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Sample records for anti-tuberculosis treatment defaulting

  1. Risk factors for treatment default among re-treatment tuberculosis patients in India, 2006.

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    Jha, Ugra Mohan; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Dewan, Puneet K; Chadha, Sarabjit; Wares, Fraser; Sahu, Suvanand; Gupta, Devesh; Chauhan, L S

    2010-01-25

    Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), >15% of previously-treated patients in the reported 2006 patient cohort defaulted from anti-tuberculosis treatment. To assess the timing, characteristics, and risk factors for default amongst re-treatment TB patients. For this case-control study, in 90 randomly-selected programme units treatment records were abstracted from all 2006 defaulters from the RNTCP re-treatment regimen (cases), with one consecutively-selected non-defaulter per case. Patients who interrupted anti-tuberculosis treatment for >2 months were classified as defaulters. 1,141 defaulters and 1,189 non-defaulters were included. The median duration of treatment prior to default was 81 days (25%-75% interquartile range 44-117 days) and documented retrieval efforts after treatment interruption were inadequate. Defaulters were more likely to have been male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), have previously defaulted anti-tuberculosis treatment (aOR 1.3 95%CI 1.1-1.6], have previous treatment from non-RNTCP providers (AOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.6], or have public health facility-based treatment observation (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.6). Amongst the large number of re-treatment patients in India, default occurs early and often. Improved pre-treatment counseling and community-based treatment provision may reduce default rates. Efforts to retrieve treatment interrupters prior to default require strengthening.

  2. Correlates of default from anti-tuberculosis treatment: a case study using Kenya's electronic data system.

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    Sitienei, J; Kipruto, H; Mansour, O; Ndisha, M; Hanson, C; Wambu, R; Addona, V

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated that there were 120,000 new cases and 9500 deaths due to tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya. Almost a quarter of the cases were not detected, and the treatment of 4% of notified cases ended in default. To identify the determinants of anti-tuberculosis treatment default. Data from 2012 and 2013 were retrieved from a national case-based electronic data recording system. A comparison was made between new pulmonary TB patients for whom treatment was interrupted vs. those who successfully completed treatment. A total of 106,824 cases were assessed. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was the single most influential risk factor for default (aOR 2.7). More than 94% of patients received family-based directly observed treatment (DOT) and were more likely to default than patients who received DOT from health care workers (aOR 2.0). Caloric nutritional support was associated with lower default rates (aOR 0.89). Males were more likely to default than females (aOR 1.6). Patients cared for in the private sector were less likely to default than those in the public sector (aOR 0.86). Understanding the factors contributing to default can guide future program improvements and serve as a proxy to understanding the factors that constrain access to care among undetected cases.

  3. Time of default in tuberculosis patients on directly observed treatment.

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    Pardeshi, Geeta S

    2010-09-01

    Default remains an important challenge for the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, which has achieved improved cure rates. This study describes the pattern of time of default in patients on DOTS. Tuberculosis Unit in District Tuberculosis Centre, Yavatmal, India; Retrospective cohort study. This analysis was done among the cohort of patients of registered at the Tuberculosis Unit during the year 2004. The time of default was assessed from the tuberculosis register. The sputum smear conversion and treatment outcome were also assessed. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests. Overall, the default rate amongst the 716 patients registered at the Tuberculosis Unit was 10.33%. There was a significant difference in the default rate over time between the three DOTS categories (log rank statistic= 15.49, P=0.0004). Amongst the 331 smear-positive patients, the cumulative default rates at the end of intensive phase were 4% and 16%; while by end of treatment period, the default rates were 6% and 31% in category I and category II, respectively. A majority of the smear-positive patients in category II belonged to the group 'treatment after default' (56/95), and 30% of them defaulted during re-treatment. The sputum smear conversion rate at the end of intensive phase was 84%. Amongst 36 patients without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase, 55% had treatment failure. Patients defaulting in intensive phase of treatment and without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase should be retrieved on a priority basis. Default constitutes not only a major reason for patients needing re-treatment but also a risk for repeated default.

  4. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova.

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    Jenkins, H E; Ciobanu, A; Plesca, V; Crudu, V; Galusca, I; Soltan, V; Cohen, T

    2013-03-01

    The Republic of Moldova, in Eastern Europe, has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of tuberculosis (TB) patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance, and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. A total of 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors, such as homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis; and health-related factors such as human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, greater lung pathology and increasing TB drug resistance. Anti-tuberculosis treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova, and the default risk was highest in the month following the phase of hospitalized treatment (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default, and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce risk of default.

  5. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945) defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215) and 20.4% (193) abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase) of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20) attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15) to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14) to feeling better and 10.8% (13) to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3), herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7), low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0), alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9), previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68), co-infection with Human immune-deficient Virus (HIV) (OR 1

  6. Risk factors for treatment default among adult tuberculosis patients in Indonesia.

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    Rutherford, M E; Hill, P C; Maharani, W; Sampurno, H; Ruslami, R

    2013-10-01

    Defaulting from anti-tuberculosis treatment hinders tuberculosis (TB) control. To identify potential defaulters. We conducted a cohort study in newly diagnosed Indonesian TB patients. We administered a questionnaire, prospectively identified defaulters (discontinued treatment ≥ 2 weeks) and assessed risk factors using Cox's regression. Of 249 patients, 39 (16%) defaulted, 61% in the first 2 months. Default was associated with liver disease (HR 3.40, 95%CI 1.02-11.78), chest pain (HR 2.25, 95%CI 1.06-4.77), night sweats (HR 1.98, 95%CI 1.03-3.79), characteristics of the head of the household (self-employed, HR 2.47, 95%CI 1.15-5.34; patient's mother, HR 7.72, 95%CI 1.66-35.88), household wealth (HR 4.24, 95%CI 1.12-16.09), walking to clinic (HR 4.53, 95%CI 1.39-14.71), being unaccompanied at diagnosis (HR 30.49, 95%CI 7.55-123.07) or when collecting medication (HR 3.34, 95%CI 1.24-8.98) and low level of satisfaction with the clinic (HR 3.85, 95%CI 1.17-12.62) or doctors (HR 2.45, 95%CI 1.18-5.10). Health insurance (HR 0.24, 95%CI 0.07-0.74) and paying for diagnosis (HR 0.14, 95%CI 0.04-0.48) were protective. Defaulting is common and occurs early. Interventions that improve clinic services, strengthen patient support and increase insurance coverage may reduce default in Indonesia.

  7. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

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    Chida, Natasha; Ansari, Zara; Hussain, Hamidah; Jaswal, Maria; Symes, Stephen; Khan, Aamir J; Mohammed, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy. In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013. Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2%) defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71), being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08), or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88) were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03) or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77) were associated with default. In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to reduce

  8. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

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    Natasha Chida

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy.In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013.Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2% defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71, being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08, or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88 were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03 or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77 were associated with default.In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to

  9. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco.

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    Dooley, Kelly E; Lahlou, Ouafae; Ghali, Iraqi; Knudsen, Janine; Elmessaoudi, My Driss; Cherkaoui, Imad; El Aouad, Rajae

    2011-02-28

    Patients with tuberculosis require retreatment if they fail or default from initial treatment or if they relapse following initial treatment success. Outcomes among patients receiving a standard World Health Organization Category II retreatment regimen are suboptimal, resulting in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, and transmission.. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for initial treatment failure, default, or early relapse leading to the need for tuberculosis retreatment in Morocco. We also assessed retreatment outcomes and drug susceptibility testing use for retreatment patients in urban centers in Morocco, where tuberculosis incidence is stubbornly high. Patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting for retreatment were identified using clinic registries in nine urban public clinics in Morocco. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from clinical charts and reference laboratories. To identify factors that had put these individuals at risk for failure, default, or early relapse in the first place, initial treatment records were also abstracted (if retreatment began within two years of initial treatment), and patient characteristics were compared with controls who successfully completed initial treatment without early relapse. 291 patients presenting for retreatment were included; 93% received a standard Category II regimen. Retreatment was successful in 74% of relapse patients, 48% of failure patients, and 41% of default patients. 25% of retreatment patients defaulted, higher than previous estimates. Retreatment failure was most common among patients who had failed initial treatment (24%), and default from retreatment was most frequent among patients with initial treatment default (57%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in only 10% of retreatment patients. Independent risk factors for failure, default, or early relapse after initial treatment included male gender (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI 1

  10. Risk factors associated with default from multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, Uzbekistan: a retrospective cohort analysis.

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    Lalor, Maeve K; Greig, Jane; Allamuratova, Sholpan; Althomsons, Sandy; Tigay, Zinaida; Khaemraev, Atadjan; Braker, Kai; Telnov, Oleksander; du Cros, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The Médecins Sans Frontières project of Uzbekistan has provided multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in the Karakalpakstan region since 2003. Rates of default from treatment have been high, despite psychosocial support, increasing particularly since programme scale-up in 2007. We aimed to determine factors associated with default in multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients who started treatment between 2003 and 2008 and thus had finished approximately 2 years of treatment by the end of 2010. A retrospective cohort analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled in treatment between 2003 and 2008 compared baseline demographic characteristics and possible risk factors for default. Default was defined as missing ≥60 consecutive days of treatment (all drugs). Data were routinely collected during treatment and entered in a database. Potential risk factors for default were assessed in univariate analysis using chi-square test and in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. 20% (142/710) of patients defaulted after a median of 6 months treatment (IQR 2.6-9.9). Factors associated with default included severity of resistance patterns (pre-extensively drug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.86), previous default (2.38, 1.09-5.24) and age >45 years (1.77, 1.10-2.87). The default rate was 14% (42/294) for patients enrolled 2003-2006 and 24% (100/416) for 2007-2008 enrolments (p = 0.001). Default from treatment was high and increased with programme scale-up. It is essential to ensure scale-up of treatment is accompanied with scale-up of staff and patient support. A successful first course of tuberculosis treatment is important; patients who had previously defaulted were at increased risk of default and death. The protective effect of severe resistance profiles suggests that understanding disease severity or fear may motivate against default. Targeted

  11. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.K.; Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Chaudhry, K

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  12. Risk factors and mortality associated with default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment.

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    Franke, Molly F; Appleton, Sasha C; Bayona, Jaime; Arteaga, Fernando; Palacios, Eda; Llaro, Karim; Shin, Sonya S; Becerra, Mercedes C; Murray, Megan B; Mitnick, Carole D

    2008-06-15

    Completing treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) may be more challenging than completing first-line TB therapy, especially in resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify risk factors for default from MDR TB therapy (defined as prolonged treatment interruption), (2) quantify mortality among patients who default from treatment, and (3) identify risk factors for death after default from treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify risk factors for default from MDR TB therapy and conducted home visits to assess mortality among patients who defaulted from such therapy. Sixty-seven (10.0%) of 671 patients defaulted from MDR TB therapy. The median time to treatment default was 438 days (interquartile range, 152-710 days), and 27 (40.3%) of the 67 patients who defaulted from treatment had culture-positive sputum at the time of default. Substance use (hazard ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.62; P = .001), substandard housing conditions (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-3.11; P = .03), later year of enrollment (hazard ratio, 1.62, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.41; P = .02), and health district (P = .02) predicted default from therapy in a multivariable analysis. Severe adverse events did not predict default from therapy. Forty-seven (70.1%) of 67 patients who defaulted from therapy were successfully traced; of these, 25 (53.2%) had died. Poor bacteriologic response, default, low education level, and diagnosis with a psychiatric disorder significantly predicted death after default in a multivariable analysis. The proportion of patients who defaulted from MDR TB treatment was relatively low. The large proportion of patients who had culture-positive sputum at the time of treatment default underscores the public health importance of minimizing treatment default. Prognosis for patients who defaulted from therapy was poor. Interventions aimed at preventing treatment default may

  13. Risk factors of treatment default and death among tuberculosis patients in a resource-limited setting.

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    Alobu, Isaac; Oshi, Sarah N; Oshi, Daniel C; Ukwaja, Kingsley N

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the rates, timing and determinants of default and death among adult tuberculosis patients in Nigeria. Routine surveillance data were used. A retrospective cohort study of adult tuberculosis patients treated during 2011 and 2012 in two large health facilities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was conducted. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors for treatment default and death. Of 1 668 treated patients, the default rate was 157 (9.4%), whilst 165 (9.9%) died. Also, 35.7% (56) of the treatment defaults and 151 (91.5%) of deaths occurred during the intensive phase of treatment. Risk of default increased with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), smear-negative TB case (aOR 2.3; CI 1.5-3.6), extrapulmonary TB case (aOR 2.7; CI 1.3-5.2), and patients who received the longer treatment regimen (aOR 1.6; 1.1-2.2). Risk of death was highest in extrapulmonary TB (aOR 3.0; CI 1.4-6.1) and smear-negative TB cases (aOR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.5), rural residents (aOR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.6), HIV co-infected (aOR 2.5; CI 1.7-3.6), not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aOR 1.6; CI 1.1-2.9), and not receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (aOR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.6). Targeted interventions to improve treatment adherence for patients with the highest risk of default or death are urgently needed. This needs to be urgently addressed by the National Tuberculosis Programme. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors associated with default among tuberculosis patients in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

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    Roy, Nirmalya; Basu, Mausumi; Das, Sibasis; Mandal, Amitava; Dutt, Debashis; Dasgupta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The treatment outcome "default" under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) is a patient who after treatment initiation has interrupted treatment consecutively for more than 2 months. To assess the timing, characteristics and distribution of the reasons for default with relation to some sociodemographic variables among new sputum-positive (NSP) tuberculosis (TB) patients in Darjeeling District, West Bengal. A case-control study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of Darjeeling from August'2011 to December'2011 among NSP TB patients enrolled for treatment in the TB register from 1(st) Qtr'09 to 2(nd) Qtr'10. Patients defaulted from treatment were considered as "cases" and those completed treatment as "controls" (79 cases and 79 controls). The enrolled cases and controls were interviewed by the health workers using a predesigned structured pro-forma. Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR). 75% of the default occurred in the intensive phase (IP); 54.24% retrieval action was done within 1 day during IP and 75% within 1 week during continuation phase (CP); cent percent of the documented retrieval actions were undertaken by the contractual TB program staffs. Most commonly cited reasons for default were alcohol consumption (29.11%), adverse effects of drugs (25.32%), and long distance of DOT center (21.52%). In the logistic regression analysis, the factors independently associated were consumption of alcohol, inadequate knowledge about TB, inadequate patient provider interaction, instances of missed doses, adverse reactions of anti-TB drugs, Government Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) provider and smoking. Most defaults occurred in the intensive phase; pre-treatment counseling and initial home visit play very important role in this regard. Proper counseling by health care workers in patient provider meeting is needed.

  15. [Tuberculosis in Amazonian municipalities of the Brazil-Colombia-Peru-Venezuela border: epidemiological situation and risk factors associated with treatment default].

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    Belo, Elsia Nascimento; Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall; Levino, Antônio; Basta, Paulo Cesar

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiological situation and the incidence of tuberculosis and to investigate the factors associated with treatment default in the Amazonian municipalities located in the northern Brazilian international border. This retrospective study employed sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological tuberculosis data recorded in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) between 2001 and 2010. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment default. Tuberculosis affected mostly indigenous peoples (51.9%), males (57.9%), and people aged 25-44 years (31.4%). The predominant clinical presentation was pulmonary (89.7%), yet in 24.5% of the cases the patients did not undergo sputum smear microscopy, and only half received supervised treatment. In 70.0% of the cases notified, patients were discharged as cured. Treatment default was recorded in 10.0% of the patients. Of all deaths, 4.1% were by tuberculosis and other causes, and 1.7% by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The average incidence by race/color was greater among indigenous peoples, ranging from 202.3/100 000 in 2001 to 65.6/100 000 in 2010. Treatment default was associated with failure to perform the follow-up smear at the second, fourth, and sixth months (OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 7.4-19.0); with resuming treatment after default (OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-5.9); and with living in specific subregions, particularly the Alto Solimões region (OR = 6.7, 95%CI: 4.6-9.8). The present results show a high incidence of tuberculosis in the Amazon portion of the northern Brazilian international border, especially among indigenous peoples. Considering the socio-cultural specificities of these populations and the poor tuberculosis control in this area, the authors of the study conclude that the integration of different national health systems is both necessary and urgent.

  16. Treatment default amongst patients with tuberculosis in urban Morocco: predicting and explaining default and post-default sputum smear and drug susceptibility results.

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    Cherkaoui, Imad; Sabouni, Radia; Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-01-01

    Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals' perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one's treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one's diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings.

  17. Treatment Default amongst Patients with Tuberculosis in Urban Morocco: Predicting and Explaining Default and Post-Default Sputum Smear and Drug Susceptibility Results

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    Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C.; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Objective Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Design Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals’ perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. Results 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one’s treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one’s diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. Conclusion The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings

  18. Treatment default amongst patients with tuberculosis in urban Morocco: predicting and explaining default and post-default sputum smear and drug susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Cherkaoui

    Full Text Available Public tuberculosis (TB clinics in urban Morocco.Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance.Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals' perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing.91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one's treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one's diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare.The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings.

  19. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case-control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078-265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658-415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249-22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default.

  20. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case–Control Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case–control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078–265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658–415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249–22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default. PMID:26839480

  1. Qualitative study of perceived causes of tuberculosis treatment default among health care workers in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizub, D; Ghali, I; Sabouni, R; Bourkadi, J E; Bennani, K; El Aouad, R; Dooley, K E

    2012-09-01

    In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) treatment default is increasing in some urban areas. To provide a detailed description of factors that contribute to patient default and solutions from the point of view of health care professionals who participate in TB care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 62 physicians and nurses at nine regional public pulmonary clinics and local health clinics. Participants had a median of 24 years of experience in health care. Treatment default was seen as a result of multilevel factors related to the patient (lack of means, being a migrant worker, distance to treatment site, poor understanding of treatment, drug use, mental illness), medical team (high patient load, low motivation, lack of resources for tracking defaulters), treatment organization (poor communication between treatment sites, no systematic strategy for patient education or tracking, incomplete record keeping), and health care system and society. Tailored recommendations for low- and higher-cost interventions are provided. Interventions to enhance TB treatment completion should take into account the local context and multilevel factors that contribute to default. Qualitative studies involving health care workers directly involved in TB care can be powerful tools to identify contributing factors and define strategies to help reduce treatment default.

  2. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasker, Epco; Khodjikhanov, Maksad; Usarova, Shakhnoz; Asamidinov, Umid; Yuldashova, Umida; van der Werf, Marieke J; Uzakova, Gulnoz; Veen, Jaap

    2008-07-22

    In Tashkent (Uzbekistan), TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21%) defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. We reviewed the records of 126 defaulters (cases) and 132 controls and collected information on time of default, demographic factors, social factors, potential risk factors for default, characteristics of treatment and recorded reasons for default. Unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness were associated with default. Patients defaulted mostly during the intensive phase, while they were hospitalized (61%), or just before they were to start the continuation phase (26%). Reasons for default listed in the records were various, 'Refusal of further treatment' (27%) and 'Violation of hospital rules' (18%) were most frequently recorded. One third of the recorded defaulters did not really default but continued treatment under 'non-DOTS' conditions. Whereas patient factors such as unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness play a role, there are also system factors that need to be addressed to reduce default. Such system factors include the obligatory admission in TB hospitals and the inadequately organized transition from hospitalized to ambulatory treatment.

  3. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuldashova Umida

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tashkent (Uzbekistan, TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21% defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. Methods We reviewed the records of 126 defaulters (cases and 132 controls and collected information on time of default, demographic factors, social factors, potential risk factors for default, characteristics of treatment and recorded reasons for default. Results Unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness were associated with default. Patients defaulted mostly during the intensive phase, while they were hospitalized (61%, or just before they were to start the continuation phase (26%. Reasons for default listed in the records were various, 'Refusal of further treatment' (27% and 'Violation of hospital rules' (18% were most frequently recorded. One third of the recorded defaulters did not really default but continued treatment under 'non-DOTS' conditions. Conclusion Whereas patient factors such as unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness play a role, there are also system factors that need to be addressed to reduce default. Such system factors include the obligatory admission in TB hospitals and the inadequately organized transition from hospitalized to ambulatory treatment.

  4. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasker, Epco; Khodjikhanov, Maksad; Usarova, Shakhnoz; Asamidinov, Umid; Yuldashova, Umida; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Uzakova, Gulnoz; Veen, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    In Tashkent (Uzbekistan), TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21%) defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. We reviewed the records of 126

  5. Patient- and provider-level risk factors associated with default from tuberculosis treatment, South Africa, 2002: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Alyssa; Lancaster, Joey; Holtz, Timothy H; Weyer, Karin; Miranda, Abe; van der Walt, Martie

    2012-01-20

    Persons who default from tuberculosis treatment are at risk for clinical deterioration and complications including worsening drug resistance and death. Our objective was to identify risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in South Africa. We conducted a national retrospective case control study to identify factors associated with treatment default using program data from 2002 and a standardized patient questionnaire. We defined default as interrupting TB treatment for two or more consecutive months during treatment. Cases were a sample of registered TB patients receiving treatment under DOTS that defaulted from treatment. Controls were those who began therapy and were cured, completed or failed treatment. Two respective multivariable models were constructed, stratified by history of TB treatment (new and re-treatment patients), to identify independent risk factors associated with default. The sample included 3165 TB patients from 8 provinces; 1164 were traceable and interviewed (232 cases and 932 controls). Significant risk factors associated with default among both groups included poor health care worker attitude (new: AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.4; re-treatment: AOR 12, 95% CI 2.2-66.0) and changing residence during TB treatment (new: AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7; re-treatment: AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-9.9). Among new patients, cases were more likely than controls to report having no formal education (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2), feeling ashamed to have TB (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0), not receiving adequate counseling about their treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8), drinking any alcohol during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0), and seeing a traditional healer during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4). Among re-treatment patients, risk factors included stopping TB treatment because they felt better (AOR 21, 95% CI 5.2-84), having a previous history of TB treatment default (AOR 6.4, 95% CI 2.9-14), and feeling that food provisions might have helped

  6. Drug addiction and alcoholism as predictors for tuberculosis treatment default in Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M R; Pereira, J C; Costa, R R; Dias, J A; Guimarães, M D C; Leite, I C G

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients' entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04-49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34-24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11-15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group). Consumers at high risk of alcoholism (OR 2·94, 95% CI 1·08-7·99) and those treated in an outpatient hospital unit (OR 8·22, 95% CI 2·79-24·21%) also were more likely to default. Our results establish that substance abuse was independently associated with default. National TB programmes might be more likely to achieve their control targets if they include interventions aimed at improving adherence and cure rates, by diagnosing and treating substance abuse concurrently with standard TB therapy.

  7. Incidence, clinical features and impact on anti-tuberculosis treatment of anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (ATLI in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghui Shang

    Full Text Available Anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (ATLI is emerging as a significant threat to tuberculosis control in China, though limited data is available about the burden of ATLI at population level. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of ATLI, to better understand its clinical features, and to evaluate its impact on anti-tuberculosis (TB treatment in China.In a population-based prospective study, we monitored 4,304 TB patients receiving directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS treatment, and found that 106 patients developed ATLI with a cumulative incidence of 2.55% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 2.04%-3.06%. Nausea, vomiting and anorexia were the top three most frequently observed symptoms. There were 35 (33.02% ATLI patients with no symptoms, including 8 with severe hepatotoxicity. Regarding the prognosis of ATLI, 84 cases (79.25% recovered, 18 (16.98% improved, 2 (1.89% failed to respond to the treatment with continued elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, and 2 (1.89% died as result of ATLI. Of all the ATLI cases, 74 (69.81% cases changed their anti-TB treatment, including 4 (3.77% cases with medication administration change, 21 (19.81% cases with drugs replacement, 54 (50.94% cases with therapy interruption, and 12 (11.32% cases who discontinued therapy. In terms of treatment outcomes, 53 (51.46% cases had TB cured in time, 48 (46.60% cases had therapy prolonged, and 2 (1.94% cases died. Compared with non-ATLI patients, ATLI patients had a 9.25-fold (95%CI, 5.69-15.05 risk of unsuccessful anti-TB treatment outcomes and a 2.11-fold (95%CI, 1.23-3.60 risk of prolonged intensive treatment phase.ATLI could considerably impact the outcomes of anti-TB treatment. Given the incidence of ATLI and the size of TB population in China, the negative impact is substantial. Therefore, more research and efforts are warranted in order to enhance the diagnosis and the prevention of ATLI.

  8. Anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famewo, Elizabeth B; Clarke, Anna M; Wiid, Ian; Ngwane, Andile; van Helden, Paul; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a global public health problem. Polyherbal medicines offer great hope for developing alternative drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. To evaluate the anti-tubercular activity of polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis. The remedies were screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Middlebrook 7H9 media and MGIT BACTEC 960 system. They were liquid preparations from King Williams Town site A (KWTa), King Williams Town site B (KWTb), King Williams Town site C (KWTc), Hogsback first site (HBfs), Hogsback second site (HBss), Hogsback third site (HBts), East London (EL), Alice (AL) and Fort Beaufort (FB). The susceptibility testing revealed that all the remedies contain anti-tubercular activity with KWTa, KWTb, KWTc, HBfs, HBts, AL and FB exhibiting more activity at a concentration below 25 µl/ml. Furthermore, MIC values exhibited inhibitory activity with the most active remedies from KWTa, HBfs and HBts at 1.562 µg/ml. However, isoniazid showed more inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis at 0.05 µg/ml when compare to the polyherbal remedies. This study has indicated that these remedies could be potential sources of new anti-mycobacterial agents against M. tuberculosis . However, the activity of these preparations and their active principles still require in vivo study in order to assess their future as new anti-tuberculosis agents.

  9. Risk factors for default from tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected individuals in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruza, Magda; Albuquerque, Maria F P Militão; Coimbra, Isabella; Moura, Líbia V; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Miranda Filho, Demócrito B; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Rodrigues, Laura C; Ximenes, Ricardo A A

    2011-12-16

    Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study to identify risk factors for default from TB treatment in people living with HIV. We conducted a cohort study to monitor HIV/TB co-infected subjects in Pernambuco, Brazil, on a monthly basis, until completion or default of treatment for TB. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and P-values. From a cohort of 2310 HIV subjects, 390 individuals (16.9%) who had started treatment after a diagnosis of TB were selected, and data on 273 individuals who completed or defaulted on treatment for TB were analyzed. The default rate was 21.7% and the following risk factors were identified: male gender, smoking and CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. Age over 29 years, complete or incomplete secondary or university education and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were identified as protective factors for the outcome. The results point to the need for more specific actions, aiming to reduce the default from TB treatment in males, younger adults with low education, smokers and people with CD4 T-cell counts Default was less likely to occur in patients under HAART, reinforcing the strategy of early initiation of HAART in individuals with TB.

  10. Integrating tuberculosis/HIV treatment: an evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Seventy-four per cent of patients completed their treatment and 26% were cured, with no defaults or deaths, in the tubercuolosis/HIV integrated cohort. Thirty-eight per cent completed their treatment, 45% were cured, 9% died and another 9% defaulted in the cohort receiving their tuberculosis treatment at a local ...

  11. Knowledge and perception of tuberculosis and the risk to become treatment default among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated in primary health care, East Nusa Tenggara: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putera, Ikhwanuliman; Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, Elvina

    2015-06-10

    Despite the high efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) drug regiments, one of the barriers in the TB control program is the non-compliance to treatment. Morbidity, mortality, and risk to become resistant to drugs are emerging among defaulters. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify the factors, especially knowledge and perceptions of TB and association with treatment default among patients treated in primary care settings, East Nusa Tenggara. This study was part of a bigger cohort community-based controlled trial study. The subjects were newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients from four districts in East Nusa Tenggara. Knowledge, perception of TB, and other related factors were assessed prior to the treatment. Patients who interrupted the treatment in two consecutive months were classified as defaulters, as World Health Organization stated. Odds ratio (OR) looking for factors associated with becoming defaulter was analyzed. A total of 300 patients were recruited for this study. At the end of the treatment, 255 patients (85%) completed the treatment without interruption from regular visit. In univariate analysis, none of the socio-demographic factors attributed to treatment default yet lack of knowledge and incorrect perception of TB prior therapy (OR 2.49 1.30-4.79 95% CI, p = 0.006; OR 5.40 2.64-11.04 95% CI, p default (OR 4.75 2.30-9.86 95% CI). Assessing the knowledge and perception of TB prior to the treatment in newly pulmonary TB patients is important as both of them were known as risk factor for treatment default. Education and counseling may be required to improve patients' compliance to treatment.

  12. Alcohol, hospital discharge, and socioeconomic risk factors for default from multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment in rural South Africa: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Emily A; Theron, Danie; Franke, Molly F; van Helden, Paul; Victor, Thomas C; Murray, Megan B; Warren, Robin M; Jacobson, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    Default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment remains a major barrier to cure and epidemic control. We sought to identify patient risk factors for default from MDR-TB treatment and high-risk time periods for default in relation to hospitalization and transition to outpatient care. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 225 patients who initiated MDR-TB treatment between 2007 through 2010 at a rural TB hospital in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Fifty percent of patients were cured or completed treatment, 27% defaulted, 14% died, 4% failed treatment, and 5% transferred out. Recent alcohol use was common (63% of patients). In multivariable proportional hazards regression, older age (hazard ratio [HR]= 0.97 [95% confidence interval 0.94-0.99] per year of greater age), formal housing (HR=0.38 [0.19-0.78]), and steady employment (HR=0.41 [0.19-0.90]) were associated with decreased risk of default, while recent alcohol use (HR=2.1 [1.1-4.0]), recent drug use (HR=2.0 [1.0-3.6]), and Coloured (mixed ancestry) ethnicity (HR=2.3 [1.1-5.0]) were associated with increased risk of default (PDefaults occurred throughout the first 18 months of the two-year treatment course but were especially frequent among alcohol users after discharge from the initial four-to-five-month in-hospital phase of treatment, with the highest default rates occurring among alcohol users within two months of discharge. Default rates during the first two months after discharge were also elevated for patients who received care from mobile clinics. Among patients who were not cured or did not complete MDR-TB treatment, the majority defaulted from treatment. Younger, economically-unstable patients and alcohol and drug users were particularly at risk. For alcohol users as well as mobile-clinic patients, the early outpatient treatment phase is a high-risk period for default that could be targeted in efforts to increase treatment completion rates.

  13. Anti-tuberculosis treatment defaulting: an analysis of perceptions and interactions in Chiapas, Mexico Abandono del tratamiento antituberculosis: un análisis de percepciones e interacciones en Chiapas, México

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    Ivett Reyes-Guillén

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the perceptions and interactions of the actors involved in anti-tuberculosis treatment, and to explore their influence in treatment defaulting in Los Altos region of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From November 2002 to August 2003, in-depth interviews were administered to patients with PTB, patients' family members, institutional physicians, community health coordinators, and traditional medicine practitioners. RESULTS: We found different perceptions about PTB between patients and their families and among health personnel, as well as communication barriers between actors. Defaulting is considered to be mainly due to the treatment's adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to conduct research and interventions in the studied area with the aim of changing perceptions, improving sensitization, quality and suitability of management of patients with PTB in a multicultural context, and promoting collaboration between institutional and traditional medicine.OBJETIVO: Analizar percepciones e interacciones entre actores involucrados en el tratamiento antituberculosis y su influencia en el abandono del tratamiento en los Altos de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De noviembre 2002 a agosto 2003, se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad a pacientes con TBP, familiares, médicos institucionales, coordinadores comunitarios de salud y médicos tradicionales. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron diferentes percepciones entre los pacientes y sus familiares, respecto a las del personal de salud, así como barreras de comunicación entre los distintos actores. Los efectos adversos del tratamiento antituberculosis, son consideradas como una de las principales causas de su abandono. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario que en la región estudiada se realicen investigaciones e intervenciones encaminadas a: cambiar percepciones y mejorar la sensibilidad, calidad y adecuación del manejo de pacientes con TBP en contextos multiculturales, así como

  14. Increased risk of default among previously treated tuberculosis cases in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F M; Dunbar, R; Hesseling, A C; Enarson, D A; Fielding, K; Beyers, N

    2012-08-01

    To investigate, in two urban communities with high tuberculosis (TB) incidence and high rates of TB recurrence, whether a history of previous TB treatment is associated with treatment default. Retrospective cohort study of TB cases with an episode of treatment recorded in the clinic-based treatment registers between 2002 and 2007. Probabilistic record linkage was used to ascertain treatment history of TB cases back to 1996. Based on the outcome of their most recent previous treatment episode, previously treated cases were compared to new cases regarding their risk of treatment default. Previous treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95%CI 1.17-2.73), previous default (aOR 6.18, 95%CI 3.68-10.36) and previous failure (aOR 9.72, 95%CI 3.07-30.78) were each independently associated with treatment default (P default were male sex (P = 0.003) and age 19-39 years (P risk of treatment default, even after previous successful treatment. This finding is of particular importance in a setting where recurrent TB is very common. Adherence to treatment should be ensured in new and retreatment cases to increase cure rates and reduce transmission of TB in the community.

  15. The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnalagada Subbanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB-related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii the month of death and iii characteristics associated with "early" death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methods This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009. Results There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males of whom 492 (6% were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12% and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%. There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with "early death". Conclusion In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii co-morbidities, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed.

  16. A population-based case-control study of the safety of oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital abnormalities in newborn infants and fetuses diagnosed prenatally during the second and third trimesters, and postnatally from birth to the age of one year. RESULTS: Of 38,151 controls, 29 (0.08%) were exposed to anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study the human teratogenic potential of isoniazid and other anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cases from a large population-based dataset at the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and controls from the National Birth...... Registry, between 1980 and 1996. Information on all oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatments during pregnancy was medically recorded. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities (case group), and women who had babies with no congenital abnormality (control group). MAIN...

  17. Risk Factors for DOTS Treatment Default Among New HIV-TB Coinfected Patients in Nalgonda (Dist.) Telangana (State): A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Satti, Siva Balaji; Kondagunta, Nagaraj

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic regimens as recommended by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis, but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. The study was conducted to assess the influence of patient related factors for DOTS Treatment Default among HIV-TB Co-infected cases. This was a case control study conducted in Nalgond, Telangana. All new HIV-TB coinfected and DOTS-defaulted patients registered under RNTCP for the period from January 2010 to December 2012 were selected. Of the 154 patients, 23 had died and 11 could not be traced, and these were excluded. Thus the total number of available cases were 120 for those age- and sex-matched controls (HIV-TB coinfected patients and those who had completed the DOTS regimen successfully) were selected. The mean age was 36.5 ± 9 years; the majority (23.3%) of patients defaulted during the second month of treatment. Significant risk factors associated with defaulting included unskilled occupation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-11.56], lower middle class socioeconomic status (AOR: 17.16; 95% CI: 3.93-74.82), small family size (AOR: 21.3; 95% CI: 6.4-70.91), marital disharmony (AOR: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.93-23.76), not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel (AOR: 7.38; 95% CI: 2.32-23.39), smoking (AOR: 8.5; 95% CI: 2.31-31.21), and side effects of drugs (AOR: 4.18; 95% CI: 1.35-12.9). Unskilled occupation, marital disharmony, small family size, lower middle class socioeconomic status, not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel, smoking, and drug side effects were significantly associated with defaulting. Information on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB), the outcome of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT), and the factors associated with it will help in planning interventions to improve adherence to DOTS treatment.

  18. The Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in Diagnosis of Spine Tuberculosis after Pre-operative Anti-tuberculosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Rasit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis after 2 weeks of preoperative anti-tuberculosis treatment and to compare PCR to the Löwenstein - Jensen Culture (LJC and histopathological examination (HPE methods. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were included in this study. Sixteen patients were diagnosed and treated for spinal tuberculosis based on clinical and radiological evidence. Nine patients were controls. The LJC method and HPE of the specimen were performed according to hospital protocol. PCR was performed using primer encoding insertion of sequences IS6110 for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Clinical findings and radiological features were the gold standard for comparison. RESULTS: PCR results were 15 positive and one negative. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR was 94% and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 67% to 99% and 63% to 100%, respectively. HPE results showed 13 were positive and 3 negative in the spinal tuberculosis group; for the control group, all were negative. Sensitivity and specificity value of HPE was 82 % and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 54% to 95% and 63% to 100%, respectively. Use of LJC showed only one was positive and 15 were negative in the spinal tuberculosis group whole all nine in the control group were negative. Sensitivity and specificity value of LJC was 6% and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3% to 32% and 63% to 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is reliable as a method for diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis, even after of 2 weeks of anti-TB treatment, with an overall sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100%.

  19. Smoking behavior and beliefs about the impact of smoking on anti-tuberculosis treatment among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, M J; Darchia, L; Kipiani, M; Chakhaia, T; Kempker, R R; Tukvadze, N; Berg, C J; Blumberg, H M

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) health care facilities throughout Georgia. To describe smoking behaviors among health care workers (HCWs) at TB facilities and determine HCWs' knowledge and beliefs regarding the impact of tobacco use on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Cross-sectional survey from May to December 2014 in Georgia. Adult HCWs (age 18 years) at TB facilities were eligible. We administered a 60-question anonymous survey about tobacco use and knowledge of the effect of smoking on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Of the 431 HCWs at TB facilities who participated, 377 (87.5%) were female; the median age was 50 years (range 20-77). Overall, 59 (13.7%) HCWs were current smokers and 35 (8.1%) were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was more common among physicians than among nurses (18.6% vs. 7.9%, P tuberculosis treatment, and only 25.3% of physicians/nurses received formal training in smoking cessation approaches. Physicians who smoked were significantly more likely to believe that smoking does not impact anti-tuberculosis treatment than non-smoking physicians (aOR 5.11, 95%CI 1.46-17.90). Additional education about the effect of smoking on TB treatment outcomes is needed for staff of TB health care facilities in Georgia. Nurses and physicians need more training about smoking cessation approaches for patients with TB.

  20. The prevalence and factors associated for anti-tuberculosis treatment non-adherence among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in public health care facilities in South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Tadele Teshome Woimo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive statistics, bivariate and multiple logistic regression was carried out, while thematic framework analysis was applied for the qualitative data. Results The prevalence of non-adherence towards anti-Tb treatment was 24.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor knowledge towards tuberculosis and its treatment (AOR = 4.6, 95%CI: 1.4-15.6, cost of medication other than Tb (AOR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.7-13.4, having of health information at every visit (AOR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-8.4 and distance of DOTS center from individual home (AOR = 5.7, 95%CI: 1.9-16.8 showed statistically significant association with non-adherence towards anti- tuberculosis treatment. Qualitative study also revealed that distance, lack of awareness about importance of treatment completion and cost of transportation were the major barriers for adherence. Conclusions A quarter of Tb patients interrupted their treatment due to knowledge

  1. Default from Anti-Retroviral Treatment Programme in Sagamu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For those who were not met at home proxy interviewees such as a neighbour or a family member were asked if they were available. Of the 100 patients who had enrolled in the ART treatment programme during the study period, 36% of the study population defaulted treatment, 18% had died while 46% were alive and well.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of spinal tuberculosis after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Cheng Gu; Rong-Huan Wu; Xiang-Jin Lin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal tuberculosis is a common disease in orthopedic clinical practice; however, it is seldom reported after organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of spinal tuberculosis after organ transplantation. METHOD: Two cases were diagnosed as spinal tuberculosis after liver transplantation and were treated with socarboxazide, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol for more than one year. RESULTS: After treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs for several months, the symptoms of both patients clearly improved. Back pain disappeared, and erythrocyte sedimentation and body temperature returned to normal. CONCLUSIONS: We should highly suspect spinal tuberculosis if notalgia and night sweats are present after organ transplantation. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is an effective treatment for spinal tuberculosis after organ transplantation.

  3. Patients with secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis towards the induced anti-tuberculosis drug category 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdhana, Raditya; Sutrisno, Sutrisno; Sugiri, Yani Jane; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Wiyasa, Arsana

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which can affect various organs, including human's genital organs such as the endometrium. Tuberculosis endometritis can cause clinical symptoms of secondary amenorrhea and infertility. Infertility in genital TB caused by the involvement of the endometrium. The case presentation is 33-year-old woman from dr. Saiful Anwar Public Hospital to consult that she has not menstruated since 5 years ago (28 years old). The diagnosis was done by performing a clinical examination until the diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis is obtained. A treatment by using category I of anti-tuberculosis drugs was done for 6 months, afterward an Anatomical Pathology observation found no signs of the tuberculosis symptoms. Based on that, patient, who was diagnosed to have secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis, has no signs of tuberculosis process after being treated by using category I of anti-tuberculosis drugs for 6 months.

  4. Vitamin D: Immuno-modulation and tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Paramasivam; Harishankar, Murugesan; Afsal, Kolloli

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and often coincides with vitamin D deficiency. High doses of vitamin D were widely used to treat TB during the pre-antibiotic era. Vitamin D exerts its action through vitamin D receptor (VDR), and VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility or resistance to tuberculosis as well as sputum smear and culture conversion during anti-TB treatment. In-vitro studies have revealed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances innate immunity by increased expression of various antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidin, and induction of autophagy of the infected cells thus restricts the intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages. On the other hand, vitamin D has been shown to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokine response and enhance the anti-inflammatory response. Supplementation with vitamin D in concert with treatment for TB may be beneficial with respect to minimizing the excessive tissue damage that occurs during the active stage of tuberculosis disease. Several clinical trials have evaluated vitamin D supplementation as an adjunct therapy in the treatment for tuberculosis. However, results are conflicting, owing to variations in dose regimens and outcomes. Further investigations are needed to find the optimal concentration of vitamin D for supplementation with standard anti-TB drugs to optimize treatment, which could help to effectively manage both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  5. Assessment of treatment interruption among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross-sectional study

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    Satya Bhgath Gorityala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB is a rising peril of the TB control in India caused mostly by incomplete treatment. Aim: The aim was to assess the treatment interruption among pulmonary TB (PTB patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 9 months among PTB patients. Patients admitted with active pulmonary Koch′s and history of anti-TB treatment (ATT for 1-month or more from any source and who returns to treatment after not taking ATT consecutively for 2 months or more were included in the study. The data were collected from the patients or their caretakers to obtain the source of treatment given previously before default, number of treatment interruptions, phase and reasons for treatment interruption treatment. Results: A total of 107 defaulters were identified during the study period. In the present study, 62.6% of the patients interrupted treatment only once, 55.34% of the patient′s early continuation (3-4 months treatment, and 47.66% of the patient′s only one reason for the treatment interruptions during the course of the treatment. The most common reason for the treatment interruptions were felt well with TB treatment (29.53% followed by side effects (16.06%, lack of money (8.29%, and other reasons. Conclusion: The study revealed that most of the defaulters were in the age group between 35 and 60 years, male gender, illiterates, daily wage labor, and married. The treatment interruptions were minimized by putting the efforts to improve direct supervision; pretreatment counseling and retrieve treatment interrupters were recommended.

  6. Untreated depression and tuberculosis treatment outcomes, quality of life and disability, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaw, Fentie; Mayston, Rosie; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Alem, Atalay

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the association between comorbid depression and tuberculosis treatment outcomes, quality of life and disability in Ethiopia. The study involved 648 consecutive adults treated for tuberculosis at 14 primary health-care facilities. All were assessed at treatment initiation (i.e. baseline) and after 2 and 6 months. We defined probable depression as a score of 10 or above on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Data on treatment default, failure and success and on death were obtained from tuberculosis registers. Quality of life was assessed using a visual analogue scale and we calculated disability scores using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale. Using multivariate Poisson regression analysis, we estimated the association between probable depression at baseline and treatment outcomes and death. Untreated depression at baseline was independently associated with tuberculosis treatment default (adjusted risk ratio, aRR: 9.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 6.72 to 12.30), death (aRR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.54 to 5.78), greater disability ( β : 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.99) and poorer quality of life ( β : -0.07; 95% CI: -0.07 to -0.06) at 6 months. Participants with probable depression had a lower mean quality-of-life score than those without (5.0 versus 6.0, respectively; P  < 0.001) and a higher median disability score (22.0 versus 14.0, respectively; P  < 0.001) at 6 months. Untreated depression in people with tuberculosis was associated with worse treatment outcomes, poorer quality of life and greater disability. Health workers should be given the support needed to provide depression care for people with tuberculosis.

  7. Diagnostic pathways and direct medical costs incurred by new adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment - Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veesa, Karun Sandeep; John, Kamalabhai Russell; Moonan, Patrick K; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Manjunath, Krishna; Sagili, Karuna D; Ravichandra, Chinnappareddy; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan; George, Kuryan; Minz, Shantidani

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients face substantial delays prior to treatment initiation, and out of pocket (OOP) expenditures often surpass the economic productivity of the household. We evaluated the pre-diagnostic cost and health seeking behaviour of new adult pulmonary TB patients registered at Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. This descriptive study, part of a randomised controlled trial conducted in three rural Tuberculosis Units from Dec 2012 to Dec 2015, collected data on number of health facilities, dates of visits prior to the initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and direct OOP medical costs associated with TB diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis examined the factors associated with delays in treatment initiation and OOP expenditures. Of 880 TB patients interviewed, 34.7% presented to public health facilities and 65% patients sought private health facilities as their first point of care. The average monthly individual income was $77.79 (SD 57.14). About 69% incurred some pre-treatment costs at an average of $39.74. Overall, patients experienced a median of 6 days (3-11 IQR) of time to treatment initiation and 21 days (10-30 IQR) of health systems delay. Age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 1.73; CI: 1.22-2.44), diabetes (aOR: 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.44) and first visit to a private health facility (aOR: 17.2; CI: 11.1-26.4) were associated with higher direct OOP medical costs, while age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 0.64; CI: 0.48-0.85) and first visit to private health facility (aOR: 1.79, CI: 1.34-2.39) were associated with health systems delay. The majority of rural TB patients registering at PHCs visited private health facilities first and incurred substantial direct OOP medical costs and delays prior to diagnosis and anti-tuberculosis treatment initiation. This study highlights the need for PHCs to be made as the preferred choice for first point of contact, to combat TB more efficiently.

  8. Poor Outcomes in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Adolescents Undergoing Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Paryani, Roma; Khan, Samsuddin; Mansoor, Homa; Manglani, Mamta; Valiyakath, Asmaa; Saranchuk, Peter; Furin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10–19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) project in Mumbai, India. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. Results The median age was 16 (IQR 14–18) years and 54% were female. Five (46%) adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB), two (18%) extrapulmonary disease (EPTB) and four (36%) had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8–250.5). By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5%) patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64%) had poor outcomes: four (36.5%) died and three (27%) defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100%) on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs): two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. Conclusions Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial

  9. Poor outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected adolescents undergoing treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Isaakidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF project in Mumbai, India. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. RESULTS: The median age was 16 (IQR 14-18 years and 54% were female. Five (46% adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB, two (18% extrapulmonary disease (EPTB and four (36% had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8-250.5. By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5% patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64% had poor outcomes: four (36.5% died and three (27% defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100% on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs: two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial

  10. Poor outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected adolescents undergoing treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Paryani, Roma; Khan, Samsuddin; Mansoor, Homa; Manglani, Mamta; Valiyakath, Asmaa; Saranchuk, Peter; Furin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) project in Mumbai, India. A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. The median age was 16 (IQR 14-18) years and 54% were female. Five (46%) adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB), two (18%) extrapulmonary disease (EPTB) and four (36%) had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8-250.5). By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5%) patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64%) had poor outcomes: four (36.5%) died and three (27%) defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100%) on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs): two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial support for co-infected adolescents

  11. Diagnostic pathways and direct medical costs incurred by new adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment – Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veesa, Karun Sandeep; John, Kamalabhai Russell; Moonan, Patrick K.; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Manjunath, Krishna; Sagili, Karuna D.; Ravichandra, Chinnappareddy; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan; George, Kuryan; Minz, Shantidani

    2018-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) patients face substantial delays prior to treatment initiation, and out of pocket (OOP) expenditures often surpass the economic productivity of the household. We evaluated the pre-diagnostic cost and health seeking behaviour of new adult pulmonary TB patients registered at Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods This descriptive study, part of a randomised controlled trial conducted in three rural Tuberculosis Units from Dec 2012 to Dec 2015, collected data on number of health facilities, dates of visits prior to the initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and direct OOP medical costs associated with TB diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis examined the factors associated with delays in treatment initiation and OOP expenditures. Results Of 880 TB patients interviewed, 34.7% presented to public health facilities and 65% patients sought private health facilities as their first point of care. The average monthly individual income was $77.79 (SD 57.14). About 69% incurred some pre-treatment costs at an average of $39.74. Overall, patients experienced a median of 6 days (3–11 IQR) of time to treatment initiation and 21 days (10–30 IQR) of health systems delay. Age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 1.73; CI: 1.22–2.44), diabetes (aOR: 1.63; CI: 1.08–2.44) and first visit to a private health facility (aOR: 17.2; CI: 11.1–26.4) were associated with higher direct OOP medical costs, while age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 0.64; CI: 0.48–0.85) and first visit to private health facility (aOR: 1.79, CI: 1.34–2.39) were associated with health systems delay. Conclusion The majority of rural TB patients registering at PHCs visited private health facilities first and incurred substantial direct OOP medical costs and delays prior to diagnosis and anti-tuberculosis treatment initiation. This study highlights the need for PHCs to be made as the preferred choice for first point of contact, to combat TB more efficiently. PMID

  12. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS CHEMOTHERAPY TOLERANCE IN THE LIGHT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific features of psychological state were studied in 295 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with satisfactory tolerance to anti-tuberculosis medications and 75 patients poorly tolerating the treatment.Before the treatment start the patients who later demonstrated adverse reactions to treatment were diagnosed with more intense neurotic and hypochondriac personal features, destructive reactions and higher level of emotional tension and frustration – all the above promote dysregulation of the host adaptation. The research demonstrated the need to consider psychological aspects when studying the tolerance to anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. 

  13. Treatment of tuberculosis in a rural area of Haiti: directly observed and non-observed regimens. The experience of H pital Albert Schweitzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé-Goig, J E; Alvarez, J

    2001-02-01

    Artibonite Valley, a rural area in Haiti. To evaluate a tuberculosis control program in rural Haiti and to compare two strategies for treatment implemented in two areas that were not chosen at random: treatment delivered at the patients' homes observed by former tuberculosis patients (DOT), and non observed treatment (non-DOT). Retrospective analysis of the clinical records of adult patients diagnosed with tuberculosis at H pital Albert Schweitzer in Deschapelles, Haiti, during 1994-1995. There were 143 patients in the non-DOT group and 138 patients in the DOT group. The results of treatment were significantly different: in the non-DOT group 29% defaulted, 12% died and 58% had a successful outcome; in the DOT group 7% defaulted (P < 0.01), 4% died (P = 0.01) and 87% had a successful outcome (P < 0.01). These differences are also significant when considering only human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients (defaulted P < 0.01; died P = 0.09; successful outcome P < 0.01). Delivering treatment in patients' homes with direct observation by former tuberculosis patients can achieve good results, even in an area of extreme poverty and high rates of HIV infection. In this population the number of patients who are able to complete their treatment without observed administration is far from optimal.

