practices incorporating the novel agents....

  9. A Multi-Agent Immunology Model for Security Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a computer immunology model for computersecurity , whose main components are defined as idea of Multi-Agent. It introduces the n at ural immune system on the principle, discusses the idea and characteristics of Mu lti-Agent. It gives a system model, and describes the structure and function of each agent. Also, the communication method between agents is described.

  10. Do you get it? User-evaluated explainable BDI agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Hindriks, K.; Bosch, K. van den; Jonker, C.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on explaining to humans the behavior of autonomous agents, i.e., explainable agents. Explainable agents are useful for many reasons including scenario-based training (e.g. disaster training), tutor and pedagogical systems, agent development and debugging, gaming, and interacti

  11. Agent-Based Computing in Distributed Adversarial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    agents, P3 represents games with 3 agents; value of BF represents the branching factors for the agents in fixed order (each digit for one agent...and M. Wooldridge. Cooperation, knowledge, and time: Alternating-time temporal epistemic logic and its applications. Studia Logica , 75(1):125–157

  12. Schools as Agents of Social Exclusion and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.; Warshofsky, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    Although schools are usually regarded as important agents for social inclusion, research has shown that they may also function as agents of exclusion itself. The goal of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how schools function as agents of exclusion and how they can become more effective agents of inclusion. It is based on action research…

  13. 49 CFR 375.205 - May I have agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I have agents? 375.205 Section 375.205... General Responsibilities § 375.205 May I have agents? (a) You may have agents provided you comply with... performs such services only on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If you have agents, you must...

  14. A Forward Integrity and Itinerary Secrecy Protocol for Mobile Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Huanmei; MENG Xuejun; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    The security problem of mobile agents is widely being discussed. The problem which protects mobile agents from malicious hosts is difficult to solve, because a host has access to the complete internal state of an agent. Forward integrity in mobile agents guarantees that offers contained in a mobile agent from previously visited host can not be modified by a malicious host. Itinerary secrecy can prevent mobile agent from being passively attack. This paper proposes a new forward integrity and itinerary secrecy protocol for mobile agent. The protocol can also resist collusion truncation attack.

  15. Repatriates as Knowlege-transfer Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmergaard, Jeanette; Sanchez Vidal, Ma Eugenia

    Expatriates are increasingly recognized for their central role as knowledge-transfer agents. Traditionally expatriates were only sent out to control and coordinate activities, but in the knowledge economy international assignments are seen as a way of obtaining knowledge-transfer between organiza...

  16. Acoustic properties of ultrasound contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. de Jong (Nico)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSafety of contrast agents is reported in the years after. Both the intracoronary use of sonicated Renografin as well as intravenous use of commercial product as Albunex and Lechovist has been investigated. Thereafter more pathophysiologic studies were performed. Ten Cate described the po

  17. Advanced detection strategies for ultrasound contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.G. Borsboom (Jerome)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Ultrasound contrast agent was discovered serendipitously by Gramiak and Shah in I968 when they injected indocyanine green dye into the heart and observed increased echogenicity of the blood containing the dye. Small cavitation bubbles that were formed upon injection of

  18. 7 CFR 930.87 - Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 930.87 Section 930.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  19. Dynamic agent hierarchies for design prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, Nick; Stuit, Marco; Meyer, Gerben; Reddy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Introducing dynamic aspects in diagrams that capture the aggregate structure of composite agents represents a promising notion, which can help to express in a straightforward manner how an entity is changing its placement during its evolution in time. This paper focuses on the novel concept of a dyn

  20. Multi-Agent Systems Design for Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Simon; Rajendran, Keerthi

    2005-01-01

    Advanced approaches to the construction of software systems can present difficulties to learners. This is true for multi-agent systems (MAS) which exhibit concurrency, non-determinacy of structure and composition and sometimes emergent behavior characteristics. Additional barriers exist for learners because mainstream MAS technology is young and…

  1. Targeted Agents for Imaging and Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüll, H.; Robillard, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular Imaging allows the visualization of biological processesin vivo, offering new chances for healthcare with respect to early diagnosis and improved therapy. The new field of molecular imaging isboosted by more sensitive imaging systems and the emergence of targeted imaging agents that hom