  14. Do retreatment tuberculosis patients need special treatment response follow-up beyond the standard regimen? Finding of five-year retrospective study in pastoralist setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getnet, Fentabil; Sileshi, Henok; Seifu, Wubareg; Yirga, Selam; Alemu, Abere Shiferaw

    2017-12-12

    Treatment outcomes serve as proxy measures of the quality of tuberculosis treatment provided by the health care system, and it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of Directly Observed Therapy-Short course program in controlling the disease, and reducing treatment failure, default and death. Hence, we evaluated tuberculosis treatment success rate, its trends and predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ethiopian Somali region where 85% of its population is pastoralist. A retrospective review of 5 years data (September 2009 to August 2014) was conducted to evaluate the treatment outcome of 1378 randomly selected tuberculosis patients treated in Kharamara, Dege-habour and Gode hospitals. We extracted data on socio-demographics, HIV Sero-status, tuberculosis type, treatment outcome and year using clinical chart abstraction sheet. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were categorized into successful (cured and/or completed) and unsuccessful (died/failed/default) according to the national tuberculosis guideline. Data was entered using EpiData 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Chi-square (χ 2 ) test and logistic regression model were used to reveal the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. The majority of participants was male (59.1%), pulmonary smear negative (49.2%) and new cases (90.6%). The median age was 26 years [IQR: 18-40] and HIV co-infection rate was 4.6%. The overall treatment success rate was 86.8% [95%CI: 84.9% - 88.5%]; however, 4.8%, 7.6% and 0.7% of patients died, defaulted and failed to cure respectively. It fluctuated across the years and ranged from 76.9% to 94% [p tuberculosis types and HIV status (P > 0.05). This study revealed that the overall tuberculosis treatment success rate has realized the global target for 2011-2015. However, it does not guarantee its continuity as adverse treatment outcomes might unpredictably occur anytime and anywhere. Therefore, continual effort to effectively

  15. Anti-tuberculosis lupane-type isoprenoids from Syzygium guineense Wild DC. (Myrtaceae stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Oladosu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived isoprenoids commonly called terpenoids, are not only useful as chemosytemic markers but are increasingly attracting attention in the development of newer drugs for the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculosis activity guided solvent fractionation and chromatographic separation of the chloroform extract of S. guineense stem bark resulted in the isolation of two bioactive 3-β-hydroxylupane-type isoprenoids: betulinic acid methylenediol ester (1 (MIC; 0.15 mg/mL and betulinic acid (2 (MIC; 0.60 mg/mL. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. The antituberculosis assay was done using the Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT method. This is the first report of the isolation of the anti-tuberculosis constituents of S. guineense and its potentials for the development of drug leads for the treatment of tuberculosis thus validating its ethno-medicinal uses.

  16. Frontal parietal control network regulates the anti-correlated default and dorsal attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lin, Weili

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate the anti-correlated behaviors between the default (DF) and the dorsal attention (DA) networks. We aimed to investigate the roles of the frontal parietal control (FPC) network in regulating the two anti-correlated networks through three experimental conditions, including resting, continuous self-paced/attended sequential finger tapping (FT), and natural movie watching (MW), respectively. The two goal-directed tasks were chosen to engage either one of the two competing networks-FT for DA whereas MW for default. We hypothesized that FPC will selectively augment/suppress either network depending on how the task targets the specific network; FPC will positively correlate with the target network, but negatively correlate with the network anti-correlated with the target network. We further hypothesized that significant causal links from FPC to both DA and DF are present during all three experimental conditions, supporting the initiative regulating role of FPC over the two opposing systems. Consistent with our hypotheses, FPC exhibited a significantly higher positive correlation with DA (P = 0.0095) whereas significantly more negative correlation with default (P = 0.0025) during FT when compared to resting. Completely opposite to that observed during FT, the FPC was significantly anti-correlated with DA (P = 2.1e-6) whereas positively correlated with default (P = 0.0035) during MW. Furthermore, extensive causal links from FPC to both DA and DF were observed across all three experimental states. Together, our results strongly support the notion that the FPC regulates the anti-correlated default and DA networks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The fourth national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Sy, D N; Hennig, C M; Dean, A S

    2015-06-01

    Viet Nam's Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey was conducted in 2011. To determine the prevalence of resistance to the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in Viet Nam. Eighty clusters were selected using a probability proportion to size approach. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs was performed. A total of 1629 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients were eligible for culture. Of these, DST results were available for 1312 patients, including 1105 new TB cases, 195 previously treated TB cases and 12 cases with an unknown treatment history. The proportion of cases with resistance to any drug was 32.7% (95%CI 29.1-36.5) among new cases and 54.2% (95%CI 44.3-63.7) among previously treated cases. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases was 4.0% (95%CI 2.5-5.4) in new cases and 23.3 (95%CI 16.7-29.9) in previously treated cases. The fourth drug resistance survey in Viet Nam found that the proportion of MDR-TB among new and previously treated cases was not significantly different from that in the 2005 survey. The National TB Programme should prioritise the detection and treatment of MDR-TB to reduce transmission of MDR-TB in the community.

  18. Paradoxical response with increased tumor necrosis factor-α levels to anti-tuberculosis treatment in a patient with disseminated tuberculosis

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    Sho Watanabe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that tuberculosis (TB worsens after cessation of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors and starting anti-TB treatment. Little is known about the immunological pathogenesis of this paradoxical response (PR. We report the first case of a TB patient in whom PR occurred concurrently with elevation of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα levels. A 75-year-old woman, who had been treated with adalimumab for SAPHO syndrome, developed disseminated TB. Soon after administration of anti-TB treatment (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, and after discontinuation of adalimumab, a PR occurred. Serial testing of serum cytokine levels revealed a marked increase in TNFα, and a decline in interferon-γ levels. Despite intensive treatment with antibiotics, prednisolone, noradrenaline, and mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed and she died. Thus, overproduction of TNFα after cessation of TNFα inhibitors may partially account for the pathogenesis of a PR. This supports preventative or therapeutic reinitiation of TNFα inhibitors when PR occurs. Serial monitoring of circulating inflammatory cytokine levels could lead to earlier identification of a PR.

  19. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-03-21

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess unsuccessful outcomes and their time of occurrence. Among the 33 309 TB patients, treatment was unsuccessful in respectively 10.1%, 3.0% and 9.1% of patients in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam. The risk of death was highest in Cambodia, higher among males than females, increased with age, and was more common among retreatment cases than new cases, and among patients with a high than a low sputum smear microscopy grade. Half of all deaths occurred in the first 2 months in Cambodia and within 11 weeks in China and Viet Nam. Median time to default was 3 months in Cambodia and Viet Nam, and about 2 months in China. Treatment was highly successful in the three study countries, with a low proportion of death and default. As the majority of defaulting occurs at the beginning of treatment, all countries should critically review their current policy of treatment support in this period.

  20. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  1. Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ping

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB patients are receiving the standard anti-TB treatment provided by China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS in China every year. Adverse reactions (ADRs induced by anti-TB drugs could both do harm to patients and lead to anti-TB treatment failure. The ADACS aimed to explore ADRs' incidences, prognoses, economical and public health impacts for TB patients and TB control, and build a DNA bank of TB patients. Methods/Design Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA. Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI, a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis. Discussion ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy.

  2. Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB) patients are receiving the standard anti-TB treatment provided by China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS) in China every year. Adverse reactions (ADRs) induced by anti-TB drugs could both do harm to patients and lead to anti-TB treatment failure. The ADACS aimed to explore ADRs' incidences, prognoses, economical and public health impacts for TB patients and TB control, and build a DNA bank of TB patients. Methods/Design Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI), a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis. Discussion ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy. PMID:20492672

  3. Emerging drugs and alternative possibilities in the treatment of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, S.; Segers, M.M.; Ghimire, S.; Bolhuis, M.S.; Sturkenboom, M.G.; Soolingen, D. van; Alffenaar, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Drug resistance, treatment duration, complexity, and adverse drug reactions associated with anti-TB regimens are associated with treatment failure, prolonged infectiousness and relapse. With the current set of anti-TB drugs the goal to

  4. Emerging drugs and alternative possibilities in the treatment of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, S.; Segers, M. M.; Ghimire, S.; Bolhuis, M. S.; Sturkenboom, M. G. G.; Van Soolingen, D.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Drug resistance, treatment duration, complexity, and adverse drug reactions associated with anti-TB regimens are associated with treatment failure, prolonged infectiousness and relapse. With the current set of anti-TB drugs the goal to

  5. Drug resistance pattern of M. tuberculosis in category II treatment failure pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmida Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the extent of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis (MTB isolated from category II treatment failure pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients. A total of 100 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N smear positive category II failure PTB patients were included in this study. Sputum culture was done in Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J media. Conventional proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J media was used to determine the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RMP, ofloxacin (OFX and kanamycin (KA. Out of 100 sputum samples, a total of 87 samples were positive by culture. Drug susceptibility test (DST revealed that 82 (94.25% isolates were resistant to one or more anti -TB drugs. Resistance to isoniazide (INH, rifampicin (RMP, ofloxacin (OFX and kanamycin (KA was 94.25%, 82.75%, 29.90% and 3.45% respectively. Among these isolates, 79.31% and 3.45% isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR and extended drug resistant (XDR M. tuberculosis respectively. High rate of anti-tubercular drug resistance was observed among the category II treatment failure TB patients. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 9-11

  6. Impact of HIV on novel therapies for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, María S.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Porco, Travis C.; Williams, Brian G.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Mansoer, John; Salomon, Joshua A.; Getz, Wayne M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The increased risk for tuberculosis in HIV-infected people has fueled a worldwide resurgence of tuberculosis. A major hindrance to controlling tuberculosis is the long treatment duration, leading to default, jeopardizing cure, and generating drug resistance. We investigated how

  7. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, I.; Iqbal, R.; Khan, S.U.; Munir, K.; Nazir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  8. Risk factors for tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease: anti-tumor necrosis factor and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Riestra

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine risk factors for active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: Retrospective, case-control study at 4 referral hospitals in Spain. Cases developed tuberculosis after a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Controls were inflammatory bowel disease patients who did not develop tuberculosis. For each case, we randomly selected 3 controls matched for sex, age (within 5 years and time of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis (within 3 years. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics, candidate risk factors for tuberculosis and information about the tuberculosis episode were recorded. Multivariate analysis and a Chi-squared automatic interaction detector were used. Results: Thirty-four cases and 102 controls were included. Nine of the 34 cases developed active tuberculosis between 1989 and 1999, and 25 became ill between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression showed an association between active tuberculosis and anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor therapy in the previous 12 months (OR 7.45; 95% CI, 2.39-23.12; p = 0.001; hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.18-16.20; p = 0.027; and albumin levels (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; p = 0.001. The median time between the start of biologic therapy and the onset of active tuberculosis was 13 (interquartile range, 1-58 months. Tuberculosis developed after a year of anti-TNF therapy in 53%, and late reactivation occurred in at least 3 of 8 patients. Conclusions: The main risks factors for developing tuberculosis were anti-TNF therapy and hospitalization. Over half the cases related to anti-TNF treatment occurred after a year.

  9. Risk assessment of hepatotoxicity among tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-coinfected patients under tuberculosis treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Ngouleun; Prosper Cabral Biapa Nya; Anatole Constant Pieme; Phelix Bruno Telefo

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health problem. It is a contagious and grave disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current drugs such as isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampicin used for the treatment of tuberculosis are potentially hepatotoxic and can lead to drug hepatitis. In order to improve the follow-up of TB patients in Cameroon, we carried out a study which aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity risk factors associated with anti-TB drugs. Methods:...

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with tuberculosis treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... health care, HIV co-infection and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) are ... and default, are a public health concern as they are at risk for clinical ..... national recording systems in Brazil, 2003-2008. PLoS. One 2012 ...

  11. Availability, price and affordability of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Europe: a TBNET survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther, Gunar; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Lange, Christoph; Rupert, Stephan; van Leth, Frank; Andrejak, Claire; Pieridou-Bagatzouni, Despo; Anderson, Aase Bengard; Bojovic, Olivera; Bothamley, Graham; Bruchfeld, Judith; Codecasa, Luigi R.; Danilovits, Manfred; Davidaviciene, Edita; Dalemo, Paulina; Dimopoulos, Giorgos; Duarte, Raquel; Hafizi, Hasan; Horvath, Ildiko; Eyuboglu, Fusun; Ibraim, Elmira; Jankovic, Mateja; Kan, Boris; Kopecka, Emilia; Kruczak, Katarzyna; Kutsyna, Galyna; de lange, Wiel; Leimane, Vaira; Mack, Ulrich; Manzano, Juan Ruiz; Markova, Roumania; McDonald, Colm; McLaughlin, Anne-Marie; Mulliqi, Gjyle; Muylle, Inge; Pesut, Dragica; Polcova, Veronika; Rumetshofer, Rudolf; Rusu, Doina; Skrahina, Alena; Spiric, Nicolina; Solovic, Ivan; Svetina-Sorli, Petra; Vasakova, Martina; Vasankari, Tuula; Viiklepp, Piret; Wirz, Gil; Zakoska, Maja; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Data on availability and cost of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in relation to affordability at national level are scarce. We performed a cross-sectional study on availability and cost of anti-TB drugs at major TB-reference centres in 37 European countries. Costs of standardised treatment regimens

  12. Substantially Higher and Earlier Occurrence of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Related Adverse Reactions in HIV Coinfected Tuberculosis Patients: A Matched-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, Takashi; Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Morino, Eriko; Takasaki, Jin; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-11-01

    Little information exists on the frequency, severity, and timing of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug-related adverse events (TB-AEs) in HIV-tuberculosis coinfected (HIV-TB) patients in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. This matched-cohort study included HIV-TB patients as cases and HIV-uninfected tuberculosis (non-HIV-TB) patients as controls. Tuberculosis was culture-confirmed in both groups. Cases were matched to controls in a 1:4 ratio on age, sex, and year of diagnosis. TB-AEs were defined as Grade 2 or higher requiring drug discontinuation/regimen change. From 2003 to 2015, 94 cases and 376 controls were analyzed (95% men, 98% Asians). Standard four-drug combination therapy was initiated in 91% of cases and 89% of controls (p = 0.45). Cases had a higher frequency of TB-AE [51% (48/94) vs. 10% (39/376), p tuberculosis treatment. HIV infection was an independent risk factor for TB-AEs in the multivariate Cox analysis [adjusted HR (aHR): 6.96; 95% confidence interval: 3.93-12.3]. TB-AEs occurred more frequently in HIV-TB than in non-HIV-TB patients, and were more severe. The majority of TB-AEs occurred within 4 weeks of initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment. Because TB-AEs may delay ART initiation, careful monitoring during this period is warranted in coinfected patients.

  13. Performance of centralized versus decentralized tuberculosis treatment services in Southern Brazil, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mara Cristina; Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Wildner, Leticia Muraro; Medeiros, Taiane Freitas; Maurici, Rosemeri; Kupek, Emil; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2018-04-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) control programs face the challenges of decreasing incidence, mortality rates, and drug resistance while increasing treatment adherence. The Brazilian TB control program recommended the decentralization of patient care as a strategy for combating the disease. This study evaluated the performance of this policy in an area with high default rates, comparing epidemiological and operational indicators between two similar municipalities. This study analyzed epidemiological and operational indicators on new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis reported in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System between 2006 and 2015. In addition, to characterize differences between the populations of the two studied municipalities, a prospective cohort study was conducted between 2014 and 2015, in which patients with new cases of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were interviewed and monitored until the disease outcome. A descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, and a Poisson regression model were employed to compare TB treatment outcomes and health care indicators between the municipalities. Two thousand three hundred nine cases were evaluated, of which 207 patients were interviewed. Over the 2006-2015 period, TB incidence per 100,000 population in the municipality with decentralized care was significantly higher (39%, 95% CI 27-49%) in comparison to that of the municipality with centralized care. TB treatment default rate (45%, 95% CI 12-90%) was also higher in the municipality with decentralized care. During the two-year follow-up, significant differences were found between patients in centralized care and those in decentralized care regarding treatment success (84.5 vs. 66.1%), treatment default (10.7 vs. 25.8%), illicit drug use (27.7 vs. 45.9%), and homelessness (3.6 vs. 12.9%). The operational indicators revealed that the proportion of control smear tests, medical imaging, and HIV tests were all significantly higher in the centralized care

  14. Hypothyroidism during second-line treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, R; Khalid, N; Daniel, H; Dittmann, H; Reimold, M; Gallwitz, B; Schmotzer, C

    2016-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is an adverse effect of certain anti-tuberculosis drugs. This is a prospective study of the frequency and possible pathomechanisms associated with hypothyroidism due to second-line treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Fifty human immunodeficiency virus negative patients and 20 controls were included. All participants underwent ultrasonography of the thyroid and measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH levels were checked every 3 months. If hypothyroidism was present, T3, T4 and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies were measured, and imaging extended to scintigraphy and repeated ultrasonography. Before treatment, 7 patients (14%) and 1 control (5%) were hypothyreotic. During the first 6 months of treatment, TSH levels increased in 41 patients (82%), 39 (78%) had values above the normal range and 19 (38%) had overt hypothyroidism. As none of the patients had signs of autoimmune thyroiditis, interaction with anti-tuberculosis drugs was assumed to be the cause of hypothyroidism. Nine patients died during treatment, all of whom had developed hypothyroidism. In seven, the metabolic situation at their death was known, and they had become euthyreotic following levothyroxine substitution. TSH levels should be checked before initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment and after 3 and 6 months to start timely replacement of levothyroxine. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact pathomechanism involved in hypothyroidism and whether hypothyroidism can be used as predictor of treatment failure.

  15. The role of the time-kill kinetics assay as part of a preclinical modeling framework for assessing the activity of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Hannelore I; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; de Vogel, Corné P; van der Meijden, Aart; Verbon, Annelies; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2017-07-01

    Novel treatment strategies for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Many different preclinical models assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity are available, but it is yet unclear which combination of models is most predictive of clinical treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of our in vitro time kill-kinetics assay as an asset to a predictive preclinical modeling framework assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity. The concentration- and time-dependent mycobacterial killing capacities of six anti-tuberculosis drugs were determined during exposure as single drugs or in dual, triple and quadruple combinations towards a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and drug resistance was assessed. Streptomycin, rifampicin and isoniazid were most active against fast-growing M. tuberculosis. Isoniazid with rifampicin or high dose ethambutol were the only synergistic drug combinations. The addition of rifampicin or streptomycin to isoniazid prevented isoniazid resistance. In vitro ranking showed agreement with early bactericidal activity in tuberculosis patients for some but not all anti-tuberculosis drugs. The time-kill kinetics assay provides important information on the mycobacterial killing dynamics of anti-tuberculosis drugs during the early phase of drug exposure. As such, this assay is a valuable component of the preclinical modeling framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in reactivation of tuberculosis induced from anti-TNF treatments are based on bioavailability in granulomatous tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone Marino

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection is complex. Experimental evidence has revealed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF plays a major role in host defense against Mtb in both active and latent phases of infection. TNF-neutralizing drugs used to treat inflammatory disorders have been reported to increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB, in accordance with animal studies. The present study takes a computational approach toward characterizing the role of TNF in protection against the tubercle bacillus in both active and latent infection. We extend our previous mathematical models to investigate the roles and production of soluble (sTNF and transmembrane TNF (tmTNF. We analyze effects of anti-TNF therapy in virtual clinical trials (VCTs by simulating two of the most commonly used therapies, anti-TNF antibody and TNF receptor fusion, predicting mechanisms that explain observed differences in TB reactivation rates. The major findings from this study are that bioavailability of TNF following anti-TNF therapy is the primary factor for causing reactivation of latent infection and that sTNF--even at very low levels--is essential for control of infection. Using a mathematical model, it is possible to distinguish mechanisms of action of the anti-TNF treatments and gain insights into the role of TNF in TB control and pathology. Our study suggests that a TNF-modulating agent could be developed that could balance the requirement for reduction of inflammation with the necessity to maintain resistance to infection and microbial diseases. Alternatively, the dose and timing of anti-TNF therapy could be modified. Anti-TNF therapy will likely lead to numerous incidents of primary TB if used in areas where exposure is likely.

  17. National anti-tuberculosis drug resistance study in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, T. M.; Basra, D.; Mfinanga, S. G. M.; Range, N.; Lwilla, F.; Shirima, R. P.; van Deun, A.; Zignol, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Egwaga, S. M.; van Leth, F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a national representative sample of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Tanzania according to recommended methodology. DESIGN: Cluster survey, with 40 clusters sampled proportional to size, of notified TB patients from all

  18. Interferon-gamma response to the treatment of active pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L; Shi, R; Liu, X; Yuan, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, G; Wang, W; Wang, J; England, K; Via, L E; Cai, Y; Goldfeder, L C; Dodd, L E; Barry, C E; Chen, R Y

    2017-10-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The QuantiFERON® TB-Gold assay was run on collected blood samples. Participants received a follow-up telephone call at 24 months to determine relapse status. Of the 152 TB patients enrolled, 135 were eligible for this analysis: 118 pulmonary (PTB) and 17 extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) patients. IFN-γ levels declined significantly over time among all patients (P = 0.002), with this decline driven by PTB patients (P = 0.001), largely during the initial 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.019). IFN-γ levels did not change among EPTB patients over time or against baseline culture or drug resistance status. After 6 months of effective anti-tuberculosis treatment, IFN-γ levels decreased significantly in PTB patients, largely over the initial 8 weeks of treatment. IFN-γ concentrations may offer some value for monitoring anti-tuberculosis treatment response among PTB patients.

  19. The Great Mimic Again? A Case of Tuberculosis Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo SH

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB, once a disease confined to undeveloped or developing nations is currently in resurgence due to pandemic human immunodeficiency virus infection and immigration from endemic areas. TB is also known as the ‘great mimicker’. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis affecting the knee is rare in all forms of TB (0.1-0.3%. Here, we report a case of isolated highly erosive TB knee in a previously fit Burmese migrant worker. He presented with after a history of fall into a drain. The patient also reported pain and swelling over his left knee for the previous three years. He had been treated for a bacterial infection of the knee in another hospital but defaulted due to financial constraints. Arthrotomy of the knee was performed including washout. Diagnosis of TB of the knee was made based on the synovial fluid and tissue culture. Treatment with anti- tuberculosis drugs was then initiated.

  20. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Sophia; Kumar, Prahlad; Chauhan, Lakbir Singh; Vollepore, Balasangameshwara Hanumanthappa; Kizhakkethil, Unnikrishnan Pallikkara; Rao, Sumathi Govinda

    2010-04-06

    Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance. Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44)], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92)], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09)], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63)], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44)], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64)], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57)], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47)] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1.14-2.6)]. Majority of

  1. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Vijay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance.Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1

  2. Improved consistency in dosing anti-tuberculosis drugs in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Chih; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Lin, Tao-Ping; Bai, Kuan-Jen

    2012-01-01

    It was reported that 35.5% of tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in 2003 in Taipei City had no recorded pre-treatment body weight and that among those who had, inconsistent dosing of anti-TB drugs was frequent. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have taken actions to strengthen dosing of anti-TB drugs among general practitioners. Prescribing practices of anti-TB drugs in Taipei City in 2007-2010 were investigated to assess whether interventions on dosing were effective. Lists of all notified culture positive TB cases in 2007-2010 were obtained from National TB Registry at Taiwan CDC. A medical audit of TB case management files was performed to collect pretreatment body weight and regimens prescribed at commencement of treatment. Dosages prescribed were compared with dosages recommended. The proportion of patients with recorded pre-treatment body weight was 64.5% in 2003, which increased to 96.5% in 2007-2010 (pTaipei City has remarkably improved after health authorities implemented a series of interventions.

  3. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs As Host-Directed Therapy for Tuberculosis : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, Vera M.; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Martinson, Neil; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Vilaplana, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Lengthy, antimicrobial therapy targeting the pathogen is the mainstay of conventional tuberculosis treatment, complicated by emerging drug resistances. Host-directed therapies, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in contrast, target host factors to mitigate disease severity. In

  4. Biosynthesis of ilamycins featuring unusual building blocks and engineered production of enhanced anti-tuberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Huang, Hongbo; Xie, Yunchang; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Chunyan; Jia, Yanxi; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Tianyu; Ju, Jianhua

    2017-08-30

    Tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-tuberculosis agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus. Here, we show the isolation of six anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners (1-6) bearing rare L-3-nitro-tyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid structural units from the deep sea-derived Streptomyces atratus SCSIO ZH16. The biosynthesis of the rare L-3-nitrotyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid units as well as three pre-tailoring and two post-tailoring steps are probed in the ilamycin biosynthetic machinery through a series of gene inactivation, precursor chemical complementation, isotope-labeled precursor feeding experiments, as well as structural elucidation of three intermediates (6-8) from the respective mutants. Most impressively, ilamycins E 1 /E 2 , which are produced in high titers by a genetically engineered mutant strain, show very potent anti-tuberculosis activity with an minimum inhibitory concentration value ≈9.8 nM to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv constituting extremely potent and exciting anti-tuberculosis drug leads.Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-TB agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of TB/HIV. Here, the authors show that anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners bearing unusual structural units possess extremely potent anti-tuberculosis activities.

  5. Sale of anti-tuberculosis drugs through private pharmacies: a cross sectional study in Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoo Divakaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Private health care providers are largely the first point of contact for Tuberculosis (TB patients, who either undergo treatment from private practitioners or buy medicines on their own from private pharmacies. Aims: This study assessed the availability, sale and magnitude of anti-tuberculosis drugs dispensing through private pharmacies.

    Methodology: The present cross sectional study was conducted among private pharmacies located along the national highway from Thalassery to Payyannur in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. A total of 38 private pharmacies located along the national highway were included.

    Results: The duration that anti–TB drugs had been on sale showed that 74.3% of pharmacies had started to sell these drugs only less than ten years ago. The majority (82.9% of the private pharmacies received up to 5 prescriptions for anti-TB drugs weekly. Out of the total of 35 pharmacies selling these drugs, 22 (62.9% reported an increase in their sales. Nearly 82% of those pharmacies that reported an increase in the sale of anti-TB drugs were selling these drugs for less than the past ten years.

    Conclusions: The current study shows that a large number of tuberculosis patients are still approaching private pharmacies for anti-tuberculosis drugs. This tendency has to be completely stopped and needs properly planned strategies to encourage private pharmacies to participate actively in the DOTS (Direct Observation Treatment Short course program of the Government, by providing them attractive alternative incentives

  6. Bedaquiline in the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: Belarus experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Skrahina

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our interim results on safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB patients are encouraging. They will add value to understanding role and place of this new anti-TB drug in M/XDR-TB treatment.

  7. Gynaecomastia in two men on stable antiretroviral therapy who commenced treatment for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; El-Shazly, Ahmad Y; Mambuque, Santos G; Demetria, Elpidio; Veldkamp, Peter; Anderson, Timothy S

    2016-12-01

    Gynaecomastia is a common clinical presentation that varies from benign presentations in stages of human development to hormonal pathology, mainly due to hepatic dysfunction, malignancy, and adverse pharmacologic effects. We describe the development of significant bilateral gynaecomastia after starting treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in two males with WHO stage III Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection on stable antiretroviral regimens. Emerging reports suggest that distinct hepatic impairment in efavirenz metabolism modulates oestrogenic activity, which may be potentiated by anti-tuberculosis therapy. Clinical application includes early recognition of efavirenz-induced gynaecomastia, especially after commencing tuberculosis treatment. To avoid decreased adherence resulting from the distressing side effect of gynecomastia, transition to an alternative ART regimen over the course of tuberculosis treatment should be considered.

  8. Anti-tubercular therapy for intraocular tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ae Ra; Gonzalez-Lopez, Julio J; Al-Hity, Aws; Gupta, Bhaskar; Lee, Cecilia S; Gunasekeran, Dinesh Visva; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Grant, Robert; Kon, Onn Min; Gupta, Vishali; Westcott, Mark; Pavesio, Carlos; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular tuberculosis remains a diagnostic and management conundrum for both ophthalmologists and pulmonologists. We analyze the efficacy and safety of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) in patients with intraocular tuberculosis and factors associated with favorable outcome. Twenty-eight studies are included in this review, with a total of 1,917 patients. Nonrecurrence of inflammation was observed in pooled estimate of 84% of ATT-treated patients (95% CI 79-89). There was minimal difference in the outcome between patients treated with ATT alone (85% successful outcome; 95% CI 25-100) and those with concomitant systemic corticosteroid (82%; 95% CI 73-90). The use of ATT may be of benefit to patients with suspected intraocular tuberculosis; however, this conclusion is limited by the lack of control group analysis and standardized recruitment and treatment protocols. We propose further prospective studies to better establish the efficacy of ATT and ascertain the factors associated with favorable treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Tuberculosis among construction workers in dormitory housing in Chiba City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Hidetoshi; Maebara, Ayano; Suzuki, Kiminori; Shimura, Akimitsu

    2009-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in a low socio-economic society is an important program for urban area of industrialized countries. Some construction workers live in Hanba, a kind of dormitory housings that have crowded living conditions, and possibly give rise to Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. The pulmonary tuberculosis detection rate by chest X-ray screening in Hanba is higher than the general population, and therefore TB incidence among Hanba construction worker is also estimated to be as high as that of homeless. To analyze the ratio of the TB patients from Hanba in Chiba City from 1993 through 2006, and analyze the treatment outcome and speculate the factors affecting them, especially the effects of the inpatients DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course) policy introduction after 2001. TB registration records in the Public Health Center, Chiba City, Japan, were retrospectively analyzed. Pulmonary TB patients from Hanba were 121 (male: 121, female: 0), representing 3.8% of the total 3179 TB patients from 1993 through 2006. Restricting to male patients aged 40-59 years-old, TB patients from Hanba were 78, representing 10.7% of 729 male TB patients of the same age groups. All of TB patients from Hanba developed pulmonary TB (PTB) and treatment outcome of chemotherapy was cured or completed: 69 (57%), defaulted or failed: 43 (36%), and died 9 (7%) respectively. When compared with PTB in Chiba and Japan, defaulted or failed was higher. In the multi-variated analysis, extensive lesions more than one lung (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04-0.37, P factor for cured and completed. However, hospitalization during initial period of treatment was positive factor (AOR: 7.92, 95% CI: 1.73-36.2, P = 0.008). After inpatients DOTS introduction, the rate of cured or completed increased from 50% to 67%, and the rate of failed or defaulted decreased from 46% to 22% (P construction workers, occupied 3.8% of total TB patients in Chiba

  10. Paradoxical Deterioration During Anti-Tuberculous Therapy in Non-HIV-Infected Patients with Pleural Tuberculosis: A Pragmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Corral-Gudino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of paradoxical deterioration. A male patient diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis, but who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, experienced clinical deterioration 3 weeks after the initiation of anti-tuberculous treatment. After other diagnoses were ruled out, a paradoxical response to treatment was established and the patient was started on systemic corticosteroids. Paradoxical response to treatment should be considered in patients with clinical deterioration after they start on anti-tuberculous treatment.

  11. Risk factors for unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome (failure, default and death) in public health institutions, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amante, Tariku Dingeta; Ahemed, Tekabe Abdosh

    2015-01-01

    Unsuccessful TB treatment outcome is a serious public health concern. It is compelling to identify, and deal with factors determining unsuccessful treatment outcome. Therefore, study was aimed to determine pattern of unsuccessful TB treatment outcome and associated factors in eastern Ethiopia. A case control study was used. Cases were records of TB patients registered as defaulter, dead and/or treatment failure where as controls were those cured or treatment complete. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) at 95% CI to examine the relationship between the unsuccessful TB treatment outcome and patients' characteristics. A total of 990 sample size (330 cases and 660 controls) were included. Among cases (n = 330), majority 212(64.2%) were because of death, 100(30.3%) defaulters and 18(5.5%) were treatment failure. Lack of contact person(OR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.14-2.9, P, .024), sputum smear negative treatment category at initiation of treatment (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-5.5,P, .028), smear positive sputum test result at 2(nd) month after initiation treatment (OR = 14; 95% CI 5.5-36, P,0.001) and HIV positive status (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.34-5.7, P, 0.01) were independently associated with increased risk of unsuccessful TB treatment outcome. Death was the major cause of unsuccessful TB treatment outcome. TB patients do not have contact person, sputum smear negative treatment category at initiation of treatment, smear positive on 2(nd) month after treatment initiation and HIV positive were factors significantly associated unsuccessful treatment outcome. TB patients with sputum smear negative treatment category, HIV positive and smear positive on 2(nd) nd month of treatment initiation need strict follow up throughout DOTs period.

  12. Treating tuberculosis with high doses of anti-TB drugs: mechanisms and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuhui; Wu, Jianan; Liao, Sha; Sun, Zhaogang

    2017-10-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most serious threats to public health in many parts of the world. The threat is even more severe in the developing countries where there is a lack of advanced medical amenities and contemporary anti-TB drugs. In such situations, dosage optimization of existing medication regimens seems to be the only viable option. Therapeutic drug monitoring study results suggest that high-dose treatment regimens can compensate the low serum concentration of anti-TB drugs and shorten the therapy duration. The article presents a critical review on the possible changes that occur in the host and the pathogen upon the administration of standard and high-dose regimens. Some of the most common factors that are responsible for low anti-TB drug concentrations in the serum are differences in hosts' body weight, metabolic processing of the drug, malabsorption and/or drug-drug interaction. Furthermore, failure to reach the cavitary pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues also contributes to the therapeutic inefficiency of the drugs. In such conditions, administration of higher doses can help in compensating the pathogenic outcomes of enhancement of the pathogen's physical barriers, efflux pumps and genetic mutations. The present article also presents a summary of the recorded treatment outcomes of clinical trials that were conducted to test the efficacy of administration of high dose of anti-tuberculosis drugs. This review will help physicians across the globe to understand the underlying pathophysiological changes (including side effects) that dictate the clinical outcomes in patients administered with standard and/or high dose anti-TB drugs.

  13. Problems in laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting : Department of Respiratory Medicine, B.Y.L. Nair Hospital, Mumbai, India. Objective : To study pre-treatment sputum smear, culture and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, the extent of laboratory related problems and correlation of the laboratory results with clinical outcome. Design : This study is a prospective analysis of 57 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis that denied previous treatment with anti tuberculosis drugs. Cases with associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and diabetes mellitus (DM were excluded. Pre-treatment smear, culture and drug susceptibility were performed by standard culture techniques. Patients were treated with short course chemotherapy (SCC on the basis of World Health Organisation (WHO category I. Laboratory results were correlated with initial clinical data and treatment outcomes. Results : Of the 57 cases selected, there were 34 males and 23females, age range 18-65 years, mean age 27.86 years. Clinical data was lacking in 16 patients who defaulted on treatment and hence were excluded from the analysis. Of the 41 cases with complete data, 37 patients were declared cured (91.25% while 4 patients failed on therapy (9.75%, 17/41 (41.46% had laboratory results consistent with clinical data and treatment results whereas 24/41 (58.53% had poor correlation between laboratory results, clinical data and treatment outcomes. The major laboratory related problems were: 1 Smear positive / culture negative (S+/C- in 16/41 (39% cases at the start of treatment; 2 HR pattern of resistance in 4/41 (9.75% and R resistance 3/41 (7.31% on initial culture susceptibility tests but response to SCC suggesting incorrect susceptibility results. Conclusions : Discrepant reports between clinical findings, laboratory reports and treatment outcomes were found in 58.53% cases. Treatment should not be decided only on the basis of the initial culture susceptibility

  14. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylana de Souza Belchior

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. METHOD Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. RESULTS The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. CONCLUSION The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams.

  15. Frontal Parietal Control Network Regulates the Anti-Correlated Default and Dorsal Attention Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wei; Lin, Weili

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate the anti-correlated behaviors between the default and the dorsal attention (DA) networks. We aimed to investigate the roles of the frontal parietal control (FPC) network in regulating the two anti-correlated networks through three experimental conditions, including resting, continuous self-paced/attended sequential finger tapping (FT), and natural movie watching (MW), respectively. The two goal-directed tasks were chosen to engage either one of the two competing net...

  16. Linezolid in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: the challenge of its narrow therapeutic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Maartens, Gary

    2016-10-01

    Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with potent activity against M tuberculosis, and improves culture conversion and cure rates when added to treatment regimens for drug resistant tuberculosis. However, linezolid has a narrow therapeutic window, and the optimal dosing strategy that minimizes the substantial toxicity associated with linezolid's prolonged use in tuberculosis treatment has not been determined, limiting the potential impact of this anti-mycobacterial agent. This paper aims to review and summarize the current knowledge on linezolid for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The focus is on the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic determinants of linezolid's efficacy and toxicity in tuberculosis, and how this relates to defining an optimal dose. Mechanisms of linezolid toxicity and resistance, and the potential role of therapeutic drug monitoring are also covered. Expert commentary: Prospective pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies are required to define optimal therapeutic targets and to inform improved linezolid dosing strategies for drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  17. Supplementary Material for: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody; Coll, Francesc; McNerney, Ruth; Ascher, David; Pires, Douglas; Furnham, Nick; Coeck, Nele; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Nair, Mridul; Mallard, Kim; Ramsay, Andrew; Campino, Susana; Hibberd, Martin; Pain, Arnab; Rigouts, Leen; Clark, Taane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure

  18. Targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs to macrophages: targeting mannose receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, L. Yu; Klyachko, N. L.; Kudryashova, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The development of systems for targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs is a challenge of modern biotechnology. Currently, these drugs are encapsulated in a variety of carriers such as liposomes, polymers, emulsions and so on. Despite successful in vitro testing of these systems, virtually no success was achieved in vivo, because of low accessibility of the foci of infection located in alveolar macrophage cells. A promising strategy for increasing the efficiency of therapeutic action of anti-tuberculosis drugs is to encapsulate the agents into mannosylated carriers targeting the mannose receptors of alveolar macrophages. The review addresses the methods for modification of drug substance carriers, such as liposomes and biodegradable polymers, with mannose residues. The use of mannosylated carriers to deliver anti-tuberculosis agents increases the drug circulation time in the blood stream and increases the drug concentration in alveolar macrophage cells. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  19. Risk factors associated with default among retreatment tuberculosis patients on DOTS in Paschim Medinipur district (West Bengal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, S S; Dutt, D

    2014-07-01

    In India in 2010, 14.1% of retreatment of TB patients' treatment outcome was 'default'. Since 2002, in Paschim Midnapur District (West Bengal), it has been around 15-20%. To determine the timing, characteristics and risk factors associated with default among retreatment TB patients on DOTS. It was a case control study, conducted in six TB units (TU) of Paschim Midnapur District, which were selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected from treatment records of TUs/DTC. Data was also collected through interviews of the patients using the same pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 87 defaulters and 86 consecutively registered non-defaulters registered in first quarter, 2009 to second quarter, 2010. Median duration of treatment taken before default was 121 days (inter-quartile range of 64-176 days). Median number of doses of treatment taken before default was 36 (inter -quartile range of 26-63 doses). No retrieval action was documented in 57.5% cases. Retrieval was done between 0-7 days of missed doses in 29.9% cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated the following important risk factors for default at 95% confidence interval: male-sex limit: [aOR 3.957 (1.162-13.469)], alcoholic inebriation[ aOR6.076 (2.088-17.675)], distance from DOT centre [aOR 4.066 (1.675-9.872)], number of missed doses during treatment [aOR 1.849 (1.282-2.669)] and no initial home visit [aOR 10.607 (2.286 -49.221)]. In Paschim Midnapur district, default of retreatment TB occurs mostly after a few doses in continuation phase. Initial home visit, patient provider meeting, retrieval action, community-based treatment as per RNTCP guidelines are required to uplift the programme.

  20. Evaluation of disease patterns, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in AIDS patient

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    Atomiya Angela Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in 100 patients co-infected with AIDS at Casa da AIDS clinic was studied. Demographic characteristics were as follows: 76 male patients, 24 female patients, 67 caucasian, average 35.8 years-old (SD ± 8.5. Sexual transmission of HIV was reported in 68 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in 40 patients, extrapulmonary in 11, and combined in 49 patients. In 63 patients, TCD4+ counts were below 200/mm³ when tuberculosis was diagnosed. Fifty-five patients had their diagnoses confirmed by bacteriological identification of Mycobacterium; either through direct observation and/or culture. Tuberculosis was treated with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 60 patients, reinforced treatment in 14 and alternative treatment in the other 13 patients. Tuberculosis therapy lasted up to 9 months in 66% of the patients. Fifty-four patients were treated with a two-drug antiretroviral regimen and the remaining 46 patients received a triple regimen, which included a protease inhibitor. Among the latter, 35 patients were co-treated with rifampin. The occurrence of hepatic liver enzyme abnormalities was statistically related to alternative antiretroviral regimens (p = 0.01 and to the co-administration of rifampin and protease inhibitor (p = 0.019. Clinical resolution of tuberculosis was obtained in 74 patients. Twelve patients died during tuberculosis treatment. Resolution of tuberculosis was statistically significant related to antituberculosis treatment adherence (p = 0.001. The risk of no response to the treatment was 1.84 times more frequent among patients treated with alternative regimens regardless of the duration of the therapy. We conclude that the characteristics of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients requires that special attention be directed to the types and duration of both antiretroviral and anti-TB therapy in order to achieve the highest level of care.

  1. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of knowledge and attitudes on adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a case-control study in a Moroccan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachfouti, Nabil; Slama, Katia; Berraho, Mohammed; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-01-01

    Background Although tuberculosis (TB) care is provided free of charge in Morocco, a high number of patients voluntarily interrupt their treatment before the end. Treatment Default is a major obstacle in the fight against the disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of knowledge and attitudes toward TB on treatment adherence. Methods Case-control study of 290 TB patients (85 defaulters and 205 controls). A defaulter was defined as a TB patient who interrupted treatment for two months or longer. Socio-demographic measurements, knowledge and attitude were collected by face to face anonymous questionnaire. Khi-square test was conducted to examine differences in TB attitudes and knowledge according to treatment adherence. Results The mean age of participants was 31.7 ± 12.0 years. Monthly income was under 2000 MAD (180 €) for 82% of them. Over sixty four percent were illiterate or had a basic educational level. Microbial cause was known by 17.2% respondents; 20.5% among adherent patients versus 9.4% (p=0.02). The fact that the disease is curable was more known by adherent patients: 99.0% versus 88.2% (p education into current TB case management. PMID:22937192

  3. Reactivation of tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with a positive QuantiFERON-RD1 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase Bengaard

    2004-01-01

    A patient with polymyositis developed tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment. Tuberculin Skin Test and chest X-ray failed to demonstrate latent tuberculosis, whereas a blood sample that was tested with a modified QuantiFERON-TB-assay, using the recombinant ESAT-6 and CFP-10, was positive...... indicating that this patient was latently infected before immunosuppressive therapy. This case indicates the risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis given that the subject is RD1 responsive, and we believe that preventive anti-tuberculous treatment could have prevented this case...... of tuberculosis. We suggest that RD1 based tests are evaluated further in immunocompromised patients....

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring of isoniazid and rifampicin during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, M J; Paynter, J; Chiu, W; Hu, R; Nisbet, M; Lewis, C

    2016-07-01

    There is uncertainty as to the optimal therapeutic concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs to achieve cure. To characterise the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), and identify risk factors and outcomes for those with concentrations below the drug interval. Patients treated for tuberculosis (TB) who had rifampicin (RMP) or isoniazid (INH) concentrations measured between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012 were studied retrospectively. Matched concentrations and drug dosing time were assessed according to contemporary regional drug intervals (RMP > 6 μmol/l, INH > 7.5 μmol/l) and current international recommendations (RMP > 10 μmol/l, INH > 22 μmol/l). Outcomes were assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Of 865 patients, 121 had concentrations of either or both medications. RMP concentrations were within the regional drug intervals in 106/114 (93%) and INH in 91/100 (91%). Concentrations were within international drug intervals for RMP in 76/114 (67%) and INH in 53/100 (53%). Low weight-based dose was the only statistically significant risk factor for concentrations below the drug interval. Of the 35 patients with low concentrations, 21 were cured, 9 completed treatment and 5 transferred out. There were no relapses during follow-up (mean 66.5 months). There were no clinically useful characteristics to guide use of TDM. Many patients had concentrations below international therapeutic intervals, but were successfully treated.

  5. Intracranial tuberculosis in children : CT findings before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hye Weon; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Hwang, Yong Seong; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1996-01-01

    To analyze the CT findings of intracranial tuberculosis in children at initial stage and during follow-up after treatment. We evaluated 25 patients who were diagnosed by CSF analysis or response to anti-tuberculous medication as suffering from intracranial tuberculosis. There were 13 boys and 12 girls aged between 4 months and 14 years. Twenty-five initial and sixty-three follow-up CT scans were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated the pattern of cisternal enhancement, the locations of infarction, and the presence of calcification and parenchymal granuloma. The changes of hydrocephalus and related complications, as well as cisternal abnormality during anti-tuberculous medication were also evaluated. The initial findings on CT scan were hydrocephalus(75%), cisternal obliteration in precontrast study(64%), thick-line or ring-shaped cisternal enhancement on postcontrast study(44%), infarctions(32%), calcifications(32%), periventricular edema(28%), and parenchymal granulomas(16%). On follow-up CT scan, hydrocephalus and cisternal enhancement had decreased to 35% and 82%, respectively, and the granulomas had changed to calcified nodules(100%). Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt or external ventricular drainage was needed in nine patient, and ventriculitis or complication of shunt procedure developed in four. Intracranial tuberculosis in children presented predominantly as meningitis involving basal cisterns and was associated with hydrocephalus. Infarction and calcification may be seen as parenchymal lesion. In spite of medical treatment, drainage was needed in about half the patients. During this treatment, the resolution of hydrocephalus, decreased cisternal enhancement, and calcification of the granlomas were seen

  6. First and second line drug resistance among treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a district under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Prasad Myneedu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information of level of drug resistance to first-line and second line anti-tuberculosis agents in treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients from the Indian region. Therefore, the present prospective study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line and second line anti-TB drug resistance in such patients. Sputum samples from consecutive treatment naïve PTB cases registered in Lala Ram Sarup (LRS district, under RNTCP containing 12 Directly Observed Treatment Centre’s (DOTS, were enrolled using cluster sampling technology. A total of 453 samples were received from July 2011 to June 2012. All samples were cultured on solid medium followed by drug susceptibility to first and second line anti-tubercular drugs as per RNTCP guidelines. Primary multi-drug resistance (MDR was found to be 18/453; (4.0%. Extensively drug resistance (XDR was found in one strain (0.2%, which was found to be resistant to other antibiotics. Data of drug resistant tuberculosis among treatment naïve TB patients are lacking in India. The presence of XDR-TB and high MDR-TB in small population studied, calls for conducting systematic multi-centric surveillance across the country.

  7. The Effects of First-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs on the Actions of Vitamin D in Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesdachai, Supavit; Zughaier, Susu M; Hao, Li; Kempker, Russell R; Blumberg, Henry M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Patients with TB have a high rate of vitamin D deficiency, both at diagnosis and during the course of treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Although data on the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) clearance is uncertain from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), vitamin D enhances the expression of the anti-microbial peptide human cathelicidin (hCAP18) in cultured macrophages in vitro. One possible explanation for the mixed (primarily negative) results of RCTs examining vitamin D treatment in TB infection is that anti-TB drugs given to enrolled subjects may impact actions of vitamin D to enhance cathelicidin in macrophages. To address this hypothesis, human macrophage-like monocytic (THP-1) cells were treated with varying doses of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in the presence of the active form of vitamin D, 1N1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ). The expression of hCAP18 was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 strongly induced expression of hCAP18 mRNA in THP-1 cells (fold-change from control). The combination of the standard 4-drug TB therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) in the cultured THP-1 cells demonstrated a significant decrease of hCAP18 mRNA at the dosage of 10 ug/mL. In 31 subjects with newly diagnosed drug-sensitive TB randomized to either high-dose vitamin D 3 (1.2 million IU over 8 weeks, n=13) versus placebo (n=18), there was no change from baseline to week 8 in hCAP18 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in plasma concentrations of LL-37, the protein product of hCAP18.These data suggest that first-line anti-TB drugs may alter the vitamin D-dependent increase in hCAP18 and LL-37 human macrophages.

  8. Safety of Resuming Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Concomitant with the Treatment of Active Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Nationwide Registry of the Korean Society of Spondyloarthritis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Won; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Baek, Han Joo; Seo, Mi Ryung; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Suh, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ju Yang; Son, Chang-Nam; Shim, Seung Cheol; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Geun; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Patients who develop an active tuberculosis infection during tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment typically discontinue TNF inhibitor and receive standard anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, there is currently insufficient information on patient outcomes following resumption of TNF inhibitor treatment during ongoing anti- tuberculosis treatment. Our study was designed to investigate the safety of resuming TNF inhibitors in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who developed tuberculosis as a complication of the use of TNF inhibitors. Methods Through the nationwide registry of the Korean Society of Spondyloarthritis Research, 3929 AS patients who were prescribed TNF inhibitors were recruited between June 2003 and June 2014 at fourteen referral hospitals. Clinical information was analyzed about the patients who experienced tuberculosis after exposure to TNF inhibitors. The clinical features of resumers and non-resumers of TNF inhibitors were compared and the outcomes of tuberculosis were surveyed individually. Findings Fifty-six AS patients were treated for tuberculosis associated with TNF inhibitors. Among them, 23 patients resumed TNF inhibitors, and these patients were found to be exposed to TNF inhibitors for a longer period of time and experienced more frequent disease flare-up after discontinuation of TNF inhibitors compared with those who did not resume. Fifteen patients resumed TNF inhibitors during anti-tuberculosis treatment (early resumers) and 8 after completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (late resumers). Median time to resuming TNF inhibitor from tuberculosis was 3.3 and 9.0 months in the early and late resumers, respectively. Tuberculosis was treated successfully in all resumers and did not relapse in any of them during follow-up (median 33.8 [IQR; 20.8–66.7] months). Conclusions Instances of tuberculosis were treated successfully in our AS patients, even when given concomitantly with TNF inhibitors. We suggest that early

  9. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis Treatment, Lusaka, Zambia. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3 ... TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in ... respondents (89.4%) had positive attitude towards TB treatment ..... respondents described feelings of depression, anger and apathy .... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,. 1979, 37:1-11.

  10. Reactivation of tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with a positive QuantiFERON-RD1 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase Bengaard

    2004-01-01

    A patient with polymyositis developed tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment. Tuberculin Skin Test and chest X-ray failed to demonstrate latent tuberculosis, whereas a blood sample that was tested with a modified QuantiFERON-TB-assay, using the recombinant ESAT-6 and CFP-10, was positive...... indicating that this patient was latently infected before immunosuppressive therapy. This case indicates the risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis given that the subject is RD1 responsive, and we believe that preventive anti-tuberculous treatment could have prevented this case...

  11. [Treatment of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahiro; Fujita, Akira

    2013-12-01

    Early detection and appropriate treatment are the keys to tuberculosis control. In particular, providing appropriate treatment for tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic hepatic disease, or renal failure necessitating hemodialysis, and taking appropriate measures against adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs are issues of critical importance. This mini-symposium, four experts explained the current status of "treatment of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities" and proposed measures to address these problems. Dr. Aoki talked about "HIV infection complicated by tuberculosis." To the next, Dr. Yoshinaga gave a talk on "treatment of tuberculosis in RA patients receiving biological agents. Further, Dr. Sasaki lectured on "tuberculosis in patients with hepatic disease/impairment". Lastly, Dr. Takamori gave a lecture on "tuberculosis in patients with renal disease and those on hemodialysis. Tuberculosis patients often have some underlying diseases, and adverse reactions caused by antituberculosis drugs, such as hepatic and renal impairments, are matters of concern. I believe that this mini-symposium has provided useful information for physicians engaged in tuberculosis treatment and for many other healthcare professionals as well.

  12. Cerebral tuberculoma in a patient receiving anti-TNF alpha (adalimumab) treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Karen

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of a cerebral tuberculoma in a 60-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis while receiving the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody, adalimumab (Humira), for active disease. MR brain imaging for dyspraxia revealed a left parietal ring-enhancing lesion, which on resection was shown to be a necrotizing granuloma. There were no associated pulmonary lesions, and the patient was systemically well. Sputum and urine cultures were negative for tuberculosis. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medications and made an excellent recovery. We consider this to be the first documented case of tuberculosis involving the central nervous system occurring in the setting of adalimumab treatment.

  13. WHO Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy: Epidemiology of Default in Treatment in Agra District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Girdhar, Anita; Chakma, Joy Kumar; Girdhar, Bhuwneswar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To study the magnitude of default, time of default, its causes, and final clinical outcome. Methods. Data collected in active surveys in Agra is analyzed. Patients were given treatment after medical confirmation and were followed up. The treatment default and other clinical outcomes were recorded. Results. Patients who defaulted have comparable demographic characteristics. However, among defaulters more women (62.7% in PB, 42.6% in MB) were seen than those in treatment completers (PB 52.7% and MB 35.9%). Nerve involvement was high in treatment completers: 45.7% in PB and 91.3% in MB leprosy. Overall default rate was lower (14.8%) in ROM than (28.8%) in standard MDT for PB leprosy (χ 1 2 = 11.6, P = 0.001) and also for MB leprosy: 9.1% in ROM compared to 34.5% in MDT (χ 1 2 = 6.0, P = 0.015). Default rate was not different (28.8% versus 34.5%, P > 0.05) in both types of leprosy given MDT. Most patients defaulted at early stage of treatment and mainly due to manageable side effects. Conclusion. The default in standard MDT both for PB and MB leprosy was observed to be significantly higher than in ROM treatment. Most defaults occurred at early stage of treatment and major contribution of default is due to side effects like drowsiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth, related to poor general health. Although about half of the defaulters were observed to be cured 2.2% in PB-MDT and 10.9% of MB-MDT developed disability. This is an issue due to default. Attempts are needed to increase treatment compliance. The use of specially designed disease related health education along with easily administered drug regimens may help to reduce default. PMID:25705679

  14. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaip Krasniqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB. To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188. Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker’s commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  15. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Neziri, Burim

    2017-01-01

    The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109-0.188). Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker's commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  16. The default mode network and the working memory network are not anti-correlated during all phases of a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Tommaso; Valente, Giancarlo; Linden, David E J; Re, Marta; Esposito, Fabrizio; Sack, Alexander T; Di Salle, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network and the working memory network are known to be anti-correlated during sustained cognitive processing, in a load-dependent manner. We hypothesized that functional connectivity among nodes of the two networks could be dynamically modulated by task phases across time. To address the dynamic links between default mode network and the working memory network, we used a delayed visuo-spatial working memory paradigm, which allowed us to separate three different phases of working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval), and analyzed the functional connectivity during each phase within and between the default mode network and the working memory network networks. We found that the two networks are anti-correlated only during the maintenance phase of working memory, i.e. when attention is focused on a memorized stimulus in the absence of external input. Conversely, during the encoding and retrieval phases, when the external stimulation is present, the default mode network is positively coupled with the working memory network, suggesting the existence of a dynamically switching of functional connectivity between "task-positive" and "task-negative" brain networks. Our results demonstrate that the well-established dichotomy of the human brain (anti-correlated networks during rest and balanced activation-deactivation during cognition) has a more nuanced organization than previously thought and engages in different patterns of correlation and anti-correlation during specific sub-phases of a cognitive task. This nuanced organization reinforces the hypothesis of a direct involvement of the default mode network in cognitive functions, as represented by a dynamic rather than static interaction with specific task-positive networks, such as the working memory network.

  17. Plasma vitamins and essential trace elements in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients and at different durations of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Edem

    2015-07-01

    This study concluded that there is micronutrient (Fe, Zn, Cu, Vit A, C, D and E malnutrition in tuberculosis patients at diagnosis and throughout the duration (6 months of chemotherapy. Supplementation with vitamins and zinc is advised within the first 4 months of commencing anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy.

  18. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnabharath S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 23-year-old male patient with tuberculosis verrucous cutis on the foot for a duration of six months without responding to routine treatment. Tuberculosis is a common disease worldwide. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis contributes to 10% of cases. Cutaneous tuberculosis occupies a small spectrum of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis is an exogenous infection occurring in a previously sensitized patient by direct inoculation of the organism. It occurs in sensitized patients with a moderate to high immune response. The diagnosis in our patient was confirmed by history, clinical examination, histopathological examination and the patient’s response to anti-tuberculous therapy.

  19. Successful drug desensitization in patients with delayed-type allergic reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaecho Siripassorn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of anti-tuberculosis drug desensitization. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >18 years, documented tuberculosis infection, a previous cutaneous allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs, and having undergone drug desensitization between January 2003 and March 2014. The definition of allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs included (1 a temporal relationship between drug use and the allergic reaction; (2 improvement in the allergic reaction after drug withdrawal; (3 recurrence of the allergic reaction after reintroduction of only the offending drug; and (4 absence of other causes. Results: A total of 19 desensitization procedures were performed. The drugs used for these procedures were isoniazid (n = 7, rifampicin (n = 6, or ethambutol (n = 6. Of note, severe allergic reactions (Stevens–Johnson syndrome (n = 4, erythema multiforme (n = 3, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (n = 1 were included. All patients underwent resolution of the previous allergic reactions before desensitization. The median duration of desensitization was 18 days. The success rate was 78.9%. The allergic reactions following failed desensitization were not severe; most were maculopapular rashes. Conclusions: The desensitization protocol for anti-tuberculosis drugs was associated with a high success rate, and the individuals who failed desensitization experienced mild allergic reactions. Keywords: Desensitization, Antituberculosis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, Allergic drug reaction, Tolerance induction, Drug allergy

  20. Anti-tuberculosis medication-induced oculogyric crisis and the importance of proper history taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong LH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lin Ho Wong,1 Endean Tan2 1University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore Abstract: Oculogyric crisis (OGC, frequently caused by medications such as antiemetics, antidepressants, and anti-epileptics, is an acute dystonic reaction of the ocular muscles. It consists of wide-staring gaze (lasting variably from seconds to minutes, seizures, and a widely-opened mouth. To date, there have been no reports of anti-tuberculosis medications such as rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide or ethambutol inducing OGC. It is of utmost importance to recognize this adverse reaction, which could be incorrectly diagnosed as an anaphylactic-like reaction. In this paper, we highlight a case of a 66-year-old Indian man who presented with OGC induced by anti-tuberculosis medications which was initially suspected to be an anaphylactic reaction and was subsequently halted with the administration of diphenhydramine. Keywords: oculogyric crisis, tuberculosis, rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, adverse drug reaction 

  1. Nodo-colonic fistula caused by intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis during treatment with anti-tuberculous medication: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Sun; Bae, Kyung Eun; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Lee, Ji Hae; Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Recently, the overall incidence of tuberculosis has decreased, but the incidence of an extrapulmonary manifestation in patients with tuberculosis has increased in the Republic of Korea. Although intestinal tuberculosis is not infrequent, a fistula caused by tuberculosis is a rare condition. A 23-year-old man presented with fever, diarrhea and right lower quadrant pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a lobulated, peripherally enhancing, low density mass in the mesentery. The patient underwent laparoscopic biopsy for necrotic lymph node, and intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis was diagnosed. Four months after initiating treatment with anti-tuberculous medication, the patient developed fever together with lower abdominal pain. A follow-up CT scan revealed a fistulous tract that had developed between the initially noted lymphadenopathy and the proximal ascending colon. Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was performed as a curative treatment. This case suggests that a nodo-colonic fistula may occur as a paradoxical response in patients with intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis during treatment with anti-tuberculous medication.

  2. Tuberculosis treatment outcome in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhary, Zakeya A.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of the chemotherapy for pulmonary, extraplumonary and disseminated tuberculosis is not well documented, especially in developing countries. This study assessed tuberculosis treatment outcome, cure-to-treatment ratio and mortality among all types of tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia. All cases diagnosed and treated for active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection between 1991 and 2000 were included retrospectively. Data collected included type of tuberculosis involvement, treatment outcome, relapse and co-morbidities. Over a ten-year period, 535 case of tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated. Isolated pulmonary tuberculosis was identified in 141 cases (26.4%), extrapulmonary tuberculosis in 339 cases (63.3%). Co-morbidities were noted in 277 (52%) patients. Immunosuppression was found in 181 (34%) cases. The cure rate was 82%. The cure-to-treatment ratio was 86% in extrapulmonary tuberculosis and 65% in disseminated tuberculosis. Overall mortality was 18%. Disseminated tuberculosis had the highest mortality (34.9%), followed by pulmonary (21.8%), the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (13.6%). Forty-seven percent of all mortalities were directly related to tuberculosis. Relapse was documented in 14 out of 349 patients (4%) who had 24 months of follow-up. Despite tertiary care support, complicated tuberculosis carries a high mortality. Earlier diagnosis and complete appropriate chemotherapy are essential for improved outcome. (author)

  3. Market size and sales pattern of tuberculosis drugs in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, T; van Weezenbeek, C; Vianzon, R; Garfin, A M C G; Hiatt, T; Lew, W J; Tisocki, K

    2013-12-21

    To identify the availability, types and quantity of anti-tuberculosis drugs in the public and private sectors from 2007 to 2011 in the Philippines. Analysis of the procurement of and sales data on anti-tuberculosis drugs from both the public and private sectors from 2007 to 2011. Publicly procured anti-tuberculosis drugs were sufficient to treat all reported new tuberculosis (TB) cases from 2007 to 2011 in the Philippines. Nevertheless, the volume of anti-tuberculosis drugs in the private sector would have sufficed for the intensive phase of treatment for an additional 250 000 TB patients annually, assuming compliance with national treatment guidelines. Fixed-dose combination drugs comprised the main bulk (81%) of private market sales, while sales of loose drugs decreased over the years. Combining public and private sales in 2011, 484 725 new TB patients, i.e., 2.4 times the number of notified cases, could have been placed on treatment and treated for at least the intensive phase. Key second-line drugs are not available in the private market, making it impossible to design an adequate treatment regimen for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the private sector. An enormous quantity of anti-tuberculosis drugs was channelled through the private market outside the purview of the Philippine National Tuberculosis Control Program, suggesting significant out-of-pocket expenditure, severe underreporting of TB cases and/or misuse of drugs due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  4. Tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Young Ae

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a significant infectious problem in elderly patients with comorbidities in Korea. The age-associated diseases such as malignancy and diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of tuberculosis in this population. The medication treatments of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities can cause adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs and inadequate treatment responses. Thus, clinicians must carefully monitor the toxicity of antituberculosis therapy and the efficacy of treatmen...

  5. Acupuncture mobilizes the brain's default mode and its anti-correlated network in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kathleen K S; Marina, Ovidiu; Claunch, Joshua D; Nixon, Erika E; Fang, Jiliang; Liu, Jing; Li, Ming; Napadow, Vitaly; Vangel, Mark; Makris, Nikos; Chan, Suk-Tak; Kwong, Kenneth K; Rosen, Bruce R

    2009-09-01

    Previous work has shown that acupuncture stimulation evokes deactivation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) as well as activation of somatosensory brain regions. This study explores the activity and functional connectivity of these regions during acupuncture vs. tactile stimulation and vs. acupuncture associated with inadvertent sharp pain. Acupuncture during 201 scans and tactile stimulation during 74 scans for comparison at acupoints LI4, ST36 and LV3 was monitored with fMRI and psychophysical response in 48 healthy subjects. Clusters of deactivated regions in the medial prefrontal, medial parietal and medial temporal lobes as well as activated regions in the sensorimotor and a few paralimbic structures can be identified during acupuncture by general linear model analysis and seed-based cross correlation analysis. Importantly, these clusters showed virtual identity with the default mode network and the anti-correlated task-positive network in response to stimulation. In addition, the amygdala and hypothalamus, structures not routinely reported in the default mode literature, were frequently involved in acupuncture. When acupuncture induced sharp pain, the deactivation was attenuated or became activated instead. Tactile stimulation induced greater activation of the somatosensory regions but less extensive deactivation of the LPNN. These results indicate that the deactivation of the LPNN during acupuncture cannot be completely explained by the demand of attention that is commonly proposed in the default mode literature. Our results suggest that acupuncture mobilizes the anti-correlated functional networks of the brain to mediate its actions, and that the effect is dependent on the psychophysical response.

  6. [Tuberculosis and drug-resistance tuberculosis in prisoners. Colombia, 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Ingrid T; Llerena, Claudia R; Zabaleta, Angie P

    2015-01-01

    To characterize tuberculosis drug-resistance using anti-tuberculosis drug-sensitivity tests in Colombian prisoners. Descriptive-retrospective analyses were performed on cases of tuberculosis in prisoners. Samples were evaluated by the National Reference Laboratory. Conditions like gender, TB/VIH co-infection and drug-resistance were evaluated. Anti-tuberculosis drug-sensitivity tests were carried out on 72 prisoners. Results showed a distribution of 90.7 % of cases in males and 9.3 % of cases in females. 12 % of cases were TB/VIH co-infections, 94 % of the cases had not received any anti-tuberculosis treatment before, six isolates were drug-resistant corresponding to 8.8 % of total cases, and two cases were multi drug-resistant representing 1.3 % of the cases. Of the drug-resistant cases, 83.3 % were TB/VIH co-infected. Previously treated cases corresponded to 5.6 % of the total cases analyzed. One case with TB/VIH co-infection and rifampicin resistance was observed, representing 1.3 % of the total cases. The government must create a clear policy for prisoners in Colombia, because a high rate of disease in prisoners was observed. In addition, the results showed an association between drug-resistance and TB/VIH co-infection. Overcrowding and low quality of life in penitentiaries could become an important public health problem.

  7. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhingra, V.K.; Arora, V.K.; Rajpal, S.

    2007-01-01

    This is a case report of 26 years old pregnant woman with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), treated at outpatient department of New Delhi Tuberculosis (NDTB) Centre, India with second line agents. Before presentation at NDTB Centre, she had been treated with first line drugs for approximately one and-a-half-year, including category II re-treatment DOTS regimen under RNTCP. Patient conceived twice during her anti-TB treatment. The first one was during her category II treatment, when put on second line drugs. We describe congenital abnormalities documented in her second child exposed in-utero to second line anti-tubercular drugs with a brief review of treatment of MDR TB in pregnancy. (author)

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2016-03-23

    Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure and interaction modelling are used to understand the functional effects of putative mutations and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Methods To investigate the potential utility of these approaches, we analysed the genomes of 144 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) collection sourced from 20 countries in four continents. A genome-wide approach was applied to 127 isolates to identify polymorphisms associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations for first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. In addition, the effect of identified candidate mutations on protein stability and interactions was assessed quantitatively with well-established computational methods. Results The analysis revealed that mutations in the genes rpoB (rifampicin), katG (isoniazid), inhA-promoter (isoniazid), rpsL (streptomycin) and embB (ethambutol) were responsible for the majority of resistance observed. A subset of the mutations identified in rpoB and katG were predicted to affect protein stability. Further, a strong direct correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the distance of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional structures of rpoB and katG to their respective drugs binding sites. Conclusions Using the TDR resource, we demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome association and convergent evolution approaches to detect known and potentially novel mutations associated with drug resistance. Further, protein structural modelling could provide a means of predicting the impact of polymorphisms on drug efficacy in the absence of phenotypic data. These approaches could ultimately lead to novel resistance

  9. Rapid determination of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance from whole-genome sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2015-05-27

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance (DR) challenges effective tuberculosis disease control. Current molecular tests examine limited numbers of mutations, and although whole genome sequencing approaches could fully characterise DR, data complexity has restricted their clinical application. A library (1,325 mutations) predictive of DR for 15 anti-tuberculosis drugs was compiled and validated for 11 of them using genomic-phenotypic data from 792 strains. A rapid online ‘TB-Profiler’ tool was developed to report DR and strain-type profiles directly from raw sequences. Using our DR mutation library, in silico diagnostic accuracy was superior to some commercial diagnostics and alternative databases. The library will facilitate sequence-based drug-susceptibility testing.

  10. Evaluation of isoprinosine to be repurposed as an adjunct anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok K; Yabaji, Shivraj M; Dubey, Rikesh K

    2018-06-01

    Isoprinosine (Inos) or immunovir is a synthetic purine derivative with immune-modulatory and antiviral properties. The drug shows apparent in vivo enhancement of host immune responses by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and rapid proliferation of T-cell subsets. Strikingly, the cytokines induced by Inos also play crucial roles in providing immune resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Inos has been licensed for several antiviral diseases; however, its efficacy against Mtb has not been tested yet. Since Mtb subverts the host immune system to survive within the host. Therefore, we hypothesized that the immune-stimulatory properties of Inos can be explored as an adjunct therapy for the management of tuberculosis. We have also outlined a systematic direction of study to evaluate if Inos could be repurposed for tuberculosis. The in vivo studies for therapeutic evaluation of Inos alone or in combination with the first line anti-TB drugs in a suitable TB disease model would provide a clearer picture of its utility as a host-directed anti-TB drug and may endow us with a new application of an existing drug to combat tuberculosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of MRI features of intracranial tuberculosis and its dynamic evolution during antituberculous treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lifang; Lu Yan; Zhou Xinhua; He Wei; Xie Ruming; Xu Jinping; Ning Fenggang; Zhou Zhen; Zhao Zegang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore MRI features of intracranial tuberculosis, and the dynamic evolution of intracranial tuberculosis during antituberculous treatment. Methods: From September 2009 to February 2012, seventy-two patients with intracranial tuberculosis were reviewed retrospectively. Intracranial tuberculosis lesions were divided into 3 categories: pure parenchymal tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis and hybrid type with both parenchymal tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis. The MRI characteristics of these lesions were analysed. According to the lesion size, pure parenchymal tuberculosis was divided into 3 subtypes: 0.3 cm or less was defined as miliary, >0.3 cm and <1.0 cm as nodule, greater than or equal to 1.0 cm as tuberculoma. Serial follow-up scans were performed in 36 patients, and dynamic MRI changes in the process of anti-tuberculosis treatment during 3 to 6 months were observed. The disappearance rate of the lesions was calculated and statistically analysed by using Chi-square test. Results: There were 883 lesions in 38 cases with parenchymal tuberculosis. Multiple lesions distributed widely, 423 lesions (47.9%) ≤0.3 cm, 330 lesions (37.4%) between 0.3-1.0 cm, and 130 lesions (14.7%) ≥ 1.0 cm. Twenty-four cases with tuberculous meningitis showed meningeal enhancement at basilar cistern. Ten cases with hybrid type presented both parenchymal tuberculosis and meningitis. Among 36 patients with serial MRI follow-up scans, 22 cases were pure parenchymal tuberculosis. The disappearance rates of military, nodules and tuberculomas were 52.2% (59/113), 33.3% (33/99) and 0, respectively, after 3 months treatment. The disappearance rates were 87.6% (99/113), 50.5% (50/99) and 18.2% (2/11), respectively, after 6 months treatment. Disappearance rate of miliary lesions was obviously higher than that of nodules at both 3 and 6 months, and the difference was statistically significant,(χ 2 =7.657, 34.786, P<0.01). Nine lesions of parenchymal tuberculosis enlarged

  12. Tuberculosis incidence and treatment completion among Ugandan prison inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitters, A.; Kaggwa, M.; Omiel, P.; Nagadya, G.; Kisa, N.; Dalal, S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. RESULTS A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners. PMID:24902552

  13. Analysis of the economic burden of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H-Q; Bele, S; Feng, Y; Qiu, S-S; Lü, J-Q; Tang, S-W; Shen, H-B; Wang, J-M; Zhu, L-M

    2013-12-01

    A county in Jiangsu Province, China. To estimate the costs of the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) from the patient's perspective and to identify determinants of the patient's financial burden. In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 316 patients diagnosed from January 2010 to May 2011 who had already completed their anti-tuberculosis treatment. The financial burden on TB patients included out-of-pocket costs and productivity losses. The average per capita total out-of-pocket cost was 3024.0 Chinese yuan (CNY), with a median cost of 1086 CNY (interquartile range [IQR] 480-2456). Mean out-of-pocket medical and non-medical costs were respectively 2565.7 CNY and 458.3 CNY. Productivity lost by patients and family members was 2615.2 CNY (median 500, IQR 250-2025). Factors associated with out-of-pocket costs and productivity losses included hospitalisation, adverse drug reactions, cost of drugs to 'protect' the liver, cost of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs and diagnostic delay. Although the government of China has implemented a 'free TB service policy', the economic burden on patients is still heavy. More patient-centred interventions are essential to reduce the financial burden on patients.

  14. Drug therapy in spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Khandelwal, Gaurav

    2013-06-01

    Although the discovery of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs has made uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis a medical disease, the advent of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the co-infection of HIV with tuberculosis have led to a resurgence of the disease recently. The principles of drug treatment of spinal tuberculosis are derived from our experience in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is classified to be a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and hence is included in Category I of the WHO classification. The tuberculosis bacilli isolated from patients are of four different types with different growth kinetics and metabolic characteristics. Hence multiple drugs, which act on the different groups of the mycobacteria, are included in each anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. Prolonged and uninterrupted chemotherapy (which may be 'short course' and 'intermittent' but preferably 'directly observed') is effective in controlling the infection. Spinal Multi-drug-resistant TB and spinal TB in HIV-positive patients present unique problems in management and have much poorer prognosis. Failure of chemotherapy and emergence of drug resistance are frequent due to the failure of compliance hence all efforts must be made to improve patient compliance to the prescribed drug regimen.

  15. Active tuberculosis patients have high levels of IgA anti-alpha-crystallin and isocitrate lyase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera-Paulín, M; García-Morales, L; Ruíz-Sánchez, B P; Caamal-Ley, Á D; Hernández-Solis, A; Ramírez-Casanova, E; Cicero-Sabido, R; Espitia, C; Helguera-Repetto, C; González-Y-Merchand, J A; Flores-Mejía, R; Estrada-Parra, S; Estrada-García, I; Chacón-Salinas, R; Wong-Baeza, I; Serafín-López, J

    2016-12-01

    Mexico City, Mexico. To identify proteins synthetised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hypoxic culture, which resemble more closely a granuloma environment than aerobic culture, and to determine if they are recognised by antibodies from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Soluble extracts from M. tuberculosis H37Rv cultured under aerobic or hypoxic conditions were analysed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and proteins over-expressed under hypoxia were identified by mass spectrometry. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM antibodies against these proteins was determined in the serum of 42 patients with active PTB and 42 healthy controls. We selected three M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins (alpha-crystallin protein [Acr, Rv2031c], universal stress protein Rv2623 and isocitrate lyase [ICL, RV0467]) that were over-expressed under hypoxia. Titres of anti-Acr and anti-ICL IgA antibodies were higher in patients than in healthy controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 for anti-ICL IgA antibodies. ICL could be used in combination with other M. tuberculosis antigens to improve the sensitivity and specificity of current serological TB diagnostic methods.

  16. Retrospective assessment of the status and determinants of tuberculosis treatment outcome among patients treated in government hospitals in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemeskel S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Hailemeskel,1 Osman Yimer Mohammed,1 Abdurahman Mohammed Ahmed2 1Department of Midwifery, 2Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Institute of Medicine and Health Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia Background: One of the specific targets of Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course detailed in the updated Global Plan (2011–2015 was to achieve a treatment success rate of 87% by 2015. This strategy was introduced to Ethiopia in 1995 to reach full coverage in 2005; however, by 2009, treatment had not been as successful as expected.Objective: This study was conducted to determine treatment success rate and identify risk factors for tuberculosis (TB treatment outcomes in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all TB patients (739 who registered for TB treatment from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2014 at public hospitals in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia. Data were gathered by using a pretested structured medical record checklist. Four data collectors and two supervisors were involved in gathering the data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression and were entered into Epi Info and analyzed by using the SPSS software package version 20.Results: This study revealed that the TB treatment success rate was 86.1% (169 [22.9%] cured and 467 [63.2%] completed. In addition, 22 (3% of the study participants defaulted their treatment of which 19 (86.4% withdrew during the intensive phase. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that the study year of treatment, sputum smear positivity at the second-month follow-up, history of treatment default, and subsequent hospitalization were significantly associated with the TB treatment outcome.Conclusion: The TB treatment success rate in the study area was low compared to that estimated by World Health Organization to achieve by 2015. Therefore

  17. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. OBJECTIVES: To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. METHODS......: A representative sample of 30 treatment units was randomly selected. All patient treatment cards enrolled in these units were obtained, and data were double-entered and validated before calculating the adequacy of the individual drug prescriptions. RESULTS: Of 3412 tuberculosis treatment cards, 3225 (94.5%) had...

  18. Performance and treatment outcome of tuberculosis among patients on Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Urban and Tribal areas of a district in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshakti Dattatray Pawar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP was introduced in the country as a pilot project since 1993 in a phased manner and expanded throughout the country by the year 2005. Although studies have shown the success of RNTCP, data pertaining to the indicators of programme performance in urban and tribal set up are rare. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the RNTCP in urban and tribal areas of Maharashtra through the indicators of performance and outcome of the patients. Patients and Methods: A retrospective comparative record-based study was conducted in selected urban and tribal areas' tuberculosis (TB units. Records of patients enrolled newly for TB treatment and those already undergoing treatment under RNTCP from April 2015 to September 2015 (6 months were considered for analysis. Chi-square test and Z-test (test of significance are applied where required by using Epi Info 7 and Microsoft Excel 2010.Results: Sputum smear collection was significantly higher in urban areas (P = 0.001. In urban areas, new TB case detection was 35%, while in tribal areas, it was 42% as per the RNTCP norms. Sputum positivity was marginally more in tribal (5.87% than urban (3.28% areas. Cure rate was more in urban areas than tribal (P = 0.001 areas. There were statistically significantly high default cases in tribal areas. Conclusions: Sputum collection and sputum positivity rate were low in urban and tribal areas, but TB screening, especially in tribal areas, was significantly low. Sputum positivity was significantly higher in tribal areas. Significantly low cure rate and high default rate in tribal area warrant the need for strengthening of RNTCP activities in tribal areas.

  19. Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Patrick; Johnston, James

    2017-01-01

    Opinion statement The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential component of tuberculosis (TB) elimination in regions that have a low incidence of TB. However, the decision to treat individuals with LTBI must consider the limitations of current diagnostic tests for LTBI, the risk of developing active TB disease, the potential adverse effects from chemoprophylactic therapy, and the importance of treatment adherence. When an individual has been diagnosed with LTBI and ac...

  20. Inappropriate Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens in Chinese Tuberculosis Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue He, Guang; van den Hof, Susan; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Guo, Hui; Hu, Yuan Lian; Fan, Ji Huan; Zhang, Wei Min; Tostado, Christopher P.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens in 6 TB hospitals in China showed that only 18% of patients with new cases and 9% of patients with retreatment cases were prescribed standard TB treatment regimens. Adherence to treatment guidelines needs to be improved in TB hospitals to

  1. Investigation of Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples Against the First and Second-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs by the Sensititre MycoTB Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen KAYSERİLİ ORHAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenotypic methods for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC to second-line drugs are not yet standardized. The Sensititre MycoTB Plate is a microtiter plate containing lyophilized antibiotics and configured for determination of MIC to first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The purpose of this study is to detect the susceptibility rates of MTC strains isolated from patients’ specimens for first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Materials and Methods: This study included 50 MTC strains isolated from various clinical specimens. Out of the 50 strains, 38 were isolated from sputum, three from cerebrospinal fluid, three from bronchoalveolar lavage, and six from other samples in this study. The susceptibility of strains to anti-tuberculosis drugs were determined by the Sensititre MycoTB Plate Method. Thawed isolates were subcultured, and dilutions were inoculated into MycoTB wells. The results were read at days 7, 14 and 21. Results: At the end of study, out of 50 MTC isolates, 7 (14% showed resistance to Isoniazid (INH, 5 (10% to streptomycin (SM, 4 (8% to ethambutol (EMB, 4 (8% to ethionamide (ETH, 3 (6% to rifampicin (RIF, 3 (6% to rifabutin (RFB, 2 (4% to kanamycin (KAN, 2 (4% to ofloxacin (OFL, 2 (4% to P-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS, 1 (2% to moxiflocacin (MOX, and 1 (2% to cycloserine (CYC. All strains were found sensitive to amikacin while 2 strains (4% were identified as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Thirty-five strains (70% were sensitive to all drugs. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB was not determined in this study. Conclusion: This is the first study that tests second line anti-tuberculosis drugs in our location and provides us valuable data regarding MDR-TB and XDR-TB rates. The Sensititre MycoTB Plate Method is a fast, reliable and practical method and can be used to determine the susceptibility of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  2. IMPACT OF THE FORM OF MEDICATION ON TREATMENT ADHERENCE IN RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Tyulkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study: to investigate treatment adherence in respiratory tuberculosis patients depending on the choice of therapy.Subjects and methods: retrospective full-design study. The case histories of adult new tuberculosis cases who were treated in TB Dispensary in 2015 were analyzed. The groups were formed based on the intake of combined drugs with fixed doses (1 tablet contained 60 mg of isoniazid, 120 mg of rifampicin, 300 mg of pyrazinamide, 225 mg of ethambutol, and 20 mg of pyridoxine – Group 1 (n = 38; or separate tablets in the doses as per drug use instructions (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol – Group 2 (n = 78. The groups were compatible as per sex, age, and clinical manifestations of tuberculosis. Patients from Group 1 with the weight of 60 kg received 5 tablets and patients from Group 2 received more than 12 tablets. Patients' adherence to treatment was assessed as per regularity of intake and number of doses during the intensive phase of treatment.Results. Patients from Group 1 were regularly taking anti-tuberculosis drugs, while in Group 2 there were interruptions of treatment (7-21 days in 12 (15.4% patients. In Group, the intensive phase increased up to 90.2 ± 30.6 doses and in Group 2 this increase made 131.6 ± 65.4 doses due to late sputum conversion. In Group 1, sputum conversion was achieved during the first month of treatment in 60% of patients; and in Group 2 – in 10% of cases (p = 0.044. The frequency of transaminase elevation as a side effect was higher in Group 1, but it did not result in discontinuation of drugs. Thus, the intake of combined medication with fixed doses improved tuberculosis patients' adherence to treatment.

  3. Evaluation of Anti-TBGL Antibody in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Patients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingge Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous glycolipid (TBGL is a component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall, and anti-TBGL antibodies are used for serodiagnosis of tuberculosis. Anti-TBGL IgG and IgA levels were measured in 45 pulmonary TB patients (PTB, 26 extra-pulmonary TB patients (ETB, 16 AIDS-TB patients, and 58 healthy controls (HC including 39 health care workers (HW and 19 newly enrolled students (ST. Anti-TBGL IgG measurements yielded 68.9% and 46.2% sensitivity in PTB and ETB, respectively, and 81.0% specificity. However, anti-TBGL IgA measurements were significantly less sensitive in detecting ETB than PTB (15.4% versus 46.7% sensitivity but showed up to 89.7% specificity. Samples from AIDS-TB patients exhibited low reaction of anti-TBGL IgG and IgA with 6.3% and 12.5% sensitivity, respectively. Unlike anti-lipoarabinomannan (LAM IgG that was found to elevate in sputum smearpositive subjects, anti-TBGL IgG and IgA elevated in those with cavitation and bronchiectasis, respectively. Anti-TBGL IgG in cavitary TB yielded 78.2% sensitivity compared to 57.1% in those otherwise. Meanwhile, higher anti-TBGL IgA titers were observed in HW than in ST, and increasing anti-TBGL IgG titers were observed in HW on follow-up. Therefore, higher anti-TBGL antibody titers are present in patients presenting cavities and bronchiectasis and subjects under TB exposure risk.

  4. Efficacy of amikacin and ciprofloxacin against clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, M.; Faqir, F.; Sattar, A.; Abbasi, S.; Butt, T.; Karamat, K.A.; Abidi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis was a leading cause of death at the turn of the 20 century and continues to be one of the medical scourges of mankind. Before the availability of antimicrobial drugs the cornerstone of treatment was rest in the open air in sanatoria. The major breakthrough in treatment of tuberculosis came with the discovery of Streptomycin. Later, INH, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Rifampicin were added to the arsenal. Objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against two second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi. All routine clinical samples received for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the Department of Microbiology, AFIP, Rawalpindi were processed by modified Petroff's technique and inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and Bactec 460 Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture system. After identification of M. tuberculosis sensitivity was performed against first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Then susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates against Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin was performed on LJ medium. H37Rv was used as control strain. Results: Results were interpreted using resistance ratio method. Out of 100 M. tuberculosis isolates, 98% were sensitive to Amikacin and 97% to Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin are very effective second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against tuberculosis isolates in our set-up. (author)

  5. Prescription practice of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Yunnan, China: A clinical audit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    Full Text Available China has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. As irrational use and inadequate dosing of anti-TB drugs may contribute to the epidemic of drug-resistant TB, we assessed the drug types and dosages prescribed in the treatment of TB cases in a representative sample of health care facilities in Yunnan.We applied multistage cluster sampling using probability proportion to size to select 28 counties in Yunnan. Consecutive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled from either the TB centers of Yunnan Center of Disease Control or designated TB hospitals. Outcomes of interest included the regimen used in the treatment of new and retreatment TB patients; and the proportion of patients treated with adequate dosing of anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, we assess whether there has been reduction in the use of fluoroquinolone and second line injectables in Tuberculosis Clinical Centre (TCC after the training activity in late 2012.Of 2390 TB patients enrolled, 582 (24.4% were prescribed second line anti-TB drugs (18.0% in new cases and 60.9% in retreatment cases; 363(15.2% prescribed a fluoroquinolone. General hospitals (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.47-2.66, retreatment TB cases (adjOR 4.75, 95% CI 3.59-6.27, smear positive cases (adjOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.33, and extrapulmonary TB (adjOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.66-4.03 were significantly associated with the use of fluoroquinolones. The proportion of patients treated with fluoroquinolones decreased from 41.4% before 2013 to 13.5% after 2013 (adjOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.28 in TCC. The proportion of patients with correct, under and over dosages of isoniazid was 88.2%, 1.5%, and 10.4%, respectively; of rifampicin was 50.2%, 46.8%, and 2.9%; of pyrazinamide was 67.6%, 31.7% and 0.7%; and of ethambutol was 41.4%, 57.5%, and 1.0%.The prescribing practice of anti-TB drugs was not standardized, findings with significant programmatic implication.

  6. Evaluation of treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients in the urban field practice area of D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkrishan Lanjewar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB bacilli have lived in symbiosis with mankind since time immemorial. RNTCP is the largest and the fastest expanding programme throughout the world as 1.29 million patients in 2005, 1.39 million patients in 2006 and 1.48 million patients in 2007 were enrolled for treatment. In 2008, 1.51 million patients have already been placed on treatment. Treatment success rates have tripled from 25% to 86% & TB death rates have been cut 7 fold from 29% to 4% in comparison to the pre-RNTCP (Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme era.[1] Objective: To study treatment outcome in the form of cure rate, treatment completion rate, failure rate, death rate in the study area. Method: An ambispective study was done in urban field practice area attached to Padamshree Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College Pimpri, Pune. The study was carried out during 1st July 2011 - 30th September 2013. Results: A total 429 subjects were enrolled in the study of which, 224(52.24% were successfully completed the treatment, followed by 110(25.54% which were cured, 34(07.92% were defaulted, 28(06.52% were transferred out, 17(03.96% died and 16(03.72% underwent treatment failure during the study period. Conclusion: In spite, of many efforts by RNTCP to treat tuberculosis patients it was found only 50 % of the subjects successfully completed the treatment.

  7. Controlling the Seedbeds of Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Marais, Ben J.; Thim, Sok; Martinson, Neil A.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a critical opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programs focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programs that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control may continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly utilized tool that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the current epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. This paper outlines challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provides pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. It further advocates for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed global focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics, and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems, community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programs. PMID:26515679

  8. Structure/activity of Pt{sup II}/N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea complexes: Anti-tumor and anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plutín, Ana M.; Alvarez, Anislay; Mocelo, Raúl; Ramos, Raúl; Sánchez, Osmar C. [Laboratorio de Síntesis Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Castellano, Euardo E. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Monize M. da; Villarreal, Wilmer; Colina-Vegas, Legna; Batista, Alzir A. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Pavan, Fernando R., E-mail: anap@fq.uh.cu, E-mail: daab@ufscar.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2018-05-01

    The syntheses, characterization, cytotoxicity against tumor cells and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity assays of Pt{sup II}/PPh{sub 3}/N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthioureas complexes with general formulae [Pt(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)]PF{sub 6}, PPh{sub 3} = triphenylphosphine; L = N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea, are here reported. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ({sup 1} H, {sup 13}C{1 H} and {sup 31}P{"1 H}) spectroscopy. The {sup 31}P{"1 H} NMR data are consistent with the presence of two PPh{sup 3} ligands cis to each other position, and one N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea coordinated to the metal through O and S, in a chelate form. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography, forming distorted square-planar structures. The complexes were tested in human cell lines carcinomas and also screened with respect to their anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity (H37RvATCC 27294). It was found that complexes with N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea containing open and small chains as R2 groups show higher cytotoxic and higher anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity than those containing rings in this position. (author)

  9. Smoking prolongs the infectivity of patients with tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siddiqui, U A

    2010-10-01

    We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.

  10. Latent tuberculosis infection screening prior to biological treatment in Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouma, Marwa; Mahmoud, Ines; Saidane, Olfa; Bouden, Selma; Abdelmoula, Leila

    2017-10-01

    The screening of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is necessary to prevent infection in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (CID) undergoing biological treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy of LTBI screening prior to biological treatment in Tunisia, considered as a high-incidence area of active TB disease. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 8 years [2007-2014] including patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatism receiving biologic agents since at least 6 months. The screening of LTBI was performed according to national Tunisian guidelines. There were 35 men and 78 women. The mean age was 47.67±13.50 years. Rheumatoid arthritis (70.8%) was the most common cause of CID. The diagnosis of LTBI was established in 23 cases. Among these 23 patients, 12 patients had negative tuberculin skin test (TST) associated with positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G), 10 had TST more than 10mm, one patient had a TST between 5 and 10mm associated with positive QFT-G and one patient had a history of tuberculosis inadequately treated. Preventive anti-tuberculous therapy was prescribed before biological therapy initiation in cases of LTBI. During the follow-up period (3.91 years), no case of tuberculosis reactivation has been reported among patients diagnosed with LTBI. However, 2 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis were reported in patients with initially negative TST and QFT-G. Our study showed that the Tunisian recommendations allowed detecting a LTBI in 20% of biologic therapy candidates. Preventive measures including screening of LTBI and eventually a prophylactic treatment improve the safety of biological treatments. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency of tuberculosis in haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Badsha; Raza, S.; Ahmed, P.; Ullah, K.; Hussain, C.A.; Hussain, I.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess magnitude of tuberculosis (TB) in patients suffering from various haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Patients and Methods: Patients suffering from various haematological malignancies treated between July 2001 and December 2002 were included in the study. The hospital records and out-patient follow-up charts were reviewed for demographic information, diagnosis, clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological and pathological examinations, sites involved in TB, methods of diagnosis, number and type of anti-tuberculosis drugs given and response to treatment. Results: During the study period a total of 213 (including 25 allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients) patients with different haematological disorders were treated. Out of these, 34, including 4 SCT recipients developed tuberculosis. Overall frequency of TB was 16 %. Median age of TB patients was 33.5 years (range 8-80 years). Median time between diagnosis of haematological disorders and tuberculosis was 21 weeks. Sites of involvement by TB were lung (18), disseminated (6), lymph node (5), pleura (2), spine (2) and pericardium (1). Three of the patients died of TB; one undiagnosed, second with multi-drug resistant TB and the third soon after the start of anti-tuberculosis treatment while remaining 31 cases responded to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is a major problem in immunocompromised patients and there is need to establish guidelines for TB chemoprophylaxis in our setup. (author)

  12. Evaluation of outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) for treatment of severe acute malnutrition in Yemen: a focus on treatment default and its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amad, Mohammed; Al-Eryani, Lina; Al Serouri, Abdulwahed; Khader, Yousef S

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to measure the treatment default rate among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) who were admitted to the outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) in Yemen and determine its risk factors. A prospective study was conducted among children with SAM who were newly admitted to the 11 OTPs in primary health centres of Sana'a city. A pretested semistructured questionnaire was used for data collection at admission and at after 2 months of admission to the OTP. Univariate and multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression were used to analyse the risk factors of treatment default. This study included 339 SAM children. Of those, 186 (55%) children discharged as defaulters, 141 (42%) were cured, and 12 (3%) were transferred to other treatment sites. Many factors related to poor accessibility, poor satisfaction with staff and system, and treatment and acceptability of OTP services factors were significantly associated with treatment default. Having difficulty to attend OTP every week (OR 8.4), unavailability of medication during follow-up visits (OR 5.0), not liking to eat Plumpy'Nut (OR 5.8), and not gaining weight since the start of treatment (OR 9.3) were the strongest predictors of treatment default. This study showed a high default rate among SAM children in Sana'a city. Factors related to poor accessibility, poor satisfaction with staff and system, and factors related to treatment and acceptability of OTP services were significantly associated with high default rate. Expansion of OTP services and training OTPs staff on SAM treatment protocols are highly recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Factors associated with treatment adherence for tuberculosis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmen R; Gea Velázquez de Castro, María Teresa; Requena Puche, Juana; Miralles Bueno, Juan José; Rigo Medrano, María Vicenta; Aranaz Andrés, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze adherence to treatment of tuberculosis infection and to identify risk factors for its compliance. An observational historical cohort study. Hospital Universitari Sant Joan d'Alacant (Alicante). All patients with a tuberculin skin test (TST) done during tuberculosis contact tracing during 6 years. We included 764 tuberculosis contacts in the analysis. 59.7% of the 566 patients who completed the contact tracing, had tuberculosis infection (TI). Of the patients with TI, 45.6% had not started treatment for tuberculosis infection (TTBI). Factors associated with not starting TTBI were: age (36-65 years, RR: 5.8; 95% CI: 1.2-27.5, and > 65 years, RR: 11.3; 95% CI: 2.0-64.0), the social relationship with TB case (RR: 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-3.8), and the TST reaction (≥ 15mm; RR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9). The completion rate for TTBI was 80.4% among people who started therapy. The treatment regimen was associated with greater compliance to TTBT (7-9H, RR: 12.7; 95% CI: 1.5-107.3). The treatment compliance rate of Tuberculosis infection was high among people who started therapy. Almost a half of the contacts with TI did not start treatment, and associated factors were: age, social relationship, and the TST reaction. The treatment regimen was associated with greater compliance. It is important to know the factors associated with adherence to treatment of TI in each health area, and focus efforts on risk groups; thereby approaching the global control of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients at a referral hospital in Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Darshan; Kaushik, Rajeev M; Kaushik, Reshma; Rawat, Jagdish; Kakkar, Rajesh

    2013-09-01

    Initial default is a serious issue which can enhance the transmission of TB. We determined the magnitude of and the causative factors for initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. In this prospective study, 2310 patients attending a referral hospital in Uttarakhand state, north India, with presumptive TB were investigated and 555 patients with sputum-positive PTB were followed-up for initiation of anti-TB treatment (ATT) during 2010-2012. The patients not confirmed as having started ATT were considered initial defaulters. Initial default was seen in 120 (21.6%) patients comprising 22 (18.3%) defaulters during diagnosis and 98 (81.6%) defaulters after referral for directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The initial default rate was significantly higher among patients from rural areas than urban areas, illiterate patients than literate patients and smokeless tobacco-users than non-users (pdefault among patients referred for DOTS were limited trust in DOTS (n = 44, 44.8%), adverse effects of previous ATT (n = 41, 41.8%), dissatisfaction with health services (n = 38, 38.7%), local deaths while taking DOTS (n = 28, 28.5%), advice by others against DOTS (n = 25, 25.5%), disbelief in the diagnosis (n = 18, 18.3%) and patient death before starting treatment (n = 4, 4.0%). A high initial default rate was seen among patients with PTB. There is an urgent need to promote public awareness to lower the initial default rate.

  15. The Role of Efflux Pumps in Tuberculosis Treatment and Their Promise as a Target in Drug Development: Unraveling the Black Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, Lindsey H.M.; de Knegt, Gerjo J.; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E.; van Dam, Teunis J.P.; Burger, David M; Russel, Frans G M; van Crevel, Reinout; Koenderink, Jan B.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.

    2018-01-01

    Insight into drug transport mechanisms is highly relevant to the efficacious treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Major problems in TB treatment are related to the transport of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs across human and mycobacterial membranes, affecting the concentrations of these drugs

  16. Risk factors associated with default among new pulmonary TB patients and social support in six Russian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowiak, W M; Bogorodskaya, E M; Borisov, S E; Borisov, E S; Danilova, I D; Danilova, D I; Kourbatova, E V; Kourbatova, E K

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) services in six Russian regions in which social support programmes for TB patients were implemented. To identify risk factors for default and to evaluate possible impact of social support. Retrospective study of new pulmonary smear-positive and smear-negative TB patients registered during the second and third quarters of the 2003. Data were analysed in a case-control study including default patients as cases and successfully treated patients as controls, using multivariate logistic regression modelling. A total of 1805 cases of pulmonary TB were enrolled. Default rates in the regions were 2.3-6.3%. On multivariate analysis, risk factors independently associated with default outcome included: unemployment (OR 4.44; 95%CI 2.23-8.86), alcohol abuse (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.04-3.81), and homelessness (OR 3.49; 95%CI 1.25-9.77). Social support reduced the default outcome (OR 0.13; 95%CI 0.06-0.28), controlling for age, sex, region, residence and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear of sputum. Unemployment, alcohol abuse and homelessness were associated with increased default outcome among new TB patients, while social support for TB patients reduced default. Further prospective randomised studies are necessary to evaluate the impact and to determine the most cost-effective social support for improving treatment outcomes of TB in patients in Russia, especially among populations at risk of default.

  17. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  18. review of compliance to anti tuberculosis treatment and risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study is to assess anti TB treatment compliance and the factors predictive for poor adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa in the last 10 years. Methods: We searched Medline for articles written in English using the terms: "Patient Compliance"[Mesh] OR "Medication Adherence"[Mesh])) AND ...