  2. Constructing Careers: Actor, Agent, and Author

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    When individuals seek career counseling, they have stories to tell about their working lives. The aim of career construction theory is to be comprehensive in encouraging employment counselors to listen for a client's career story from the perspectives of actor, agent, and author. Taking multiple perspectives on career stories enables counselors to…

  3. Agents adopting agriculture : Modeling the agricultural transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Elske; de Boer, Bart; Hankel, Albert; Verheij, Bart; Nolfi, S; Baldassarre, G; Calabretta, R; Hallam, JCT; Marocco, D; Meyer, JA; Miglino, O; Parisi, D

    2006-01-01

    The question "What drove foragers to farm?" has drawn answers from many different disciplines, often in the form of verbal models. Here, we take one such model, that of the ideal free distribution, and implement it as an agent-based computer simulation. Populations distribute themselves according to

  4. Games and Agents: Designing Intelligent Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dignum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an attention shift within the gaming industry toward more natural (long-term behavior of nonplaying characters (NPCs. Multiagent system research offers a promising technology to implement cognitive intelligent NPCs. However, the technologies used in game engines and multiagent platforms are not readily compatible due to some inherent differences of concerns. Where game engines focus on real-time aspects and thus propagate efficiency and central control, multiagent platforms assume autonomy of the agents. Increased autonomy and intelligence may offer benefits for a more compelling gameplay and may even be necessary for serious games. However, it raises problems when current game design techniques are used to incorporate state-of-the-art multiagent system technology. In this paper, we will focus on three specific problem areas that arise from this difference of view: synchronization, information representation, and communication. We argue that the current attempts for integration still fall short on some of these aspects. We show that to fully integrate intelligent agents in games, one should not only use a technical solution, but also a design methodology that is amenable to agents. The game design should be adjusted to incorporate the possibilities of agents early on in the process.

  5. Sexual dysfunction with antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J; Talbert, R L

    1986-05-01

    The physiology of the normal sexual response, epidemiology of sexual dysfunction, and the pharmacologic mechanisms involved in antihypertensive- and antipsychotic-induced problems with sexual function are discussed, with recommendations for patient management. The physiologic mechanisms involved in the normal sexual response include neurogenic, psychogenic, vascular, and hormonal factors that are coordinated by centers in the hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex. Sexual dysfunction is frequently attributed to antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents and is a cause of noncompliance. Drug-induced effects include diminished libido, delayed orgasm, ejaculatory disturbances, gynecomastia, impotence, and priapism. The pharmacologic mechanisms proposed to account for these adverse effects include adrenergic inhibition, adrenergic-receptor blockade, anticholinergic properties, and endocrine and sedative effects. The most frequently reported adverse effect on sexual function with the antihypertensive agents is impotence. It is seen most often with methyldopa, guanethidine, clonidine, and propranolol. In contrast, the most common adverse effect on sexual function with the antipsychotic agents involves ejaculatory disturbances. Thioridazine, with its potent anticholinergic and alpha-blocking properties, is cited most often. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction may be alleviated by switching to agents with dissimilar mechanisms to alter the observed adverse effect while maintaining adequate control of the patient's disease state.

  6. Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Abby J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the agent's qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…

  7. Een navigatie-agent in virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Luin, van J.; Akker, op den H.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We geven een korte beschrijving van ons werk gericht op het ontwerpen van een navigatie-agent voor een virtuele werled die met natuurlijke taal aangesproken kan worden. Het project is gestart als afstudeerwerk van de tweede auteur. Dit artikel beschrijft voornamelijk zijn werk. Het werk wordt op dit

  8. Collaborative learning agents supporting service network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.; Meijer, G.R.; Adriaans, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Service oriented systems need to be maintained to keep the requested level of service. This is challenge in large grid- and saas based networks that are managed by numerous entities. This paper is about supporting multi agent systems that operate in the network and support its management by learning

  9. Agent Turnovers in Ohio State University Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousan, Laith M.; Henderson, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 61 of 67 Ohio State University extension agents who left between 1990-94 showed they were primarily female (66%), white (90%), and untenured (98%). They were most likely to leave due to other priorities, insufficient pay, family obligations, too many work responsibilities, or the opportunity to make more money elsewhere. (SK)

  10. Kw-1 Agent Used in Steam Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Deyuan

    1997-01-01

    @@ The main function of Kw-1 agent is to reduce the interfacial tension between the interfaces of oil and water, and oil and rock (See Fig. 1).Its action mechanism is peeling off,emulsion breaking, changing the relative permeability and enlarging the sweeping volume.