  19. PROPOSAL OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS REGIMENS BASED ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPICIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Moore, David AJ; Alarcón, Valentina; Samalvides, Frine; Seas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elaborate optimal anti-tuberculosis regimens following drug susceptibility testing (DST) to isoniazid (H) and rifampicin (R). Design 12 311 M. tuberculosis strains (National Health Institute of Peru 2007-2009) were classified in four groups according H and R resistance. In each group the sensitivity to ethambutol (E), pirazinamide (Z), streptomycin (S), kanamycin (Km), capreomycin (Cm), ciprofloxacin (Cfx), ethionamide (Eto), cicloserine (Cs) and p-amino salicilic acid (PAS) was determined. Based on resistance profiles, domestic costs, and following WHO guidelines, we elaborated and selected optimal putative regimens for each group. The potential efficacy (PE) variable was defined as the proportion of strains sensitive to at least three or four drugs for each regimen evaluated. Results Selected regimes with the lowest cost, and highest PE of containing 3 and 4 effective drugs for TB sensitive to H and R were: HRZ (99,5%) and HREZ (99,1%), respectively; RZECfx (PE=98,9%) and RZECfxKm (PE=97,7%) for TB resistant to H; HZECfx (96,8%) and HZECfxKm (95,4%) for TB resistant to R; and EZCfxKmEtoCs (82.9%) for MDR-TB. Conclusion Based on resistance to H and R it was possible to select anti-tuberculosis regimens with high probability of success. This proposal is a feasible alternative to tackle tuberculosis in Peru where the access to rapid DST to H and R is improving progressively. PMID:23949502

  20. Supplementary Material for: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure and interaction modelling are used to understand the functional effects of putative mutations and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Methods To investigate the potential utility of these approaches, we analysed the genomes of 144 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) collection sourced from 20 countries in four continents. A genome-wide approach was applied to 127 isolates to identify polymorphisms associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations for first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. In addition, the effect of identified candidate mutations on protein stability and interactions was assessed quantitatively with well-established computational methods. Results The analysis revealed that mutations in the genes rpoB (rifampicin), katG (isoniazid), inhA-promoter (isoniazid), rpsL (streptomycin) and embB (ethambutol) were responsible for the majority of resistance observed. A subset of the mutations identified in rpoB and katG were predicted to affect protein stability. Further, a strong direct correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the distance of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional structures of rpoB and katG to their respective drugs binding sites. Conclusions Using the TDR resource, we demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome association and convergent evolution approaches to detect known and potentially novel mutations associated with drug resistance. Further, protein structural modelling could provide a means of predicting the impact of polymorphisms on drug efficacy in the absence of phenotypic data. These approaches could ultimately lead to novel

  1. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhvaryu MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Meghna Adhvaryu1, Bhasker Vakharia21Department of Biotechnology, SRK Institute of Computer Education and Applied Sciences, 2R&D, Bhuma Research in Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, Surat, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and

  2. The susceptibility of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury and chronic hepatitis C infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-En; Huang, Yi-Shin; Chang, Chih-Hao; Perng, Chin-Lin; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Hou, Ming-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATDILI) is a major safety concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The impact of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection on the risk of ATDILI is still controversial. We aimed to assess the influence of CHC infection on ATDILI through a systematic review and meta-analysis. We systemically reviewed all English-language literature in the major medical databases with the subject search terms "anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury" and "anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity". We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the papers relevant to hepatitis C in qualified publications. A total of 14 studies were eligible for analysis, which included 516 cases with ATDILI and 4301 controls without ATDILI. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of all studies for CHC infection to ATDILI was 3.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30-4.49). Subgroup analysis revealed that the CHC carriers had a higher risk of ATDILI than those without CHC both in Asians (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.79-4.90) and Caucasians (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.70-6.14), in those receiving standard four combination anti-TB therapy (OR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.95-4.41) and isoniazid monotherapy (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 2.36-7.40), in those with a strict definition of DILI (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] > 5 upper limit of normal value [ULN], OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.58-4.25) and a loose definition of DILI (ALT > 2 or 3 ULN, OR = 4.34, 95% CI: 2.96-6.37), and in prospective studies (OR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.93-5.90) and case-control studies (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.29-4.58). This meta-analysis suggests that CHC infection may increase the risk of ATDILI. Regular liver tests are mandatory for CHC carriers under anti-TB therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. Sensitivity Pattern of Second Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs against Clinical Isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, T.; Ikram, A.; Abbasi, S. A.; Zaman, G.; Ayyub, M.; Palomino, J. C.; Vandamme, P.; Martin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the current sensitivity pattern of second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against clinical isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from November 2011 to April 2013. Methodology: Samples received during the study period were processed on BACTEC MGIT 960 system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture followed by first line drugs susceptibility testing of culture proven MTB isolates. On the basis of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, 100 clinical isolates of MDR-TB were further subjected to susceptibility testing against amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CAP), ofloxacin (OFL) and ethionamide (ETH) as per standard BACTEC MGIT 960 instructions. Results: Out of 100 MDR-TB isolates, 62% were from male patients and 38% from female patients. 97% were sensitive to AMK, 53% to OFL, 87% to CAP; and 87% were sensitive to ETH. Conclusion: The majority of the MDR-TB isolates showed excellent sensitivity against AMK, CAP and ETH. However, sensitivity of MDR-TB isolates against fluoroquinolones like OFL was not encouraging. (author)

  4. Anti-tuberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity among Ethiopian HIV-positive and negative patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB patients in Ethiopia.In this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors and monitored biochemically and clinically for development of DIH. Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was observed in 17.3% of the patients and 8 out of the 197 (4.1% developed clinical hepatotoxicity. Seven of the 8 were HIV positive and 2 were positive for HBsAg.Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HIV co-infection (p = 0.002, concomitant drug intake (p = 0.008, and decrease in CD4 count (p = 0.001. Stepwise restarting of anti TB treatment was also successful in almost all the patients who developed clinical DIH. We therefore conclude that anti-TB DIH is a major problem in HIV-associated TB with a decline in immune status and that there is a need for a regular biochemical and clinical follow up for those patients who are at risk.

  5. Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology consensus on tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. Part 2: management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Il Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 2 of the statements comprised 3 parts: management of latent TB in preparation for anti-TNF therapy, monitoring during anti-TNF therapy, and management of an active TB infection after anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

  6. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.

  7. A Review of Moxifloxacin for the Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Anushka; Naidoo, Kogieleum; McIlleron, Helen; Essack, Sabiha; Padayatchi, Nesri

    2017-11-01

    Moxifloxacin, an 8-methoxy quinolone, is an important drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and is being investigated in novel drug regimens with pretomanid, bedaquiline, and pyrazinamide, or rifapentine, for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Early results of these studies are promising. Although current evidence does not support the use of moxifloxacin in treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, it may be recommended in patients unable to tolerate standard first-line drug regimens or for isoniazid monoresistance. Evidence suggests that the standard 400-mg dose of moxifloxacin used in the treatment of tuberculosis may be suboptimal in some patients, leading to worse tuberculosis treatment outcomes and emergence of drug resistance. Furthermore, a drug interaction with the rifamycins results in up to 31% reduced plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin when these are combined for treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, although the clinical relevance of this interaction is unclear. Moxifloxacin exhibits extensive interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Higher doses of moxifloxacin may be needed to achieve drug exposures required for improved clinical outcomes. Further study is, however, needed to determine the safety of proposed higher doses and clinically validated targets for drug exposure to moxifloxacin associated with improved tuberculosis treatment outcomes. We discuss in this review the evidence for the use of moxifloxacin in drug-susceptible tuberculosis and explore the role of moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug interactions with rifamycins, on tuberculosis treatment outcomes when used in first-line tuberculosis drug regimens. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Velez-Segovia, Eduardo; Soria-Montoya, Andrea; Nuñez-Garbin, Alexandra; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls) were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35), overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89), anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92), MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6), and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87) were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  9. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  10. Enhanced Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immunity over Time with Combined Drug and Immunotherapy Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha E. Larsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. This astounding statistic, in combination with costly and lengthy treatment regimens make the development of therapeutic vaccines paramount for controlling the global burden of tuberculosis. Unlike prophylactic vaccination, therapeutic immunization relies on the natural pulmonary infection with Mtb as the mucosal prime that directs boost responses back to the lung. The purpose of this work was to determine the protection and safety profile over time following therapeutic administration of our lead Mtb vaccine candidate, ID93 with a synthetic TLR4 agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE, in combination with rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (RHZ drug treatment. We assessed the host inflammatory immune responses and lung pathology 7–22 weeks post infection, and determined the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment by enumeration of the bacterial load and survival in the SWR/J mouse model. We show that drug treatment alone, or with immunotherapy, tempered the inflammatory responses measured in brochoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma compared to untreated cohorts. RHZ combined with therapeutic immunizations significantly enhanced TH1-type cytokine responses in the lung over time, corresponding to decreased pulmonary pathology evidenced by a significant decrease in the percentage of lung lesions and destructive lung inflammation. These data suggest that bacterial burden assessment alone may miss important correlates of lung architecture that directly contribute to therapeutic vaccine efficacy in the preclinical mouse model. We also confirmed our previous finding that in combination with antibiotics therapeutic immunizations provide an additive survival advantage. Moreover, therapeutic immunizations with ID93/GLA-SE induced differential T cell immune responses over the course of infection that correlated

  11. [Contextual factors regarding the effectiveness of tuberculosis control in Madagascar: a nationwide validity study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, E J; Ravaoarisoa, L; Raherinandrasana, A; Vololonarivelo, B; Rakotonjanahary, M; Rakotomanga, J D M; Macq, J

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the nationwide applicability of results from a study in the tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic and treatment centers (DTCs) in a sample of six districts in Madagascar, which identified adaptations of national guidelines and local initiatives that might explain the effectiveness of individual DTCs in improving adherence to TB treatment and thus reducing treatment default. To assess, at a national level, the importance of these adaptations/initiatives for TB treatment adherence. This analytical cross-sectional study assessed the responses to a questionnaire based on the previously identified adaptations/initiatives, which was sent to the heads of all 205 DTCs in Madagascar. Decentralization of TB care decreased the rate of patient default. The private DTCs report better results than public DTCs. Adaptations/initiatives in relation to local contexts often lead to good results. The relation between some adaptations/initiatives and continued adherence sometimes varies with the local context of the DTC; the same initiatives can result in better adherence or in higher of treatment default rates, depending on the setting. These initiatives should be applied after adaptation to the context.

  12. Lived experience of patients on tuberculosis treatment in Tshwane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oluwafunmilayo Olabisi Akeju

    a Adelaide Tambo School of Nursing, Tshwane University of Technology, ... better understanding of being a patient taking tuberculosis treatment and to improve ... tuberculosis treatment, which has contributed to an increase ... own perspective, what has been your lived experience since ... Intention to complete treatment.

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Approach in Tuberculosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasiruddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment. Therefore, we need an effective and robust system to subdue technological drawbacks and improve the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs which still remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical technology. Nanoparticle-based ideology has shown convincing treatment and promising outcomes for chronic infectious diseases. Different types of nanocarriers have been evaluated as promising drug delivery systems for various administration routes. Controlled and sustained release of drugs is one of the advantages of nanoparticle-based antituberculosis drugs over free drug. It also reduces the dosage frequency and resolves the difficulty of low poor compliance. This paper reviews various nanotechnology-based therapies which can be used for the treatment of TB.

  14. Evaluation of patterns of liver toxicity in patients on antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs: a prospective four arm observational study in ethiopian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence, type, severity and predictors of antiretroviral and/or anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver injury (DILI. METHODS: A total of 1,060 treatment naive patients were prospectively enrolled into four treatment groups: HIV patients receiving efavirenz based HAART alone (Arm-1; TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4≤200 cells/μL, receiving concomitant rifampicin based anti-TB and efavirenz based HAART (Arm-2; TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4>200 cells/μL, receiving anti-TB alone (Arm-3; TB patients taking rifampicin based anti-TB alone (Arm-4. Liver enzyme levels were monitored at baseline, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks during treatment. CD4 and HIV viral load was measured at baseline, 24th and 48th weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards Model. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients (15% developed DILI with severity grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 of 53.5%, 32.7%, 11.3% and 2.5% respectively. The incidence of cholestatic, hepatocellular or mixed pattern was 61%, 15% and 24%, respectively. Incidence of DILI was highest in Arm-2 (24.2%>Arm-3 (10.8%>Arm-1 (8.8%>Arm-4 (2.9%. Concomitant anti-TB-HIV therapy increased the risk of DILI by 10-fold than anti-TB alone (p<0.0001. HIV co-infection increased the risk of anti-TB DILI by 4-fold (p = 0.004. HAART associated DILI was 3-fold higher than anti-TB alone, (p = 0.02. HAART was associated with cholestatic and grade 1 DILI whereas anti-TB therapy was associated with hepatocellular and grade ≥ 2. Treatment type, lower CD4, platelet, hemoglobin, higher serum AST and direct bilirubin levels at baseline were significant DILI predictors. There was no effect of DILI on immunologic recovery or virologic suppression rate of HAART. CONCLUSION: HAART associated DILI is mainly cholestatic and mild whereas hepatocellular or mixed pattern with high severity grade is more common in anti-tuberculosis DILI. TB-HIV co-infection, disease severity

  15. [Research and control of relapse tuberculosis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Fumio; Toyota, Makoto

    2009-12-01

    lesions in chest X-p, sputum smear positive and heavy alcohol-drinkers. The factors leading to defaulting of the treatment were lack in understanding of the treatment and their economic problems. Reexamination of the treatment and support of the patients are important to prevent the retreatment of the pulmonary tuberculosis. 6. Proportion of drug resistance among relapse tuberculosis cases, summary of Ryoken studies 1977-2002: Takashi YOSHIYAMA (Fukujuji Hospital). We have no historical analysis of the proportion of drug resistance among relapse TB cases. Therefore we would like to analyze the proportion of drug resistance among relapse cases in Japan. Re-analysis of the data of drug susceptibility survey of Ryoken from 1977 to 2002. The proportion of relapse cases among Ryoken has decreased in 1982-1987 and that proportion was 10% in 2002. The average age of relapse cases was 5 years older than the new cases and it was 66 years in 2002. The proportion of drug resistance among relapse cases has decreased form 39% (in 1977) to 16% (in 2002) for isoniazid, was stable and around 10% for rifampicin with 7.5% in 2002. The risk factors for drug resistance were younger age, foreigners and part time job. The proportion of drug resistance was higher among cases that were failure with previous treatment, then default with previous treatment and lower among cases with cure/completion at the previous treatment but this tendency was without significance.

  16. The imaging feature of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jun; Zhou Xinhua; Li Xi; Fu Yuhong; Zheng Suhua; Lv Pingxin; Ma Daqing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging features of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by collecting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis verified by test of drug-sensitivity, which defined as resistance to three anti-tuberculosis drugs. Methods:Fifty-one cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were categorized as group of observed, and 46 cases of drug sensitive tuberculosis were categorized as control. Cultures were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in all cases with no other illness such as diabetes mellitus. All patients had chest radiographs available for review, while 64 cases had tomography and 30 cases had CT during the same time. All images were analyzed by three of the radiologists, disagreement among them was discussed and a consensus was reached. Results: There was no difference in the distribution of lesions between the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis group and control group. However, the radiological findings in the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis group were significantly more common than in control group, such as multiple nodules (10 cases), disseminated foci (23 cases), cavity (9 cases), and complications (10 cases). Comparing the dynamic cases, deteriorating cases were more commonly seen in observed group than in control group, while improved cases were less in observed group than in control group. Conclusion: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the most serious tuberculosis, which is characterized with significant activity, more disseminated foci, cavity, and complications. The lesion deteriorated while correct anti-tuberculosis treatment is applied. (authors)

  17. The production and sales of anti-tuberculosis drugs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang-Mu; Zhao, Qi-Peng; Ren, Qiao-Meng; Peng, Dan-Lu; Guo, Yan

    2016-10-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease globally. Adequate and proper use of anti-TB drugs is essential for TB control. This study aims to study China's production capacity and sales situation of anti-TB drugs, and to further discuss the potential for China to contribute to global TB control. The production data of anti-TB drugs in China from 2011 to 2013 and the sales data from 2010 to 2014 were extracted from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology database of China and IMS Health database, respectively. The number of drugs was standardized to the molecular level of the key components before calculating. All data were described and analyzed by Microsoft Excel. First-line drugs were the majority in both sales (89.5 %) and production (92.3 %) of anti-TB drugs in China. The production of rifampicin held the majority share in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and finished products, whilst ethambutol and pyrazinamide were the top two sales in finished products. Fixed-dose combinations only held small percentages in total production and sales weight, though a slight increase was observed. The production and sales of streptomycin showed a tendency of decrease after 2012. The trends and proportion of different anti-TB drugs were similar in production and sales, however, the production weight was much larger than that of sales, especially for rifampicin and isoniazid. First-line drugs were the predominant medicine produced and used in China. While the low production and sales of the second-line TB drugs and FDCs rose concerns for the treatment of multiple drug resistant TB. The redundant production amount, as well as the prompt influence of national policy on drug production and sales, indicated the potential for China to better contribute to global TB control.

  18. Induced sputum MMP-1, -3 & -8 concentrations during treatment of tuberculosis.

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    Cesar A Ugarte-Gil

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB destroys lung tissues and this immunopathology is mediated in part by Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs. There are no data on the relationship between local tissue MMPs concentrations, anti-tuberculosis therapy and sputum conversion.Induced sputum was collected from 68 TB patients and 69 controls in a cross-sectional study. MMPs concentrations were measured by Luminex array, TIMP concentrations by ELISA and were correlated with a disease severity score (TBscore. 46 TB patients were then studied longitudinally at the 2nd, 8th week and end of treatment.Sputum MMP-1,-2,-3,-8,-9 and TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations are increased in TB. Elevated MMP-1 and -3 concentrations are independently associated with higher TB severity scores (p<0.05. MMP-1, -3 and -8 concentrations decreased rapidly during treatment (p<0.05 whilst there was a transient increase in TIMP-1/2 concentrations at week 2. MMP-2, -8 and -9 and TIMP-2 concentrations were higher at TB diagnosis in patients who remain sputum culture positive at 2 weeks and MMP-3, -8 and TIMP-1 concentrations were higher in these patients at 2nd week of TB treatment.MMPs are elevated in TB patients and associate with disease severity. This matrix-degrading phenotype resolves rapidly with treatment. The MMP profile at presentation correlates with a delayed treatment response.

  19. [Immigrants treated for tuberculosis in Mazovian Center for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis in Otwock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodziński, Jacek; Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2010-01-01

    Migration of population contributes to the transmission of tuberculosis (TB), particularly multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In the countries of Western Europe, the immigrants' inflow contributes to the deterioration of the epidemiological situation. Majority of newly detected TB cases in some countries were affirmed among immigrant and foreign born population. In Poland, this problem has not been investigated up to 2005. The aim of the study was the assessment of the occurrence of tuberculosis in foreigners treated in the Mazovian Centre for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis in Otwock. This work had a retrospective character. The number of cases of tuberculosis in foreigners admitted between 2002 and 2007 was calculated from the data base of the Mazovian Centre for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis; 125 patients, whose basic demographic data, bacteriological status and the radiological changes suggested TB, were included in the study. The foreigners made up to 0.5-1.7% all tuberculosis cases treated in Mazovian Centre for Treatment of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis. Among confirmed cases, twenty four nationalities were seen. Nationals of the Russian Federation (coming from the Republic of Chechnya) formed the biggest group (24%), followed by the Vietnamese (21%) and the Ukrainians (12%). Most of all cases were young men (77%; average age - 34 years). Children made up to 12% of all cases. Tuberculosis of lungs was predominating, and there were culture confirmed extrapulmonary locations in 13.6% of cases. Bacteriological confirmation was achieved in 53% of cases, but up to 22.7% cases were resistant to one of the antituberculosis medicines and 13.6% was multidrug-resistant. Despite the fact, that foreigners made up a small proportion among all the patient treated for tuberculosis in Mazovia, their number systematically increases. High proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis reported in foreign-born cases is a concern.

  20. Primary and secondary anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Hitossa District of Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

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    Shallo Daba Hamusse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB drugs which is resistant to the major first-line anti-TB drugs, Isoniazid and Rifampicin, has become a major global challenge in tuberculosis (TB control programme. However, its burden at community level is not well known. Thus, the aim of study was to assess the prevalence of primary and secondary resistance to any first line anti-TB drugs and MDR TB in Hitossa District of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia. Methods Population based cross- sectional study was conducted on individuals aged ≥15 years. Those with symptoms suggestive of TB were interviewed and two sputum specimens were collected from each and examined using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture medium. Further, the isolates were confirmed by the Ziehl-Neelsen microscopic examination method. Drug susceptibility test (DST was also conducted on LJ medium using a simplified indirect proportion method. The resistance strains were then determined by percentage of colonies that grew on the critical concentration of Isoniazid, Streptomycin, Rifampicin and Ethambutol. Results The overall resistance of all forms of TB to any first-line anti-TB drug was 21.7 %. Of the total new and previously treated culture positive TB cases, 15.3 and 48.8 % respectively were found to be a resistant to any of the first-line anti-TB drugs. Further, of all forms of TB, the overall resistance of MDR-TB was 4.7 %. However, of the total new TB cases, 2.4 % had primary while 14.3 % had secondary MDR-TB. Resistance to any of the first-line anti-TB drugs (adjusted odd ratio (AOR, 8.1; 95 % CI: 2.26–29.30 and MDR-TB (AOR, 7.1; 95 % CI: 2.6–43.8 was found to be linked with previous history of anti-TB treatment. Conclusions The study has identified a high rate of primary and secondary resistance to any of the first-line anti-TB drugs and MDR-TB in the study area. The resistance may have resulted from sub-optimal performance of directly observed

  1. Definition of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs in patients with multidrugresistant tuberculosis and TB with extremely drug resistant depending on the case of the disease

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    Kryzhanovsky D.G.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the profile of drug resistance to the main (I line and reserve (II line antituberculosis drugs in patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis, depending of the case of the disease. According to the randomized retrospective research 200 patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis, who received treatment in the clinic of hospital Municipal institution «Dnipropetrovsk rigional clinical association «Phthisiology» Dnipropetrovsk regional Council» during the period 2010 – 2012 were involved. Data about patients contained the data on a case of the disease and the results of the test of drug sensitivity to MBT. XDR – TB was revealed in 7.5% of patients with MDR tuberculosis. In patients with MDR tuberculosis as compared with patients with XDR tuberculosis «new cases» were diagnosed in 19.5% against 18.5% (p <0.05. In patients with MDR tuberculosis and with XDR tuberculosis resistance to the antituberculosis drug more commonly developed to S - 88.5%, E - 55% and Z - 24%. The presence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB prevails in patients, who underwent previous courses of treatment with anti-TB drugs in case history as compared with patients with «new cases» of treatment. The development of resistance to anti-TB drugs depends on the availability of these drugs in the previous treatment regimens.

  2. Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology consensus on tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. Part 1: risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Il Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 1 of the statements comprised 2 parts: risk of TB infection Recommendaduring anti-TNF therapy, and screening for TB infection prior to commencing anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

  3. New drugs and perspectives for new anti-tuberculosis regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tiberi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the ninth cause of global death, more than any other infectious disease. With growing drug resistance the epidemic remains and will require significant attention and investment for the elimination of this disease to occur. With susceptible TB treatment not changing over the last four decades and the advent of drug resistance, new drugs and regimens are required.Recently, through greater collaboration and research networks some progress with significant advances has taken place, not withstanding the comparatively low amount of resources invested. Of late the availability of the new drugs bedaquiline, delamanid and repurposed drugs linezolid, clofazimine and carbapenems are being used more frequently in drug-resistant TB regimens.The WHO shorter multidrug-resistant tuberculosis regimen promises to reach more patients and treat them more quickly and more cheaply.With this new enthusiasm and hope we this review gives an update on the new drugs and perspectives for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Keywords: Bedaquiline, Delamanid, Linezolid, MDR, XDR-TB, TB

  4. Evidence-Based Design of Fixed-Dose Combinations: Principles and Application to Pediatric Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elin M; Yngman, Gunnar; Denti, Paolo; McIlleron, Helen; Kjellsson, Maria C; Karlsson, Mats O

    2018-05-01

    Fixed-dose combination formulations where several drugs are included in one tablet are important for the implementation of many long-term multidrug therapies. The selection of optimal dose ratios and tablet content of a fixed-dose combination and the design of individualized dosing regimens is a complex task, requiring multiple simultaneous considerations. In this work, a methodology for the rational design of a fixed-dose combination was developed and applied to the case of a three-drug pediatric anti-tuberculosis formulation individualized on body weight. The optimization methodology synthesizes information about the intended use population, the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs, therapeutic targets, and practical constraints. A utility function is included to penalize deviations from the targets; a sequential estimation procedure was developed for stable estimation of break-points for individualized dosing. The suggested optimized pediatric anti-tuberculosis fixed-dose combination was compared with the recently launched World Health Organization-endorsed formulation. The optimized fixed-dose combination included 15, 36, and 16% higher amounts of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide, respectively. The optimized fixed-dose combination is expected to result in overall less deviation from the therapeutic targets based on adult exposure and substantially fewer children with underexposure (below half the target). The development of this design tool can aid the implementation of evidence-based formulations, integrating available knowledge and practical considerations, to optimize drug exposures and thereby treatment outcomes.

  5. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

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    Mfaume Saidi M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Methods Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Results Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Conclusion Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey.

  6. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonde, Timothy M; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G; Egwaga, Saidi M

    2008-12-30

    A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice(KAP of tuberculosis patients enrolled on treatment in Juba City, South Sudan2010. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Joseph Kenyi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study setting: Juba Teaching Hospital, Juba city, Republic of South Sudan, 2010. Objective: To examine, knowledge, attitude and practices of tuberculosis (TB patients enrolled on tuberculosis treatment, Juba, South Sudan. Design: Descriptive study Results: Knowledge in TB: Of the 102 patients interviewed; up to 80.4% were not knowledgeable on cause of TB, 52% did not know correct signs and symptoms of TB, 39.2% did not know overall treatment duration, 54.9% did not know the importance of strict adherence to treatment. Knowledge on correct diagnosis was 87.3% and on correct means of TB transmission was 79.4%. Practices and Attitudes: On practices; 94.1% respondents were able to perform at least one task to stop spread of disease, access to free TB test occurred in 100% of cases and for free drugs in 99% cases. Health care workers correctly suspected TB on first contact in 95.1% of cases. Patients were offered health education on drug side effects in 93.1% of cases, on HIV testing and counselling in 74.5% of cases. Disclosure of TB diagnosis by patient to family or community did not occur in 91.2% cases. Family, community and employers offered support to patients in 92.2%, 95.1% and 98% of cases respectively. Conclusion: We found key knowledge gaps among Juba TB patients enrolled on treatment. These knowledge gaps are probably responsible for the high treatment defaulter rates reported in Juba, South Sudan. Tuberculosis patients are still not interested to freely reveal disease diagnosis to members of the family and community at large.

  8. Comparison of different treatments for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis : an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fregonese, Federica; Ahuja, Shama D; Akkerman, Onno W; Arakaki-Sanchez, Denise; Ayakaka, Irene; Baghaei, Parvaneh; Bang, Didi; Bastos, Mayara; Benedetti, Andrea; Bonnet, Maryline; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Cegielski, Peter; Chien, Jung-Yien; Cox, Helen; Dedicoat, Martin; Erkens, Connie; Escalante, Patricio; Falzon, Dennis; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J; Gegia, Medea; Gillespie, Stephen H; Glynn, Judith R; Goldberg, Stefan; Griffith, David; Jacobson, Karen R; Johnston, James C; Jones-López, Edward C; Khan, Awal; Koh, Won-Jung; Kritski, Afranio; Lan, Zhi Yi; Lee, Jae Ho; Li, Pei Zhi; Maciel, Ethel L; Galliez, Rafael Mello; Merle, Corinne S C; Munang, Melinda; Narendran, Gopalan; Nguyen, Viet Nhung; Nunn, Andrew; Ohkado, Akihiro; Park, Jong Sun; Phillips, Patrick P J; Ponnuraja, Chinnaiyan; Reves, Randall; Romanowski, Kamila; Seung, Kwonjune; Schaaf, H Simon; Skrahina, Alena; Soolingen, Dick van; Tabarsi, Payam; Trajman, Anete; Trieu, Lisa; Banurekha, Velayutham V; Viiklepp, Piret; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Menzies, Dick

    BACKGROUND: Isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-susceptible (INH-R) tuberculosis is the most common form of drug resistance, and is associated with failure, relapse, and acquired rifampicin resistance if treated with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The aim of the study was to compare success,

  9. Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR- TB) Compared with Non-MDR-TB Infections in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Omar Salad; Hasan, Habsah; Abdullah, Sarimah; Mat Jeab, Mat Zuki; Ba, Zilfalil; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2016-07-01

    Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014. A total of 314 subjects were studied, including 105 MDR-TB cases and 209 non-MDR-TB. After TB treatment, 24.8% of the MDR-TB patients and 17.7% of non MDR TB relapsed; 17.1% of the MDR-TB patients and 16.3% of non MDR TB defaulted from TB treatment. A significant difference seen in treatment success rate 17.1% for MDR-TB; 63.1% for non MDR TB (P history of TB treatment, and presence of HIV infection.

  10. Evaluation of anti-tuberculosis antibodies in healthy contact and non-contacts persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N; Bukhari, M.H; Muneer, M; Tayyab, M; Chaudhry, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to see the presence of the antimycobacterial antibodies in healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients and healthy normal subjects who have never been in contact with tuberculosis patients. A total of 200 subjects, 120 with history of household contact and 80 without such history were included in the study. Routine Haematological investigations were performed and all the sera of 200 subjects were tested who 19M, 19G and IgA anti tuberculosis antibodies using ELISA technique. There was no difference in the average age of the household contacts and non-contacts. The complaints of pyrexia, night sweats and loss of weight was more in house hold contacts as compared to non-contacts. The awareness about BCG vaccination was equal among the household contacts and non-contacts. The combined serological positivity of the household contacts was 65.8% and the combined serological positivity for non-contacts was 34.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of 19M among household contacts as compared to non-contacts. However both IgG and 19A were present in significantly higher number of household contacts as compared to non contacts. This study concludes that the persons living in the house with a patient suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis (household contact) have more chances of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as compared to the healthy non-contacts. (author)

  11. Tuberculosis post-liver transplantation: a rare but complicated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Wai, C T; Da Costa, M; Tambyah, P A; Prabhakaran, K; Lee, K H

    2005-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a rare but serious complication after transplantation. We report a case and discuss its presentation and management. A 60-year-old Indonesian male presented initially with fever, acute confusion and rapidly progressive right upper lobe pneumonia 3.5 months post-liver transplant, and was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis by positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli and tuberculosis culture. Standard anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered but was complicated by interaction with cyclosporine and drug-induced cholestasis. A high level of suspicion, prompt antituberculosis treatment and close follow-up are essential in management of post-transplant tuberculosis.

  12. Comparison of different treatments for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fregonese, Federica; Ahuja, Shama D; Akkerman, Onno W; Arakaki-Sanchez, Denise; Ayakaka, Irene; Baghaei, Parvaneh; Bang, Didi; Bastos, Mayara; Benedetti, Andrea; Bonnet, Maryline; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Cegielski, Peter; Chien, Jung-Yien; Cox, Helen; Dedicoat, Martin; Erkens, Connie; Escalante, Patricio; Falzon, Dennis; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J; Gegia, Medea; Gillespie, Stephen H; Glynn, Judith R; Goldberg, Stefan; Griffith, David; Jacobson, Karen R; Johnston, James C; Jones-López, Edward C; Khan, Awal; Koh, Won-Jung; Kritski, Afranio; Lan, Zhi Yi; Lee, Jae Ho; Li, Pei Zhi; Maciel, Ethel L; Galliez, Rafael Mello; Merle, Corinne S C; Munang, Melinda; Narendran, Gopalan; Nguyen, Viet Nhung; Nunn, Andrew; Ohkado, Akihiro; Park, Jong Sun; Phillips, Patrick P J; Ponnuraja, Chinnaiyan; Reves, Randall; Romanowski, Kamila; Seung, Kwonjune; Schaaf, H Simon; Skrahina, Alena; Soolingen, Dick van; Tabarsi, Payam; Trajman, Anete; Trieu, Lisa; Banurekha, Velayutham V; Viiklepp, Piret; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Menzies, Dick

    Isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-susceptible (INH-R) tuberculosis is the most common form of drug resistance, and is associated with failure, relapse, and acquired rifampicin resistance if treated with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The aim of the study was to compare success, mortality, and

  13. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia

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    Habteyes Hailu Tola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330 diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation and end point (6 months after treatment initiation using the 10-item Kessler (K-10 scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results: The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65, being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53, having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99, and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97 were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patient (AOR: 3

  14. Diagnosis and interim treatment outcomes from the first cohort of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Tanzania.

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    Stellah G Mpagama

    Full Text Available Kibong'oto National Tuberculosis Hospital (KNTH, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.Characterize the diagnostic process and interim treatment outcomes from patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in Tanzania.A retrospective cohort study was performed among all patients treated at KNTH for pulmonary MDR-TB between November 2009 and September 2011.Sixty-one culture-positive MDR-TB patients initiated therapy, 60 (98% with a prior history of TB treatment. Forty-one (67% were male and 9 (14% were HIV infected with a mean CD4 count of 424 (±106 cells/µl. The median time from specimen collection to MDR-TB diagnosis and from diagnosis to initiation of MDR-TB treatment was 138 days (IQR 101-159 and 131 days (IQR 32-233, respectively. Following treatment initiation four (7% patients died (all HIV negative, 3 (5% defaulted, and the remaining 54 (89% completed the intensive phase. Most adverse drug reactions were mild to moderate and did not require discontinuation of treatment. Median time to culture conversion was 2 months (IQR 1-3 and did not vary by HIV status. In 28 isolates available for additional second-line drug susceptibility testing, fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside and para-aminosalicylic acid resistance was rare yet ethionamide resistance was present in 9 (32%.The majority of MDR-TB patients from this cohort had survived a prolonged referral process, had multiple episodes of prior TB treatment, but did not have advanced AIDS and converted to culture negative early while completing an intensive inpatient regimen without serious adverse event. Further study is required to determine the clinical impact of second-line drug susceptibility testing and the feasibility of alternatives to prolonged hospitalization.

  15. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Guy Harling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil, the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT. These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. Methods We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. Results There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%, a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not

  16. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Lima Neto, Antonio S; Sousa, Geziel S; Machado, Marcia M T; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-05-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil), the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT). These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%), a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not. Low socioeconomic status areas have higher tuberculosis

  17. Default probabilities and default correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Erlenmaier, Ulrich; Gersbach, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the Merton framework for firm defaults, we provide the analytics and robustness of the relationship between default correlations. We show that loans with higher default probabilities will not only have higher variances but also higher correlations between loans. As a consequence, portfolio standard deviation can increase substantially when loan default probabilities rise. This result has two important implications. First, relative prices of loans with different default probabili...

  18. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selective primary isolation of mycobacterial strains.' M. tuberculosis was ..... 15 In developing countries, however, a different picture is seen, with rates for initial isoniazid ... require attention to caseholding and prevention of defaulting, which will ...

  19. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  20. Design and construction of a DNA origami drug delivery system based on MPT64 antibody aptamer for tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Hafezi-Moghadam, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-02-01

    With all of the developments on infectious diseases, tuberculosis (TB) remains a cause of death among people. One of the most promising assembly techniques in nano-technology is "scaffolded DNA origami" to design and construct a nano-scale drug delivery system. Because of the global health problems of tuberculosis, the development of potent new anti-tuberculosis drug delivery system without cross-resistance with known anti-mycobacterial agents is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to design a nano-scale drug delivery system for TB treatment using the DNA origami method. In this study, we presented an experimental research on a DNA drug delivery system for treating Tuberculosis. TEM images were visualized with an FEI Tecnai T12 BioTWIN at 120 kV. The model was designed by caDNAno software and computational prediction of the 3D solution shape and its flexibility was calculated with a CanDo server. Synthesizing the product was imaged using transmission electron microscopy after negative-staining by uranyl formate. We constructed a multilayer 3D DNA nanostructure system by designing square lattice geometry with the scaffolded-DNA-origami method. With changes in the lock and key sequences, we recommend that this system be used for other infectious diseases to target the pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  2. Treatment outcomes of childhood tuberculosis in Addis Ababa: a five-year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genene Tilahun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB kills one child every 5 min. Childhood TB is given low priority in most national health programmes particularly in TB-endemic areas. TB among children is an indicator of a recent transmission of the disease in the community. Treatment outcome results serve as a proxy of the quality of treatment provided by a health care system. In Ethiopia, data on treatment outcomes of childhood TB are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the treatment outcomes of childhood TB in a hospital setting in Addis Ababa. Methods The study was conducted during June to August 2014. The data of 491 children treated for TB in Zewditu Memorial Hospital during a 5 year (2009–2013 was analysed. TB was diagnosed using standard methods. Demographic and clinical data including type of TB, TB-HIV co-infection and treatment outcomes were collected from registry of the TB clinic. Treatment outcome definitions are used according to the World Health Organization. Results Of the 491 children, 272(55.4 % were females, 107(21.8 % were under 5 year old, 454(92.5 % of them were new cases. The types of TB were extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB 243(49.5 % and 248(50.5 % pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Of the PTB cases, 42(16.9 % were sputum smear positive. Of the 291 children tested for HIV, 82(28.2 % were positive. The overall treatment success rate was 420(85.5 % and the poor treatment outcome was 71(14.5 %. Of the children with poor treatment outcome, 9(1.8 % died, 3(0.6 % defaulted from treatment, 2(0.4 % were treatment failure and 55(11.2 % were transferred out. Males and females had similar treatment success rates of 85.8 % and 85.3 %, respectively. Infants under one year had significantly lower treatment success rate of 72.7 % compared to those above 1 years of age of 86.5 % (P < 0.001. Treatment success rate ranged from 78.0 to 92.6 % during the study period. Associated factors for treatment outcome were age above

  3. Biotransformation enzymes for xenobiotics and personalization of treatment regimens for tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mozhokina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the literature on specific metabolism of anti-tuberculosis drugs depending on polymorphism of genes controlling synthesis and action of biotransformation enzymes, in particular cytochrome P-450 isozymes and enzymes of the IInd phase of biotransformation (N-acetyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase respective adverse reactions development, first of  all hepatotoxic ones. The  possibility of pharmacogenetic studies with the evaluation of genetic predisposition to developing adverse reactions to medications has been discussed in respect of personalized approach to effective and safe treatment of tuberculosis patients.

  4. Intraocular manifestations of mycobacterium tuberculosis: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Dalvin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is most commonly associated with pulmonary infection. However, tuberculosis (TB can also affect the eye. TB can affect nearly any tissue in the eye, and a high index of suspicion is required for accurate diagnosis, as many of the intraocular manifestations of TB can mimic other, more common diseases. Correct diagnosis is critical because systemic anti-tuberculosis treatment may be required, and vision loss or even loss of the affected eye can occur without proper treatment. Thus, it is important for ophthalmologists and infectious disease specialists to work together to accurately diagnose and treat intraocular TB. This article reports the various known presentations of intraocular TB and reviews important elements of diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: Mycobacterium, Tuberculosis, Choroidal granuloma, Retinal vasculitis

  5. Socio-economic status and adherence to tuberculosis treatment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P, Mishra; Hansen, E. H.; Sabroe, Svend

    2005-01-01

    SETTING: A western hill district in Nepal, where tuberculosis (TB) treatment under DOTS was offered by the regional tuberculosis centre, two primary health centres, eight health posts, three sub-health posts and one ward of sub-metropolitan Pokhara. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the contribution...

  6. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yali; Li Jianquan; Ma Zhien; Liu Luju

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. → Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. → Global dynamics of the two models. → Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  7. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-03-21

    National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. A representative sample of 30 treatment units was randomly selected. All patient treatment cards enrolled in these units were obtained, and data were double-entered and validated before calculating the adequacy of the individual drug prescriptions. Of 3412 tuberculosis treatment cards, 3225 (94.5%) had information on treatment regimen and the patient's weight. Treatment was successful in 89.4%. Prescriptions of tablets/vials conforming to recommendations were found for respectively 91.2%, 89.9%, 92.3% and 94.6% of the patients for RMP/isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin. Patients in the 25-39 kg weight bracket received insufficient dosages. This was almost entirely attributable to patients at the end of the weight bracket. Nevertheless, no significant association was found between treatment failure and death, body weight and insufficient RMP dosage. Adherence to national recommendations was high. RMP was given in insufficient dosage for patients at the end of a weight range bracket, but the under-dosage was small and did not measurably affect treatment outcome.

  8. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.  Created: 3/15/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2012.

  9. Primary breast tuberculosis: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Bharati V; Subramaniam, Narayana

    2015-01-01

    To review the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with treating isolated primary breast tuberculosis through discussion of our series of seven cases. Although breast is an uncommon site of occurrence of tuberculosis and isolated primary breast tuberculosis is an even rarer entity, its importance lies in distinguishing it from more common pathologies like abscesses or malignancy and avoiding unnecessary erroneous surgical intervention. The spectrum and presentation is wide and varied and we present our experience in managing seven such cases. A retrospective analysis of all the cases of histopathologically proven primary breast tuberculosis in the last three years at M.S. Ramaiah Hospital (2012-2014) was done. Analysis was in terms of mode of presentation, clinical features, diagnostic modalities used for evaluation and confirmation of the diagnosis, medical treatment and surgical intervention, if any. Special emphasis was placed on dilemmas in diagnosis and difficulties encountered during treatment. All cases were followed up till cure. Patients most commonly presented with a breast abscess, painful breast lumps and recurrent abscesses. Other foci of tuberculosis were ruled out in all of these patients. Majority were treated exclusively with anti-tubercular therapy (although regimens varied), but those with abscesses underwent incision and drainage. All cases were treated and followed up till cure. The challenges associated with primary breast tuberculosis are multiple, including which anti-tubercular therapy regimen to use, when to surgically intervene (as the breast is a cosmetically important area) and treating atypical mycobacteria. We provide a detailed discussion of the challenges we faced and review of literature.

  10. Substitution of ethambutol with linezolid during the intensive phase of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: study protocol for a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Jung-Kyu; Yoon, Ho Il; Jeong, Ina; Heo, Eunyoung; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Choi, Sun Mi; Park, Jong Sun; Joh, Joon-Sung; Cho, Young-Jae; Lee, Yeon Joo; Kim, Se Joong; Hwang, Young Ran; Kim, Hyeonjeong; Ki, Jongeun; Choi, Hyungsook; Han, Jiyeon; Ahn, Heejung; Hahn, Seokyung; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2017-02-13

    Linezolid, an oxazolidinone, substantially improves treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We started a trial to test whether the use of linezolid instead of ethambutol could increase the rate of sputum culture conversion as of 8 weeks of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis. This is a phase II, multicenter, randomized study with three arms. We are enrolling patients with pulmonary tuberculosis without rifampicin resistance screened by the Xpert MTB/RIF® assay. The standard treatment arm uses isoniazid (6 months), rifampicin (6 months), pyrazinamide (2 months), and ethambutol (2 months). Experimental arm 1 uses linezolid (600 mg/day) for 4 weeks instead of ethambutol. Experimental arm 2 uses linezolid (600 mg/day) for 2 weeks instead of ethambutol. The primary outcome is the sputum culture conversion rate on liquid media after 2 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes include the sputum culture conversion rate on solid media after 2 months of treatment, time to sputum culture conversion on liquid and solid media, cure rate, and treatment success rate. The frequencies of total adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs will be described and documented. Based on an α = 0.05 level of significance, a power of 85%, a 15% difference in the culture conversion rate after 2 months between the control arm and experimental arm 1 (75% vs. 90%), a 10% default (loss to follow-up) rate, and a 10% culture failure, the required number per arm was calculated to be 143 (429 in total). This trial will reveal the effectiveness and safety of 2 or 4 weeks of use of linezolid instead of ethambutol for patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis. If a new regimen including linezolid shows a higher culture conversion rate by week 8, and is safe, it could be tested as a 4-month antituberculosis treatment regimen in the future. ClincalTrials.gov, NCT01994460 . Registered on 13 November 2013.

  11. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and

  12. Diabetes is a strong predictor of mortality during tuberculosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment.......Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment....

  13. Diminished Adherence and/or Ingestion of Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Patients with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, J.; Arias, M.; Maya, J. R.; García, L. F.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between the macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by a variety of macrophage membrane-associated proteins. Complement receptors have been implicated in the adherence of M. tuberculosis to macrophages. In the present work, the adherence and/or ingestion of M. tuberculosis H37Rv to human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and healthy controls was measured by microscopical examination, [3H]uracil incorporation, and CFU. The adherence and/or ingestion was enhanced by fresh serum and inhibited by heat inactivation, EDTA treatment, and anti-CR1 and anti-CR3 antibodies. Comparison of MDM from TB patients and healthy controls showed that the former exhibited a significantly decreased capacity to adhere and/or ingest M. tuberculosis, as determined by the number of CFU and 3H incorporation. The expression of CR1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18) on MDM from TB patients and healthy controls, as determined by flow cytometry, did not show significant differences. These results suggest that the lower ingestion of M. tuberculosis by MDM from TB patients is not due to defects in complement receptors, and therefore, there might be other molecules involved in the adherence and/or ingestion process that render MDM from TB patients ingest less mycobacteria than those from healthy controls. PMID:9729537

  14. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic modelling of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and kill rates is predictive of clinical treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljayyoussi, Ghaith; Jenkins, Victoria A; Sharma, Raman; Ardrey, Alison; Donnellan, Samantha; Ward, Stephen A; Biagini, Giancarlo A

    2017-03-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is long and complex, typically involving a combination of drugs taken for 6 months. Improved drug regimens to shorten and simplify treatment are urgently required, however a major challenge to TB drug development is the lack of predictive pre-clinical tools. To address this deficiency, we have adopted a new high-content imaging-based approach capable of defining the killing kinetics of first line anti-TB drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) residing inside macrophages. Through use of this pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) approach we demonstrate that the killing dynamics of the intracellular Mtb sub-population is critical to predicting clinical TB treatment duration. Integrated modelling of intracellular Mtb killing alongside conventional extracellular Mtb killing data, generates the biphasic responses typical of those described clinically. Our model supports the hypothesis that the use of higher doses of rifampicin (35 mg/kg) will significantly reduce treatment duration. Our described PK-PD approach offers a much needed decision making tool for the identification and prioritisation of new therapies which have the potential to reduce TB treatment duration.

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of valproic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat in enhancing the effects of first-line tuberculosis drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: New tuberculosis (TB drug treatment regimens are urgently needed. This study evaluated the potential of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs valproic acid (VPA and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA to enhance the effects of first-line anti-TB drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: M. tuberculosis H37Rv cultures were exposed to VPA or SAHA over 6 days, in the presence or absence of isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF. The efficacy of VPA and SAHA against intracellular M. tuberculosis with and without INH or RIF was tested by treating infected macrophages. Bactericidal activity was assessed by counting mycobacterial colony-forming units (CFU. Results: VPA treatment exhibited superior bactericidal activity to SAHA (2-log CFU reduction, while both HDIs moderately improved the activity of RIF against extracellular M. tuberculosis. The bactericidal effect of VPA against intracellular M. tuberculosis was greater than that of SAHA (1-log CFU reduction and equalled that of INH (1.5-log CFU reduction. INH/RIF and VPA/SAHA combination treatment inhibited intracellular M. tuberculosis survival in a shorter time span than monotherapy (3 days vs. 6 days. Conclusions: VPA and SAHA have adjunctive potential to World Health Organization-recommended TB treatment regimens. Clinical evaluation of the two drugs with regard to reducing the treatment duration and improving treatment outcomes in TB is warranted. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Adjunct host-directed therapy, Tuberculosis, Histone deacetylase inhibitors, Repurposed drugs

  16. Factors Associated with Fatality during the Intensive Phase of Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, M.; Caminero, J. A.; García-García, J. M.; Jiménez-Fuentes, M. A.; Medina, J. F.; Millet, J. P.; Ruiz-Manzano, J.; Caylá, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the case-fatality rate (CFR) at the end of the intensive phase of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and factors associated with fatality. Methods TB patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were followed-up during treatment. We computed the CFR at the end of the intensive phase of TB treatment, and the incidence of death per 100 person-days (pd) of follow-up. We performed survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression, and calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 5,182 patients were included, of whom 180 (3.5%) died; 87 of these deaths (48.3%) occurred during the intensive phase of treatment, with a CFR of 1.7%. The incidence of death was 0.028/100 pd. The following factors were associated with death during the intensive phase: being >50 years (HR = 36.9;CI:4.8–283.4); being retired (HR = 2.4;CI:1.1–5.1); having visited the emergency department (HR = 3.1;CI:1.2–7.7); HIV infection (HR = 3.4;CI:1.6–7.2); initial standard treatment with 3 drugs (HR = 2.0;CI:1.2–3.3) or non-standard treatments (HR = 2.68;CI:1.36–5.25); comprehension difficulties (HR = 2.8;CI:1.3–6.1); and smear-positive sputum (HR = 2.3-CI:1.0–4.8). Conclusion There is a non-negligible CFR during the intensive phase of TB, whose reduction should be prioritised. The CFR could be a useful indicator for evaluating TB programs. PMID:27487189

  17. Consolidation in a child from tuberculosis endemic area - thinking apart from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is endemic in South East Asian regions and hence a disease commonly over diagnosed in these parts of the country. Patients presenting with chest x ray shadows and vague symptoms are often started on Anti Tuberculosis Treatment - smear negative. However caution should be administered in prescribing ATT to patients who do not improve symptomatically, even after intensive phase. Congenital abnormalities such as sequestrated lung at times can also be rare causes of abnormal skiagram chest, especially in paediatric patients. A careful systematic approach with non invasive imaging such as CECT chest will often help to clinch the diagnosis in most cases.

  18. A case of preventable pulmonary tuberculosis in a Greenlandic, heavily immune suppressed patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sophie H; Johansen, Isik S

    2012-01-01

    Immune modulating therapy, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors, is becoming increasingly more widespread in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. One of the well-documented side effects of TNF-alpha inhibitors is an increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infecti...... initiating anti-TNF-α treatment and secondly, as part of routine tuberculosis contact tracing. He subsequently developed severe pulmonary tuberculosis and was hospitalised for 6 weeks.......Immune modulating therapy, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors, is becoming increasingly more widespread in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. One of the well-documented side effects of TNF-alpha inhibitors is an increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infection...

  19. Predictors of treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Early identification of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure using cost effective means is urgently needed in developing nations. The study set out to describe affordable predictors of TB treatment failure in an African setting. Objective: To determine the predictors of treatment failure among patients with sputum ...

  20. Primary sinonasal tuberculosis in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, G.; Khan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To record the frequency of primary involvement of nose and paranasal sinuses with tuberculosis in today's situation in the north-west region of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: A total of ten cases of primary sinonasal tuberculosis were included. The inclusion criteria were biopsy and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) examination after Ziel Neelsen (ZN) staining. Patients were put on anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Response to the therapy and compliance of the patients were studied through follow up. Patients were admitted and offered surgical treatment wherever needed. Results: The primary sinonasal tuberculosis affected mainly young adults (18-60 years), both genders almost equally. Majority (80%) of the patients belonged to far-flung rural areas and all (100%) were poor. More frequent presenting features were granular lesion and mass in the nose (40%), epistaxis (30%), septal perforation (30%), external deformity (30%), palpable cervical lymph nodes (30%) and others. All the cases were diagnosed microscopically. Compliance to treatment was not good. Conclusion: The incidence of primary tuberculosis of nose and paranasal sinuses has risen in the recent past. The patients manifested no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  1. Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients under Directly Observed Treatment Short Course and Factors Affecting Outcome in Southern Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health and socio-economic issues in the 21st century globally. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, and monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control program. Hence, this institution-based retrospective study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome of TB patients and investigate factors associated with unsuccessful outcome at Dilla University Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. Five years (2008 to 2013 TB record of TB clinic of the hospital was reviewed. A total 1537 registered TB patients with complete information were included. Of these, 942 (61.3% were male, 1015 (66% were from rural areas, 544 (35.4% were smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB+, 816 (53.1% were smear negative pulmonary TB (PTB- and 177(11.5% were extra pulmonary TB (EPTB patients. Records of the 1537 TB patients showed that 181 (11.8% were cured, 1129(73.5% completed treatment, 171 (11.1% defaulted, 52 (3.4% died and 4 (0.3% had treatment failure. The overall mean treatment success rate of the TB patients was 85.2%. The treatment success rate of the TB patients increased from 80.5% in September 2008-August 2009 to 84.8% in September 2012-May 2013. Tuberculosis type, age, residence and year of treatment were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. The risk of unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among TB patients from rural areas (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20 compared to their urban counterparts. Unsuccessful treatment outcome was also observed in PTB- patients (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.50 and EPTB (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.28-3.37 compared to the PTB+ patients. In conclusion, it appears that DOTS have improved treatment success in the hospital during five years. Regular follow-up of patients with poor treatment outcome and provision of health information on TB treatment to

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis in patients with multiple sclerosis, expert consensus. On behalf of the Colombian Association of Neurology, Committee of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carlos; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Munoz-Ceron, Joe; Álvarez, Carlos; García, Juan R; Zarco, Luis; Vélez, Lázaro A; Awad, Carlos; Castro, Carlos Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative demyelinating disease. Current treatment of multiple sclerosis focuses on the use of immunomodulatory, immunosuppressant, and selective immunosuppressant agents. Some of these medications may result in high risk of opportunistic infections including tuberculosis. The purpose of this study was to obtain consensus from a panel of neurologists, pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and epidemiology experts regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of latent tuberculosis in patients with multiple sclerosis. A panel of experts in multiple sclerosis and tuberculosis was established. The methodological process was performed in three phases: definition of questions, answer using Delphi methodology, and the discussion of questions not agreed. Tuberculosis screening is suggested when multiple sclerosis drugs are prescribed. The recommended tests for latent tuberculosis are tuberculin and interferon gamma release test. When an anti-tuberculosis treatment is indicated, monitoring should be performed to determine liver enzyme values with consideration of age as well as comorbid conditions such as a history of alcoholism, age, obesity, concomitant hepatotoxic drugs, and history of liver disease. Latent tuberculosis should be considered in patients with multiple sclerosis who are going to be treated with immunomodulatory and immunosuppressant medications. Transaminase level monitoring is required on a periodic basis depending on clinical and laboratory characteristics. In addition to the liver impairment, other side effects should be considered when Isoniazid is prescribed.