  11. The 2014 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2014 (Power TAC 2014). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  12. The 2017 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2017 (Power TAC 2017). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through ta

  13. The 2015 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2015 (Power TAC 2015). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through ta

  14. The 2012 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  15. The 2013 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2013 (Power TAC 2013). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  16. The 2016 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2016 (Power TAC 2016). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through ta

  17. Raising agents: sources of human social intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper urges that if we wish to give social intelligence to our agents, it pays to look at how we acquired our social intelligence ourselves. Our drives and motives are innate and deeply social. Next, as children we are social-ized to acquire norms and values. This motivational and group-based l

  18. Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhak Boulaalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays manufacturers are under increased pressure to have an add value for their products to struggle the low-cost production in emerging countries. Distributed control and Intelligent Product are a new and exciting opportunity to build more effective process networks for a wide range of applications in logistics and product development, Radio Frequency Identification is applied increasingly; this technology applied in conjunction with the Mobile Agent system can bring more values in managing and control the lifecycle of products by optimizing the three essential factors: cost, quality and deadline for the survival of a company in the competitive manufacturing world. In this paper we propose Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise, based on Mobile Agent and RFID or, more generally, Product Embedded Information Devices (PEID, for tracking and managing the information of the whole product lifecycle in the extended enterprise, and to satisfy new requirements for increased integrability, traceability, adaptability, extendibility, and closed-loop PLM. Mobile Agents are suitable for tracking information in distributing environment and the mobility aspect, at any time and any place. This paper proposes a first architecture based on these technologies.

  19. Learning in engineered multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anup

    Consider the problem of maximizing the total power produced by a wind farm. Due to aerodynamic interactions between wind turbines, each turbine maximizing its individual power---as is the case in present-day wind farms---does not lead to optimal farm-level power capture. Further, there are no good models to capture the said aerodynamic interactions, rendering model based optimization techniques ineffective. Thus, model-free distributed algorithms are needed that help turbines adapt their power production on-line so as to maximize farm-level power capture. Motivated by such problems, the main focus of this dissertation is a distributed model-free optimization problem in the context of multi-agent systems. The set-up comprises of a fixed number of agents, each of which can pick an action and observe the value of its individual utility function. An individual's utility function may depend on the collective action taken by all agents. The exact functional form (or model) of the agent utility functions, however, are unknown; an agent can only measure the numeric value of its utility. The objective of the multi-agent system is to optimize the welfare function (i.e. sum of the individual utility functions). Such a collaborative task requires communications between agents and we allow for the possibility of such inter-agent communications. We also pay attention to the role played by the pattern of such information exchange on certain aspects of performance. We develop two algorithms to solve this problem. The first one, engineered Interactive Trial and Error Learning (eITEL) algorithm, is based on a line of work in the Learning in Games literature and applies when agent actions are drawn from finite sets. While in a model-free setting, we introduce a novel qualitative graph-theoretic framework to encode known directed interactions of the form "which agents' action affect which others' payoff" (interaction graph). We encode explicit inter-agent communications in a directed

  20. 31 CFR 342.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 342.9 Section 342.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.9...

  1. 31 CFR 330.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 330.9 Section 330.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.9 Fiscal...

  2. An improved 2-agent kidney exchange mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caragiannis, Ioannis; Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    We study a mechanism design version of matching computation in graphs that models the game played by hospitals participating in pairwise kidney exchange programs. We present a new randomized matching mechanism for two agents which is truthful in expectation and has an approximation ratio of 3...