  3. PHARMACEUTICAL AEROSOLS FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumaila N Muhammad Hanif

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Historically, pharmaceutical aerosols have been employed for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but in the past decades their use has been expanded to treat lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory diseases. Tuberculosis (TB is acquired after inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the bacilli from the cough of infected individuals. Even though TB affects other organs, the lungs are the primary site of infection, which makes the pulmonary route an ideal alternative route to administer vaccines or drug treatments. Optimization of formulations and delivery systems for anti-TB vaccines and drugs, as well as the proper selection of the animal model to evaluate those is of paramount importance if novel vaccines or drug treatments are to be successful. Pharmaceutical aerosols for patient use are generated from metered dose inhalers, nebulizers and dry powder inhalers. In addition to the advantages of providing more efficient delivery of the drug, low cost and portability, pharmaceutical dry powder aerosols are more stable than inhalable liquid dosage forms and do not require refrigeration. Methods to manufacture dry powders in respirable sizes include micronization, spray drying and other proprietary technologies. Inhalable dry powders are characterized in terms of their drug content, particle size and dispersibility to ensure deposition in the appropriate lung region and effective aerosolization from the device. These methods will be illustrated as they were applied for the manufacture and characterization of powders containing anti-tubercular agents and vaccines for pulmonary administration. The influence of formulation, selection of animal model, method of aerosol generation and administration on the efficacy demonstrated in a given study will be illustrated by the evaluation of pharmaceutical aerosols of anti-TB drugs and vaccines in guinea pigs by

  4. Management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: WHO guidelines for low tuberculosis burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Haileyesus; Matteelli, Alberto; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel; Baddeley, Annabel; Barreira, Draurio; Den Boon, Saskia; Borroto Gutierrez, Susana Marta; Bruchfeld, Judith; Burhan, Erlina; Cavalcante, Solange; Cedillos, Rolando; Chaisson, Richard; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Chesire, Lucy; Corbett, Elizabeth; Dara, Masoud; Denholm, Justin; de Vries, Gerard; Falzon, Dennis; Ford, Nathan; Gale-Rowe, Margaret; Gilpin, Chris; Girardi, Enrico; Go, Un-Yeong; Govindasamy, Darshini; D Grant, Alison; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Harris, Ross; Horsburgh, C Robert; Ismayilov, Asker; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Kik, Sandra; Kranzer, Katharina; Lienhardt, Christian; LoBue, Philip; Lönnroth, Knut; Marks, Guy; Menzies, Dick; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Mosca, Davide; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Mwinga, Alwyn; Nelson, Lisa; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Oordt-Speets, Anouk; Rangaka, Molebogeng Xheedha; Reis, Andreas; Rotz, Lisa; Sandgren, Andreas; Sañé Schepisi, Monica; Schünemann, Holger J; Sharma, Surender Kumar; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Stagg, Helen R; Sterling, Timothy R; Tayeb, Tamara; Uplekar, Mukund; van der Werf, Marieke J; Vandevelde, Wim; van Kessel, Femke; van't Hoog, Anna; Varma, Jay K; Vezhnina, Natalia; Voniatis, Constantia; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije; Weil, Diana; Weyer, Karin; Wilkinson, Robert John; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Zellweger, Jean Pierre; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is characterised by the presence of immune responses to previously acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without clinical evidence of active tuberculosis (TB). Here we report evidence-based guidelines from the World Health Organization for a public health approach to the management of LTBI in high risk individuals in countries with high or middle upper income and TB incidence of <100 per 100 000 per year. The guidelines strongly recommend systematic testing and treatment of LTBI in people living with HIV, adult and child contacts of pulmonary TB cases, patients initiating anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, patients receiving dialysis, patients preparing for organ or haematological transplantation, and patients with silicosis. In prisoners, healthcare workers, immigrants from high TB burden countries, homeless persons and illicit drug users, systematic testing and treatment of LTBI is conditionally recommended, according to TB epidemiology and resource availability. Either commercial interferon-gamma release assays or Mantoux tuberculin skin testing could be used to test for LTBI. Chest radiography should be performed before LTBI treatment to rule out active TB disease. Recommended treatment regimens for LTBI include: 6 or 9 month isoniazid; 12 week rifapentine plus isoniazid; 3-4 month isoniazid plus rifampicin; or 3-4 month rifampicin alone. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  5. HIV INFECTION AS A RISK FACTOR OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Eremenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of three year follow-up over 96 HIV positive children registered in the AIDS Center. During 3 year follow up the infection with tuberculous mycobacteria was diagnosed in 27.3% (n = 23 of HIV positive children from the followed up group. The leading risk factor of tuberculosis is family exposure to a tuberculosis patient – 22.6% (n = 19. Compliance to follow-up and treatment, timely prescribed preventive anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy enhanced prevention of development of local forms of tuberculosis in the followed up group of children.

  6. Tuberculosis in homeless persons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17

  7. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO SUPPORTING TREATMENT COMPLIANCE IN TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sherstneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the algorithm for working with tuberculosis patients in TB hospital, providing implementation of multidisciplinary patient-centered activities for early diagnostics of psychiatric and social disorders, therapy and rehabilitation of concurrent psychiatric disorders and addictions. Multidisciplinary approach to activities within TB unit is aimed at improvement of treatment compliance of tuberculosis patients. The training programme has been developed in order to improve competency of medical personnel on the issue of treatment interruption prevention and motivating patients to undergo the continuous treatment.

  8. Pseudo-tumoral hepatic tuberculosis discovered after surgical resection

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    Miloudi Nizar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-tumoral hepatic tuberculosis is rare. It is characterized by non-specific symptoms and radiological polymorphism. Diagnosis is problematic. This article presents three cases, each clinically different from each other, that illustrate how difficult diagnosis can be. The definitive diagnosis of pseudo-tumoral hepatic tuberculosis was reached on the basis of histological examination of surgical samples. Treatment of the disease based on appropriate anti-tubercular therapy generally gives a positive outcome.

  9. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Geisa Fregona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis – from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. RESULTS In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24–14.05 and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81–8.43], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98–7.79, and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15–8.99. CONCLUSIONS The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo.

  10. Tuberculosis

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    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    infested individual to a healthy subject mainly by means of saliva containing these microorganisms, or indirectly by inhaling the bacillus which may be present in daily used objects for months due to its high resistance. Myobacteria causing tuberculosis in the immunocompetent man are tuberculosis and bovis whereas other types may produce tuberculosis in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenecity of this bacillus is related to its capacity of escaping from macrophage-induced destruction and provoking retarded hypersensitivity. This disease has very few oral manifestations; in general, a sore mainly located in the back of the tongue is the only observed sign. Tuberculosis threatens to become an incurable disease because of the poor administration of anti-tuberculosis programs, that is why, WHO proposes DOTS (directly observed treatment of short duration for its detection and treatment. This programs begins to achieve satisfactory results, although in the last five-year period, 88% of the patients estimated to be tuberculosis-infested was not covered by DOTS.

  11. Analytical Pricing of Defaultable Bond with Stochastic Default Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    O, Hyong-Chol; Wan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We provide analytical pricing formula of corporate defaultable bond with both expected and unexpected default in the case with stochastic default intensity. In the case with constant short rate and exogenous default recovery using PDE method, we gave some pricing formula of the defaultable bond under the conditions that 1)expected default recovery is the same with unexpected default recovery; 2) default intensity follows one of 3 special cases of Willmott model; 3) default intensity is uncorr...

  12. Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: An Updated Network Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner, D.; Beer, N.; Harris, R. J.; Lipman, M. C.; Stagg, H. R.; van der Werf, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of tuberculosis (TB) control, and this study updates a previous network meta-analysis of the best LTBI treatment options to inform public health action and programmatic management of LTBI. Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and harms of LTBI treatment regimens aimed at preventing active TB among adults and children. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from indexing ...

  13. Classifying new anti-tuberculosis drugs: rationale and future perspectives

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    Simon Tiberi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs is important as it helps the clinician to build an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases that do not fulfil the criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines, the choice of drugs was based on efficacy and toxicity in a step-down manner, from group 1 first-line drugs and groups 2–5 second-line drugs, to group 5 drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence. In the revised WHO classification, exclusively aimed at managing drug-resistant cases, medicines are again listed in hierarchical order from group A to group D. In parallel, a possible future classification is independently proposed. The aim of this viewpoint article is to describe the evolution in WHO TB classification (taking into account an independently proposed new classification and recent changes in WHO guidance, while commenting on the differences between them. The latest evidence on the ex-group 5 drugs is also discussed.

  14. Tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado para tuberculosis pulmonar Shortened directly observed treatment applied to the tuberculosis control program

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    Guadalupe del Carmen Alvarez-Gordillo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la posibilidad de aplicar el tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado (TAES en el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis en Chiapas, México. Material y métodos. Se evaluó la eficacia y la eficiencia del tratamiento en una cohorte de pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar confirmada por baciloscopía, que ingresaron a tratamiento con esquemas de autoadministración semisupervisión y estricta supervisión, de enero a junio de 1996. Resultados. La eficacia fue de 90.9. 97.7 y 100% para los esquemas de tratamiento autoadministrado, semisupervisado y TAES, respectivamente, mientras que la eficiencia fue de 68.1. 77.6 y 88.5% en el mismo orden. Conclusiones. Para la salud pública el TAES demostró ser la actividad más importante en el control de la tuberculosis, al elevar las tasas de curación y disminuir, por lo tanto, las fuentes de transmisión de la enfermedad.Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of the Shortened Directly Observed Treatment (DOT, S applied to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Chiapas, Mexico. Material and methods. The efficacy and efficiency of treatment was evaluated in a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis patients confirmed by baciloscopy, who were subjected to treatment under one of three different regimes, self-administered. supervised and DOT,S from January to June 1996. Results. Efficacy was 90.9%, 97.7% and 100% for self-administered, supervised and DOT,S treatment, respectively. Efficiency was 68.1%, 77.6% and 88.5% in the same order Conclusions. For public health ends, the DOT,S proved to be the most efficient in the control of tuberculosis. since healing rates were increased and this reduces sources of disease transmission.

  15. Anti-TNFα Treatment for HLA-B27-Positive Ankylosing Spondylitis-Related Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mirinae; Won, Jae-Yon; Choi, Seung Yong; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Park, Young-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    To assess the long-term efficacy of the most widely used anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) agents for treatment of HLA-B27-positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS)-related uveitis. Retrospective cohort study. The medical records of 143 patients with HLA-B27-positive AS who visited Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and were taking an anti-TNFα agent for at least 1 year were studied. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to anti-TNFα treatment: Group 1 (infliximab, 66), Group 2 (adalimumab, 45), and Group 3 (etanercept, 32). Mean age was 41.0 ± 13.0 years, and 97 patients (67.8%) were male. Mean follow-up period was 70.6 ± 37.9 months. In cases of active ocular inflammation at the onset of anti-TNFα treatment, patients showed improved activity of uveitis after 24.0 ± 15.0 days (Group 1), 17.9 ± 6.0 days (Group 2), and 25.9 ± 18.0 days (Group 3). After the anti-TNFα treatment, 71 of 94 patients (32 [76.2%] in Group 1, 26 [78.8%] in Group 2, and 13 [68.4%] in Group 3) remained without uveitis relapse. A reduction in the number of systemic medications was achieved in 129 patients (90.2%). Twenty-eight cases of minor side effects were observed, and 4 cases were tuberculosis leading to discontinuation of anti-TNFα treatment. Infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept were effective for treating and reducing the number of uveitis relapses in HLA-B27-positive AS. However, the risk of serious infections was noted, so ophthalmologists should consider the possibility that prolonged use of biologic agents may result in systemic side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytochrome P450 2E1 gene polymorphisms/haplotypes and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in a Chinese cohort.

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    Shaowen Tang

    Full Text Available The pathogenic mechanism of anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis is associated with drug metabolizing enzymes. No tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs of cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1 in the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis have been reported. The present study was aimed at exploring the role of tSNPs in CYP2E1 gene in a population-based anti-TB treatment cohort.A nested case-control study was designed. Each hepatitis case was 14 matched with controls by age, gender, treatment history, disease severity and drug dosage. The tSNPs were selected by using Haploview 4.2 based on the HapMap database of Han Chinese in Beijing, and detected by using TaqMan allelic discrimination technology.Eighty-nine anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis cases and 356 controls were included in this study. 6 tSNPs (rs2031920, rs2070672, rs915908, rs8192775, rs2515641, rs2515644 were genotyped and minor allele frequencies of these tSNPs were 21.9%, 23.0%, 19.1%, 23.6%, 20.8% and 44.4% in the cases and 20.9%, 22.7%, 18.9%, 23.2%, 18.2% and 43.2% in the controls, respectively. No significant difference was observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the 6 tSNPs between case group and control group, and neither of haplotypes in block 1 nor in block 2 was significantly associated with the development of hepatitis.Based on the Chinese anti-TB treatment cohort, we did not find a statistically significant association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. None of the haplotypes showed a significant association with the development of hepatitis in Chinese TB population.

  17. A case report on esophageal tuberculosis – A rare entity

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    Vatsal Khanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a rare form of tuberculosis in a patient presenting with dysphagia. Patient was subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which revealed an ulcerative growth in the distal esophagus. Histopathology revealed esophageal tuberculosis. Patient was managed conservatively with Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment (ATT. Follow up endoscopy after two months revealed resolution of the growth and patient was symptomatically better. In spite of the rare nature of the disease, it can be managed effectively with ATT to avoid complications (fistula, stricture, and esophageal perforation, which might warrant surgery.

  18. Is there an effect of glucose lowering treatment on incidence and prognosis of tuberculosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The association between diabetes and incidence of tuberculosis is well established, and observational studies have shown poor treatment outcome in tuberculosis related to hyperglycemia. The WHO recommends screening for diabetes among all patients with tuberculosis and optimized glycemic control...... aiming at improving tuberculosis outcome. However, no intervention studies support this notion. Patients with tuberculosis are often vulnerable with high degree of comorbidity, and, therefore, at high risk of adverse effects of intensive glucose control. Controlled intervention studies of the effect...... of glucose lowering treatment on tuberculosis outcomes are clearly warranted to justify screening for- and tight control of diabetes....

  19. Influence of genetic variants on toxicity to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Marty; Kirkham, Jamie; Dwan, Kerry; Sloan, Derek; Davies, Geraint; Jorgensen, Andrea

    2017-07-13

    Tuberculosis patients receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment may experience serious adverse drug reactions, such as hepatotoxicity. Genetic risk factors, such as polymorphisms of the NAT2, CYP2E1 and GSTM1 genes, may increase the risk of experiencing such toxicity events. Many pharmacogenetic studies have investigated the association between genetic variants and anti-tuberculosis drug-related toxicity events, and several meta-analyses have synthesised data from these studies, although conclusions from these meta-analyses are conflicting. Many meta-analyses also have serious methodological limitations, such as applying restrictive inclusion criteria, or not assessing the quality of included studies. Most also only consider hepatotoxicity outcomes and specific genetic variants. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to give a comprehensive evaluation of the evidence base for associations between any genetic variant and anti-tuberculosis drug-related toxicity. We will search for studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and Web of Science. We will also hand search reference lists from relevant studies and contact experts in the field. We will include cohort studies, case-control studies and randomised controlled trials that recruited patients with tuberculosis who were either already established on anti-tuberculosis treatment or were commencing treatment and who were genotyped to investigate the effect of genetic variants on any anti-tuberculosis drug-related toxicity outcome. One author will screen abstracts to identify potentially relevant studies and will then obtain the full text for each potentially relevant study in order to assess eligibility. At each of these stages, a second author will independently screen/assess 10% of studies. Two authors will independently extract data and assess the quality of studies using a pre-piloted data extraction form. If appropriate, we will pool estimates of effect for each genotype on each outcome using meta

  20. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  1. The roles of microRNAs on tuberculosis infection: meaning or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harapan, Harapan; Fitra, Fitra; Ichsan, Ichsan; Mulyadi, Mulyadi; Miotto, Paolo; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Calado, Marta; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2013-11-01

    The central proteins for protection against tuberculosis are attributed to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, while IL-10 primarily suppresses anti-mycobacterial responses. Several studies found alteration of expression profile of genes involved in anti-mycobacterial responses in macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells from active and latent tuberculosis and from tuberculosis and healthy controls. This alteration of cellular composition might be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Albeit only 1% of the genomic transcripts in mammalian cells encode miRNA, they are predicted to control the activity of more than 60% of all protein-coding genes and they have a huge influence in pathogenesis theory, diagnosis and treatment approach to some diseases. Several miRNAs have been found to regulate T cell differentiation and function and have critical role in regulating the innate function of macrophages, dendritic cells and NK cells. Here, we have reviewed the role of miRNAs implicated in tuberculosis infection, especially related to their new roles in the molecular pathology of tuberculosis immunology and as new targets for future tuberculosis diagnostics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Why do Patients in Pre-Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) Care Default: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Kansal, Sangeeta; Tiwary, Narendra; Sundar, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Approximately, 40% of the patients registered in the National AIDS Control Program in India are not on antiretroviral therapy (ART), i.e., are in pre-ART care. However, there are scarce data regarding the retention of pre-ART patients under routine program conditions. The main objective of this study was to find out the reasons for default among patients in pre-ART care. Patients enrolled in the ART Centre, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) between January and December 2009 and in pre-ART care were included in the study. Defaulters were those pre-ART patients who missed their last appointment of CD4 count by more than 1 month. Defaulters were traced telephonically in 2011 and those who returned and gave their consent for the study were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Out of 620 patients in pre-ART care, 384 (68.2%) were defaulters. One hundred forty-four of the defaulters were traced and only 83 reached the ART center for interview. Among defaulters who did not reach the ART center, illiterate and unmarried were significantly more and mean duration from registration to default was also significantly less as compared to those who came back for the interview. Most defaulters gave more than one reason for defaulting that were as follows: Inconvenient clinic timings (98%), need for multiple mode of transport (92%), perceived improved health (65%), distance of center from home (61%), lack of social support (62%), and financial difficulty (59%). Active tracing of pre-ART patients through outreach and strengthening of the Link ART centers will improve the retention of patients in the program.

  3. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of a novel anti-tuberculosis reconstruction implant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunFeng Dong

    Full Text Available Reconstruction materials currently used in clinical for osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB are unsatisfactory due to a variety of reasons. Rifampicin (RFP is a well-known and highly effective first-line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drug. Poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA are two promising materials that have been used both for orthopedic reconstruction and as carriers for drug release. In this study we report the development of a novel anti-TB implant for osteoarticular TB reconstruction using a combination of RFP, PDLLA and nHA.RFP, PDLLA and nHA were used as starting materials to produce a novel anti-TB activity implant by the solvent evaporation method. After manufacture, the implant was characterized and its biodegradation and drug release profile were tested. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the implant was also evaluated in pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells using multiple methodologies.A RFP/PDLLA/nHA composite was successfully synthesized using the solvent evaporation method. The composite has a loose and porous structure with evenly distributed pores. The production process was steady and no chemical reaction occurred as proved by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Meanwhile, the composite blocks degraded and released drug for at least 12 weeks. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells verified that the synthesized composite blocks did not affect cell growth and proliferation.It is feasible to manufacture a novel bioactive anti-TB RFP/PDLLA/nHA composite by the solvent evaporation method. The composite blocks showed appropriate properties such as degradation, drug release and biosafety to MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, the novel composite blocks may have great potential for clinical applications in repairing bone defects caused by osteoarticular TB.

  4. Trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in referral hospitals in northern India

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    A K Maurya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis is one of major current challenges to global public health. The transmission of resistant strains is increasing as a burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients in extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB cases in India. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of EPTB in referral hospitals in northern India. Study Design and Setting: A prospectively observational study and referral medical institutions in northern India. Materials and Methods: All EPTB specimens were processed for Ziehl Neelsen staining, BACTEC culture and BACTEC NAP test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. All M. tuberculosis complex isolates were performed for radiometric-based drug susceptibility pattern against streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol using the 1% proportion method. Results: We found that 165/756 (20.5% isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis complex by the NAP test. We observed that 39.9% were resistant to first-line antitubercular drugs. The resistance rate was higher in previously treated patients: H (30.3%, R (16.3%, E (15.7% and S (16.3%. MDR-TB was observed in 13.4%, but, in new cases, this was 11.4% and 19.1% of the previously treated patients (P<0.05. Conclusion: MDR-TB is gradually increased in EPTB cases and predominant resistance to previous treated cases of EPTB. The molecular drug sensitivity test (DST method can be an early decision for chemotherapy in MDR-TB patients. The International Standards of TB Care need to be used by the RNTCP and professional medical associations as a tool to improve TB care in the country.

  5. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

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    Miriam Bobadilla-del Valle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City.Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2trend, p<0.001. Primary STR resistance was higher among M. bovis compared with M. tuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, p<0.001. Secondary multidrug resistance (MDR rates were 38.5% and 34.4% for M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637. A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02.There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  6. [Optimization of parodontitis treatment of patients with tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, E A; Lepilin, A V; Kazimirova, N E; Shul'diakov, A A

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose to determine the clinic-pathogenetic efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy of parodontitis of patients with focal tuberculosis medical examination and treatment of 40 patients is carried out. It is established, that use of liniment Cycloferon in the combined treatment of patients with focal tuberculosis allows to accelerate process of normalization of lipid peroxidation parameters and antioxidant potential of blood, to decrease infection load (Herpes symplex virus I, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus) in parodontal recess and evidence of local inflammation with reduction of activity of the tumours necrosis factor and interleukin 1beta, that provides acceleration of recuperation processes, lowering the frequency of parodontitis relapses.

  7. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Personalized Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Emerging Role of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Mokondjimobe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives were (i to evaluate the impact of acute pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and anti-TB therapy on the relationship between AST, ALT, and GGT levels in absence of conditions related to hepatotoxicity; (ii to evaluate the rate and the time of alterations of AST, ALT, and GGT. Design and Methods. A prospective followup of 40 adults (21 males; mean age of 34.7±5.8 years with active PTB on initial phase and continuation phase anti-TB. Results. Only 3% (n=1 developed a transient and benign ADR at day 30 without interruption of anti-TB treatment. Within normal ranges, GGT decreased significantly from day 0 to day 60, while AST and ALT increased significantly and respectively. During day 0–day 60, there was a significant, negative, and independent association between GGT and AST. Conclusion. The initial two months led to significant improvement of oxidative stress. Values of oxidative markers in normal ranges might predict low rate of ADR.

  8. Treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and role of the pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrzyk, Beatriz Manzor

    2008-10-01

    Abstract Outbreaks of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in developing countries and recent headlines of an American traveling with a resistant variant of tuberculosis have brought XDR-TB into the spotlight. The World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified XDR-TB as a serious public health threat and are mandating increased efforts at control of tuberculosis. Although XDR-TB is believed to be no more infectious than other variants of tuberculosis, infection with and spread of XDR-TB are concerning because of the ineffectiveness, toxicity, and cost of the available tuberculosis treatment options. Pharmacists may not be aware of the recent trends in tuberculosis resistance or of the impact that they can have on educating the public about this disease. To gain a better understanding of this disease and the potential roles for pharmacists in public health awareness of tuberculosis and in the care of patients with and at risk for this disease, we undertook an extensive search of the Internet, including Web sites of tuberculosis advocacy groups, and of MEDLINE from January 1968-March 2008. Currently, XDR-TB infection is uncommon in the United States, but if history is any indication, there is a high potential for an outbreak or epidemic. The XDR-TB variant has emerged from mismanaging multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, treating tuberculosis with too few drugs, using less effective second-line drugs, and not educating patients about the dangers of nonadherence. With only limited hopes of a novel effective drug combination regimen, use of available antimycobacterial drugs needs to be optimized. Pharmacists can be key players in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis by promoting adherence, assessing patients for risk factors for resistant disease, providing information about disease control and prevention, and monitoring for effectiveness, adverse effects, and drug interactions.

  9. The outcome of tuberculosis treatment in subjects with chronic kidney disease in Brazil: a multinomial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Reis-Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between clinical/epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment in patients with concomitant tuberculosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Brazil. METHODS: We used the Brazilian Ministry of Health National Case Registry Database to identify patients with tuberculosis and CKD, treated between 2007 and 2011. The tuberculosis treatment outcomes were compared with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the subjects using a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression model, in which cure was the reference outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD among patients with tuberculosis was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.37-0.42%. The sample comprised 1,077 subjects. The outcomes were cure, in 58%; treatment abandonment, in 7%; death from tuberculosis, in 13%; and death from other causes, in 22%. The characteristics that differentiated the ORs for treatment abandonment or death were age; alcoholism; AIDS; previous noncompliance with treatment; transfer to another facility; suspected tuberculosis on chest X-ray; positive results in the first smear microscopy; and indications for/use of directly observed treatment, short-course strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the importance of sociodemographic characteristics for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with CKD and underscore the need for tuberculosis control strategies targeting patients with chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as CKD.

  10. Drug development against tuberculosis: Impact of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shardendu K; Tripathi, Garima; Kishore, Navneet; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Archana; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2017-09-08

    Despite of the advances made in the treatment and management, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of main public health problem. The contrary effects of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs have generated extended research interest in natural products in the hope of devising new antitubercular leads. Interestingly, plethoras of natural products have been discovered to exhibit activity towards various resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Extensive applications of alkaloids in the field of therapeutics is well-established and nowday's researches being pursued to develop new potent drugs from natural sources for tuberculosis. Alkaloids are categorized in quite a few groups according to their structures and isolation from both terrestrial and marine sources. These new drugs might be a watershed in the battle against tuberculosis. This review summarizes alkaloids, which were found active against Mycobacteria since last ten years with special attention on the study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and mode of action with their impact in drug discovery and development against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 66744 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Pulmonary Tuberculosis... of antimycobacterial drugs for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. This guidance applies to the...

  12. A Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Rifapentine plus Moxifloxacin-Based Regimen for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

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    Marcus B Conde

    Full Text Available The combination of rifapentine and moxifloxacin administered daily with other anti-tuberculosis drugs is highly active in mouse models of tuberculosis chemotherapy. The objective of this phase 2 clinical trial was to determine the bactericidal activity, safety, and tolerability of a regimen comprised of rifapentine, moxifloxacin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide administered daily during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment.Adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were randomized to receive either rifapentine (approximately 7.5 mg/kg plus moxifloxacin (investigational arm, or rifampin (approximately 10 mg/kg plus ethambutol (control daily for 8 weeks, along with isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The primary endpoint was sputum culture status at completion of 8 weeks of treatment.121 participants (56% of accrual target were enrolled. At completion of 8 weeks of treatment, negative cultures using Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ medium occurred in 47/60 (78% participants in the investigational arm vs. 43/51 (84%, p = 0.47 in the control arm; negative cultures using liquid medium occurred in 37/47 (79% in the investigational arm vs. 27/41 (66%, p = 0.23 in the control arm. Time to stable culture conversion was shorter for the investigational arm vs. the control arm using liquid culture medium (p = 0.03, but there was no difference using LJ medium. Median rifapentine area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24 was 313 mcg*h/mL, similar to recent studies of rifapentine dosed at 450-600 mg daily. Median moxifloxacin AUC0-24 was 28.0 mcg*h/mL, much lower than in trials where rifapentine was given only intermittently with moxifloxacin. The proportion of participants discontinuing assigned treatment for reasons other than microbiological ineligibility was higher in the investigational arm vs. the control arm (11/62 [18%] vs. 3/59 [5%], p = 0.04 although the proportions of grade 3 or higher adverse events were similar (5/62 [8%] in the

  13. RESEARCH ON NATURAL REMEDIES OF TUBERCULOSIS AND IDENITIFY NEW SYMPTOMS, TREATMENT REGIMENS, DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    MYLE AKSHAY KIRAN; Dr. Gangadhar Rao; Dr. Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an infection deadly disease and the treatment of which is one of the most important severe challenges at the global level currently more than a 20 chemicals medications are described for the treatment of tuberculosis. Regardless of availability of several drugs to treat TB. The cause agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is now a days getting resistant towards the convenient drugs and leading to condition known as the multi drugs resistan...

  14. Medical management of genitourinary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasu Kadhiravan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimycobacterial chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB. A large body of evidence from clinical trials suggests that short-course chemotherapy regimens, employing four drugs including rifampicin and pyrazinamide, achieve cure in most of the patients with tuberculosis (TB and are associated with the lowest rates of relapse. Standard six-month regimens are adequate for the treatment of GUTB. Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS is the internationally recommended comprehensive strategy to control TB, and directly observed treatment is just one of its five elements. DOTS cures not only the individual with TB but also reduces the incidence of TB as well as the prevalence of primary drug-resistance in the community. Corticosteroids have no proven role in the management of patients with GUTB. Errors in prescribing anti-TB drugs are common in clinical practice. Standardized treatment regimens at correct doses and assured completion of treatment have made DOTS the present-day standard of care for the management of all forms of TB including GUTB.

  15. Impact of drug resistance on the tuberculosis treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lesnic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The standard treatment of a new case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB according to WHO recommendations in the Republic of Moldova is performed since 2005 showing a low treatment succes. Actually the treatment success rate increased due to excluding of MDR-TB patients from the general cohort. The major rate of patients with low outcome is represented by the failed and lost to follow-up cases. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of multidrug-resiatnce and MDR-TB on the tuberculosis treatment outcome. Materials and methods. A retrospective selective, descriptive study targeting social, demographic, economic and epidemiological peculiarities, case-management, diagnostic radiological aspects and microbiological characteristics of 187 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis registered during 2013–2015 distributed in two groups: 1st group (61 patients with established multidrug-resistant strains using conventional cultural methods and the 2nd group (126 patients with MDR-TB. Results. Multidrug-resistance was established more frequently in new cases and MDR-TB in two thirds of retreated patients. No difference was identified in gender and age distribution, social, economical, educational characteristics; case-management assessment identified a similar proportion of patients revealed by general practitioners and specialists, with low rate of screened high risk groups. All patients from the multidrug-resistant group began the standard treatment for drug-responsiveness tuberculosis before drug susceptibility testing and one third of MDR-TB group was treated from the onset with the DOTS-Plus regimen. Highest success rate was identified in the new-case subgroups of both groups and higher rate of died patients was determined in the retreated subgroups. Such a low rate of patients aggrevates the resistance. Conclusions. Early diagnosis, drug responsiveness testing and raising awareness among about treatment compliance will

  16. [Surgical Treatment of Bronchial Stricture due to Endobronchial Tuberculosis: 
Results in 36 Consecutive Cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Junzhong; Zhang, Tianhui; Li, Fugen; Duan, Yong; Han, Ming; Wang, Zitong

    2018-04-20

    Bronchial tuberculosis is a common complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. The present report is to investigate and analyze the indication and efficacy of surgical treatment of bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis, when the drug and endoscopic treatment were no effect. Reviewed the clinical-pathological records documenting the surgical outcomes in 36 bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis who underwent lobectomy or pneumonectomy enrolled in our hospital between January 2000 and February 2016. Pneumonectomy in 8 cases, lobectomy in 23 cases, sleeve resection in 5 cases. No intraoperative or early postoperative death occurred. Six patients developed complications. All 6 cases recovered well after treatment. Surgical treatment is still the recommended treatment modatity for bronchial stricture caused by endobronchial tuberculosis due to its good results. It should be performed in time when the drug and intraluninal treatment were no effect for avoiding of being progeressed.

  17. Treatment outcomes among pulmonary tuberculosis patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... in our environment. Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis; treatment centers; treatment outcome. Résumé paramètre: Centres de traitement de la tuberculose en Ibadan, Nigeria objectif: Pour évaluer les résultats de traitement et les déterminants de résultat entre la tuberculose patients. design: A plan d'étude ...

  18. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Lithuania – Still a long way ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Musteikienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent advances in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, treatment of the disease, for the most part, remains the same as it was half a century ago. In recent years only two new anti-tuberculosis drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration. Though the prevalence of this disease is slowly decreasing all over Europe, new challenges appear. One of them is multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. This problem is especially prominent in Lithuania, which is one of the 27 high MDR-TB burden countries in the world and falls behind neighboring countries in terms of the prevalence of the disease. The objective of this paper was to review the situation of tuberculosis and MDR-TB in Lithuania, and current available methods of treatment, control and diagnosis of this disease.

  19. A randomized controlled study of socioeconomic support to enhance tuberculosis prevention and treatment, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Marco A; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Datta, Sumona; Saunders, Matthew J; Lewis, James J; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of socioeconomic support on tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation in household contacts of tuberculosis patients and on treatment success in patients. Methods A non-blinded, household-randomized, controlled study was performed between February 2014 and June 2015 in 32 shanty towns in Peru. It included patients being treated for tuberculosis and their household contacts. Households were randomly assigned to either the standard of care provided by Peru’s national tuberculosis programme (control arm) or the same standard of care plus socioeconomic support (intervention arm). Socioeconomic support comprised conditional cash transfers up to 230 United States dollars per household, community meetings and household visits. Rates of tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation and treatment success (i.e. cure or treatment completion) were compared in intervention and control arms. Findings Overall, 282 of 312 (90%) households agreed to participate: 135 in the intervention arm and 147 in the control arm. There were 410 contacts younger than 20 years: 43% in the intervention arm initiated tuberculosis preventive therapy versus 25% in the control arm (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.1–4.1). An intention-to-treat analysis showed that treatment was successful in 64% (87/135) of patients in the intervention arm versus 53% (78/147) in the control arm (unadjusted OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.6). These improvements were equitable, being independent of household poverty. Conclusion A tuberculosis-specific, socioeconomic support intervention increased uptake of tuberculosis preventive therapy and tuberculosis treatment success and is being evaluated in the Community Randomized Evaluation of a Socioeconomic Intervention to Prevent TB (CRESIPT) project. PMID:28479622

  20. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in Uzbekistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Tatiana V; Khojiev, Doniyor S; Tillyashaykhov, Mirzagaleb N; Tigay, Zinaida N; Kudenov, Marat U; Tebbens, Jurjen Duintjer; Vlcek, Jiri

    2014-11-25

    Early diagnosis and prompt effective therapy are crucial for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) transmission, particularly in regions with high levels of multi-drug resistant TB. This study aimed to evaluate the extent of delay in diagnosis and treatment of TB in Uzbekistan and identify associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on hospital patients with newly diagnosed TB. The time between the onset of respiratory symptoms and initiation of anti-TB treatment was assessed and delays were divided into patient, health system and total delays. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate determinants of diagnostic and treatment delay. Among 538 patients enrolled, the median delay from onset of symptoms until treatment with anti-TB drugs was 50 days. Analysis of the factors affecting health-seeking behaviour and timely treatment showed the presence of the patient factor. Self-medication was the first health-seeking action for 231 (43%) patients and proved to be a significant predictor of delay (p = 0.005), as well as coughing (p = 0.009), loss of weight (p = 0.001), and visiting private and primary healthcare facilities (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). TB diagnostic and treatment delay was mainly contributed to by patient delay and should be reduced through increasing public awareness of TB symptoms and improving public health-seeking behaviour for timely initiation of anti-TB treatment. Efforts should be made to minimise irrational use of antibiotics and support interventions to restrict over-the-counter availability of antibiotics.

  1. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2)trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02). There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  2. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory’s database for the 2000–2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X 2 trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000–2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010–2014; p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. PMID:26421930

  3. Why do Patients undergoing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment Turn Defaulters? A Follow up Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Jamnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amrita; Javia, Abhay; Pithadia, Pradeep; Parmar, Dipesh

    2017-07-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a progressive respiratory illness requiring long-term treatment, is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and economic burden on the family as well as the country. In the tertiary health care facility where the study was carried out, it was observed that many COPD patients did not come for regular follow up. In these patients, treatment interruption may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to find out the reasons for defaulting follow up and treatment in COPD patients. All patients of COPD, attending TB Chest outpatient department during the study period (September 2012 to February 2013), were classified into Group A, B, C, and D according to latest Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Data was collected on patient's sociodemographic profile, severity of disease and reasons for defaulting follow up and treatment using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, patient history and clinical examination. Data obtained were entered in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and analysed using Chi-square test. The mean age of the 200 patients recruited was 59.3 years. A total of 87% patients were male. Patients belonging to Group A, B, C and D were 11%, 25.5%, 41.5% and 22% respectively. Overall, 32% patients were defaulters. Three main reasons for default were non-affordability for treatment expenses (39.07%), resolution of symptoms (26.56%), and too ill to come (18.75%). The associations between default rate and demographic variables like age and gender were found statistically significant. Default rate among COPD patients is significantly associated with GOLD Group A and D, patient's income and patient literacy level. Main reasons for default were non-affordability of treatment expenses, too ill to come and resolution of symptoms.

  4. Genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with variable clinical presentations: A report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Arora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is usually diagnosed in young women being assessed for infertility. After menopause it usually presents with symptoms resembling endometrial malignancy, such as postmenopausal bleeding, persistent vaginal discharge and pyometra. The diagnosis is made by detection of acid-fast bacilli on microscopy or bacteriological culture and/or presence of epithelioid granuloma on biopsy. Anti-tubercular therapy involves the use of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgery is indicated if a pelvic mass and recurrence of pain or bleeding persist after 9 months of treatment. Three cases of genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with different clinical presentations are reported. The first woman presented with ascites and weight loss. The second had postmenopausal bleeding with a pipelle biopsy suggestive of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. The third presented with weight loss and a palpable abdominal mass. Pelvic malignancy was initially suspected but a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made following pre-operative endometrial biopsy, bacteriological culture and intra-operative frozen section. All three women responded to anti-tubercular therapy. Keywords: Genital tuberculosis, Postmenopausal, Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, Anti-tubercular therapy, Endometrial biopsy

  5. Efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose Effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Nazareth Fernandes da Paz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as estratégias que influenciam a efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS. MÉTODOS: Levantamento epidemiológico, descritivo, retrospectivo, envolvendo os prontuários médicos de 588 pacientes com tuberculose cadastrados no programa de controle da tuberculose, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2008, em duas UBS - Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM e UBS da Pedreira (UBSP - localizadas na cidade de Belém (PA. Os critérios de exclusão foram ter idade 59 anos e ter alta por transferência ou mudança de diagnóstico. Os dados coletados foram idade, sexo, tipo de tratamento (autoadministrado ou supervisionado, coinfecção por HIV e desfecho do tratamento. Os profissionais de saúde envolvidos no programa da tuberculose das duas UBS foram entrevistados quanto às estratégias utilizadas no controle da doença e à rotina de atendimento. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas quanto a idade, sexo e coinfecção com HIV nas duas UBS. A utilização de tratamento supervisionado foi significativamente maior no CSEM que na UBSP, assim como a taxa de cura, enquanto a taxa de abandono foi maior na UBSP que no CSEM. CONCLUSÕES: Para pacientes cadastrados em programas de controle da tuberculose em UBS no Brasil, o tratamento supervisionado provavelmente é uma estratégia de extrema importância para se alcançar uma menor taxa de abandono.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment strategies that influence the effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment at primary care clinics (PCCs in Brazil. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective epidemiological survey based on the medical records of 588 tuberculosis patients enrolled in the tuberculosis control programs at two PCCs located in the city of Belém, Brazil: Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM and Unidade Básica de Saúde da Pedreira (UBSP. The survey was limited to patients enrolled between January of 2004 and December of 2008

  6. Integrating tuberculosis/HIV treatment: an evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-25

    Jan 25, 2013 ... Scientific Letter: Integrating tuberculosis/HIV treatment: 479. Vol 55 No 5. SA Fam Pract 2013 treatment outcomes were applied where “cured” refers to patients with sputum conversion and “completed” to patients who completed treatment but did not meet the criteria for cure or failure – this includes patient ...

  7. Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah,1 Mohd Zobir B Hussein,1,2 Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali11Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18–24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug-delivery system, targeted delivery, anti-TB drug, TB, patient compliance

  8. Serial interferon-gamma release assays during treatment of active tuberculosis in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Choon-Taek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA in monitoring responses to anti-tuberculosis (TB treatment is not clear. We evaluated the results of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT assay over time during the anti-TB treatment of adults with no underlying disease. Methods We enrolled soldiers who were newly diagnosed with active TB and admitted to the central referral military hospital in South Korea between May 1, 2008 and September 30, 2009. For each participant, we preformed QFT-GIT assay before treatment (baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after initiating anti-TB medication. Results Of 67 eligible patients, 59 (88.1% completed the study protocol. All participants were males who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-negative and had no chronic diseases. Their median age was 21 years (range, 20-48. Initially, 57 (96.6% patients had positive QFT-GIT results, and 53 (89.8%, 42 (71.2%, and 39 (66.1% had positive QFT-GIT results at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The IFN-γ level at baseline was 5.31 ± 5.34 IU/ml, and the levels at 1, 3, and 6 months were 3.95 ± 4.30, 1.82 ± 2.14, and 1.50 ± 2.12 IU/ml, respectively. All patients had clinical and radiologic improvements after treatment and were cured. A lower IFN-γ level, C-reactive protein ≥ 3 mg/dl, and the presence of fever (≥ 38.3°C at diagnosis were associated with negative reversion of the QFT-GIT assay. Conclusion Although the IFN-γ level measured by QFT-GIT assay decreased after successful anti-TB treatment in most participants, less than half of them exhibited QFT-GIT reversion. Thus, the reversion to negativity of the QFT-GIT assay may not be a good surrogate for treatment response in otherwise healthy young patients with TB.

  9. Isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis in Denmark: mutations, transmission and treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Didi; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Andersen, Ase Bengaard

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study on isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (TB) was conducted in the low-burden country, Denmark (DK). The aim was to describe treatment outcome and transmission and to evaluate a mutation analysis for high- and low-level isoniazid resistance detection.......A retrospective study on isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (TB) was conducted in the low-burden country, Denmark (DK). The aim was to describe treatment outcome and transmission and to evaluate a mutation analysis for high- and low-level isoniazid resistance detection....

  10. Hixozide in therapy of tuberculosis of bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozova T.l.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the combined inhaled anti-TB preparation Hixozide for improving the effectiveness of medical treatment of patients suffering from tuberculosis of bronchus. Material and Methods. Hixozide (made in Russia, the active substance Hydroxymethylchinoxylindioxydum 100mg + Isoniazidum 250 mg, was delivered via inhalations using a compressor nebulizer within 21 days in the course of the complex chemotherapy. Inclusion criteria: newly diagnosed patients and patients with relapsed tuberculosis with the presence of tuberculousendobronchitis, drug sensitivity saved to isoniazid. Exclusion criteria: the state of preventing the appointment of adequate treatment, HIV-infection (group 1, n=30. The comparison group was consisted of patients receiving standard treatment in combination with inhaled administration of Isoniazid (group 2, n=21. Rezults. The clinical study has figured out: after a course of inhalations of Hixozide the clinical cure of bronchial tuberculosis occurs after the period of 2 months of treatment (according to the results of endoscopy of bronchi; more patients — 69.2% versus 38.1% in the comparison group, p=0,039 showed a positive trend during the nonspecific endobronchitis — 85,7% vs. 52,9%, p=0,017; the treatment and bacteriological conversion were achieved: 143±27 days in the first group vs. 164±32 days in the control group, p=0,019. Adverse reactions to Hixozide demanding its abolition occurred in 13,3%, they were stopped and did not affect the health of patients in the future. Conclusion. Inhaled Hixozide in the complex treatment of patients with tuberculosis accelerates clinical cure of tuberculosis of the bronchi, healing the lesions in the lung tissue and abacillation.

  11. Tuberculosis Notification: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nagpal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem. An emerging menace in India is drug resistant forms of TB. In order to ensure proper TB diagnosis and case management, reduce TB transmission and address the problems of emergence of spread of Drug Resistant-TB, it is essential to have complete information of all TB cases. Therefore, Govt. of India declared Tuberculosis a notifiable disease on 7th May 2012. This paper highlights the fact that notification of TB in the absence of regulation of diagnostic practices, rational use of anti-TB medicines and availability of diagnostic and treatment facilities for drug-resistant TB will pose more problems rather than provide solutions to this problem.

  12. The application of anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody fluorescent probe in ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging in mice with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Zhang, Haoling; Zhu, Zhaoqin; Li, Cong; Shi, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Here, we aimed to assess the feasibility of anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupling with IR783 and rhodamine fluorescent probe in the detection of ESAT-6 expression in tuberculosis tissue of mice using near-infrared fluorescence imaging. IR783 and rhodamine were conjugated to the anti-ESAT-6 mAb or IgG. Mice in the experimental group were injected with fluorescence-labeled mAb probe, and mice in the control group were injected with fluorescence-labeled non-specific IgG antibody. Twenty-four hours later, the lung tissue of mice was examined using ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. In addition, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated by measuring the signal intensities of the pulmonary lesions, normal lung tissue and background noise. The frozen lung tissue section was examined under fluorescence microscopy and compared with hemoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging showed that the fluorescence signal in the lung tuberculosis lesions in the experimental group was significantly enhanced, whereas there was only a weak fluorescence signal or even no fluorescence signal in the control group. CNR values were 64.40 ± 7.02 (n = 6) and 8.75 ± 3.87 (n = 6), respectively (t = 17.01, p fluorescence accumulation distribution detected under fluorescence microscopy was consistent with HE staining of the tuberculosis region. In conclusion, anti-ESAT-6 mAb fluorescent probe could target and be applied in specific ex vivo imaging of mice tuberculosis, and may be of further use in tuberculosis in living mice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Delays in diagnosis and treatment of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pooja Ajay; Coj, Merida; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-10-09

    A 23-year-old indigenous Guatemalan man presented in 2016 to our clinic in Sololá, Guatemala, with 10 months of recurrent neck swelling, fevers, night sweats and weight loss. Previously, he had sought care in three different medical settings, including a private physician-run clinic, a tertiary private cancer treatment centre and, finally, a rural government health post. With assistance from our institution's accompaniment staff, the patient was admitted to a public tertiary care hospital for work-up. Rifampin-susceptible tuberculosis was diagnosed, and appropriate treatment was begun. The case illustrates how low tuberculosis recognition among community health workers and health system segmentation creates obstacles to appropriate care, especially for patients with limited means. As a result, significant diagnostic and treatment delays can occur, increasing the public health burden of tuberculosis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Tuberculosis Treatment and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  15. Effectiveness of interventions for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in hard-to-reach populations in countries of low and medium tuberculosis incidence: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelings, Charlotte C.; de Vries, Sophia G.; Greve, Patrick F.; Visser, Benjamin J.; Bélard, Sabine; Janssen, Saskia; Cremers, Anne L.; Spijker, René; Shaw, Beth; Hill, Ruaraidh A.; Zumla, Alimuddin; Sandgren, Andreas; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis is over-represented in hard-to-reach (underserved) populations in high-income countries of low tuberculosis incidence. The mainstay of tuberculosis care is early detection of active tuberculosis (case finding), contact tracing, and treatment completion. We did a systematic review with a

  16. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT

  17. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye [Atatuerk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT.