  3. The agents of natural genome editing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guenther Witzany

    2011-01-01

    The DNA serves as a stable information storage medium and every protein which is needed by the cell is produced from this blueprint via an RNA intermediate code. More recently it was found that an abundance of various RNA elements cooperate in a variety of steps and substeps as regulatory and catalytic units with multiple competencies to act on RNA transcripts. Natural genome editing on one side is the competent agent*driven generation and integration of meaningful DNA nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements, and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. Natural genome editing on the other side designates the integration of all RNA activities acting on RNA transcripts without altering DNA-encoded genes. If we take the genetic code seriously as a natural code, there must be agents that are competent to act on this code because no natural code codes itself as no natural language speaks itself. As code editing agents,viral and subviral agents have been suggested because there are several indicators that demonstrate viruses competent in both RNA and DNA natural genome editing.

  4. Change Agents in Inner-City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Calvert H.

    The educational institution's resistance to change may be attributed to its non-profit motive, domesticated service role, bureaucratic structure, and the fact that its existence is ensured by law. The characteristics likely to contribute to the success of change agent in school settings are: (1) a high social status within the faculty of the…

  5. Enriching Active Databases with Agent Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, J.F.P. van den; Siebes, A.P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent agents are software components with a largely autonomous behaviour, that are fitted out with a considerable degree of artificial intelligence. They are a promising paradigm to serve as a foundation for future computing environments in general, and information systems in particular. At th

  6. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  7. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  8. Detection of Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Chemical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-11-11

    A "real time" method for detecting electrophilic and nucleophilic species generally by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species.

  9. Agent-based modelling of cholera diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Doldersum, Tom; Useya, Juliana; Augustijn, Denie

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially explicit agent-based simulation model for micro-scale cholera diffusion. The model simulates both an environmental reservoir of naturally occurring V. cholerae bacteria and hyperinfectious V. cholerae. Objective of the research is to test if runoff from open refuse

  10. Agent-based modelling of cholera diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Doldersum, Tom; Useya, Juliana; Augustijn, Denie

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially explicit agent-based simulation model for micro-scale cholera diffusion. The model simulates both an environmental reservoir of naturally occurring V.cholerae bacteria and hyperinfectious V. cholerae. Objective of the research is to test if runoff from open refuse d

  11. Intelligent tutoring agent for settlers of Catan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Jeroen; Broek, van den Egon L.; Schobbens, P.-Y.; Vanhoof, W.; Schwanen, G.

    2006-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) for the board game Settlers of Catan (SoC) is introduced. It uses CLIPS knowledge bases, connected by JCLIPS to a JAVA implementation of SoC. It is founded on a new theoretical framework that describes the development of negotiation skills in children. Using this

  12. Nonspherical Oscillations of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollet, Benjamin; Meer, van der Sander M.; Garbin, Valeria; Jong, de Nico; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of nonspherical oscillations (or surface modes) of coated microbubbles, used as ultrasound contrast agents in medical imaging, is investigated using ultra–high-speed optical imaging. Optical tweezers designed to micromanipulate single bubbles in 3-D are used to trap the bubbles far fr

  13. Neitsi Maali "Agent Sinikaelale" / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  14. Agent Sinikael asub tegutsema / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Marko Raat alustab järgmisel nädalal uue eesti mängufilmi "Agent Sinikael" võtteid. Režissöör on kirjutanud stsenaariumi koos Andres Maimikuga. Tootjaks on Suhkurfilm koostöös Exitfilmi ja Taani kuulsa firmaga Zentropa. Ka osatäitjatest

  15. "Agent Sinikael" aasta parim film / Ivar Sild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sild, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  16. Agent Sinikael ja Neitsi Maali / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film. 2002.a. parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat, produtsendid Peeter Urbla ja Veiko Õunpuu. Ära toodud ka varasemad "aastafilmid"

  17. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klos, T.B.; Alkemade, F.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of the market, s

  18. Emotional Agents need Formal Models of Emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, Joost; DeGroot, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Embedding a computational model of emotion in virtual agents is beneficial in a variety of domains. These domains include gaming, VR training, HCI and electronic tutors. Although these domains have different motives for embedding such a model, they share the same overall approach. Once the requireme

  19. Export of ADC Blowing Agents Increases Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Gradual capacity expansion and fierce market competition ADC blowing agents (azodicarbonamide) are mainly used in packaging materials, construction materials (mainly heat-insulation materials, high-grade wallpaper and UPVC (unplasticized polyvinyl chloride) pipes), EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) shoe soles and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) artificial leather.

  20. Advanced UV Source for Biological Agent Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    G., “ Photocatalysis Under Periodic Illumination, Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology, September 24, 2001.) 6 Wavelength (nm) 175...phosphate MDCP Methyl salicylate Figure 2.4-1. UV absorption cross sections for various chemical agents and simulants. Titanium dioxide ( TiO2 ) is one

  1. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  2. Disappearing computers, social actors and embodied agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Kunii, T.L.; Hock Soon, S.; Sourin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Presently, there are user interfaces that allow multimodal interactions. Many existing research and prototype systems introduced embodied agents, assuming that they allow a more natural conversation or dialogue between user and computer. Here we will first take a look at how in general people react

  3. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  4. Study on Multi-agent Systems with Colored Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰顺国; 李军

    2008-01-01

    The approach to model multi-agent systems with hierarchical colored Peal nets is introduced.In a multi-agent system,every agent is modeled with colored Petri net system,and the colored Petri net system of the multi-agent system is a hierarchical colored Petri net system,such that the agents planning deadlock detection and avoidance,can be analyzed with the Petri net system.

  5. 移动Agent的应用%Application of Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继宏; 胡建平

    2000-01-01

    Based on the active ,individuality of the mobile Agent and low-consumption of the network bandwidth,mobile Agent is the newly born network communication and complete distributed computing mode. It has largely developing potential.. This paper presents the role of mobile Agent in present application and discusses the typical mobile Agent area based on the characters of mobile Agent. We provide a new way to classify the applications.

  6. Application of mobile scanning agent in the network security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵君; 冯珊; 唐超; 梅纲

    2004-01-01

    To enhance the security of network systems, puts forward a kind of software agent is put forward, which has the induction ability of network frameworks and the ability of behavior independence. It is mobile scanning agent. More attentions is paid to expound how to design and realize mobile scanning agent. Besides, it is also explained the programs of mobile scanning agent system. In the end, it expects mobile scanning agent.

  7. AgPi: Agents on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Semwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi and its variants have brought with them an aura of change in the world of embedded systems. With their impressive computation and communication capabilities and low footprint, these devices have thrown open the possibility of realizing a network of things in a very cost-effective manner. While such networks offer good solutions to prominent issues, they are indeed a long way from being smart or intelligent. Most of the currently available implementations of such a network of devices involve a centralized cloud-based server that contributes to making the necessary intelligent decisions, leaving these devices fairly underutilized. Though this paradigm provides for an easy and rapid solution, they have limited scalability, are less robust and at times prove to be expensive. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Agents on Raspberry Pi (AgPi as a cyber solution to enhance the smartness and flexibility of such embedded networks of physical devices in a decentralized manner. The use of a Multi-Agent System (MAS running on Raspberry Pis aids agents, both static and mobile, to govern the various activities within the network. Agents can act autonomously or on behalf of a human user and can collaborate, learn, adapt and act, thus contributing to embedded intelligence. This paper describes how Tartarus, a multi-agent platform, embedded on Raspberry Pis that constitute a network, can bring the best out of the system. To reveal the versatility of the concept of AgPi, an application for a Location-Aware and Tracking Service (LATS is presented. The results obtained from a comparison of data transfer cost between the conventional cloud-based approach with AgPi have also been included.

  8. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  9. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  10. Agents and ambient intelligence achievements and challenges in the intersection of agent technology and ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, T

    2012-01-01

    The concept of an intelligent agent - a computational system capable of performing certain tasks autonomously - derived from the growing potential of digital computers in the mid 20th century and had been widely adopted by the early 1990s. Partly in parallel with this concept, the perspective of ambient intelligence (AmI) emerged in the late 1990s.Agent technology and AmI have many similarities, and the main purpose of this book is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of the scientific area that integrates these two. The book addresses a wide variety of topics related to agents and A