  18. [On the way to shortening tuberculosis treatments: clinical trials of the Unitat d' Investagació en Tuberculosi de Barcelona supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio; Sánchez, Francesca; Nelson, Jeanne; Miró, José M; Caylà, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    New treatment guidelines are required to improve the tuberculosis control strategies that have been used for 30 years. Seven centers of the Barcelona Tuberculosis Research Unit (BTRU) (Unitat d'Investigació en Tuberculosi de Barcelona) are collaborating with the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in a series of clinical trials on latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease. BTRU participation began in 2004 with Study 26, an evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of rifapentine plus isoniazid administered once weekly for 3 months compared with the standard treatment for latent tuberculosis infection. The BTRU centers together enrolled 246 patients (3% of the total). General enrollment was completed in February, 2008. HIV-infected patient and child enrollment continues. Treatment with 12 doses instead of 270 doses is expected to be a clear success. However, the analysis will be completed in 2010. Study 28 (started in 2006), designed for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, compared standard treatment with an experimental regimen substituting moxifloxacin for isoniazid. BTRU centers together enrolled 15 patients (3.5% of the total). The provisional results (presented at the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy in Chicago, 2007) showed no difference between the sputum conversion rate of each regimen at week 8 of treatment. Study 29 is currently underway, in which rifapentine was introduced in the experimental regimen for active tuberculosis treatment. Copyright (c) 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Interventions to increase tuberculosis case detection at primary healthcare or community-level services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhimbira, Francis A; Cuevas, Luis E; Dacombe, Russell; Mkopi, Abdallah; Sinclair, David

    2017-11-28

    screening, using house-to-house visits, sometimes combined with printed information about going to clinic, may increase tuberculosis case detection (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.79; 4 trials, 6,458,591 participants in 297 clusters, low-certainty evidence); and probably increases case detection in areas with tuberculosis prevalence of 5% or more (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.09; 3 trials, 155,918 participants, moderate-certainty evidence; prespecified stratified analysis). These interventions may lower the early default (prior to starting treatment) or default during treatment (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96; 3 trials, 849 participants, low-certainty evidence). However, this intervention may have may have little or no effect on treatment success (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.15; 3 trials, 849 participants, low-certainty evidence), and we do not know if there is an effect on treatment failure or mortality. One study investigated long-term prevalence in the community, but with no clear effect due to imprecision and differences in care between the two groups (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.00; 1 trial, 556,836 participants, very low-certainty evidence).Four studies examined health promotion activities to encourage people to attend for screening, including mass media strategies and more locally organized activities. There was some increase, but this could have been related to temporal trends, with no corresponding increase in case notifications, and no evidence of an effect on long-term tuberculosis prevalence. Two studies examined the effects of two to six nurse practitioner educational sessions in tuberculosis diagnosis, with no clear effect on tuberculosis cases detected. One trial compared mobile clinics every five days with house-to-house screening every six months, and showed an increase in tuberculosis cases.There was also insufficient evidence to determine if sustained improvements in case detection impact on long-term tuberculosis prevalence; this was evaluated in one study, which

  20. Exploring the determinants of treatment success for tuberculosis cases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, D; Le Strat, Y; Belghiti, F; Infuso, A

    2005-11-01

    Pooled tuberculosis (TB) notifications from 13 European countries. To analyse the determinants of TB treatment success in different countries using individual data. We asked 18 European countries with both outcome data and individual TB records to code outcomes for cases notified in 2000 and/or 2001. Cases completing treatment regardless of bacteriological proof of cure were considered successful. Ten European Union countries and Iceland, Norway and Romania participated (72% response). Among 24 660 TB cases (Romania excluded), 'success' was reported in 69% (country range 60-88%), 9% (0-11%) died, 1% (0-5%) failed, 4% defaulted or transferred (2-15%) and 12% (0-23%) were 'unknown'. On logistic regression among cases with drug susceptibility results (n = 10 303), 'success' was associated with younger age (>74 years: reference; 55-74 years: OR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.8-2.4; 35-54 years: 3.0, 95%CI 2.6-3.5; 15-34 years: 3.7, 95%CI 3.2-4.4; <15 years: 4.4, 95%CI 2.9-6.7), female sex (1.4, 95%CI 1.3-1.6), and no polyresistance (9.2, 95%CI 6.8-12.4). The Netherlands (1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0) and Slovakia (1.8, 95%CI 1.4-2.2) had higher success than Estonia (reference: lowest percentage success), while Austria was lower (0.64, 95%CI 0.52-0.78). Preventing drug resistance, increasing adherence and improving care in the elderly should be priorities. Inter-country variations in treatment success suggest differences in the completeness of monitoring data and in the efficacy of national control programmes.

  1. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  2. Impaired pulmonary function after treatment for tuberculosis: the end of the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chushkin, Mikhail Ivanovich; Ots, Oleg Nikolayevich

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities and to investigate the factors affecting lung function in patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: A total of 214 consecutive patients (132 men and 82 women; 20-82 years of age), treated for pulmonary tuberculosis and followed at a local dispensary, underwent spirometry and plethysmography at least one year after treatment. Results: Pulmonary impairment was present in 102 (47.7%) of the 214 patients evaluated. The most common functional alteration was obstructive lung disease (seen in 34.6%). Of the 214 patients, 60 (28.0%) showed reduced pulmonary function (FEV1 below the lower limit of normal). Risk factors for reduced pulmonary function were having had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the past, being over 50 years of age, having recurrent tuberculosis, and having a lower level of education. Conclusions: Nearly half of all tuberculosis patients evolve to impaired pulmonary function. That underscores the need for pulmonary function testing after the end of treatment. PMID:28380187

  3. Impact of tuberculosis treatment on CD4 cell count, HIV RNA, and p24 antigen in patients with HIV and tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Furtado, A.; Camara, C.

    2013-01-01

    To describe HIV RNA levels during tuberculosis (TB) infection in patients co-infected with TB and HIV. Moreover, to examine the p24 antigen profile during TB treatment.......To describe HIV RNA levels during tuberculosis (TB) infection in patients co-infected with TB and HIV. Moreover, to examine the p24 antigen profile during TB treatment....

  4. A meta-analysis of drug resistant tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: how strongly associated with previous treatment and HIV co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru; Yizengaw, Desalegn

    2013-11-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history and HIV co-infection. After electronic based literature search in the databases of Medline, HINARI, EMBASE and the Cochrane library, article selection and data extraction were carried out. HIV co-infection and previous history of TB treatment were used as predictors for the occurrence of any anti-TB drug resistant or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The risk ratios for each included study and for the pooled sample were computed using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were also done. The pooled analysis showed that the risk of developing drug-resistant TB to at least one anti-TB drug was about 3 times higher in individuals who had a previous history of anti-TB treatment than new TB cases. The risk of having MDR-TB in previously anti-TB treated TB cases was more than 5-fold higher than that of new TB cases. Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampicin was more than fivefold higher among the previously treated with anti-TB drugs. However, HIV infection was not associated with drug-resistant TB. There was a strong association of previous anti-TB treatment with MDR-TB. Primary treatment warrants special emphasis, and screening for anti-TB drugs sensitivity has to be strengthened.

  5. Risk assessment of hepatotoxicity among tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-coinfected patients under tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouleun, Williams; Biapa Nya, Prosper Cabral; Pieme, Anatole Constant; Telefo, Phelix Bruno

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health problem. It is a contagious and grave disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current drugs such as isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampicin used for the treatment of tuberculosis are potentially hepatotoxic and can lead to drug hepatitis. In order to improve the follow-up of TB patients in Cameroon, we carried out a study which aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity risk factors associated with anti-TB drugs. The studies were performed on 75 participants who had visited the Loum District Hospital located in the littoral region of Cameroon for their routine consultation. Participants have been selected based on pre-established criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Prior to the informed consent signature, patients were given compelling information about the objective and the result output of the study. They were questioned about antioxidant food and alcohol consumption as well as some clinical signs of hepatotoxicity such as fever, nausea, vomiting, and tiredness. The collected blood was tested for the determination of biochemical markers (transaminases and C-reactive protein) using standard spectrophotometric methods. Biochemical analysis of samples showed a significant increase (pfactors, antioxidant food consumption significantly reduced the liver injury patient percentage for the above parameters, whereas an opposite situation was observed with alcohol consumption between TB-coinfection and TB patients. Regarding the C-reactive protein results, the percentage of positive tests was very high among coinfected patients (40%) compared with the control (15%). The interactions between parameters related to alcohol consumption and intake of antioxidant foods showed a slight decrease in activity compared with interactions without food. The results showed that human immunodeficiency virus status and alcohol consumption constitutes aggravating factors for the occurrence of hepatic toxicity. In addition, the consumption of

  6. Paradoxical upgrading reaction in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis: association with vitamin D therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, D.A.; Coussens, A.K.; Irvine, S.; Ritchie, N.D.; Herbert, K.; Choo-Kang, B.; Raeside, D.; Bell, D.J.; Seaton, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    SETTING: Glasgow, Scotland, UK.\\ud \\ud BACKGROUND: Paradoxical reactions in tuberculosis (TB) are a notable example of our incomplete understanding of host-pathogen interactions during anti-tuberculosis treatment.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for a TB paradoxical reaction, and specifically to assess for an independent association with vitamin D use.\\ud \\ud DESIGN: Consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative adult patients treated for extra-pulmonary TB were identif...

  7. Adaptive trials for tuberculosis: early reflections on theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive designs (ADs) have been proposed for anti-tuberculosis treatment trials. This call for innovation occurs against the backdrop of fundamental changes in the acceptable evidence base in anti-tuberculosis treatment. To contextualise ADs for tuberculosis (TB) and explore early responses from those working in the field. In this qualitative study investigating processes of theoretical and practical change in randomised controlled trials, 24 interviews were conducted with professionals involved in AD trials, half of whom worked in the TB field. Clinical trialists working on AD trials in TB are positive about the efficiency these designs offer, but remain cautious about their suitability. In addition to technical concerns, informants discussed the challenges of implementing AD in developing countries, including limited regulatory capacity to evaluate proposals, investments needed in infrastructure and site capacity, and challenges regarding informed consent. Respondents identified funding, interdisciplinary communication and regulatory and policy responses as additional concerns potentially affecting the success of AD for TB. Empirical research is needed into patient experiences of AD, including informed consent. Further consideration of the contexts of innovation in trial design is needed. These are fundamental to the successful translation of theory into practice.

  8. Addison's Disease Caused by Tuberculosis with Atypical Hyperpigmentation and Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Hiroki; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Kainuma, Shigeto; Umeda, Sakurako; Makuuchi, Ayako; Fukumoto, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Kamata, Noriko; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hiura, Yoshikazu; Morimura, Mina; Shuto, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. In addition, the presence of active tuberculosis needs to be assumed whenever we treat patients with Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis, despite its rarity.

  9. ANEMIA DAN LAMA KONSUMSI OBAT ANTI TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Thuraidah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberkulosis adalah penyakit infeksi akibat kuman Mycobacterium tuberculosis yang dapat menginfeksi beberapa organ tubuh, diantaranya paru-paru, ginjal, dan tulang.Tujuan pengobatan tuberkulosis adalah memusnahkan basil tuberkulosis dengan cepat dan mencegah kekambuhan. Obat anti tuberkulosis (OAT dapat diterima dalam terapi, namun mempunyai efek toksik seperti agranulositosis, eosinofilia, trombositopenia dan anemia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama konsumsi OAT pada pasien TB paru terhadap anemia. Penelitian ini bersifat Survey Analitic dengan rancangan Cross Sectional. Hasil penelitian rata-rata hitung sel darah merah 0 bulan 5,16 106/uL, 2 bulan 4,39 106/uL dan 6 bulan 4,61 106/uL, rata-rata kadar hemoglobin 0 bulan 15,17 g/dL, 2 bulan 12,73 g/dL dan 6 bulan 13,28 g/dL serta ratarata nilai hematokrit 0 bulan 44,26 %, 2 bulan 38,24 % dan 6 bulan 39,04 %. Dari hasil uji Spearman diperoleh nilai signifikan sebesar hitung sel darah merah 0,004 < α (0,05, kadar hemoglobin 0,007 < α (0,05 dan nilai hematokrit 0,015 < α (0,05 sehingga dapat disimpulkan ada hubungan antara lama konsumsi obat anti tuberkulosis pada pasien TB paru terhadap anemia dan nilai correlation coefficient hitung sel darah merah -0,531, kadar hemoglobin -0,479 serta nilai hematokrit -0,440 berarti memiliki kekuatan hubungan yang sedang. Disarankan untuk penelitian selanjutnya menggunakan parameter yang berbeda seperti jumlah trombosit, kadar AST/ALT dan sebaiknya menggunakan sampel atau pasien yang sama dari 0 bulan sampai 6 bulan.

  10. Effectiveness of interventions for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in hard-to-reach populations in countries of low and medium tuberculosis incidence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelings, Charlotte C; de Vries, Sophia G; Greve, Patrick F; Visser, Benjamin J; Bélard, Sabine; Janssen, Saskia; Cremers, Anne L; Spijker, René; Shaw, Beth; Hill, Ruaraidh A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Sandgren, Andreas; van der Werf, Marieke J; Grobusch, Martin P

    2017-05-01

    Tuberculosis is over-represented in hard-to-reach (underserved) populations in high-income countries of low tuberculosis incidence. The mainstay of tuberculosis care is early detection of active tuberculosis (case finding), contact tracing, and treatment completion. We did a systematic review with a scoping component of relevant studies published between 1990 and 2015 to update and extend previous National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) reviews on the effectiveness of interventions for identifying and managing tuberculosis in hard-to-reach populations. The analyses showed that tuberculosis screening by (mobile) chest radiography improved screening coverage and tuberculosis identification, reduced diagnostic delay, and was cost-effective among several hard-to-reach populations. Sputum culture for pre-migration screening and active referral to a tuberculosis clinic improved identification. Furthermore, monetary incentives improved tuberculosis identification and management among drug users and homeless people. Enhanced case management, good cooperation between services, and directly observed therapy improved treatment outcome and compliance. Strong conclusions cannot be drawn because of the heterogeneity of evidence with regard to study population, methodology, and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs As Host-Directed Therapy for Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. Kroesen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lengthy, antimicrobial therapy targeting the pathogen is the mainstay of conventional tuberculosis treatment, complicated by emerging drug resistances. Host-directed therapies, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, in contrast, target host factors to mitigate disease severity. In the present Systematic Review, we investigate whether NSAIDs display any effects as therapy of TB and discuss possible mechanisms of action of NSAIDs as adjunctive therapy of TB. Ten studies, seven preclinical studies in mice and three clinical trials, were included and systematically reviewed. Our results point toward a beneficial effect of NSAIDs as adjunct to current TB therapy regimens, mediated by decreased lung pathology balancing host-immune reaction. The determination of the best timing for their administration in order to obtain the potential beneficial effects needs further investigation. Even if the preclinical evidence requires clinical evaluation, NSAIDs might represent a potential safe, simple, and cheap improvement in therapy of TB.

  12. Managing latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this review is to describe the management of the child with TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI.To develop this article, a working group reviewed relevant epidemiological and other scientific studies and established practices in conducting LBTI and TB in children. The article describes how to manage the child with LTBI, considering transmission and infectiousness of tuberculosis, contact screening and prioritization of contacts and recommendations on treatment of children with LTBI and how to manage the child with TB considering the susceptibility of children to developing tuberculosis, epidemiology and classification of tuberculosis in children, diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Pediatric, Childhood, Latent tuberculosis infection

  13. Tolerability and Healthcare Utilization in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Undergoing Treatment for Tuberculosis-Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadah, Abdurrahman M; Beaulieu, Lynn M; Wilson, John W; Aksamit, Timothy R; Gregoire, James R; Williams, Amy W; Dillon, John J; Albright, Robert C; Onuigbo, Macaulay; Iyer, Venkateshwaran K; Hickson, LaTonya J

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in end-stage renal disease is significantly higher than that in the general population. Among those with kidney dysfunction, anti-TB treatment is associated with increased side effects, but the effect on healthcare utilization is unknown. Methods/Aim: To assess patient-reported symptoms, adverse effects and describe changes in healthcare utilization patterns during treatment for TB, we conducted a case series (n = 12) of patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) from Mayo Clinic Dialysis Services and concurrent drug therapy for TB from January 2002 through May 2014. Healthcare utilization (hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits independent of hospital admission) was compared before and during treatment. Patients were treated for latent (n = 7) or active (n = 5) TB. The majority of patients with latent disease were treated with isoniazid (n = 5, 71%), while active-disease patients received a 4-drug regimen. Adverse effects were reported in 83% of patients. Compared to measurements prior to drug initiation, serum albumin and dialysis weights were similar at 3 months. Commonly reported anti-TB drug toxicities were described. More than half (58%) of the patients were hospitalized at least once. No ED or hospital admissions occurred in the period prior to drug therapy, but healthcare utilization increased during treatment in the latent disease group (hospitalization rate per person-month: pre 0 vs. post 1). Among HD patients, anti-TB therapy is associated with frequently reported symptoms and increased healthcare utilization. Among this subset, patients receiving treatment for latent disease may be those with greatest increase in healthcare use. Careful monitoring and early complication detection may help optimize medication adherence and minimize hospitalizations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Evaluation of anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rogério Pavan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Campomanesia adamantium fruits extracts were evaluated. Six compounds, identified as flavanones and chalcones were quantified by HPLC-DAD-UV. Promising antitubercular activity was observed with ethyl acetate extract (MIC 62.5 µg/mL and their fractions (MIC values ranging from 39 to above 250 µg/mL. The better MIC result of 39 µg/mL was associated with two fractions that contain bigger amounts of 5,7-dihydroxy-6, 8-di-C-methylflavanone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethyl-6'-methoxychalcone. These compounds exhibited MICs >250 and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively, while their mixtures showed values ranging from 62.5 to 7.8 µg/mL, demonstrating a synergism between them.

  15. Cost effectiveness of Tuberculosis Treatment from the Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Directly Observed Treatment Short course is more cost effective from the patients' point of view. DOTS needs to be re-focused out of the hospitals and clinics and made community based in view of the increasing TB caseload occasioned by HI V/AIDS. Key Words: Cost effectiveness, Tuberculosis treatment, personal cost, ...

  16. [Treatment of bronchial obstruction in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, E I; Kuklina, G M; Kalinina, E E

    2004-01-01

    Whether the main points of treatment for bronchial obstructive syndrome (BOS) in chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) can be adapted for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) was studied. For this purpose, 435 patients with PT with signs of BOS (forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) 70% of the normal values; 2) 229 patients with FEV1 69-50%; 3) 102 patients with FEV1 bronchial obstructive syndrome in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was highly effective, promotes the amelioration of the degree of respiratory symptoms in patients with IPT by 2 to 8 times, in those with FCPT by more than 2-3 times, and in those with PS by 1.45-10 times. The differences in the efficiency of bronchodilator therapy depend on the baseline level of bronchial obstruction. In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with BO, the use of current inhalation bronchodilator therapy results in a substantial increase in FEV1, which differentiates BOS in PT from COLD. The use of the proposed therapy in the multimodality treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed no statistically significant differences in the changes in the degree of X-ray symptoms while this therapy permits acceleration of abacillation in patients with IPT by 16.8% and in those with FCPT by 14.8%. Effective bronchodilator therapy considerably enhances life quality in patients. Thus, early systematic and long-term performance of the bronchodilator therapy, based on the principles of bronchodilator therapy for COLD, in patients with PT concurrent with BOS may substantially enhance the efficiency of treatment in this category of patients.

  17. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  18. Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of Extract Ethyl Acetate Kenikir Leaves (Cosmos caudatus H.B.K and Sendok Leaves (Plantago Major L. By In Vitro Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Irianti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing therapy problem including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB has made it important to discover a new anti-TB drug candidate. The aim of this study was to acknowledge the activity of ethyl acetate extracts of kenikir (Cosmos caudatus H.B.K and sendok (Plantago major L. leaves against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis H37Rv. This research used Middlebrook (MB 7H9 media and observed the growth of M. tuberculosis using Lowenstein Jensen (LJ media. The concentration of extracts were 0.25 mg/ml, 0.50 mg/ml, and 1.00 mg/ml. The result of this study showed that ethyl acetate extracts exhibited anti-TB activity in 1000 µg/ml of both extracts. The active compound group was detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and the separation of compounds was shown by retardation factor (Rf and the color of the spots. Based on TLC chromatograms, it is known that there are types of compounds, such as ortho-dihydroxy compounds, phenolic compounds, and compound leads to terpenoids for both extracts.

  19. A case of primary lid tuberculosis - an unusual finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sethi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case ofprimary lid tuberculosis left eye occurring in a 46 year old female. She had a white creamy discharge from the upper lid close to the lateral canthus since 9 months. She was managed with systemic antibiotics many times during this period but with no response. Complete systemic examination revealed no signs of tuberculosis. All haematological investigations were WNL Montoux was positive. Pus culture did not show any growth. USG and CECT orbit revealed a subcutaneous collection in left upper lid An incision biopsy of the involved area of the lid was done. Histopathology did not reveal any signs of tuberculosis. However the PCR test of the pus confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The patient was given anti tubercular treatment and is responding well with no discharge from the upper lid.

  20. Extended spectrum of antibiotic susceptibility for tuberculosis, Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Astier, Hélène; Osman, Djaltou Aboubaker; Javelle, Emilie; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Simon, Fabrice; Garnotel, Eric; Drancourt, Michel

    2018-02-01

    In the Horn of Africa, there is a high prevalence of tuberculosis that is reported to be partly driven by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strictu sensu strains. We conducted a prospective study to investigate M. tuberculosis complex species causing tuberculosis in Djibouti, and their in vitro susceptibility to standard anti-tuberculous antibiotics in addition to clofazimine, minocycline, chloramphenicol and sulfadiazine. Among the 118 mycobacteria isolates from 118 successive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis, 111 strains of M. tuberculosis, five Mycobacterium canettii, one 'Mycobacterium simulans' and one Mycobacterium kansasii were identified. Drug-susceptibility tests performed on the first 78 isolates yielded nine MDR M. tuberculosis isolates. All isolates were fully susceptible to clofazimine, minocycline and chloramphenicol, and 75 of 78 isolates were susceptible to sulfadiazine. In the Horn of Africa, patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis caused by an in vitro susceptible strain may benefit from anti-leprosy drugs, sulfamides and phenicol antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitamin C supplementation improve the sputum conversion culture rate in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment while rifampicin susceptible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, L.; Siregar, Y.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    The failure of first-line tuberculosis treatment greatly affects multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. In vitro study of vitamin C induces the death of M. tuberculosis bacteria and accelerates healing of tuberculosis, so the multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis can be avoided. This research aimed to identify the effect of vitamin C as a supportive treatment on the sputum conversion rate. The randomizedand double group with a parallel design by matching pair method was used to collect samples. The first group was treated with standard tuberculosis treatment, and the other was given vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C plasma level analyzation was performed before and after two months of treatment. Sputum conversion was evaluated every week for eight weeks. The comparison of vitamin C plasma level in pre and post-treatment group was significant (p=0.03) but not in the other group. There was no significant difference in vitamin C plasma level between two groups (p=0.21). The proportion of sputum conversion rate in both group in the first week was 0% vs. 9.6% (p=0.83) and the last week of study was 83.9% vs. 100% (p=0.02). In conclusion, vitamin C supplementation has effects in improving the healing process of tuberculosis patients as indicated by higher in sputum conversion rate.

  2. Mammary tuberculosis: percutaneous treatment of a mammary tuberculous abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, C.; Carreira, C.; Cereceda, C.; Pinto, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo (Spain); Lopez, R.; Bolanos, F. [Servicio de Cirugia, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    It is currently very rare to find mammary involvement in cases of tuberculosis, in either primary or secondary form. Diagnosis is classically clinical and microbiological, and the basic techniques used in imaging diagnosis are mammography and ultrasound. Computed tomography may define the involvement of the thoracic wall in those cases which present as mammary masses adhering to deep levels, and is also able to evaluate accompanying pulmonary disease, if it is present. Traditionally, treatment has consisted of quadrantectomy and specific antibiotic therapy. We present a case of tuberculous mammary abscess secondary to pulmonary disease, which was treated by percutaneous drainage controlled by CT and specific antibiotic therapy. We revise the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of mammary tuberculosis. (orig.)

  3. Mammary tuberculosis: percutaneous treatment of a mammary tuberculous abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, C.; Carreira, C.; Cereceda, C.; Pinto, J.; Lopez, R.; Bolanos, F.

    2000-01-01

    It is currently very rare to find mammary involvement in cases of tuberculosis, in either primary or secondary form. Diagnosis is classically clinical and microbiological, and the basic techniques used in imaging diagnosis are mammography and ultrasound. Computed tomography may define the involvement of the thoracic wall in those cases which present as mammary masses adhering to deep levels, and is also able to evaluate accompanying pulmonary disease, if it is present. Traditionally, treatment has consisted of quadrantectomy and specific antibiotic therapy. We present a case of tuberculous mammary abscess secondary to pulmonary disease, which was treated by percutaneous drainage controlled by CT and specific antibiotic therapy. We revise the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of mammary tuberculosis. (orig.)

  4. 17 CFR 201.155 - Default; motion to set aside default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default; motion to set aside default. 201.155 Section 201.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.155 Default; motion to set aside default. (a) A...

  5. Interaction of acupuncture treatment and manipulation laterality modulated by the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xuan; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Sun, Chuanzhu; Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiaocui; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Hongyan; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject). We observed subjective pain intensity and brain activations changes induced by capsaicin allodynia pain stimuli before and after electroacupuncture treatment at acupoint LI4 for 30 min. Analysis of variance results indicated that ipsilateral electroacupuncture treatment produced significant pain relief and wide brain signal suppressions in pain-related brain areas compared with contralateral electroacupuncture. We also found that verum electroacupuncture at either ipsi- or contralateral side to the pain site exhibited comparable significant magnitudes of analgesic effect. By contrast, placebo electroacupuncture elicited significant pain reductions only on the ipsilateral rather than contralateral side. It was inferred that placebo analgesia maybe attenuated on the region of the body (opposite to pain site) where attention was less focused, suggesting that analgesic effect of placebo electroacupuncture mainly rely on the motivation of its spatial-specific placebo responses via attention mechanism. This inference can be further supported by the evidence that the significant interaction effect of manipulation laterality and treatment was exclusively located within the default mode network, including the bilateral superior parietal

  6. ORIGIN CREDIT-DEFAULT SWAPS, AND IDIOSYNCRATIC THEIR FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марсель Альбертович Шарипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Credit-default swaps as well as all derivatives have appeared as a result of policy of a decontrol the American government of bank sector of economy.In article attempt to open motives of unfair use swaps is lead by some states, and modern anti-recessionary decisions concerning derivatives are considered. The objective of research consist it is revealing history and the reasons by occurrence the credit-default swaps, also the history of development the institutional infrastructures for stable and not causing suspicions functioning of the market of credit-default swaps by national regulators.  The research of the given problem in modern aspect of its progress has outstanding of novelty character. The reaction of regulators for the crisis are remarkable which events caused by shadow use of derivative financial tools including and credit-default swaps. In research the authors come to following conclusions. First, credit-default swaps are compatible to qualitative variations in corporate economy and answers to modern calls of more globalized financial system. The second, the functioning of the market of derivatives is really idiosyncratic that predetermines a final adage of that sort that arising problems with derivatives occurs not in their essence, but in purposefulness of their use.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-40

  7. Tuberculosis: current trends in diagnosis and treatment | Njoku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among communicable diseases, tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading ... There may be need to modify the treatment modalities especially with the ... liver disease, renal failure or even in coexistence with HIV/AIDS or the drug resistant state.

  8. New drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis: needs, challenges, promise, and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhardt, Christian; Raviglione, Mario; Spigelman, Mel; Hafner, Richard; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin; Gheuens, Jan

    2012-05-15

    For the first time in 40 years, a portfolio of promising new compounds for the treatment of tuberculosis is on the horizon. The introduction of new drugs in combination treatment for all forms of tuberculosis raises several issues related to patients' access to novel treatments, programmatic feasibility, cost effectiveness, and implications for monitoring and surveillance, particularly with regard to the development of drug resistance. Particular attention should be given to the identification of optimal drug combination(s) for the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis, particularly in high-risk and vulnerable groups, such as human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected persons and children, and to the rational use of new drugs. Addressing these issues adequately requires the establishment of clear guidelines to assist countries in the development of policies for the proper use of tuberculosis drugs in a way that guarantees access to best treatments for all those in need and avoids inappropriate use of new drugs. After a description of these various challenges, we present activities that will be carried out by the World Health Organization in collaboration with key stakeholders for the development of policy guidelines for optimal treatment of tuberculosis.

  9. Adverse Events among HIV/MDR-TB Co-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral and Second Line Anti-TB Treatment in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Varghese, Bhanumati; Mansoor, Homa; Cox, Helen S.; Ladomirska, Joanna; Saranchuk, Peter; Da Silva, Esdras; Khan, Samsuddin; Paryani, Roma; Udwadia, Zarir; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Reid, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background Significant adverse events (AE) have been reported in patients receiving medications for multidrug- and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB & XDR-TB). However, there is little prospective data on AE in MDR- or XDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmatic settings. Methods Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is supporting a community-based treatment program for drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a slum setting in Mumbai, India since 2007. Patients are being treated for both diseases and the management of AE is done on an outpatient basis whenever possible. Prospective data were analysed to determine the occurrence and nature of AE. Results Between May 2007 and September 2011, 67 HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients were being treated with anti-TB treatment and ART; 43.3% were female, median age was 35.5 years (Interquartile Range: 30.5–42) and the median duration of anti-TB treatment was 10 months (range 0.5–30). Overall, AE were common in this cohort: 71%, 63% and 40% of patients experienced one or more mild, moderate or severe AE, respectively. However, they were rarely life-threatening or debilitating. AE occurring most frequently included gastrointestinal symptoms (45% of patients), peripheral neuropathy (38%), hypothyroidism (32%), psychiatric symptoms (29%) and hypokalaemia (23%). Eleven patients were hospitalized for AE and one or more suspect drugs had to be permanently discontinued in 27 (40%). No AE led to indefinite suspension of an entire MDR-TB or ART regimen. Conclusions AE occurred frequently in this Mumbai HIV/MDR-TB cohort but not more frequently than in non-HIV patients on similar anti-TB treatment. Most AE can be successfully managed on an outpatient basis through a community-based treatment program, even in a resource-limited setting. Concerns about severe AE in the management of co-infected patients are justified, however, they should not cause delays

  10. Salience and Default Mode Network Coupling Predicts Cognition in Aging and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Deepti; Ross, Robert S; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Janes, Amy C; Stern, Chantal E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Three neurocognitive networks support efficient cognition: the salience network, the default mode network, and the central executive network. The salience network is thought to switch between activating and deactivating the default mode and central executive networks. Anti-correlated interactions between the salience and default mode networks in particular are necessary for efficient cognition. Our previous work demonstrated altered functional coupling between the neurocognitive networks in non-demented individuals with PD compared to age-matched control participants. Here, we aim to identify associations between cognition and functional coupling between these neurocognitive networks in the same group of participants. We investigated the extent to which intrinsic functional coupling among these neurocognitive networks is related to cognitive performance across three neuropsychological domains: executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and verbal memory. Twenty-four non-demented individuals with mild to moderate PD and 20 control participants were scanned at rest and evaluated on three neuropsychological domains. PD participants were impaired on tests from all three domains compared to control participants. Our imaging results demonstrated that successful cognition across healthy aging and Parkinson's disease participants was related to anti-correlated coupling between the salience and default mode networks. Individuals with poorer performance scores across groups demonstrated more positive salience network/default-mode network coupling. Successful cognition relies on healthy coupling between the salience and default mode networks, which may become dysfunctional in PD. These results can help inform non-pharmacological interventions (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) targeting these specific networks before they become vulnerable in early stages of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Alcoholism among Tuberculosis Patients in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, P; Kamath, R; Shetty, B K; Monteiro, A; Sekaran, V C

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in India. Several studies carried out in India have shown alcoholism as a risk factor for tuberculosis mortality, factor for default in TB and reason for non-compliance under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern and associated factors of alcohol use among tuberculosis patients in Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the complete enumeration of all the cases undergoing Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) treatment in Primary Health Centre and Community Health Centre of Udupi taluk from March to April 2013. Interview was conducted to obtain the socio-demographic and health information and participants were screened using WHO developed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for alcohol use. Out of 123 participants, 78% were males, 86.2% were Hindu, 79.7% were married and 88.6% were from low socio-economic status. About 20.3% (n=25) participants were alcoholic. Among them, 44% were low risk drinkers, 32% were hazardous drinkers, 4% were harmful drinkers and 20% were alcohol dependent. Age, sex, occupation, tobacco use, perceived health status and discrimination due to tuberculosis positive status were significantly associated with alcohol use. On logistic regression sex, tobacco use, perceived health status and facing discrimination due infection with tuberculosis were found to be factors associated with alcohol use. This study found a high prevalence of alcoholism among tuberculosis patients which is of concern and has to be addressed.

  12. Primary tuberculosis of the glans penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Parra, Jose David; Alvarez Bandres, Silvia; Garcia Garcia, Diego; Torres Varas, Lorena; Sotil Arrieta, Amaia; Jimenez Calvo, Jesus

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis of the penis is an extremely rare disease with few cases reported in the literature. We present the case of a 64 year-old man with a whitish papular-ampullary eruption in the glans penis. After antibiotic/antimycotic therapy and several topical ointments for 3 months without response he was referred to our Department. Biopsy of the ulceration edge was performed and pathology result showed a chronic granulomatous inflammatory necrotizing lesion with granulomatous vasculitis lesions, without tumor infiltration. Systemic examination to rule out other tuberculosis foci was negative. With de suspicion of primary tuberculosis of the glans penis, anti tuberculosis therapy with Isoniazid and Piridoxine was started. Within a period of five months the ulceration healed significantly. Currently, the patient is still asymptomatic without glans penis lesions. Primary glans penis tuberculosis is a rare disease, but we must consider it (both primary and secondary forms) to try to avoid diagnostic delays that may cause prejudice for the patient. This condition promptly responds to anti tuberculosis therapy as evidenced by our case and many other reports.

  13. Microbial sensor for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-T; Wang, D-B; Li, C-Y; Deng, J-Y; Zhang, J-B; Bi, L-J; Zhang, X-E

    2018-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical in treating tuberculosis. We demonstrate the possibility of using a microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The sensor is made of an oxygen electrode with M. tuberculosis cells attached to its surface. This sensor monitors the residual oxygen consumption of M. tuberculosis cells after treatment with anti-TB drugs with glycerine as a carbon source. In principle, after drug pretreatment for 4-5 days, the response differences between the sensors made of drug-sensitive isolates are distinguishable from the sensors made of drug-resistant isolates. The susceptibility of the M. tuberculosis H37Ra strain, its mutants and 35 clinical isolates to six common anti-TB drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, levofloxacin and para-aminosalicylic acid were tested using the proposed method. The results agreed well with the gold standard method (LJ) and were determined in significantly less time. The whole procedure takes approximately 11 days and therefore has the potential to inform clinical decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the possible application of a dissolved oxygen electrode-based microbial sensor in M. tuberculosis drug resistance testing. This study used the microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The overall detection result of the microbial sensor agreed well with that of the conventional LJ proportion method and takes less time than the existing phenotypic methods. In future studies, we will build an O 2 electrode array microbial sensor reactor to enable a high-throughput drug resistance analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Outcome correlation of smear-positivity but culture-negativity during standard anti-tuberculosis treatment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yu, Ming-Chih; Yang, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chou-Jui; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Huang, Ruay-Ming; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Chien, Shun-Tien; Chien, Jung-Yien

    2015-02-18

    The appearance of smear-positivity but culture-negativity (SPCN) for acid-fast bacilli among sputum specimen is frequently found in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients during treatment. This study aimed to investigate clinical risk factors, impacts on treatment course, and relapse pattern associated with sputum SPCN. We retrospectively enrolled 800 patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB who were receiving standard treatment and follow-up at six TB-referral hospitals in Taiwan between January 2006 and December 2007. Relevant patient characteristics and chemotherapy data were analyzed for associations with incidence of SPCN. Data from patients who relapsed within 3 years after completing treatment were analyzed for associations with SPCN during treatment. Of the 800 subjects, 111 (13.8%) had sputum SPCN during treatment. Three factors were found to predict the development of SPCN; namely, high initial acid-fast staining grading (OR, 3.407; 95% CI, 2.090-5.553), cavitation on chest-X ray films (OR, 2.217; 95% CI, 1.359-3.615), and smoking (OR, 1.609; 95% CI, 1.006-2.841). Patients with SPCN had longer treatment duration (rifampicin: 284 ± 91 vs. 235 ± 69 days, P <0.001; isoniazid: 289 ± 90 vs. 234 ± 69 days, P < 0.001) than those without SPCN. Finally, the rate of relapse within 3 years of completing treatment was similar for groups with/without SPCN (2.7%, 3/111 vs. 1.0%, 7/689, respectively; P = 0.15). In conclusion, severity of infection was a major risk factor for SPCN during treatment; however, the relapse rate within 3 years of completing treatment was not affected by the appearance of SPCN.

  15. Fresh Air and Good Food: Children and the Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign in the Netherlands c.1900-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2010-01-01

    As elsewhere in the Western world, between 1900 and 1940 the anti-tuberculosis campaign in the Netherlands produced a wide range of initiatives to promote child health. In each of these the social and the medical were linked, as the hygienic "mood" was encouraged by a child-saving ethos that focused upon the poor. In this article the…

  16. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in lupus vulgaris caused by drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu S Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is still a major public health problem in the world, with many factors contributing to this burden, including poor living conditions, overcrowding, poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy, and rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Cutaneous tuberculosis is a less common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and in this paucibacillary form the diagnosis depends on histopathology, tuberculin positivity, and response to treatment. The diagnosis is even more difficult in cases with drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to lack of awareness and lack of facilities to diagnose drug resistant tuberculosis. In this article, we describe an unusual case of multidrug resistant lupus vulgaris (LV, in a 34-year-old male who responded to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT initially, but developed recurrent disease which failed to respond to standard four-drug ATT; subsequently, tissue culture showed growth of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis. Subsequently, he also developed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. This article aims to exemplify a grave complication that can occur in long-standing case of LV, the limitations faced by clinicians in developing countries where tuberculosis is endemic, and classical methods of proving drug resistance are generally unavailable or fail.

  17. Optional Defaultable Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defaultable markets, one of the main research areas of mathematical finance. It proposes a new approach to the theory of such markets using techniques from the calculus of optional stochastic processes on unusual probability spaces, which was not presented before. The paper is a foundation paper and contains a number of fundamental results on modeling of defaultable markets, pricing and hedging of defaultable claims and results on the probability of default under such conditions. Moreover, several important examples are presented: a new pricing formula for a defaultable bond and a new pricing formula for credit default swap. Furthermore, some results on the absence of arbitrage for markets on unusual probability spaces and markets with default are also provided.

  18. Thai people living with tuberculosis and how they adhere to treatment: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2017-12-01

    To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Management of Spinal Tuberculosis - A Metropolitan City Based Survey Among Orthopaedic and Neurosurgeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the core understanding of spinal tuberculosis and its current management plans by orthopaedics and neurosurgeons. Methods: The questionnaire-based study was conducted from July 2011 to November 2012 in Karachi and comprised consultant orthopaedics and neurosurgeons belonging to 4 private and 3 government tertiary care teaching hospitals and having a minimum five years of post-fellowship experience. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to explore the current practice in spinal tuberculosis regarding its clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 48 subjects in the study; 24(50 percent) orthopaedic surgeons and 24(50 percent) neurosurgeons. According to 44(91.70 percent) respondents, common age for spinal tuberculosis was second and third decades of life, and 37(77.08 percent)reported refractory back pain with or without neurological deficits as the commonest clinical finding. Typical magnetic resonance imaging findings was the uniform observation of all the 48(100 percent) respondents. Diagnosis was made by histopathological findings by 39(81.25 percent) respondents. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was started empirically on the basis of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings by 33(68.75 percent) respondents. Those in favour of giving anti-tuberculosis therapy for 18 months were 32(66.7 percent) respondents, and 33(68.75 percent) thought surgery does not expedite recovery. Conclusion: Extremely variable tools of diagnosis and diversified approaches for the treatment are alarming signs for the possible development of resistant strains and complications of spinal tuberculosis. (author)

  20. Evaluation of anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Fernando Rogerio; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2009-01-01

    The anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Campomanesia adamantium fruits extracts were evaluated. Six compounds, identified as flavanones and chalcones were quantified by HPLC-DAD-UV. Promising antitubercular activity was observed with ethyl acetate extract (MIC 62.5 μg/mL) and their fractions (MIC values ranging from 39 to above 250 μg/mL). The better MIC result of 39 μg/mL was associated with two fractions that contain bigger amounts of 5,7-dihydroxy-6, 8-di-C-methylflavanone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethyl-6'-methoxychalcone. These compounds exhibited MICs >250 and 62.5 μg/mL, respectively, while their mixtures showed values ranging from 62.5 to 7.8 μg/mL, demonstrating a synergism between them. (author)

  1. Disseminated tuberculosis presenting as mesenteric and cerebral abscess in HIV infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pandit

    Full Text Available Disseminated tuberculosis in HIV infection involves multiple organs. Pulmonary and lymph node involvement are the commonest form of tuberculosis in HIV infection [1, 2]. Other forms of tuberculosis in the absence of lung and lymph node involvement are rare. Various forms of abdominal [3, 4] and neurological [5, 6] tubercular involvement in HIV infection have been reported. But tuberculosis presenting simultaneously with mesenteric and brain abscess has not been reported yet. We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as mesenteric and cerebral abscess in a HIV case without involving lung and lymph nodes. Bone marrow smears and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from mesenteric lesion were positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR. He responded well to treatment with anti tubercular drugs.

  2. [Patient-centered medicine for tuberculosis medical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akira; Narita, Tomoyo

    2012-12-01

    necessary patient information among the relevant parties. The regional care pathway was developed by the Tobu Public Health Center. It is currently being used by several other public health centers in Hiroshima. Utilization of these two pathways has resulted in improved adherence, treatment being offered at local clinics, shorter hospitalization and better treatment outcomes. 2. Patient-centered DOTS in Funabashi-city: Akiko UOZUMI (Funabashi-city Public Health Center) In Funabashi-city, all TB patients, including those with LTBI, are treated under DOTS which recognizes and tries to accommodate the various different needs of each individual patient. For example, various types of DOTS are offered, such as pharmacy-based DOTS and DOTS supported by caregivers of nursing homes. This enables public health nurses to take into consideration both the results of risk assessment and convenience for the patient, and choose DOTS which most effectively support the patient. Furthermore, DOTS in principle is offered face-to-face, so that DOTS providers may not only build relationship of trust with the patient, but also to collect and analyze the necessary information regarding the patient and respond timely when problems arise. Such effort has directly contributed to improved default and treatment rate. 3. Hospital DOTS and clinical path for the treatment of tuberculosis: Kentaro SAKASHITA, Akira FUJITA (Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center) We introduced a version of hospital DOTS at Tama Medical Center (formerly Fuchu Hospital) in 2004. As part of this three-stage version, patients are allowed to progress to the next stage if they meet the step-up criteria. Following the introduction of this hospital DOTS, the occurrence of drug administration-related incidents decreased and support for patient adherence became easier for health care workers than before. In 2006, we developed a clinical path based on this hospital DOTS with consistent eligibility criteria for patients. This clinical

  3. Ocular Tuberculosis II: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumru Önal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the clinical importance of tuberculin skin tests (TST, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs, chest computed tomography (CT and polymerase chain reaction have provided a new approach to diagnosing ocular tuberculosis (TBC. However, both TST and IGRAs cannot distinguish between latent TBC infection and active disease. Another corroborative test in the diagnosis of intraocular TBC is the evaluation of the lungs by either chest radiography or CT. Direct evidence for the diagnosis can be obtained by examination of smears and staining for acid-fast organisms, cultures of intraocular tissue/fluid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nucleic acid amplification analysis. In recent years, guidelines have been suggested for the diagnosis of intraocular TBC. The current treatment of intraocular TBC consists of use of four drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide taken for a long period of time (total 9-15 months. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 182-90

  4. Tuberculosis of the prostate and urethra: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genitourinary tuberculosis contributes to 10-14% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and is a major health problem in India. Prostate tuberculosis is uncommon and is usually found incidentally following transurethral resection. The most common mode of involvement is hematogenous, though descending infection and direct intracanalicular extension is known. Predisposing factors include prior tubercular infection, immuno-compromised status, previous BCG therapy. The presentation is diffuse caseating epitheloid cell granulomas, which can be confirmed by prostate biopsy. Urine PCR has good sensitivity (95.5% and specificity ( 98.12% in diagnosis. Imaging techniques like TRUS and CT/MRI also allow good visualization of the lesion and its extension. Urethral tuberculosis is very rare and is usually secondary to upper tract or genital tuberculosis. The presentation may be acute urethritis or chronic stricture or fistulae. The treatment of choice is chemotherapy with 3-4 anti tubercular drugs for initial 6-12 weeks and later 2 drugs for additional 3-6 months. Surgery is usually reserved for cases where chemotherapy fails and is done after 4-6 weeks of ATT. With a high index of suspicion it may be possible to diagnose a larger number of cases of prostatic and urethral tuberculosis especially in this country where tuberculosis is almost endemic.

  5. Diabetes and Other Risk Factors for Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis in a Mexican Population with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Alejandro; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; López-Meza, Salvador; Aranda-Álvarez, Marcelo; Díaz-Ornelas, Dora E; Hernández-Segura, María Guadalupe; Salazar-Lezama, Miguel Ángel; Castellanos-Joya, Martín; Noyola, Daniel E

    2015-02-01

    Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses problems in treatment, costs and treatment outcomes. It is not known if classically described risk factors for MDR-TB in other countries are the same in Mexico and the frequency of the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and MDR-TB in our country is not clear. We undertook this study to analyze risk factors associated with the development of MDR-TB, with emphasis on DM. A case-control study in the state of San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico was carried out. All pulmonary MDR-TB patients diagnosed in the state of SLP between 1998 and 2013 (36 cases) evaluated at a state pharmacoresistant tuberculosis (TB) clinic and committee; 139 controls were randomly selected from all pulmonary non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (non-MDR-TB) cases identified between 2003 and 2008. Cases and controls were diagnosed and treated under programmatic conditions. Age, gender, malnutrition, being a health-care worker, HIV/AIDS status, and drug abuse were not significantly different between MDR-TB and non-MDR-TB patients. Significant differences between MDR-TB and non-MDR-TB patients were DM (47.2 vs. 28.1%; p = 0.028); previous anti-TB treatments (3 vs. 0, respectively; p <0.001), and duration of first anti-TB treatment (8 vs. 6 months, respectively; p <0.001). MDR-TB and DM are associated in 47.2% of MDR TB cases (17/36) in this study. Other recognized factors were not found to be significantly different in MDR-TB compared to non-MDR-TB in this study. Cost-feasible strategies must be implemented in the treatment of DM-TB in order to prevent the selection of MDR-TB. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low prevalence of hepatitis B and C among tuberculosis patients in Duhok Province, Kurdistan: Are HBsAg and anti-HCV prerequisite screening parameters in tuberculosis control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merza, Muayad A; Haji, Safer M; Alsharafani, Abid Mohialdeen Hasan; Muhammed, Shivan U

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), infections and tuberculosis (TB) are a global public health concern. Co-infection with HBV or HCV among TB patients may potentiate the risk of hepatotoxicity induced by anti-TB drugs. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of HBV and HCV among TB patients included in the Duhok National Tuberculosis Program (NTP). The Duhok NTP Center is a specialized institution in Duhok City, Iraq, concerned with management and follow-up of TB patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the center between June 2015 and May 2016. All documented TB patients were analyzed on the basis of socio-demographic and other characteristics. Thereafter, all patients underwent screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, and anti-HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results obtained were analyzed by entering the data in binary format into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. A p value of Kurdistan, the negative history of injection drug use, and adherence to universal infection-control measures, including vaccination for HBV. Both history of dental intervention and belonging to a Syrian population were independent risk factors for HBV/TB co-infection. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and development: A situation report ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease.

  8. Treatment practices in pulmonary tuberculosis by private sector physicians of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, A; Garg, S K; Chopra, H; Bajpai, S K; Bano, T; Jain, S; Kumar, A

    2012-01-01

    Majority of the qualified medical practitioners in the country are in the private sector and more than half of patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek treatment from them. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the treatment modalities in pulmonary tuberculosis by the private physicians in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was carried out covering all the private physicians (graduates and postgraduates in Medicine and Chest Diseases) registered under the Indian Medical Association, Meerut Branch (n = 154). The physicians were interviewed by a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire about the treatment modalities practiced by them. Only 43.5% private physicians had attended any Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) training in the past five years. Only 33.1% of them were aware of the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Fifty-three different regimens were used to treat the patients. Majority of physicians (76%) prescribed daily regimens while 24% administered both daily and intermittent treatment. None of the private physicians prescribed exclusive intermittent regimen. Eighty-seven different treatment regimens were used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) with none of them prescribing standard treatment under RNTCP. As majority of private practitioners do not follow RNTCP guidelines for treating TB, there is an urgent need for their continued education in this area.

  9. The Correlation of Initial Sputum Smear Positivity on Treatment Failure of Category 1 Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Dyah Ayu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease and is an important public health problem. Based on data from East Java Province Health Department reported that number of tuberculosis patient in Surabaya is the highest in East Java on year 2014. Early identification and good treatment based on the result of sputum identification are the strategy use to control tuberculosis widespread. So that why, microscopic observation to identify acid fast bacilli (AFB is the fundamental stage to determine recovery treatment. Initial sputum smear positivity is necessary to determine infectious graded. The objectives of the study were to identify of initial sputum smear positivity on treatment failure of category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011-2014. This study used case control method with quantitative approach. Forty two samples were taken from secondary data. Case group is 21 samples who have treatment failure and control group is 21 successful treatment. Samples were selected by simple random sampling. The chi square correlation showed that highly positive initial smear (p = 0,045; OR = 5,4 have correlated and risk factor to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. The conclusion is patient’s high positive sputum smear initially correlated to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011–2014. Keywords: initial sputum smear positivity, treatment failure,, category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

  10. Potential antimicrobial agents for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsaad, Noor; Wilffert, Bob; van Altena, Richard; de Lange, Wiel C. M.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is challenging because of the high toxicity of second-line drugs and the longer treatment duration than for drug-susceptible TB patients. In order to speed up novel treatment for MDR-TB, we suggest considering expanding the indications of

  11. Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase: A Potential Drug Target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Mowbray

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Globally, tuberculosis is second only to AIDS in mortality and the disease is responsible for over 1.3 million deaths each year. The impractically long treatment schedules (generally 6–9 months and unpleasant side effects of the current drugs often lead to poor patient compliance, which in turn has resulted in the emergence of multi-, extensively- and totally-drug resistant strains. The development of new classes of anti-tuberculosis drugs and new drug targets is of global importance, since attacking the bacterium using multiple strategies provides the best means to prevent resistance. This review presents an overview of the various strategies and compounds utilized to inhibit glutamine synthetase, a promising target for the development of drugs for TB therapy.

  12. [Tuberculosis and refusal of treatment: resorting to legislation on serious health threats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are regularly confronted with the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. For several years, the French public health authorities have been studying the possibility of compelling treatment or isolation, but no plan has been implemented even though European and American experiences have shown the effectiveness of restrictive measures. Neither the statutory exceptions to the principle of consent to medical treatment nor the conditions of implementation of "required care" allow legally binding measures against patients refusing care or isolation. The legislation on serious health threats has recently been applied to the situation of a refusal of treatment in the context of tuberculosis. It allowed the patient to be ordered to observe prescribed care and the possibility of forced isolation in the event of breach of this order. The legislation on serious health threats is a response to the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. However the opinion of the legal authority as to its necessity and proportionality to the risk remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Mortgage Default Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    We use Google search query data to develop a broad-based and real-time index of mortgage default risk. Unlike established indicators, our Mortgage Default Risk Index (MDRI) directly reflects households’concerns regarding their risk of mortgage default. The MDRI predicts housing returns, mortgage ...... delinquency indicators, and subprime credit default swaps. These results persist both in- and out-of-sample and at multiple data frequencies. Together, research findings suggest internet search queries yield valuable new insights into household mortgage default risk....