  11. Antifungal agents in neonates: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirante, Benito; Rodríguez, Dolors

    2007-01-01

    Fungal infections are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period, particularly among premature neonates. Four classes of antifungal agents are commonly used in the treatment of fungal infections in pediatric patients: polyene macrolides, fluorinated pyrimidines, triazoles, and echinocandins. Due to the paucity of pediatric data, many recommendations for the use of antifungal agents in this population are derived from the experience in adults. The purpose of this article was to review the published data on fungal infections and antifungal agents, with a focus on neonatal patients, and to provide an overview of the differences in antifungal pharmacology in neonates compared with adults. Pharmacokinetic data suggest dosing differences in children versus adult patients with some antifungals, but not all agents have been fully evaluated. The available pharmacokinetic data on the amphotericin B deoxycholate formulation in neonates exhibit considerable variability; nevertheless, the dosage regimen suggested in the neonatal population is similar to that used in adults. More pharmacokinetic information is available on the liposomal and lipid complex preparations of amphotericin B and fluconazole, and it supports their use in neonates; however, the optimal dosage and duration of therapy is difficult to establish. All amphotericin-B formulations, frequently used in combination with flucytosine, are useful for treating disseminated fungal infections and Candida meningitis in neonates. Fluconazole, with potent in vitro activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and almost all Candida spp., has been used in neonates with invasive candidiasis at dosages of 6 mg/kg/day, and for antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk neonates. There are limited data on itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole use in neonates. Caspofungin, which is active against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., requires higher doses in children relative to adults, and dosing is

  12. Conversational agents for academically productive talk: a comparison of directed and undirected agent interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegos, Stergios; Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2016-01-01

    Conversational agents that draw on the framework of academically productive talk (APT) have been lately shown to be effective in helping learners sustain productive forms of peer dialogue in diverse learning settings. Yet, literature suggests that more research is required on how learners respond...... to and benefit from such flexible agents in order to fine-tune the design of automated APT intervention modes and, thus, enhance agent pedagogical efficacy. Building on this line of research, this work explores the impact of a configurable APT agent that prompts peers to build on prior knowledge and logically...... connect their contributions to important domain concepts discussed in class. A total of 96 computer science students engaged in a dialogue-based activity in the context of a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) university course. During the activity, students worked online in dyads to accomplish a learning...

  13. 11th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hermoso, Ramon; Moreno, María; Rodríguez, Juan; Hirsch, Benjamin; Mathieu, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew; Suarez-Figueroa, Mari; Ortega, Alfonso; Adam, Emmanuel; Navarro, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to presents and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but since grown to become the international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to Exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multiagents systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major iss...

  14. Biological Warfare Agents, Toxins, Vectors and Pests as Biological Terrorism Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    synthesis of >100 amino acid polypeptides, advanced genetic manipulation). Toxins as terrorism agents: 1. Botulinum toxin 2. Ricin 3...marginatum 5. Hyalomma Anatolicum Anatolicum 6. Dermacentor spp. 7. Rhipicephalus spp. 8. Amblyomma spp. 9. Mansonia spp. 10. Culex spp. 11

  15. Agents as Agents: A Virtual Assistant for Self-bookings in Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Anckar, Bill; Olofsson, Svante; Walden, Pirkko

    2000-01-01

    Anckar, B., Olofsson, S., and Walden, P. (2000), ?Agents as Agents: A Virtual Assistant for Self-bookings in Travel?. IAMSR Research Report 4/2000. Institute for Advanced Management Systems Research, ?bo Akademi University. The cutting edge for travel industry today is turning towards electronic commerce. It is one of the industries where business is conducted successfully on the Internet already today, and where the importance of electronic commerce is likely to grow. Consumers are offered g...

  16. A Novel Security Approach in Mobile Agent Using Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of software agents has given rise too much discussion of what such an agent is and how it differs from programs in general. An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors & acting upon that environment through actuators. The existing systems can be classified in the context of singleagent systems and multi-agent systems. Mobile agents cantransport themselves from one host to another. Mobile agents have been developed as an extension to and replacement of the client-server model. The proposed system is Mobile Agent System. It reduces network load and latency in which there is usually no transmission ofintermediate result. This conserves the network bandwidth .Since the agents are autonomous; the mobile device that dispatches the agent need not be connected all the time.

  17. Cement industry control system based on multi agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海东; 邱冠周; 黄圣生

    2004-01-01

    Cement production is characterized by its great capacity, long-time delay, multi variables, difficult measurement and muhi disturbances. According to the distributed intelligent control strategy based on the multi agent, the multi agent control system of cement production is built, which includes integrated optimal control and diagnosis control. The distributed and multiple level structure of multi agent system for the cement control is studied. The optimal agent is in the distributed state, which aims at the partial process of the cement production, and forms the optimal layer. The diagnosis agent located on the diagnosis layer is the diagnosis unit which aims at the whole process of the cement production, and the central management unit of the system. The system cooperation is realized by the communication among optimal agents and diagnosis agent. The architecture of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are designed. The detailed functions of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are analyzed.At last the realization methods of the agents are given, and the application of the multi agent control system is presented. The multi agent system has been successfully applied to the off-line control of one cement plant with capacity of 5 000 t/d. The results show that the average yield of the clinker increases 9.3% and the coal consumption decreases 7.5 kg/t.

  18. Evaluation of new antiemetic agents and definition of antineoplastic agent emetogenicity--state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, Steven M; Warr, David; Gralla, Richard J; Rapoport, Bernardo L; Hesketh, Paul J; Jordan, Karin; Espersen, Birgitte T

    2011-03-01

    Antiemetic drug development can follow the same logical path as antineoplastic drug development from appropriate preclinical models through Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III testing. However, due to the marked success of antiemetic therapy over the last 25 years, placebo antiemetic treatment against highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy is not acceptable. Promising antiemetic agents therefore rapidly reach Phase III testing, where they are substituted into or added to effective and accepted regimens. One challenge of antiemetic drug development is determining whether substitution is indeed acceptable or whether prior regimens must be maintained intact as a basis for further antiemetic drug development. An additional challenge is the classification of emetogenic level of new antineoplastic agents. Accurate reporting of emetogenicity of such antineoplastic agents in the absence of preventive antiemetic treatment may not be available. However, at the 2009 Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Consensus Conference, an expert panel used best available data to establish rankings of emetogenicity. Oral chemotherapeutic agents are ranked separately from intravenous agents, recognizing intrinsic differences in emetogenicity as well as differing schedules of administration. Since oral chemotherapeutic agents are often administered in extended regimens, the distinction between acute and delayed emesis is less clear, and cumulative emesis must be considered. As control of vomiting has improved, attention has shifted to control of nausea, a related but distinct and equally important problem. Additional efforts will be necessary to understand mechanisms of nausea and to identify optimal remedies.

  19. Comfort Agent: FACT. From technology to value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Wortel, W. [Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Hommelberg, M. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Kamphuis, R. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Bakker, L. [TNO Building and Infrastructure (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Global warming, which is mainly caused by energy consumption, is becoming a major problem. In order to reduce energy consumption of office buildings even further, new control technology is needed. A very exciting development occurs in the field of control strategy, which integrates the end-user behaviour. In the frame of the SMART (Smart Multi Agent internet Technology) and IIGO (Intelligent Internet mediated control in the built environment) project, an external real time information system was integrated into a Building Management System in order to improve energy and comfort control. In the EBOB, Energy Efficient Behaviour of Office Buildings, a European EU-FP5 program project a different type of technology, Forgiving Technology, was developed. This paper presents insights into SMART, IIGO and EBOB and the resulting combined technology; FACT, Forgiving Agent Comfort Technology. The TU/e developed this FACT technology into a concept for Careful Buildings. (orig.)

  20. Measure Landscape Diversity with Logical Scout Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, E.; Szabó, G.; Czinkóczky, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy reform of the EU focuses on three long-term objectives: viable food production, sustainable management of natural resources and climate action with balanced territorial development. To achieve these goals, the EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity. Current paper introduces an agent-based method to calculate the potential of landscape diversity. The method tries to catch the nature of heterogeneity using logic and modelling as opposed to the traditional statistical reasoning. The outlined Random Walk Scouting algorithm registers the land cover crossings of the scout agents to a Monte Carlo integral. The potential is proportional with the composition and the configuration (spatial character) of the landscape. Based on the measured points a potential map is derived to give an objective and quantitative basis to the stakeholders (policy makers, farmers).