  14. Treatment outcome of Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . TB is a reemerging disease linked with HIV infections. It is necessary to compare the treatment outcome of patients with only Tuberculosis with those with HIV/AIDs co-infection. This study will also provide baseline information on treatment ...

  15. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyomyositis in an Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, ZA; Shehab, M

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world. It may have variable clinical presentations, especially in the pediatric age group. Presented here is the case of a 9-month old infant who was referred for infectious disease opinion when his thigh induration failed to improve after surgical drainage and a course of oral antibiotic therapy. Mycobacterial PCR on the operative sample fluid was found to be positive; and mycobacterial culture grew M. tuberculosis. He received 9 months of treatment with anti-TB medications, with excellent results and complete recovery. This is the first report of TB pyomyositis in an infant; and highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion for unusual organisms when conventional therapy fails to demonstrate expected results. PMID:23919207

  16. Patient satisfaction on tuberculosis treatment service and adherence to treatment in public health facilities of Sidama zone, South Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient compliance is a key factor in treatment success. Satisfied patients are more likely to utilize health services, comply with medical treatment, and continue with the health care providers. Yet, the national tuberculosis control program failed to address some of these aspects in order to achieve the national targets. Hence, this study attempted to investigate patient satisfaction and adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Sidama zone of south Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross sectional study was conducted using quantitative method of data collection from March to April 2011. A sample of 531 respondents on anti TB treatment from 11 health centers and 1 hospital were included in the study. The sample size to each facility was allocated using probability proportional to size allocation, and study participants for the interview were selected by systematic random sampling. A Pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Collected data was edited, coded and entered to Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Confirmatory factor analysis was done to identify factors that explain most of the variance observed in most of the manifested variables. Bivariate and Multivariate analysis were computed to analyze the data. Result The study revealed 90% of the study participants were satisfied with TB treatment service. However, 26% of respondents had poor adherence to their TB treatment. Patient perceived on professional care, time spent with health care provider, accessibility, technical competency, convenience (cleanliness) and consultation and relational empathy were independent predictors of overall patient satisfaction (P patient satisfaction (Beta = 0.262). In multivariate analysis occupational status, area of residence, perceived time spent with health care provider, perceived accessibility, perceived waiting time, perceived professional care and over all patient satisfaction were significantly

  17. Multifaceted remodeling by vitamin C boosts sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subpopulations to combination treatment by anti-tubercular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikri, Kriti; Duggal, Priyanka; Kumar, Chanchal; Batra, Sakshi Dhingra; Vashist, Atul; Bhaskar, Ashima; Tripathi, Kritika; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Singh, Amit; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2018-05-01

    Bacterial dormancy is a major impediment to the eradication of tuberculosis (TB), because currently used drugs primarily target actively replicating bacteria. Therefore, decoding of the critical survival pathways in dormant tubercle bacilli is a research priority to formulate new approaches for killing these bacteria. Employing a network-based gene expression analysis approach, we demonstrate that redox active vitamin C (vit C) triggers a multifaceted and robust adaptation response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involving ~ 67% of the genome. Vit C-adapted bacteria display well-described features of dormancy, including growth stasis and progression to a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, loss of acid-fastness and reduction in length, dissipation of reductive stress through triglyceride (TAG) accumulation, protective response to oxidative stress, and tolerance to first line TB drugs. VBNC bacteria are reactivatable upon removal of vit C and they recover drug susceptibility properties. Vit C synergizes with pyrazinamide, a unique TB drug with sterilizing activity, to kill dormant and replicating bacteria, negating any tolerance to rifampicin and isoniazid in combination treatment in both in-vitro and intracellular infection models. Finally, the vit C multi-stress redox models described here also offer a unique opportunity for concurrent screening of compounds/combinations active against heterogeneous subpopulations of Mtb. These findings suggest a novel strategy of vit C adjunctive therapy by modulating bacterial physiology for enhanced efficacy of combination chemotherapy with existing drugs, and also possible synergies to guide new therapeutic combinations towards accelerating TB treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heightened systemic levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in pulmonary tuberculosis and reversal following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moideen, Kadar; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Babu, Subash

    2018-04-09

    Granulocytes are activated during tuberculosis (TB) infection and act as immune effector cells and granulocyte responses are implicated in TB pathogenesis. Plasma levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins provide an indirect measure of degranulation. In this study, we wanted to examine the levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and to compare them with the levels in latent TB (LTB) individuals. Hence, we measured the plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase, and proteinase-3; major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in these individuals. Finally, we also measured the levels of all of these parameters in PTB individuals following anti-tuberculosis (ATT) treatment. Our data reveal that PTB individuals are characterized by significantly higher plasma levels of MPO, elastase, human proteinase 3 as well as MBP and EDN in comparison to LTB individuals. Our data also reveal that ATT resulted in reversal of all of these changes, indicating an association with TB disease. Finally, our data show that the systemic levels of MPO and proteinase-3 can significantly discriminate PTB from LTB individuals. Thus, our data suggest that neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins could play a potential role in the innate immune response and therefore, the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. The role of interferon gamma release assays in the monitoring of response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Junaid; Pillay, Manormoney; Jeena, Prakash

    2014-09-01

    Successful control of childhood TB requires early diagnosis, effective chemotherapy and a method of evaluating the response to therapy. Identification of suitable biomarkers that predict the response to anti-TB therapy may allow the duration of treatment to be shortened. The majority of biomarker studies in paediatric TB have focused on the role of T cell-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) in the diagnosis of either latent or active disease. Little has been published on the role of IGRAs in the monitoring response to therapy in children. We reviewed the available literature to ascertain the value of IGRAs in the monitoring of response to anti-TB therapy in children. We explored the results of the few studies that have investigated the role of IGRAs as markers of response to anti-TB treatment in children. We conclude that the role of IGRAs as surrogate markers appears promising. Robust clinical trials are, however, needed to entrench the value of IGRAs as surrogate biomarkers of response to anti-TB therapy in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases among Tribal People of an Eastern India District: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India, covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014. The study was started with 177 patients but ultimately ended with 165 patients. Results. Unfavorable outcome was observed among 24.8% patients. Among them mostly 51.2% were defaulter, 22% were failure case, and 26.8% died during treatment. Patients, who were minority by religion, were found 4 times more vulnerable for unfavorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was found 7 times more common among retreatment TB cases who remain sputum positive after completion of initiation phase of Category II treatment. Conclusion. Programmatic approach should be specified to address the minority by religion population and to reduce the load of sputum positive cases after completion of initiation phase treatment by tracking them.

  1. Profile and treatment outcomes of patients with tuberculosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Data on the epidemiology of tuberculosis and its treatment outcomes were incomplete in the study area and this study was done to fill this gap. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2014. A total of 949 TB patients who were on treatment in North ...

  2. Prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis in Arsi Zone, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Wide spread of occurrence of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis is becoming a major challenge to effective tuberculosis control. Thus, it is imperative to monitor the sensitivity of anti-TB drugs regularly. Objective: To determine the prevalence resistance to anti-TB drugs in a well established control program area ...

  3. [Tuberculosis care and new horizon of Japanese society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Nagayama, Naohiro

    2012-04-01

    SAWADA (Services for Health in Asian & African Regions (SHARE)). In 2006, Tokyo Metropolitan Government started to dispatch interpreters for foreigners to strengthen DOTS program. Collaboration with NGOs made it possible to train 37 volunteer interpreters, and to provide services in 13 languages, as of 2010. In Japan, the treatment defaulter rate among non-Japanese tuberculosis patients had been remarkably high. But with having the assistance of interpreters, the treatment completion rate has become higher than 80%. It is recommended to expand a similar system to other part of Japan, as the proportion of foreigners among total tuberculosis cases keeps on increasing nationwide. 3. Tuberculosis problems in Japan from the view point of homelessness-through the activities of a NPO supporting the homeless in collaboration with a public health center: Sadako KANAZAWA (Volunteer, NPO Medical Care Team of Shinjuku Renraku-Kai). It has been 20 years since the issue of homelessness emerged in Japanese society. The people with a history of both tuberculosis and experience of homelessness tend to show a poor prognosis. Our team has played an active role, working with Shinjuku Public Health Center for conducting a screening for tuberculosis every year. It seems that the screening service itself does not make a fundamental solution for homeless people with tuberculosis. Developing a more basic system of 'from street to apartment' is more essential. We believe that understanding the importance of the system is most essential to the people who are involved in health and medical care. 4. What we have learned from DOTS--Toward care by cuddling the patient's mind: Kazuyo ARIMA (PHN, Osaka City Public Health Center). Osaka City has achieved the goals of DOTS set up by the City's TB Control Guidelines since 2001 such as 80% DOTS implementation rate, halving the defaulter rate and incidence rate. It was shown by analysis that the treatment success depends on 'patient's awareness of the

  4. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Aylana de Souza; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Mainbourg, Evelyne Marie Therese

    2016-01-01

    To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive) in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive) of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams. Identificar fatores socioeconômicos e clínico-epidemiológicos associados à tuberculose em casos novos e em casos em retratamento. Estudo comparativo de 126 pacientes, sendo 42 casos em retratamento por abandono atendidos num Centro de Referência e 84 casos novos concluindo o primeiro tratamento, atendidos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde. Levantamento de dados primários por entrevista e dados secundários pela Ficha de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Análise comparativa entre os dois grupos. Os casos novos diferem dos em retratamento quanto à escolaridade. O perfil clínico-epidemiológico mostra que há diferença significativa quanto à realização do teste tuberculínico e o resultado do teste HIV (positivo) a favor dos casos novos. Quanto à realização da cultura de escarro e o resultado (positivo) da baciloscopia de escarro da primeira e da segunda amostras, a favor dos casos em retratamento. Os dois grupos

  5. Improving treatment outcome assessment in a mouse tuberculosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourik, Bas C; Svensson, Robin J; de Knegt, Gerjo J; Bax, Hannelore I; Verbon, Annelies; Simonsson, Ulrika S H; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2018-04-09

    Preclinical treatment outcome evaluation of tuberculosis (TB) occurs primarily in mice. Current designs compare relapse rates of different regimens at selected time points, but lack information about the correlation between treatment length and treatment outcome, which is required to efficiently estimate a regimens' treatment-shortening potential. Therefore we developed a new approach. BALB/c mice were infected with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and were treated with rifapentine-pyrazinamide-isoniazid-ethambutol (R p ZHE), rifampicin-pyrazinamide-moxifloxacin-ethambutol (RZME) or rifampicin-pyrazinamide-moxifloxacin-isoniazid (RZMH). Treatment outcome was assessed in n = 3 mice after 9 different treatment lengths between 2-6 months. Next, we created a mathematical model that best fitted the observational data and used this for inter-regimen comparison. The observed data were best described by a sigmoidal E max model in favor over linear or conventional E max models. Estimating regimen-specific parameters showed significantly higher curative potentials for RZME and R p ZHE compared to RZMH. In conclusion, we provide a new design for treatment outcome evaluation in a mouse TB model, which (i) provides accurate tools for assessment of the relationship between treatment length and predicted cure, (ii) allows for efficient comparison between regimens and (iii) adheres to the reduction and refinement principles of laboratory animal use.

  6. Socio-economic status and the duration of pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms in women treated at the Mazovian Treatment Centre of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Otwock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Maria; Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Błachnio, Antoni; Jagodziński, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of tuberculosis depends on various factors such as migration, homelessness, malnutrition, unemployment, bad life conditions and the aging of a society. The aim of this study was to evaluate tuberculosis in females treated at the Mazovian Treatment Centre of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (Mazowieckie Centrum Leczenia Chorób Płuc i Gruźlicy) in Otwock, regarding the context of demographic, social and professional status of female patients. The duration of the illness and the extent of radiographic changes were also taken into consideration. The study was carried out retrospectively. The medical documentation that was evaluated concerned 100 women, aged between 20 and 92, hospitalized at the Mazovian Treatment Centre of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Otwock in the years 2005 and 2006 due to bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. Most women with tuberculosis lived in cities (65%), 32% of the evaluated patients lived in villages and 3% were homeless. 1/3 of females were under 40 years of age, and 1/3 were over 60 years of age. Only 29% of the women were professionally active and 25% were unemployed. 60% of women were not married. 35% of women with tuberculosis were bringing up children and 7% had abandoned their offspring. More than 1/3 of women had had tuberculosis symptoms for more than half a year before tuberculosis was diagnosed. 40% of women with tuberculosis had small radiological changes (1 to 2 lung fields); however, 26% of them had extensive changes covering 4 to 6 lung fields. The majority of women with tuberculosis in the Mazovian district are single, over 40 years old, unemployed inhabitants of cities. 30% of women in the study group had had symptoms for more than 6 months before tuberculosis was diagnosed. 40% of women with tuberculosis had very extensive radiological changes covering 4 to 6 lung fields.

  7. Tuberculosis treatment and Smoking, Armenia, 2014–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikran Raffi Balian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis and tobacco prove to be increasingly apparent world problems. Armenia is a developing country which is facing issues related to the high rates of tobacco consumption. Moreover, it is among the list of high multi-drug resistant (MDR Tuberculosis TB burden countries. Treatment success rate in Armenia for sputum smear-positive cases never reached World Health Organization's (WHO target of 85% in last 15 years. Data from different studies completed across the world suggests that there is an association between smoking and negative treatment outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study was designed to investigate aforementioned associations between TB treatment outcomes and smoking status of TB patients. Data for the study were derived from the national data available in the electronic database of the Armenian National TB Center. Results: Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria 992 TB patients registered in 2014 were enrolled in this study. All of them are were TB patients in which 387 were smokers and 605 were non-smokers. Notably, adjusted analysis showed that individuals who smoked during TB treatment had 1.61 higher odds of having unsuccessful TB treatment outcome. Additionally, consistent with the literature, statistically significant association was identified between TB treatment outcome and other well factors such as sputum smear status (OR=2.24, p<0.01, HIV status (OR,=1.87, p<0.01 of patients, etc. Conclusions: The smoking, HIV positive status, positive sputum smear microscopy test were identified as an important factors associated with the unsuccessful TB treatment outcome in Armenia. It highlights the necessity of having specific restrictions and campaign programs to reduce smoking rates among TB patients in order to improve current TB treatment and care services throughout Armenia. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Smoking, Treatment outcome, Treatment success

  8. Pleural Tuberculosis and its Treatment Outcomes | Khan | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, treatment and clinical outcomes of tuberculosis pleuritis at a hospital in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in Hospital of Penang, Malaysia. Patient records were reviewed retrospectively to identify patients with confirmed diagnosis of tuberculous ...

  9. Autophagy in the immune response to tuberculosis: clinical perspectives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ní Cheallaigh, C

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence points to autophagy as an essential component in the immune response to tuberculosis. Autophagy is a direct mechanism of killing intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis and also acts as a modulator of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In addition, autophagy plays a key role in antigen processing and presentation. Autophagy is modulated by cytokines; it is stimulated by T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, and is inhibited by the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Vitamin D, via cathelicidin, can also induce autophagy, as can Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signals. Autophagy-promoting agents, administered either locally to the lungs or systemically, could have a clinical application as adjunctive treatment of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Moreover, vaccines which effectively induce autophagy could be more successful in preventing acquisition or reactivation of latent tuberculosis.

  10. FEATURES OF ADOLESCENTS TUBERCULOSIS AT A REFERRAL TB'S HOSPITAL IN TEHRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Lotfian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify the pattern of the clinical, radiological, diagnostic procedures and loss to follow -up of the diagnosed cases of active tuberculosis (TB adolescents. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 143 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years with tuberculosis who were admitted TB wards of National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD in Tehran, Iran, between March 2006 and March2011. RESULTS: Of the 143 patients identified, 62.9% were females. Median age of the patients was 16 years. The contact source was identified in 47.5%.The most common presenting symptom was cough (86%.Isolated pulmonary TB (PTB was detected in 113 patients (79%, 21 patients (14.7% had extrapulmonary TB(EPTB, and 9 patients (6.3% had PTB and EP TB .The most common site of  EPTB was pleural (14% .The most common radiographic finding was infiltration (61%.Positive acid fast smears were seen in 67.8%.Positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis(M. TB were seen in 31.6%. Positive PCR results were seen in 60%.The adolescents aged 15 to 18 years were more likely to lose weight (p=0.001, smear positive (p=0.002and have positive PCR results (p=0.009. The type of TB (p=0.017 was a significant factor influencing loss to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with the high rate of positive sputum smear results and the high treatment default rate are more likely to increase risk for TB transmission to the community. The TB control programs should pay more attention to prevention and treatment of TB in adolescents.     Key words: adolescents, tuberculosis, Lost to follow-up, prevention

  11. Anti-Mycobacterial Peptides: From Human to Phage

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    Tieshan Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major pathogen of tuberculosis (TB. With the growing problem of M. tuberculosis resistant to conventional antibiotics, especially multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB, the need for new TB drugs is now more prominent than ever. Among the promising candidates for anti-TB drugs, anti-mycobacterial peptides have a few advantages, such as low immunogenicity, selective affinity to prokaryotic negatively charged cell envelopes, and diverse modes of action. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the anti-mycobacterial peptides, highlighting the sources, effectiveness and bactericidal mechanisms of these antimicrobial peptides. Most of the current anti-mycobacterial peptides are derived either from host immune cells, bacterial extraction, or mycobacteriophages. Besides trans-membrane pore formation, which is considered to be the common bactericidal mechanism, many of the anti-mycobacterial peptides have the second non-membrane targets within mycobacteria. Additionally, some antimicrobial peptides play critical roles in innate immunity. However, a few obstacles, such as short half-life in vivo and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, need overcoming before clinical applications. Nevertheless, the multiple functions of anti-mycobacterial peptides, especially direct killing of pathogens and immune-modulators in infectious and inflammatory conditions, indicate that they are promising candidates for future drug development.

  12. The similar hexheimer reaction during initial treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: CT appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Zhou Xinhua; Xie Ruming; Xu Jinping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate CT features of similar Hexheimer's reaction during initial treatment of active pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: The similar Hexheimer's reaction in 44 patients diagnosed by clinic and follow-up CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. Results: During initial treatment of active pulmonary tuberculosis, development of radiographic progression were observed in 57 foci, including 28 pulmonary lesions increased at the site of their original lesion or new opacities elsewhere, ipsilateral or contralateral to the original lesion or both, 10 lesions related to the pleura (pleural effusion, pleural tuberculoma), 15 lymphadenectasis, 3 thymus reactions, and 1 cardiac pericardium thickening, respectively. These reactions appeared from the 20 days to 3.5 months, then with continuation of the initial chemotherapy for 1.0-3.0 months, the radiographic response was excellent with the areas of progression and the original lesions demonstrating resolution or improvement. Conclusion: The CT appearances of similar Hexheimer's reaction during initial treatment of active tuberculosis are specific to a certainty. (authors)

  13. Pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health: predictors of treatment noncompliance in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campani, Simone Teresinha Aloise; Moreira, José da Silva; Tietbohel, Carlos Nunes

    2011-01-01

    To determine the predictors of noncompliance with the pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health, in previously treatment-naïve patients with active tuberculosis treated in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. This was a case-control study involving six referral primary health care clinics for tuberculosis in Porto Alegre. We reviewed the medical charts of all previously treatment-naïve patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were noncompliant with the treatment between 2004 and 2006. Those were paired with other patients having similar characteristics and having been cured. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 2,098 patients included, 218 (10.4%) became noncompliant with the treatment. In the multivariate analysis, the factors most strongly associated with treatment noncompliance were being an alcoholic (with or without concomitant use of illicit drugs), being HIV-infected, not residing with family members, and having a low level of education. In the univariate analysis, treatment noncompliance was also significantly associated with being younger and with being non-White. Gender was not significantly associated with treatment noncompliance; nor was the occurrence of adverse effects of the drugs included in the regimen. In the population studied, being an alcoholic, being HIV-infected, and not residing with family members were the major predictors of noncompliance with treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis among previously treatment-naïve patients.

  14. Accelerating early anti-tuberculosis drug discovery by creating mycobacterial indicator strains that predict mode of action

    KAUST Repository

    Boot, Maikel

    2018-04-13

    Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin. The resulting dataset comprises the first overview of transcriptional stress responses of mycobacteria to different antibiotics. We show that antibiotics can be distinguished based on their specific transcriptional stress fingerprint. Notably, this fingerprint was more distinctive in M. marinum. We decided to use this to our advantage and continue with this model organism. A selection of diverse antibiotic stress genes was used to construct stress reporters. In total, three functional reporters were constructed to respond to DNA damage, cell wall damage and ribosomal inhibition. Subsequently, these reporter strains were used to screen a small anti-TB compound library to predict the mode of action. In doing so, we could identify the putative mode of action for three novel compounds, which confirms our approach.

  15. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    C. Robert Horsburgh, Jr

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on tuberculosis from September 2012 to August 2013 and describes important advances in tuberculosis epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, clinical pharmacology, genetics, treatment and prevention.

  16. Multi drug resistance tuberculosis: pattern seen in last 13 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Munir, K.; Tabassum, M.N.; Khan, S.U.; Khan, M.Z.U.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a serious problem throughout the world especially, after the emergence of multi drug resistant TB strains. Objectives: To estimate drug resistance in TB patients and compare it with previous studies to see the changing trends. Materials and Methods: The PMRC Research Centre receives sputum samples from all the leading hospitals of Lahore. This retrospective analysis was done from 1996 to 2008 on the multi drug resistant TB strains that were seen during these years. Five first lines anti tuberculosis drugs were tested on Lowenstein Jensen medium using standard proportion method. Results: A total of 2661 confirmed isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were seen over the past 13 years. Of the total, 2182 were pulmonary and 479 were extra pulmonary specimens. The patients comprised of those with and without history of previous treatment. These specimens were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. Almost half of the patient had some resistance; multiple drug resistance was seen in 12.3% and 23.0% cases without and with history of previous treatment respectively. Overall resistance to rifampicin was 26.4%, isoniazid 24.1% streptomycin 21.6% ethambutol 13.4% and pyrazinamide 28.4% respectively. Statistically significant difference was seen between primary and acquired resistance. When compared with the reports from previous studies from the same area, there was a trend of gradual increase of drug resistance. Conclusions Resistance to anti tuberculosis drugs is high. Policy message. TB Control Program should start 'DOTS Plus' schemes for which drug susceptibility testing facilities should be available for correctly managing the patients. (author)

  17. Multi drug resistance tuberculosis: pattern seen in last 13 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, R; Shabbir, I; Munir, K [King Edward Medical University Hospital, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Research Centre; Tabassum, M N; Khan, S U; Khan, M Z.U. [King Edward Medical University Hospital, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Chest Medicine

    2011-01-15

    Background: Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a serious problem throughout the world especially, after the emergence of multi drug resistant TB strains. Objectives: To estimate drug resistance in TB patients and compare it with previous studies to see the changing trends. Materials and Methods: The PMRC Research Centre receives sputum samples from all the leading hospitals of Lahore. This retrospective analysis was done from 1996 to 2008 on the multi drug resistant TB strains that were seen during these years. Five first lines anti tuberculosis drugs were tested on Lowenstein Jensen medium using standard proportion method. Results: A total of 2661 confirmed isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were seen over the past 13 years. Of the total, 2182 were pulmonary and 479 were extra pulmonary specimens. The patients comprised of those with and without history of previous treatment. These specimens were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. Almost half of the patient had some resistance; multiple drug resistance was seen in 12.3% and 23.0% cases without and with history of previous treatment respectively. Overall resistance to rifampicin was 26.4%, isoniazid 24.1% streptomycin 21.6% ethambutol 13.4% and pyrazinamide 28.4% respectively. Statistically significant difference was seen between primary and acquired resistance. When compared with the reports from previous studies from the same area, there was a trend of gradual increase of drug resistance. Conclusions Resistance to anti tuberculosis drugs is high. Policy message. TB Control Program should start 'DOTS Plus' schemes for which drug susceptibility testing facilities should be available for correctly managing the patients. (author)

  18. OROPHARYNGEAL TUBERCULOSIS: AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H Dadgarnia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nTuberculosis (TB still represents a major public health problem worldwide. The primary form of disease is most often localized to the lung. In a minority of patients, progressive pulmonary disease spreads to other organ systems through self inoculation via infected sputum, blood and lymphatic system, establishing the secondary form of tuberculosis. We present a patient that was referred to us with complaint of ulcerative mouth lesions from 3 months ago. In physical examination multiple erythematous and irregularly ulcerative lesions affecting soft palate area, uvula and anterior tonsillar pillar was noted bilaterally. Punch biopsy was done from several points that revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation. Ziehl-Nielsen staining of cultured specimen demonstrated acid-fast bacilli. Chest X-ray showed apical pulmonary involvement, suggesting tuberculosis infection. Patient was treated with anti-tuberculosis 4 drugs regimen. In the one year follow-up period after complete treatment; patient didn't have any evidence of disease. Oral and oropharyngeal TB lesions are uncommon, it is estimated that only 0.05-5% of total TB cases may present with oral manifestations, but should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of lesions that appear in the oral cavity and oropharynx. The secondary form is more frequent and involves mainly the tongue but involvement of pharynx is quite rare condition. Although tuberculosis of oropharynx is relatively rare, with the increasing incidence of tuberculosis, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical ulcerative lesions of the mouth and oropharynx.

  19. Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with breast tuberculosis: Analysis of 46 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ozgur Kilic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tubercular infection. Our aim is to highlight the nonspecific clinical presentations, diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic approaches of mammarian tuberculosis. Forty-six patients diagnosed with breast tuberculosis between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical features, all diagnostic methods, and the outcomes of treatment were analysed. All cases were female with a mean age of 36.4 years. Breast mass and pain were the most common complaints. While 34.8% of the cases had a physical examination with suspicions for malignancy, 43.5% of the patients had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS 4 or 5 lesions suggested malignancy radiologically. Definitive diagnosis was based on histopathologic examination through core needle biopsy (n = 29, excisional biopsy (n = 12, and open biopsy (n = 5 taken from the abscess wall during drainage. Standard antiTB therapy for 6 months was given to all cases. Thirty-three patients recovered with standard 6-month therapy while extended treatment for 9–12 months was needed in 13 (28.2% cases. Surgery was carried out in 17 cases. Two patients developed recurrence. Breast tuberculosis can be easily confused with breast cancer, suppurative abscess, and other causes of granulomatous mastitis, both clinically and radiologically. A multidisciplinary approach is required to prevent diagnostic delays and unnecessary surgical interventions. Although antiTB therapy is the mainstay treatment of breast TB, surgery is usually indicated in patients refractory to medical treatment.

  20. Mammary tuberculosis mimicking breast cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroulis Ioannis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of tuberculosis is rising worldwide and rare manifestations of the past are seen more often nowadays. Mammary tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity, often mimicking breast cancer or abscesses of benign or malignant origin. Clinical awareness is necessary during diagnostic work-up for establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment. Case presentation We present a case of breast tuberculosis diagnosed in a 73 year old woman at our institution. The patient presented with a palpable mass of the right breast with clinical, laboratory and mammographic findings indicative of breast carcinoma. The patient underwent lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Frozen section of the tumor and the sentinel node revealed "granulomatous inflammation", while gross examination confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculous mastitis. The patient received anti-tuberculosis therapy for six months with no side effects or any further complications. Conclusion Breast tuberculosis is an obscure disease often mistaken for carcinoma or pyogenic abscess of the breast, especially if well-defined clinical features are absent. A high index of suspicion is required because the disease can usually be treated conservatively with current antituberculous modalities while surgical intervention is reserved for rare cases only.

  1. Paradoxical response during antituberculous treatment for abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Mi Jeong; Chang, Hyuk Won; Hwang, Jae Seok; Cho, Kwang Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate clinical and CT findings of paradoxical response during treatment for abdominal tuberculosis. Authors reviewed the patient records of 138 patients with abdominal tuberculosis during a recent 6-year period and we selected 11 patients with a paradoxical response. The CT findings and pathologic findings of the initial lesions and new lesions were reviewed. The intervals between initiation of therapy and the detection of new lesions, improvement of new lesion and the final follow-up were evaluated. At the initial presentation, we identified tuberculous peritonitis in 8 patients, tuberculous lymphadenitis in 3 patients and ileocolic tuberculosis in two patients. New lesions were identified at 2-10 months (mean: 3.8 months) after the initiation of therapy and following improvement of the initial lesions. The new lesions were perihepatic caseous abscess (n=4), hepatic tuberculoma (n=3), hepatic caseous abscess (n=1), tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3), ileocolic tuberculosis (n=3), and splenic tuberculoma (n=1). Improvement of new lesions was noted at 4-14 months (mean: 7.6 months). At the final follow-up of seven patients, the new lesions disappeared and four patients still had small residual lesions. New lesions that develop in a patient with initial improvement should be considered a paradoxical response that will ultimately improve with continuation of the original medication.

  2. Paradoxical response during antituberculous treatment for abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Mi Jeong; Chang, Hyuk Won; Hwang, Jae Seok; Cho, Kwang Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate clinical and CT findings of paradoxical response during treatment for abdominal tuberculosis. Authors reviewed the patient records of 138 patients with abdominal tuberculosis during a recent 6-year period and we selected 11 patients with a paradoxical response. The CT findings and pathologic findings of the initial lesions and new lesions were reviewed. The intervals between initiation of therapy and the detection of new lesions, improvement of new lesion and the final follow-up were evaluated. At the initial presentation, we identified tuberculous peritonitis in 8 patients, tuberculous lymphadenitis in 3 patients and ileocolic tuberculosis in two patients. New lesions were identified at 2-10 months (mean: 3.8 months) after the initiation of therapy and following improvement of the initial lesions. The new lesions were perihepatic caseous abscess (n=4), hepatic tuberculoma (n=3), hepatic caseous abscess (n=1), tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3), ileocolic tuberculosis (n=3), and splenic tuberculoma (n=1). Improvement of new lesions was noted at 4-14 months (mean: 7.6 months). At the final follow-up of seven patients, the new lesions disappeared and four patients still had small residual lesions. New lesions that develop in a patient with initial improvement should be considered a paradoxical response that will ultimately improve with continuation of the original medication

  3. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This book chapter for medical students and researcher Tuberculosis is still one of the leading causes of death by infectious diseases with 2 million deaths per year and 9.2 million new cases of tuberculosis disease annually [1-3]. Besides, more than 2 milliard people are infected with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) [1-3]. Despite continuous effort in the prevention, monitoring and treatment of tuberculosis, the disease remains a major health problem in many countries [4-6...

  4. Complications of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT.   Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  5. Bactericidal activity of an imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridine using a mouse M. tuberculosis infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a global threat due in part to the long treatment regimen and the increased prevalence of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Therefore, new drug regimens are urgently required to combat this deadly disease. We previously synthesized and evaluated a series of new anti-tuberculosis compounds which belong to the family of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines. This family of compounds showed low nM MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration values against M. tuberculosis in vitro. In this study, a derivative of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, (N-(4-(4-chlorophenoxybenzyl-2,7-dimethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide (ND-09759, was selected as a promising lead compound to determine its protective efficacy using a mouse infection model. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ND-09759 determined that at a dosage of 30 mg/kg mouse body weight (PO gave a maximum serum drug concentration (Cmax of 2.9 µg/ml and a half-life of 20.1 h. M. tuberculosis burden in the lungs and spleens was significantly decreased in mice treated once daily 6 days per week for 4-weeks with ND-09759 compared to untreated mice and this antibiotic activity was equivalent to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RMP, two first-line anti-TB drugs. We observed slightly higher efficacy when using a combination of ND-09759 with either INH or RMP. Finally, the histopathological analysis revealed that infected mice treated with ND-09759 had significantly reduced inflammation relative to untreated mice. In conclusion, our findings indicate ND-09759 might be a potent candidate for the treatment of active TB in combination with current standard anti-TB drugs.

  6. Alarming Levels of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in Metropolitan Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Isaakidis, Petros; Das, Mrinalini; Kumar, Ajay M V; Peskett, Christopher; Khetarpal, Minni; Bamne, Arun; Adsul, Balkrishna; Manglani, Mamta; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Parmar, Malik; Kanchar, Avinash; Rewari, B B; Deshpande, Alaka; Rodrigues, Camilla; Shetty, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a looming threat to tuberculosis control in India. However, no countrywide prevalence data are available. The burden of DR-TB in HIV-co-infected patients is likewise unknown. Undiagnosed and untreated DR-TB among HIV-infected patients is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB (defined as resistance to any anti-TB drug) in patients attending public antiretroviral treatment (ART) centers in greater ...

  7. Tuberculosis--triumph and tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M M

    2003-03-01

    Tuberculosis has been making havoc worldwide with an 11.9 million cases to be involved by the year 2005. In India, about 2 million cases are infected every year. Regarding triumphs and tragedies in the control of tuberculosis some points as follows are discussed. (1) Tuberculosis Control Programmes from National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) to Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and Directly Observed Treatment, Short course (DOTS). (2) Problem of multidrug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis and (3) HIV and tuberculosis. DOTS being largely based on Indian research. It is now being applied worldwide. MDR is strictly a man made problem. Poor prescriptions, poor case management, lack of coordinated education and haphazard treatment research result in drug resistance. Treatment of MDR is difficult. The drug acceptability, tolerance and toxicity have to be considered. HIV and tuberculosis form a deadly duo. They mean more cases, more costs and more national losses.

  8. Alcohol use disorder and tuberculosis treatment: A longitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out ...

  9. Diagnostic and treatment delay among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimer Solomon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB results in severe disease and a higher mortality. It also leads to an increased period of infectivity in the community. The objective of this study was to determine the length of delays, and analyze the factors affecting the delay from onset of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB until the commencement of treatment. Methods In randomly selected TB management units (TBMUs, i.e. government health institutions which have diagnosing and treatment facilities for TB in Amhara Region, we conducted a cross sectional study from September 1-December 31/2003. Delay was analyzed from two perspectives, 1. Period between onset of TB symptoms to first visit to any health provider (health seeking period, and from the first health provider visit to initiation of treatment (health providers' delay, and 2. Period between onset of TB symptoms to first visit to a medical provider (patients' delay, and from this visit to commencement of anti-TB treatment (health systems' delay. Patients were interviewed on the same date of diagnosis using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistics regression analysis was applied to analyze the risk factors of delays. Results A total of 384 new smear positive PTB patients participated in the study. The median total delay was 80 days. The median health-seeking period and health providers' delays were 15 and 61 days, respectively. Conversely, the median patients' and health systems' delays were 30 and 21 days, respectively. Taking medical providers as a reference point, we found that forty eight percent of the subjects delayed for more than one month. Patients' delays were strongly associated with first visit to non-formal health providers and self treatment (P Conclusion Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of PTB is unacceptably high in Amhara region. Health providers' and health systems' delays represent the major portion of the total delay. Accessing a

  10. The tuberculosis hospital in Hohenkrug, Stettin. Department of Genitourinary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajaczkowski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Towards the end of the 19th century, Europe turned particular attention to the problem of tuberculosis, at that time the most serious social disease. In the majority of cases, pulmonary tuberculosis had a fatal outcome owing to the lack of effective drugs and methods of treatment. Due to poor sanitary conditions, particularly as regards dwellings, pulmonary tuberculosis was able to spread rapidly. Hospital departments were reluctant to admit patients suffering from tuberculosis. It was only after the discoveries of Robert Koch (bacillus tubercle in 1882) that the cause of the disease became understood and methods of treatment began to be developed. A modern sanatorium and hospital with 270 beds was erected in Hohenkrug (today Szczecin-Zdunowo) between 1915 and 1930. Patients could now be treated with modern methods, surgically in most cases. After the Second World War, pulmonary tuberculosis was still an enormous epidemiologic problem. In 1949, the Polish authorities opened a 400-bed sanatoriumin Zdunowo. The methods of treatment were not much different from pre-war practice and it was only the routine introduction of antituberculotic drugs during the fifties of the past century that brought about a radical change in the fight against tuberculosis. The growing numbers of patients with tuberculosis of the genitourinary system led to the opening in 1958 of a 40-bed specialist ward at the Tuberculosis Sanatorium in Zdunowo. It should be emphasized that the Department of Genitourinary Tuberculosis in Szczecin-Zdunowo was a historical necessity and a salvation for thousands of patients from Northern Poland. The Department totally fulfilled its social duties thanks to the commitment of many outstanding persons dedicated to helping the patients. This unit was finally closed in 1987 because the demand for surgical treatment of tuberculosis was declining concurrently with the advent of new and potent antituberculotics and falling number of new cases of genitourinary

  11. A meta-analysis of Drug resistant Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history ...

  12. Clinics of ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.

  13. Use of anti-retroviral therapy in tuberculosis patients on second-line anti-TB regimens: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Arentz

    Full Text Available Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART during treatment of drug susceptible tuberculosis (TB improves survival. However, data from HIV infected individuals with drug resistant TB are lacking. Second line TB drugs when combined with ART may increase drug interactions and lead to higher rates of toxicity and greater noncompliance. This systematic review sought to determine the benefit of ART in the setting of second line drug therapy for drug resistant TB.We included individual patient data from studies that evaluated treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-1 infected individuals published between January 1980 and December of 2009. We evaluated the effect of ART on treatment outcomes, time to smear and culture conversion, and adverse events.Ten observational studies, including data from 217 subjects, were analyzed. Patients using ART during TB treatment had increased likelihood of cure (hazard ratio (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.4 and decreased likelihood of death (HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.6 during treatment for drug resistant TB. These associations remained significant in patients with a CD4 less than 200 cells/mm(3 and less than 50 cells/mm(3, and when correcting for drug resistance pattern.We identified only observational studies from which individual patient data could be drawn. Limitations in study design, and heterogeneity in a number of the outcomes of interest had the potential to introduce bias.While there are insufficient data to determine if ART use increases adverse drug interactions when used with second line TB drugs, ART use during treatment of drug resistant TB appears to improve cure rates and decrease risk of death. All individuals with HIV appear to benefit from ART use during treatment for TB.

  14. Cutaneous tuberculosis over tattoo marks: An unusual occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Arya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the paucibacillary form of tuberculosis cutaneous tuberculosis occurring very rarely. Lupus vulgaris is a variant of skin tuberculosis. Here we are reporting a case of 20 year old boy presented with proliferative fungating lesion over tattoo mark. Tottooing was done by mobile tattoo artist in a fair. Diagnosis of skin tuberculosis was confirmed by histopathology suggestive of lupus vulgaris and treated with anti-tuberculous drugs.

  15. Structural equation modeling of latent growth curves of weight gain among treated tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalingam Vasantha

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis still remains a major public health problem even though it is treatable and curable. Weight gain measurement during anti tuberculosis (TB treatment period is an important component to assess the progress of TB patients. In this study, Latent Growth Models (LGMs were implemented in a longitudinal design to predict the change in weight of TB patients who were given three different regimens under randomized controlled clinical trial for anti-TB treatment. Linear and Quadratic LGMs were fitted using Mplus software. The age, sex and treatment response of the TB patients were used as time invariant independent variables of the growth trajectories. The quadratic trend was found to be better in explaining the changes in weight without grouping than the quadratic model for three group comparisons. A significant increase in the change of weight over time was identified while a significant quadratic effect indicated that weights were sustained over time. The growth rate was similar in both the groups. The treatment response had significant association with the growth rate of weight scores of the patients.

  16. Fiebre de origen desconocido, una forma de presentarse la tuberculosis Fever of unknown origin as a form of presentation of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Arturo Vidal Tallet

    2012-12-01

    diagnostically oriented anti-tuberculosis treatment should be borne in mind whenever there is a patient with fever of unknown origin and with other clinical and epidemiological evidence that support the possibility of tuberculosis infection.

  17. Prevalence of Genital Tuberculosis among Infertile Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is a kind of infectious diseases with a relatively high prevalence in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Cochrane databases (from 1980 to the present, date of last search March 2016 was carried out using the search keywords tuberculosis, genital tuberculosis, female genital, genital tract, genital system, female infertility, endometrial tuberculosis, anti-tubercular therapy, bacteriological, tuberculin antigen, histological, infertility, fallopian tube diseases, prevalence, rate, percent in order to find the studies which have reported the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. Data were extracted from retrieved studies and a meta-analysis was done. 23 studies were found. In these studies a total of 4361 infertile women have been studied. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women with 95% confidence interval was 24.2% (18.5-29.99. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women is high. It seems that exact planning and action for the prevention and treatment of genital tuberculosis can reduce the infertility prevalence and prevent the negative consequences of infertility

  18. Social capital and adverse treatment outcomes of tuberculosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, P R; Mundra, A; Dawale, A

    2017-08-01

    'Social capital' refers to social norms, relationships, networks and values that affect the functioning and development of society. Social capital influences health positively, but its role in the treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) is not known. To study the role of social capital in determining adverse TB treatment outcomes. Of 516 patients registered under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis Unit, Wardha, India, we included 88 patients with adverse treatment outcomes as cases and 187 controls from among those without adverse outcomes. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare standardised Z-scores. A greater proportion of controls than cases belonged to higher quartiles of social capital and its domains than cases, and the mean standardised Z-score was also consistently higher among controls than cases. Respectively 47% and 15% of cases and controls were in the poorest quartile of social capital, whereas respectively 10% and 33% of cases and controls were in the richest quartile. Each unit increase in Z-score of overall social capital reduced the odds of adverse treatment outcomes by 63.1%. Appropriate interventions for building social capital for TB patients and linking them with the programme would improve programme performance.

  19. Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Tortello, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The tuberculosis is an infection bacterial chronicle of world distribution. Three organisms of the family of the mycobacterium, the m. tuberculosis, the m. bovis and m. africanum, phenotypic and genetically similar, produce it, but only the m. tuberculosis has importance; the others rarely produce illness in the human. By definition, the lung tuberculosis is the localization of the m. tuberculosis in the breathing tract, the most common and main form in the affection and the only able to contaminate to other people. The koch bacillus, transmits the illness directly person to person. The paper Includes topics like pathogenesis, natural history, epidemiology, diagnose, symptomatology and treatment

  20. Individualized treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis using therapeutic drug monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu S Bolhuis

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: TDM is highly valuable to individualize and optimize treatment of complex MDR-TB patients. TDM is routinely applied in Tuberculosis Center Beatrixoord, and high success rates for treatment of MDR-TB patients have been achieved. DBS and LSS make implementation of TDM feasible, even in low- and middle-income countries.

  1. Tuberculosis Prevention in the Private Sector: Using Claims-Based Methods to Identify and Evaluate Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment With Isoniazid Among the Commercially Insured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Miller, Thaddeus L; Carlson, Erin K; Ho, Christine

    Targeted identification and treatment of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are key components of the US tuberculosis elimination strategy. Because of recent policy changes, some LTBI treatment may shift from public health departments to the private sector. To (1) develop methodology to estimate initiation and completion of treatment with isoniazid for LTBI using claims data, and (2) estimate treatment completion rates for isoniazid regimens from commercial insurance claims. Medical and pharmacy claims data representing insurance-paid services rendered and prescriptions filled between January 2011 and March 2015 were analyzed. Four million commercially insured individuals 0 to 64 years of age. Six-month and 9-month treatment completion rates for isoniazid LTBI regimens. There was an annual isoniazid LTBI treatment initiation rate of 12.5/100 000 insured persons. Of 1074 unique courses of treatment with isoniazid for which treatment completion could be assessed, almost half (46.3%; confidence interval, 43.3-49.3) completed 6 or more months of therapy. Of those, approximately half (48.9%; confidence interval, 44.5-53.3) completed 9 months or more. Claims data can be used to identify and evaluate LTBI treatment with isoniazid occurring in the commercial sector. Completion rates were in the range of those found in public health settings. These findings suggest that the commercial sector may be a valuable adjunct to more traditional venues for tuberculosis prevention. In addition, these newly developed claims-based methods offer a means to gain important insights and open new avenues to monitor, evaluate, and coordinate tuberculosis prevention.

  2. Patient medical costs for tuberculosis treatment and impact on adherence in China: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tuohong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Charging for tuberculosis (TB treatment could reduce completion rates, particularly in the poor. We identified and synthesised studies that measure costs of TB treatment, estimates of adherence and the potential impact of charging on treatment completion in China. Methods Inclusion criteria were primary research studies, including surveys and studies using qualitative methods, conducted in mainland China. We searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, Science Direct, HEED, CNKI to June 2010; and web pages of relevant Chinese and international organisations. Cost estimates were extracted, transformed, and expressed in absolute values and as a percentage of household income. Results Low income patients, defined at household or district level, pay a total of US$ 149 to 724 (RMB 1241 to 5228 for medical costs for a treatment course; as a percentage of annual household income, estimates range from 42% to 119%. One national survey showed 73% of TB patients at the time of the survey had interrupted or suspended treatment, and estimates from 9 smaller more recent studies showed that the proportion of patients at the time of the survey who had run out of drugs or were not taking them ranged from 3 to 25%. Synthesis of surveys and qualitative research indicate that cost is the most cited reason for default. Conclusions Despite a policy of free drug treatment for TB in China, health services charge all income groups, and costs are high. Adherence measured in cross sectional surveys is often low, and the cumulative failure to adhere is likely to be much higher. These findings may be relevant to those concerned with the development and spread of multi-drug resistant TB. New strategies need to take this into account and ensure patient adherence.

  3. 24 CFR 320.15 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 320.15 Section 320.15... SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.15 Default. (a) Issuer default. Any failure or inability of the... default of the issuer. (b) Action upon default. Upon any default by the issuer, the Association may: (1...

  4. Antimicrobial peptides for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, allies or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Torres-Juarez, Flor

    2018-03-27

    Tuberculosis is an ancient disease that has become a serious public health issue in recent years, although increasing incidence has been controlled, deaths caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been accentuated due to the emerging of multi-drug resistant strains and the comorbidity with diabetes mellitus and HIV. This situation is threatening the goals of world health organization (WHO) to eradicate tuberculosis in 2035. WHO has called for the creation of new drugs as an alternative for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, among the plausible molecules that can be used are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These peptides have demonstrated remarkable efficacy to kill mycobacteria in vitro and in vivo in experimental models, nevertheless, these peptides not only have antimicrobial activity but also have a wide variety of functions such as angiogenesis, wound healing, immunomodulation and other well-described roles into the human physiology. Therapeutic strategies for tuberculosis using AMPs must be well thought prior to their clinical use; evaluating comorbidities, family history and risk factors to other diseases, since the wide function of AMPs, they could lead to collateral undesirable effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. ¿(Anti-TNF-¿ y tuberculosis pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Vinicio Caballero Uribe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación de una paciente con artritis reumatoide severa en tratamiento con inhibidores del Factor de Necrosis Tumoral (Anti-TNF, quien presenta además un cuadro de tuberculosis pulmonar. La artritis reumatoide es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las articulaciones, que afecta en un inicio la membrana sinovial, pero que si no es tratada oportunamente lleva a daño estructural irreversible del sistema músculo-esquelético y eventualmente de otros sistemas orgánicos. Dentro de los criterios de la American College of Rheumatology se incluyen la Rigidez Matutina, Artritis de 3 o más articulaciones, Artritis simétrica, Nódulos reumáticos, Factor Reumatoideo y hallazgos radiográficos. Dentro de la patogenia de esta enfermedad, el Factor de Necrosis Tumoral es una citocina que juega un papel importante, una producción elevada de TNF-α se ha encontrado en la sinovial de estos pacientes, y por su capacidad de inducir la producción de otras citocinas, como IL-6, IL-17, GM-CSF, M-CSF, e incluso IL-1 y TNF-α (función autócrina, parecería que el TNF-α ejerce una acción “jerárquica” dentro de la llamada red de citocinas y una inhibición de su acción da como resultado un beneficio terapéutico en los pacientes con AR. Sin embargo, es conocido que la infección concurrente más frecuentemente informada con el uso de agentes biológicos (Anti-TNF es la TB, y la incidencia de ésta se ha incrementado desde el advenimiento de la terapia biológica. Por tanto, la descripción de este caso no corresponde a un hecho médico aislado, sino a una problemática actual y real. Este es el primer caso que se reporta en la Costa Caribe.

  6. Free tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment are not enough: patient cost evidence from three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, V.; Bonsu, F.; Gyapong, M.; Awini, E.; Suarez, P.; Marcelino, B.; Melgen, R. E.; Lönnroth, K.; Nhung, N. V.; Hoa, N. B.; Klinkenberg, E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Tuberculosis Programs of Ghana, Viet Nam and the Dominican Republic. To assess the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment for patients and households. Each country translated and adapted a structured questionnaire, the Tool to Estimate Patients' Costs. A

  7. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrugresistant tuberculosis among Malaysians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorsuzana Mohd Shariff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04–9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24–17.35, respectively, unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09–6.09, living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08–6.19, are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71–11.82, were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66–21.67, and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46–19.89 and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51–91.99. Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment

  8. Ten years' experience of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: An evaluation of tuberculosis control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Solomon; Mengistu, Belete; Erku, Woldargay; Woldeyohannes, Desalegne

    2016-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended DOTS as a standard strategy for controlling the disease. TB is one of the major causes of infectious diseases in the world, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. About a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tubercle bacilli, and hence at risk of developing active disease. The objective of the study was, therefore, to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis case finding and their treatment outcomes in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia. A retrospective health facility-based descriptive study was employed. Quarterly data were collected by using WHO structured reporting format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all DOTS implementing health facilities in the region. A total of 10,024 TB cases (all forms) were registered and reported between the periods from 2003 up to 2012. Out of these, 4100 (40.9%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 3164 (31.6%) were smear-negative pulmonary TB and 2760 (27.5%) had extra-pulmonary TB. An average case detection rate (CDR) 1 of 40.9% (SD=0.1) and treatment success rate (TSR) 2 of 55.7% (SD=0.28) for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB were reported for the specified years period. Additionally, the average mean values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rates were 4.2% and 0.3%, respectively. The recommended TSR set by WHO was achieved as it was already been fulfilled more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region and the reported CDR was far below (40.9%) for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB from the target. Therefore, extensive efforts should be established to maintain the achieved TSR and to increase the low level of CDR for all forms of TB cases through implementing alternative case finding strategies. Copyright © 2016.

  9. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  10. [Cluster of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in a school of the district of Ica, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julio; Sardón, Victoria; Soto, Mirtha G; Anicama, Rolado; Arroyo-Hernández, Hugo; Munayco, César V

    2011-01-01

    We describe the evolution and features of a cluster of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) cases that occurred in 2001, in a school located in a sub-urban area of the district of Ica, Peru. We identified 15 students related before becoming infected with tuberculosis. The mean age of the cluster was 15 years. A total of 12 students were MDR-TB cases and 7 were drug-resistant to 5 first-line drugs (RHEZS). Five out of the 15 cases received at least 3 different anti-tuberculosis treatment schemes. The average treatment duration was 37 months (minimum 21 and maximum 59 months). A total of 13 cases recovered and 2 died. This study describes a cluster of MDR -TB cases in an educational facility, which due to the epidemiological link and time presentation, is probably an outbreak of MDR TB with a satisfactory outcome after prolonged treatment.

  11. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess u...

  12. Nodular Hepatic Tuberculosis Masquerading as a Seminoma Liver Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Houssem; Chaabouni, Amine; Kallel, Rim; Toumi, Nozha; Fendri, Sami; Krichene, Jihene; Boujelbene, Salah; Mzali, Rafik

    2018-04-01

    Isolated macro-nodular liver tuberculosis is a very rare condition. It may mimic primitive or secondary tumors of the liver. This could delay or mislead the therapeutic management. An immunocompetent 48-year-old man with a history of non-metastatic seminoma was treated with right orchidectomy followed by 20 Gy radiotherapy. The discovery, 8 months later, of a 2 cm nodule of the hepatic dome evoked a liver metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy was not feasible. Wedge resection was performed whereas medical treatment would have sufficed, as pathologic examination of the resected specimen showed a macro-nodular hepatic tuberculosis. The patient received anti-tuberculosis drugs for 9 months. The diagnosis of isolated macro-nodular liver tuberculosis is frequently misleading, particularly in immunocompetent and paucisymptomatic patients. Thus percutaneous biopsy is mandatory for diagnosis and also prior to any major surgeries. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  13. A Pilot Trial of Jawarish Amla as Adjuvant to Anti-Tubercular Treatment Drugs for Control of Adverse Reactions in DOTS Regime in Pulmonary TB

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwani, Arish Mohammad Khan; Zulkifle, Mohammad; Rehmatulla,

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives One of the greatest challenges of health care systems at the dawn of the 21st century is tuberculosis (TB). Drug resistant strains of TB are becoming a global public health risk. These strains commonly appear due to faulty therapies. Patients frequently stop treatment due to the toxicity of anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) drugs. Amla (Emblica officinalis) is a well-known Unani single drug. Jawarish amla is a Unani compound formulation which is commonly used to admini...

  14. Sputum and serum microRNA-144 levels in patients with tuberculosis before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Guo, Shuai; Li, Xue-Gang; Chi, Jing-Yu; Qu, Yi-Qing; Zhong, Hai-Lai

    2016-02-01

    To measure the expression levels of sputum and serum microRNA-144 (miR-144) before and after the treatment of patients with tuberculosis (TB). Details of the cases of a total of 124 TB patients were collected at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between April 2014 and April 2015. Fifty-three of these patients had sputum positive for bacteria and a cavity on imaging (group A), 20 patients had sputum negative for bacteria and a cavity on imaging (group B), and 51 patients had sputum negative for bacteria and no cavity on imaging (group C). One hundred seventeen healthy people who attended the hospital for a physical examination were recruited as controls. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the levels of sputum and serum miR-144 before anti-TB treatment and at 1 month after treatment. Before treatment, sputum and serum miR-144 expression levels in the TB patients were both higher than those of the controls (both p<0.05). After treatment, sputum and serum miR-144 levels in the TB patients were significantly lower than those measured before treatment (both p<0.05). The levels of sputum and serum miR-144 in the improved TB patients decreased significantly after treatment compared to those measured before treatment (both p<0.001). Significant differences were found in sputum and serum miR-144 levels in the TB patients, with or without improvement, compared with the healthy controls (all p<0.05). Sputum and serum miR-144 levels were significantly upregulated in the TB patients, but were found to decrease significantly after anti-TB treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in β thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, S.; Pramudita, A.; Lusiani

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency condition. Rapid diagnosis and determination of the etiology with epidemiologic consideration may lead to earlier treatment and improved survival. Occasionally, the etiology may be clearly related to a recognized underlying disease, but the possibility of unrelated etiologies should be considered. Pericarditis tuberculosis, a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a non-HIV patient, has to be deliberate as one of the etiology, especially in the endemic area. Here, we report a case of 28 years old male with β thalassemia major presented with excessive exertion breathlessness progressing to orthopnea. Sign of cardiac tamponade was identified from echocardiography which showed large pericardial effusion with swinging heart and right atrial systolic collapse. Pericardiocentesis was performed immediately, drained 870 ml of hemorrhagic fluid from inserted pigtail. The patient was treated with the anti-tuberculosis regimen and oral corticosteroid after real-time polymerase chain reaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis positivity in pericardial fluid. MRI T2 confirmed no haemosiderosis in patient’s heart. After treatment, the patient responded well and showed clinical improvement.

  16. Bone scintigraphy, radiography and MRI in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment response of calcaneal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Bharathi Dasan, J.; Choudhury, S.K.; Thomas, E.J.; Sharma, S.; Ashok, S.; Trika, V.; Gupta, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We describe the role of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow up of calcaneal tuberculosis. Materials and methods: Six patients (5 males, 1 female; age range 16-49 years) presented with heel pain. All patients underwent routine laboratory and radiological investigations e.g. radiographs, MRI and skeletal scintigraphy as part of initial diagnostic work-up. In all patients the diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed based on histopathology or culture. Standard multi-drug anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) was administered for 15 months. All patients were subsequently followed up with clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations and imaging. Skeletal scintigraphy, MRI and radiographs were repeated at 12 to 15 months from the initiation of anti-tubercular treatment in all patients. Results: Five out of six patients had lytic lesions at presentation on radiographs. Four of these 5 patients also had surrounding sclerosis. Follow-up radiographs obtained 12-15 months after starting ATT, showed an increase in surrounding sclerosis with progressive reduction in area of osteopenia in four and mild sclerotic changes in one. In the remaining one patient radiograph were normal both at presentation and follow up. Three phase bone scintigraphy revealed increased blood flow and blood pool activity and 'hot spots' in 5 and a central photopenic area in the calcaneum in one patient at the time of diagnosis. After starting ATT, significant reduction in vascularity and reactive bone changes in 5 patients and mild improvement in one patient. MRI was done in three patients, which revealed hyperintense lesion with erosion of the superior articular surface in 2 and 'Bull's eye' lesion with a hypointense centre and a surrounding hyperintense rim on post contrast T1W images in one patient. Follow-up MRI showed intermediate signal intensity on T2 weighted images that corresponded to caseous necrosis and high signal intensity related to granulomas or effusion. Conclusion

  17. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    Distance-to-default is a remarkably robust measure for ranking firms according to their risk of default. The ranking seems to work despite the fact that the Merton model from which the measure is derived produces default probabilities that are far too small when applied to real data. We use...... simulations to investigate the robustness of the distance-to-default measure to different model specifications. Overall we find distance-to-default to be robust to a number of deviations from the simple Merton model that involve different asset value dynamics and different default triggering mechanisms....... A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...

  18. Tuberculosis in Sulaimaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan: A Detailed Analysis of Cases Registered in Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadakhy, Kamaran; Othman, Nasih; Ibrahimm, Faredun; Saeed, Akam Ali; Amin, Ari Abdul-Adheem Hama

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem especially in low and middle-income countries. The current study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of the disease and describe its epidemiological characteristics in Iraqi Kurdistan. A retrospective study was carried out on cases registered in the directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS) centers in Sulaimaniyah province. Information was collected from the summary reports of all cases registered in 2010 and detailed information was obtained from 307 cases in the main center. During 2010, a total of 530 new and relapsed cases were registered in the DOTS centers amounting to an annual incidence of 31 per 100,000. Over 73% of cases were pulmonary TB and 45% of all cases had positive smear. Most common symptoms were cough (58%), sweating (49%) and fever (48). Almost 43% of patients were diagnosed by direct swab examination, 30% by biopsy and 23% through clinical and radiologic examination. In relation to outcome, 89% of patients were treated successfully, 7% died and 3% defaulted. Mortality rate was 8% in pulmonary infection and 4% in extrapulmonary infection. Old age (65 years and over) was significantly associated with higher odds of death compared to people aged 34 years and younger (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-36.1, P=0.03). The incidence of TB is still high in the Iraqi Kurdistan. The DOTS has been successful in treating the majority of cases but there are areas needing improvement especially record-keeping and patient follow-up during and after treatment.

  19. Tuberculosis of the Breast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Azarkar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary tuberculosis of the breast is a rare disease. It usually occurs in female of reproductive age. Any form of tuberculosis mastitis may present with feature of malignancy. Diagnosis is mainly based on identification of tubercle bacilli. We report a 42-year-old woman with primary tuberculosis abscess of the breast, who underwent surgical resection. Fine needle biopsy failed to achieve specific diagnosis before surgical operation. She responded to anti-TB therapy postoperatively. In endemic area, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast tumors

  20. Attitudes towards preventive tuberculosis treatment among hospital staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Pathak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthcare workers have an increased risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, but previous studies suggested that they might be reluctant to accept preventive tuberculosis (TB treatment. We aimed to examine doctors’ and nurses’ experience of TB screening and to explore their attitudes towards preventive TB treatment. Methods. We conducted a survey among randomly selected healthcare workers at a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia, using a paper-based questionnaire. Results. A total of 1,304 questionnaires were distributed and 311 (24% responses were received. The majority of hospital staff supported preventive TB treatment in health care workers with evidence of latent TB infection (LTBI in general (74%, 164/223 and for them personally (81%, 198/244 while 80 and 53 healthcare workers respectively had no opinion on the topic. Staff working in respiratory medicine were significantly less likely to support preventive TB treatment in health care workers in general or for them personally if they would have evidence of LTBI compared to other specialties (p = 0.001. Only 13% (14/106 of respondents with evidence of LTBI indicated that they had been offered preventive TB treatment. Twenty-one percent (64/306 of respondents indicated that they did not know the difference between active and latent TB. Among staff who had undergone testing for LTBI, only 33% (75/230 felt adequately informed about the meaning of their test results. Discussion. Hospital staff in general had positive attitudes towards preventive TB treatment, but actual treatment rates were low and perceived knowledge about LTBI was insufficient among a significant proportion of staff. The gap between high support for preventive TB treatment among staff and low treatment rates needs to be addressed. Better education on the concept of LTBI and the meaning of screening test results is required.

  1. 40 CFR 22.17 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 22.17 Section 22.17 Protection... Procedures § 22.17 Default. (a) Default. A party may be found to be in default: after motion, upon failure to... hearing. Default by respondent constitutes, for purposes of the pending proceeding only, an admission of...

  2. Educational intervention and the health seeking attitude and adherence to therapy by tuberculosis patients from an urban slum in lagos Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayemi, S O; Oreagba, I A; Akinyede, A; Adepoju, G E

    2009-12-01

    Community based participation has been advocated by a number of international health organisations including the World Health Organization (WHO) as a solution to the problems of poor patient adherence and default from Directly Observed Treatment Short course [DOTs] programmes for tuberculosis control. To determine the impact of a health educational intervention on the management of tuberculosis in relation to the outcome and adherence to therapy by Tuberculosis patients residing in a densely populated urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was conducted using forty tuberculosis patients (confirmed by acid fast bacilli positive sputum), and selected randomly from those who attend the Mainland Hospital in Lagos. They were divided into two groups of twenty each made up of those to be provided with education intervention at the community level and the control groups followed up at the hospital level only. An initial assessment of the knowledge about tuberculosis management was done through a structured questionnaire for both groups. This was followed by continuous health talks for intervention group in form of neighbourhood self help approach. The results showed that the intervention had a significant impact on the understanding of disease and its management (X(2) =11.842 peducation is therefore beneficial for TB control in Nigeria.

  3. The Evaluation of Patients with Tuberculosis Treated in Batman Tuberculosis Control Dispensary in 2003 Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin Yıldız

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a very important problem for public health all around the world. In this study, 168 patients with TB who were treated in Batman Tuberculosis Control Dispensary in 2003 were retrospectively assessed. Ninety six of our cases were male, 72 were female. Eighty one patients who underwent for the tuberculous treatment were with pulmonary tuberculosis and 87 cases were with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Acid fast bacilli (AFB at sputum was positive in 66.17% of the cavitary pulmonary TB cases before treatment and only one patient’s sputum was positive in pulmonary tuberculosis without cavity. Results of the tuberculosis treatment of cases revealed that one case left the treatment, 3 patients were inharmonious, 3 patients were dead, 161 patients were cured. Success rate of treatment was 95,83% (5 of these cases were cured and 156 patients completed the treatment. These data suggest that in order to increase the rate of the cure, bacteriological examination of the sputum should be considered at the end of the treatment like as the beginning.

  4. Cervical spinal tuberculosis with tuberculous otitis media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prompt and effective response to anti tuberculosis drugs informed the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the cervical vertebra and tuberculous otitis media with multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case underscores the value of high index of suspicion, thorough and complete clinical evaluation in any patient with chronic symptoms ...

  5. Recurrent erythema nodosum and pulmonary lymph node tuberculosis in a patient treated for psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis with TNF inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Parcheta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting approximately 2% of the population. Biologic agents are the new treatment options for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis who have failed traditional systemic therapies. The therapy with tumor necrosis factor antagonists significantly increases the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis; therefore, screening is important before the introduction of biological treatment. Objective. Presentation of diagnostic difficulties in establishing an etiological factor of recurrent erythema nodosum in a 46-year-old woman treated with anti-TNF-α agents (etanercept and adalimumab for plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Case report. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman, treated with etanercept and adalimumab for plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Despite prophylactic antituberculosis treatment before introduction of biological therapy, the patient developed erythema nodosum most likely caused by lymph node tuberculosis. Conclusions . The development of erythema nodosum, especially the recurrent form, in a patient with a positive tuberculin skin test and negative IGRA test treated with anti-TNF should always prompt increased vigilance and exclusion of active tuberculosis, which may develop even in patients who have undergone prophylactic antituberculosis treatment.

  6. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan; Limberis, Jason D; Pietersen, Elize; Phelan, Jody; Esmail, Aliasgar; Lesosky, Maia; Fennelly, Kevin P; te Riele, Julian; Mastrapa, Barbara; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Dolby, Tania; Abdallah, Abdallah; Ben Rached, Fathia; Simpson, John; Smith, Liezel; Gumbo, Tawanda; van Helden, Paul; Sirgel, Frederick A; McNerney, Ruth; Theron, Grant; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G; Warren, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179). Findings: Between Oct 1, 2008, and Oct 31, 2012, we enrolled and followed up 273 patients for a median of 20·3 months (IQR 9·6-27·8). 203 (74%) had programmatically incurable tuberculosis and unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure, relapse, default, or death despite treatment with a regimen based on capreomycin, aminosalicylic acid, or both). 172 (63%) patients were discharged home, of whom 104 (60%) had an unfavourable outcome. 54 (31%) home-discharged patients had failed treatment, with a median time to death after discharge of 9·9 months (IQR 4·2-17·4). 35 (20%) home-discharged cases were smear-positive at discharge. Using CASS, six (23%) of 26 home-discharged cases with data available expectorated infectious culture-positive cough aerosols in the respirable range (<5 μm), and most reported inter-person contact with suboptimal protective mask usage. WGS identified 17 (19%) of the 90 patients (with available sequence data) that were discharged home before the diagnosis of 20 downstream cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis with almost identical sequencing profiles suggestive of community-based transmission (five or fewer single nucleotide polymorphisms different and with identical resistance-encoding mutations for 14 drugs). 11 (55%) of these downstream

  7. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan

    2017-01-19

    Background: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179). Findings: Between Oct 1, 2008, and Oct 31, 2012, we enrolled and followed up 273 patients for a median of 20·3 months (IQR 9·6-27·8). 203 (74%) had programmatically incurable tuberculosis and unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure, relapse, default, or death despite treatment with a regimen based on capreomycin, aminosalicylic acid, or both). 172 (63%) patients were discharged home, of whom 104 (60%) had an unfavourable outcome. 54 (31%) home-discharged patients had failed treatment, with a median time to death after discharge of 9·9 months (IQR 4·2-17·4). 35 (20%) home-discharged cases were smear-positive at discharge. Using CASS, six (23%) of 26 home-discharged cases with data available expectorated infectious culture-positive cough aerosols in the respirable range (<5 μm), and most reported inter-person contact with suboptimal protective mask usage. WGS identified 17 (19%) of the 90 patients (with available sequence data) that were discharged home before the diagnosis of 20 downstream cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis with almost identical sequencing profiles suggestive of community-based transmission (five or fewer single nucleotide polymorphisms different and with identical resistance-encoding mutations for 14 drugs). 11 (55%) of these downstream

  8. Improved Survival and Cure Rates With Concurrent Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, James C M; Shah, N Sarita; Mlisana, Koleka; Moodley, Pravi; Allana, Salim; Campbell, Angela; Johnson, Brent A; Master, Iqbal; Mthiyane, Thuli; Lachman, Simlatha; Larkan, Lee-Megan; Ning, Yuming; Malik, Amyn; Smith, Jonathan P; Gandhi, Neel R

    2018-04-03

    Mortality in multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection has historically been high, but most studies predated the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We prospectively compared survival and treatment outcomes in MDR tuberculosis-HIV-coinfected patients on ART to those in patients with MDR tuberculosis alone. This observational study enrolled culture-confirmed MDR tuberculosis patients with and without HIV in South Africa between 2011 and 2013. Participants received standardized MDR tuberculosis and HIV regimens and were followed monthly for treatment response, adverse events, and adherence. The primary outcome was survival. Among 206 participants, 150 were HIV infected, 131 (64%) were female, and the median age was 33 years (interquartile range [IQR], 26-41). Of the 191 participants with a final MDR tuberculosis outcome, 130 (73%) were cured or completed treatment, which did not differ by HIV status (P = .50). After 2 years, CD4 count increased a median of 140 cells/mm3 (P = .005), and 64% had an undetectable HIV viral load. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants had high rates of survival (86% and 94%, respectively; P = .34). The strongest risk factor for mortality was having a CD4 count ≤100 cells/mm3 (adjusted hazards ratio, 15.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-55.6). Survival and treatment outcomes among MDR tuberculosis-HIV individuals receiving concurrent ART approached those of HIV-uninfected patients. The greatest risk of death was among HIV-infected individuals with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/mm3. These findings provide critical evidence to support concurrent treatment of MDR tuberculosis and HIV.

  9. Adherence to Tuberculosis Therapy among Patients Receiving Home-Based Directly Observed Treatment: Evidence from the United Republic of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkopi, Abdallah; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Egwaga, Saidi; Schulze, Alexander; Geubbels, Eveline; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the leading contributor to the selection of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subsequent treatment failure. Tanzania introduced a TB Patient Centred Treatment (PCT) approach which gives new TB patients the choice

  10. Asymmetric default bias in dishonesty – how defaults work but only when in one’s favor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt

    Based on a dice rolling task where participants can cheat on the outcome, this paper asks if default answers change dishonesty? The paper finds that various default answers have asymmetric effects. Compared to not having a default answer at all, providing a low default answer, or adding the expec......Based on a dice rolling task where participants can cheat on the outcome, this paper asks if default answers change dishonesty? The paper finds that various default answers have asymmetric effects. Compared to not having a default answer at all, providing a low default answer, or adding...

  11. Anti-Mycobacterial Activity of Marine Fungus-Derived 4-Deoxybostrycin and Nigrosporin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Deoxybostrycin is a natural anthraquinone compound isolated from the Mangrove endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. collected from the South China Sea. Nigrosporin is the deoxy-derivative of 4-deoxybostrycin. They were tested against mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test, they both had inhibition zone sizes of over 25 mm. The results of the absolute concentration susceptibility test suggested that they had inhibitory effects against mycobacteria. Moreover, 4-deoxybostrycin exhibited good inhibition which was even better than that of first line anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs against some clinical multidrug-resistant (MDR M. tuberculosis strains. The gene expression profile of M. tuberculosis H37Rv after treatment with 4-deoxybostrycin was compared with untreated bacteria. One hundred and nineteen out of 3,875 genes were significantly different in M. tuberculosis exposed to 4-deoxybostrycin from control. There were 46 functionally known genes which are involved in metabolism, information storage and processing and cellular processes. The differential expressions of six genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The present study provides a useful experiment basis for exploitation of correlative new drugs against TB and for finding out new targets of anti-mycobacterial therapy.

  12. Anti-mycobacterial activity of marine fungus-derived 4-deoxybostrycin and nigrosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Juan; Huang, Yuhong; Chen, Hong; Li, Yan; Zhong, Lili; Chen, Yi; Chen, Shengping; Wang, Jun; Kang, Juling; Peng, Yi; Yang, Bin; Lin, Yongcheng; She, Zhigang; Lai, Xiaomin

    2013-01-29

    4-Deoxybostrycin is a natural anthraquinone compound isolated from the Mangrove endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. collected from the South China Sea. Nigrosporin is the deoxy-derivative of 4-deoxybostrycin. They were tested against mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test, they both had inhibition zone sizes of over 25 mm. The results of the absolute concentration susceptibility test suggested that they had inhibitory effects against mycobacteria. Moreover, 4-deoxybostrycin exhibited good inhibition which was even better than that of first line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs against some clinical multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis strains. The gene expression profile of M. tuberculosis H37Rv after treatment with 4-deoxybostrycin was compared with untreated bacteria. One hundred and nineteen out of 3,875 genes were significantly different in M. tuberculosis exposed to 4-deoxybostrycin from control. There were 46 functionally known genes which are involved in metabolism, information storage and processing and cellular processes. The differential expressions of six genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The present study provides a useful experiment basis for exploitation of correlative new drugs against TB and for finding out new targets of anti-mycobacterial therapy.

  13. Problems in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsara, V; Serasli, E; Christaki, P

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a major health problem in industrialized countries due to specific socioeconomic factors and there is the growing need of new rapid and accurate diagnostic methods, in order to achieve higher sensitivity and specificity compared to traditional methods of microscopic sputum examination and culture. Such methods, recently introduced, are nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests, used directly on clinical specimens and blood tests (QuantiFERON-TB, T-SPOT.TB test), measuring the IFN-gamma released by stimulated T cells. Furthermore, new drugs for the disease need to be developed, aiming to better treatment results and to prevention of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) cases. Critical aspects in the management of drug resistance cases should be the careful choices of drugs combination, the close follow up of the patients alongside with the patients adherence to therapy. The role of national and international tuberculosis programs is invaluable in TB control and therapy, as well as the collaboration of all the health system departments. However, most of the clinical problems that may arise are addressed by the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care-ISTC and these guidelines should be taken into consideration, at least until future research provides more promising diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for control of the disease.

  14. An unusual case of olecranon tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Karageorgos, Athanasios; Gliatis, Ioannis; Marangos, Markos

    2008-08-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented with erythema and swelling over her left elbow. She felt pain during palpation of the olecranon, while the range of elbow motion was slightly reduced (02 in circle-302 in circle-1302 in circle). She had been treated conservatively elsewhere for 3 months with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and splint immobilization. Radiographs and computed tomography showed an osteolytic area over the olecranon with cortex disruption. She underwent open biopsy of the olecranon, and the histologic features were compatible with tuberculosis. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated and she had a positive Mantoux test (14 mm). She mentioned no history of pulmonary disease and had a normal chest radiograph. She received antituberculous treatment (isoniazid, rifambin, and pyrazinamide) for 2 months without obvious improvement. She underwent surgical debridement of the olecranon while she continued antituberculous treatment for 12 months, discontinuing pyrazinamide after the third month. After the completion of antituberculous treatment, the patient was pain-free, without local signs of infection and with improved range of motion (02 in circle-202 in circle-1452 in circle). Early diagnosis and treatment of olecranon tuberculosis is of great value, and the prognosis is good when there is no spread in the elbow joint.

  15. Recognition of anti-mycolic acid antibody at self-assembled mycolic acid antigens on a gold electrode: a potential impedimetric immunosensing platform for active tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathebula, NS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedimetric recognition by anti-mycolic acid antibodies, present in tuberculosis (TB)-positive human serum co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of mycolic acids (MA) integrated into a self-assembled monolayer of N-(2...

  16. 49 CFR 1112.3 - Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default. 1112.3 Section 1112.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 1112.3 Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default. If a party fails to comply with...

  17. Secondary metabolites from Tetracera potatoria stem bark with anti-mycobacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomogne-Fodjo, M C Y; Ndinteh, D T; Olivier, D K; Kempgens, P; van Vuuren, S; Krause, R W M

    2017-01-04

    Tetracera potatoria Afzel. Exg. Don (Dilleniaceae) is a medicinal plant used traditionally in Africa for the treatment of tuberculosis related ailments and respiratory infections. The antibacterial activity of the medium polar extracts of T. potatoria leaves and stem bark was recently reported against Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC 25µg/mL) and M. aurum (65µg/mL), two fast-growing Mycobacterium strains used as model micro-organisms for the more pathogenic strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Fomogne-Fodjo et al., 2014). The aim of this study was consequently to isolate the compounds possibly contributing to this activity, and which may therefore be promising precursors to be used for the development of novel anti-TB drugs. T. potatoria medium polar extract [MeOH/DCM (1:1, v/v)] was fractionated sequentially with petroleum ether to which EtOAC and MeOH were gradually added to increase the polarity. The examination of T. potatoria extract and its fractions was guided by bioassays for anti-mycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis (ATCC 23246) and M. aurum (NCTC 10437) using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. All the isolated compounds were structurally elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activity. Two novel secondary metabolites (1, 2) named tetraceranoate and N-hydroxy imidate-tetracerane, together with five known compounds [β-stigmasterol (3), stigmast-5-en-3β-yl acetate (4), betulinic acid (5), betulin (6) and lupeol (7)] were isolated and identified. Tetraceranoate exhibited the best activity against M. smegmatis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 7.8µg/mL, while β-stigmasterol, betulinic acid and betulin showed appreciable anti-mycobacterial activity against both strains (MIC 15µg/mL). Seven compounds were isolated from the medium polar extract [MeOH/DCM (1:1, v/v)] of T. potatoria stem bark. Only tetraceranoate one of the isolated compounds showed antibacterial activity against

  18. Unilateral post-tuberculosis lung destruction and massive haemoptysis in pregnancy with successful outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun S. Adeniran

    2016-06-01

    We present an unbooked 36 year old G6P4+1 (4 alive woman who presented with chronic cough, massive haemoptysis and multiple pregnancy (twin at 35 week gestation. She had completed anti-tuberculosis treatment twice at and over nine years prior to presentation. On evaluation, there were clinical and radiological evidences of unilateral (right destroyed lung but no evidence of active tuberculosis; resuscitation was with antibiotics, blood transfusion and oxygen therapy followed by an emergency caesarean delivery due to significant maternal compromise. The symptoms resolved following antibiotic therapy and she was subsequently discharged home. Post-tuberculosis destroyed lung is a fatal uncommon condition that may present during pregnancy and requires a multi-disciplinary specialist care to ensure good maternal and foetal outcome.

  19. Lama Pemberian Obat Anti Tuberkulosa dan Kadar Zinc Serum Pasien Paru Anak (Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Dewi Susilawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LAMA PEMBERIAN OBAT ANTI TUBERKULOSA DAN KADAR ZINC SERUM PASIEN PARU ANAK (STUDI KASUS DI KABUPATEN BOGOR   Anti Tuberculosis Drugs Treatment Duration and Serum Zinc Level of Child Patients (A Case Study in Bogor District ABSTRACT Background. Zinc is a potent mediator to body endurance against infection by affecting the function of the cellular immune system which act as the main response in tuberculosa infection. Low level of zinc in the blood, called hipozinsemia, is more often found in child tuberculosis (TB patients who have not taken anti tuberculoses drugs than those who have received drug therapy. Several previous studies show that there were no different levels of zinc between intensive phase and follow-up phase of therapies, however others indicated contrary results. Objective. The purpose of study is to determine whether there is any differences of serum zinc levels in the intensive phase and follow-up phase of anti-tuberculosis drug as well as to assess the relationship between treatment duration and serum zinc levels. Method. A cross-sectional study design was used with research subjects were children aged 6-59 months who were taken anti-tuberculosis drugs in Bogor District, in 2013. Data analysis used was independent t test and correlation test. Results. There was significant mean difference of serum zinc levels between subject who took anti-tuberculosis drugs in the intensive phase compare to those in the follow-up phase (p=0.015.There was a significant positive correlation between the duration of treatment and the serum zinc levels after controlling nutritional status (r=0.363 p=0.003. Conclusion. Serum zinc levels will increase linearly with tuberculosis drugs treatment duration. A further research is needed to determine whether there is any benefit of zinc supplementation in the intensive phase. Keywords: anti tuberculosis drug, pulmonary tuberculosis, zinc.   ABSTRAK Latar Belakang. Zinc merupakan mediator yang memiliki

  20. In vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of nine medicinal plants used by ethnic groups in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Coronado-Aceves, Enrique Wenceslao; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos Arturo; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo; Navarro-Navarro, Moisés; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana

    2013-11-25

    Sonoran ethnic groups (Yaquis, Mayos, Seris, Guarijíos, Pimas, Kikapúes and Pápagos) use mainly herbal based preparations as their first line of medicinal treatment. Among the plants used are those with anti-tuberculosis properties; however, no formal research is available. Organic extracts were obtained from nine medicinal plants traditionally used by Sonoran ethnic groups to treat different kinds of diseases; three of them are mainly used to treat tuberculosis. All of the extracts were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Alamar Blue redox bioassay. Methanolic extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora, Ambrosia ambrosioides and Guaiacum coulteri showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 200, 790 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, whereas no effect was observed with the rest of the methanolic extracts at the concentrations tested. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora showed a MIC of 90, 120 and 160 μg/mL, respectively. A. confertiflora and A. ambrosioides showed the best anti-mycobacterial activity in vitro. The activity of Guaiacum coulteri is consistent with the traditional use by Sonoran ethnic groups as anti-tuberculosis agent.For these reasons, it is important to investigate a broader spectrum of medicinal plants in order to find compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  1. High mortality during tuberculosis treatment does not indicate long diagnostic delays in Vietnam: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Dinh N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation may increase disease severity and mortality. In evaluations of tuberculosis control programmes high fatality rates during tuberculosis treatment, are used as an indicator of long delays in low HIV-prevalence settings. However, data for this presumed association between delay and fatality are lacking. We assessed the association between diagnostic delay and mortality of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Vietnam. Methods Follow-up of a patient cohort included in a survey of diagnostic delay in 70 randomly selected districts. Data on diagnosis and treatment were extracted from routine registers. Patients who had died during the course of treatment were compared to those with reported cure, completed treatment or failure (survivors. Results Complete data were available for 1881/2093 (89.9% patients, of whom 82 (4.4% had died. Fatality was 4.5% for patients with ≤ 4 weeks delay, 5.0% for 5- ≤ 8 weeks delay (aOR 1.11, 95%CI 0.67–1.84 and 3.2% for > 9 weeks delay (aOR 0.69, 95%CI 0.37–1.30. Fatality tended to decline with increasing delay but this was not significant. Fatality was not associated with median diagnostic delay at district level (Spearman's rho = -0.08, P = 0.5. Conclusion Diagnostic delay is not associated with treatment mortality in Vietnam at individual nor district level, suggesting that high case fatality should not be used as an indicator of long diagnostic delay in national tuberculosis programmes.

  2. Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages with Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Microparticles Drives NFκB and Autophagy Dependent Bacillary Killing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lawlor, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has pushed our available repertoire of anti-TB therapies to the limit of effectiveness. This has increased the urgency to develop novel treatment modalities, and inhalable microparticle (MP) formulations are a promising option to target the site of infection. We have engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) MPs which can carry a payload of anti-TB agents, and are successfully taken up by human alveolar macrophages. Even without a drug cargo, MPs can be potent immunogens; yet little is known about how they influence macrophage function in the setting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. To address this issue we infected THP-1 macrophages with Mtb H37Ra or H37Rv and treated with MPs. In controlled experiments we saw a reproducible reduction in bacillary viability when THP-1 macrophages were treated with drug-free MPs. NFκB activity was increased in MP-treated macrophages, although cytokine secretion was unaltered. Confocal microscopy of immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages expressing GFP-tagged LC3 demonstrated induction of autophagy. Inhibition of caspases did not influence the MP-induced restriction of bacillary growth, however, blockade of NFκB or autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors reversed this MP effect on macrophage function. These data support harnessing inhaled PLGA MP-drug delivery systems as an immunotherapeutic in addition to serving as a vehicle for targeted drug delivery. Such "added value" could be exploited in the generation of inhaled vaccines as well as inhaled MDR-TB therapeutics when used as an adjunct to existing treatments.

  3. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-03-01

    The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04-9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.35, respectively), unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09-6.09), living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.19), are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71-11.82), were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66-21.67), and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46-19.89) and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51-91.99). Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment, have a history of previous

  4. High prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis, Republic of Lithuania, 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewan, P; Sosnovskaja, A; Thomsen, V

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nations of the former Soviet Union have the world's highest reported levels of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. We conducted the first national survey of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the Republic of Lithuania. METHODS: We tested Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all...... isolates, 475 (41%) were resistant to at least one first-line drug, and 263 (23%) were resistant to at least INH and RMP (MDR); this included 76/818 (9.3%) from new patients and 187/345 (54%) from previously treated patients. Of 52 MDR isolates randomly selected for extended testing at an international...

  5. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis and treatment adherence among patients with chronic kidney disease in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aucely Corrêa Fernandes Chagas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The primary strategy for tuberculosis control involves identifying individuals with latent tuberculosis. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients who were undergoing hemodialysis in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to characterize the sociodemographic and clinical profiles of patients with latent tuberculosis, to verify the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and the occurrence of latent tuberculosis, and to monitor patient adherence to latent tuberculosis treatment. Methods This epidemiological study involved 418 CKD patients who were undergoing hemodialysis and who underwent a tuberculin skin test. Results The prevalence of latent tuberculosis was 10.3%. The mean patient age was 53.43±14.97 years, and the patients were predominantly men (63.9%. The population was primarily Caucasian (58.6%; half (50% were married, and 49.8% had incomplete primary educations. Previous contact with tuberculosis patients was reported by 80% of the participants. Treatment adherence was 97.7%. Conclusions We conclude that the prevalence of latent tuberculosis in our study population was low. Previous contact with patients with active tuberculosis increased the occurrence of latent infection. Although treatment adherence was high in this study, it is crucial to monitor tuberculosis treatment administered to patients in health services to maintain this high rate.

  6. The PCR-Based Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: Up to Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis, particularly tuberculous meningitis (TBM, is the severest form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.Tb infection, causing death or severe neurological defects in more than half of those affected, in spite of recent advancements in available anti-tuberculosis treatment. The definitive diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis depends upon the detection of M.Tb bacilli in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. At present, the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis remains a complex issue because the most widely used conventional “gold standard” based on bacteriological detection methods, such as direct smear and culture identification, cannot rapidly detect M.Tb in CSF specimens with sufficient sensitivity in the acute phase of TBM. Recently, instead of the conventional “gold standard”, the various molecular-based methods including nucleic acid amplification (NAA assay technique, particularly polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, has emerged as a promising new method for the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis because of its rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the innovation of nested PCR assay technique is worthy of note given its contribution to improve the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis. In this review, an overview of recent progress of the NAA methods, mainly highlighting the PCR assay technique, was presented.

  7. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    treatment is delayed, it is fatally because hematogenous metastasis are easy to occur and become miliary tuberculosis. 4. AIDS and tuberculosis: Hideaki NAGAI (Department of Respiratory Diseases, National Tokyo Hospital). With AIDS patients with tuberculosis, there are the following problems on the treatment. (1) The adverse reactions by antituberculosis drugs tend to occur in AIDS patients. Eleven of 33 AIDS patients with tuberculosis had the adverse reactions (skin rash, fever, liver dysfunction) considered to be due to antituberculosis drugs. It is a very large burden for the HIV infected persons to take simultaneously antituberculosis drugs, medicines for opportunistic infections, and anti-HIV medicines. Since many medicines are taken, it is difficult to determine which drug is the cause once an adverse reaction occurs and all medicines should be often stopped. (2) The combined use with rifampicin (RFP) is difficult for the protease inhibitors and nonnuclear acid reverse transcriptase inhibitors. RFP induces cytochrome P-450 in liver, accelerates the metabolism of some concomitant drug agents, and reduces blood concentration them remarkably. When starting the two above-mentioned medicines during tuberculosis treatment, RFP should be changed to rifabutin (RFB) which has less induction of P-450 than RFP. However, some procedures are required for acquisition of RFB and it is a little complicated in Japan. CDC mentioned the combined use with RFP and efavirenz (EFV) is possible. So, the treatment with EFV and RFP is recently chosen. However, the monitor of the blood concentration of EFV is required, and the dose of EFV should be increased if it is a low value. (3) When a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is given to AIDS patients with tuberculosis, transient worsening of tuberculosis may develop after about two weeks. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  8. A CLINICAL STUDY ON PERI ANAL TUBERCULOSIS IN S.V.R.R.G.G. HOSPITAL TIRUPATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Rani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis around the anus is a rare form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis It is necessary to recognize it due to a specific treatment. (1 Perianal tuberculosis is an uncommon condition; it may not be easily distinguishable from the other inflammatory anal diseases. Undiagnosed cases are associated with high recurrence rates. Perianal tuberculosis can have varied presentation, frequently mimicking other common as well as rare diseases. Ano pe rianal tuberculosis may be associated with abdominal tuberculosis either as an extension of the original lesion or due to its spread via the lymphatics. AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF STUDY : To study the prevalence of ano - perianal tuberculosis in patients attending surgery OPD, SVRR Government General Hospital, Tirupati. To prevent recurrence and morbidity due to peri anal tuberculosis by early detection and intervention with anti tuberculous drugs . MATERIALS AND METHODS : STUDY DESIGN : Prospective study . STUDY SETTING : The present study was conducted at Department of General Surgery, SVRR Government General Hospital, and Tirupati. After getting institutional approval, written and informed consent was taken from each patient. PERIOD OF STUDY : 12 months . SAMPLE SI ZE : 142 patients who attended Surgery OP and were admitted in General Surgery ward, SVRR Government General Hospital, Tirupati with anal and perianal lesions like anal fistulae, perianal suppurations, growths, ulcers during the study period. INCLUSION CRIT ERIA : Age more than 15 years , Both men and women are included , Both sputum positive and negative for AFB , Both HIV positive and negative patients , All Anal and perianal (more than 3cm and within 3cm of anal verge lesions are included , Willingness of the p atient to participate in the study . EXCLUSION CRITERIA : Age less than 15 years , Patients who are not willing to participate in the study . CONCLUSION : Tuberculosis was responsible for 11% cases in recurrent fistula - in - ano

  9. Evaluation of selected Indian traditional folk medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with antioxidant and cytotoxicity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawde K. V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate different solvent extracts of selected Indian traditional medicinal plant against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity. Methods: Acacia catechu (L. Willd (Root extract and Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Corr., Andrographis paniculata Nees. and Datura metel L. were sequentially extracted in water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane and evaluated for their anti-tuberculosis (TB activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using agar diffusion assay. The zone of inhibition ( at 20 and 40 mg/ ml was measured and MIC were calculated. The results were compared with Rifampicin as a standard anti TB drug. The extracts were also evaluated for DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities to understand their antioxidant potential. MTT based cytotoxicity assay was used for evaluating cytotoxicity of the selected samples against Chang liver cells. Results: The selected botanicals were sequentially extracted in water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane and tested for growth inhibition of M. tuberculosi. The hexane extract of A. catechu root and ethanol extract of A. paniculata leaf showed promising activity against M. tuberculosis while remaining extracts showed moderate anti TB activity. The samples were found to possess considerable DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities with no demonstrable cytotoxicity against Chang liver cells. Conclusions: Five traditional medicinal plants were selected for the present study. The selection of medicinal plants was based on their traditional usage for the treatment of tuberculosis, asthma and chronic respiratory diseases. Herein we report for the first time, the anti TB activity of root extracts of Acacia catechu and Ailanthus excelsa while leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata, Aegle marmelos and Datura metel. The study holds importance in the midst of multi drug resistance (MDR crisis in the TB management, since it unravels the scientific basis

  10. Rapid determination of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance from whole-genome sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc; McNerney, Ruth; Preston, Mark D; Guerra-Assunç ã o, José Afonso; Warry, Andrew; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Mallard, Kim; Nair, Mridul; Miranda, Anabela; Alves, Adriana; Perdigã o, Joã o; Viveiros, Miguel; Portugal, Isabel; Hasan, Zahra; Hasan, Rumina; Glynn, Judith R; Martin, Nigel; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance (DR) challenges effective tuberculosis disease control. Current molecular tests examine limited numbers of mutations, and although whole genome sequencing approaches could fully characterise DR, data

  11. New roentgen technologies (tomosynthesis for diagnostics and outcomes evaluation of genital tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Tsybulskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the specific primary disorder of small pelvis organs in the female patient with no tuberculosis in her medical history. Use of this roentgen technique for genital tuberculosis detection and assessment of treatment efficacy enhances the effectiveness of diagnostic activities and allows early detection of this pathology thus reducing the risk of complications which is crucial for pregnancy planning given the young age of the patient.

  12. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy in rapid and simultaneous determination of essential components in five varieties of anti-tuberculosis tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Le-sheng; Wang, Di; Song, Jia; Zhang, Yi-bo; Guo, Wei-liang; Teng, Li-rong

    2008-08-01

    Since 1980s, tuberculosis has become increasingly serious. Rifampicin tablets, isoniazide tablets, pyrazinamide tablets, rifampicin and isoniazide tablets and rifampicin isoniazide and pyrazinamide tablets are currently relatively efficacious antituberculosis drugs. In the present paper, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with partial least squares (PLS) was applied to the simultaneous determination of rifampicin (RMP), isoniazide (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) contents in 5 varieties of anti-tuberculosis tablets. As the results showed, all of the models for the determination of RMP, INH and PZA contents applied the original NIR spectra. The most efficacious wavelength range for the determination of RMP contents was 1981-2195 nm, it was 1540-1717 nm and 2086-2197 nm for the determination of INH contents, and it was 1460-1537 nm, 1956-2022 nm and 2268-2393 nm for determination of PZA contents. The root mean square error of the calibration set obtained by cross-validation (RMSECV) of the optimum models for the quantitative analysis of RMP, INH and PZA contents was 0.0494, 0.0257 and 0.0307, respectively. Using these optimum models for the determination of RMP, INH and PZA contents in prediction set, the root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) was 0.0182, 0.0166 and 0.0134, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r(p)) between the predicted values and actual values was 0.9864, 0.9989 and 0.9993, respectively. These results demonstrated that this method was precise and reliable, and is significative for in situ measurement and the on-line quality control for anti-tuberculosis tablets production.

  13. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 120.938 Section 120.938... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.938 Default. (a) Upon occurrence of an event of default... occurrence of an event of default which does not require automatic acceleration, SBA may forbear acceleration...

  14. Outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV co-infected patients in Lesotho.

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    Hind Satti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the importance of concurrent treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and HIV co-infection has been increasingly recognized, there have been few studies reporting outcomes of MDR-TB and HIV co-treatment. We report final outcomes of comprehensive, integrated MDR-TB and HIV treatment in Lesotho and examine factors associated with death or treatment failure. METHODS: We reviewed clinical charts of all adult patients who initiated MDR-TB treatment in Lesotho between January 2008 and September 2009. We calculated hazard ratios (HR and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to identify predictors of poor outcomes. RESULTS: Of 134 confirmed MDR-TB patients, 83 (62% were cured or completed treatment, 46 (34% died, 3 (2% transferred, 1 (1% defaulted, and 1 (1% failed treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly by HIV status. Among the 94 (70% patients with HIV co-infection, 53% were already on antiretroviral therapy (ART before MDR-TB treatment initiation, and 43% started ART a median of 16 days after the start of the MDR-TB regimen. Among HIV co-infected patients who died, those who had not started ART before MDR-TB treatment had a shorter median time to death (80 days vs. 138 days, p=0.065. In multivariable analysis, predictors of increased hazard of failure or death were low and severely low body mass index (HR 2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-5.93; HR 5.50, 95% CI 2.38-12.69, and a history of working in South Africa (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.24-4.52. CONCLUSIONS: Favorable outcomes can be achieved in co-infected patients using a community-based treatment model when both MDR-TB and HIV disease are treated concurrently and treatment is initiated promptly.

  15. Surgery as an Adjunctive Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: An Individual Patient Data Metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gregory J; Mitnick, Carole D; Benedetti, Andrea; Chan, Edward D; Becerra, Mercedes; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Koh, Won-Jung; Shiraishi, Yuji; Viiklepp, Piret; Yim, Jae-Joon; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Robert, Jerome; Shim, Tae Sun; Shin, Sonya S; Menzies, Dick; Ahuja, S; Ashkin, D; Avendaño, M; Banerjee, R; Bauer, M; Burgos, M; Centis, R; Cobelens, F; Cox, H; D'Ambrosio, L; de Lange, W C M; DeRiemer, K; Enarson, D; Falzon, D; Flanagan, K; Flood, J; Gandhi, N; Garcia-Garcia, L; Granich, R M; Hollm-Delgado, M G; Holtz, T H; Hopewell, P; Iseman, M; Jarlsberg, L G; Kim, H R; Lancaster, J; Lange, C; Leimane, V; Leung, C C; Li, J; Menzies, D; Migliori, G B; Narita, M; Nathanson, E; Odendaal, R; O'Riordan, P; Pai, M; Palmero, D; Park, S K; Pena, J; Pérez-Guzmán, C; Ponce-de-Leon, A; Quelapio, M I D; Quy, H T; Riekstina, V; Royce, S; Salim, M; Schaaf, H S; Seung, K J; Shah, L; Shean, K; Sifuentes-Osornio, J; Sotgiu, G; Strand, M J; Sung, S W; Tabarsi, P; Tupasi, T E; Vargas, M H; van Altena, R; van der Walt, M; van der Werf, T S; Westenhouse, J; Yew, W W

    2016-04-01

    Medical treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR)-tuberculosis is complex, toxic, and associated with poor outcomes. Surgical lung resection may be used as an adjunct to medical therapy, with the intent of reducing bacterial burden and improving cure rates. We conducted an individual patient data metaanalysis to evaluate the effectiveness of surgery as adjunctive therapy for MDR-tuberculosis. Individual patient data, was obtained from the authors of 26 cohort studies, identified from 3 systematic reviews of MDR-tuberculosis treatment. Data included the clinical characteristics and medical and surgical therapy of each patient. Primary analyses compared treatment success (cure and completion) to a combined outcome of failure, relapse, or death. The effects of all forms of resection surgery, pneumonectomy, and partial lung resection were evaluated. A total of 4238 patients from 18 surgical studies and 2193 patients from 8 nonsurgical studies were included. Pulmonary resection surgery was performed on 478 patients. Partial lung resection surgery was associated with improved treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.9; I(2)R, 11.8%), but pneumonectomy was not (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, .6-2.3; I(2)R, 13.2%). Treatment success was more likely when surgery was performed after culture conversion than before conversion (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.9-7.1; I(2)R, 0.2%). Partial lung resection, but not pneumonectomy, was associated with improved treatment success among patients with MDR-tuberculosis. Although improved outcomes may reflect patient selection, partial lung resection surgery after culture conversion may improve treatment outcomes in patients who receive optimal medical therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Herbal solution to the treatment of tuberculosis infection in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of Tuberculosis in Kaduna south local government area in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Eighty randomly selected respondents comprising of 80 structure questionnaire were administered to traditional healer, herbs trader, farmers and civil servants in the Local ...

  17. An evaluation of culture results during treatment for tuberculosis as surrogate endpoints for treatment failure and relapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P J Phillips

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that new regimens are urgently needed for the treatment of tuberculosis. The primary endpoint in the Phase III trials is a composite outcome of failure at the end of treatment or relapse after stopping treatment. Such trials are usually both long and expensive. Valid surrogate endpoints measured during or at the end of treatment could dramatically reduce both the time and cost of assessing the effectiveness of new regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate sputum culture results on solid media during treatment as surrogate endpoints for poor outcome. Data were obtained from twelve randomised controlled trials conducted by the British Medical Research Council in the 1970s and 80s in East Africa and East Asia, consisting of 6974 participants and 49 different treatment regimens. The month two culture result was shown to be a poor surrogate in East Africa but a good surrogate in Hong Kong. In contrast, the month three culture was a good surrogate in trials conducted in East Africa but not in Hong Kong. As well as differences in location, ethnicity and probable strain of Mycobacteria tuberculosis, Hong Kong trials more often evaluated regimens with rifampicin throughout and intermittent regimens, and patients in East African trials more often presented with extensive cavitation and were slower to convert to culture negative during treatment. An endpoint that is a summary measure of the longitudinal profile of culture results over time or that is able to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis later in treatment is more likely to be a better endpoint for a phase II trial than a culture result at a single time point and may prove to be an acceptable surrogate. More data are needed before any endpoint can be used as a surrogate in a confirmatory phase III trial.

  18. Latent M. tuberculosis infection--pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druszczyńska, Magdalena; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Fol, Marek; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2012-01-01

    One third of the earths population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but only 5-10% of the infected individuals develop active tuberculosis (TB) over their lifetime. The remaining 90-95% stay healthy and are called latently infected individuals. They are the biggest reservoir of the tubercle bacilli and identifying the cases of latent TB is a part of the global plan of TB control. From the clinical point of view detection of latent TB infections (LTBI) in individuals with the highest active TB risk including cases of HIV infection, autoimmune inflammatory diseases or cancer, is a priority. This review summarizes the recent findings in the pathogenesis of latent TB, its diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

  19. Clinical management of carbamazepine intoxication during anti-tubercular treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Calderazzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 67-year-old man with medical history of focal post-stroke seizure and type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with carbamazepine, clobazam, gliclazide, insulin glargine, and omeprazole we visited for the onset in the last 7 days of asthenia, cough with mucus, breathing difficulty, chest pain, and weight loss. After clinical and laboratory tests, pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed, and a treatment with isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide rifampicin, and pyridoxine was started. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tuberculosis treatment documented that all drugs were in normal therapeutic range. Four days after the beginning of the treatment, we documented the improvement of fever, and three days later the patient showed sleepiness, visual disorder and asthenia. Clinical and pharmacological evaluation suggested a carbamazepine toxicity probably related to a drug interaction (Drug Interaction Probability Scale score = 6. The impossibility to switch carbamazepine for another antiepileptic drug, due to a resistant form of seizure, induced the discontinuation of tuberculosis treatment, resulting in the normalization of serum carbamazepine levels in one day (10 µg/ml and in the worsening of fever, requiring a new clinical and pharmacological evaluation. The titration dosage of carbamazepine and its therapeutic drug monitoring allowed to continue the treatment with both antitubercular drugs and carbamazepine, without the development of adverse drug reactions. To date, tuberculosis treatment was stopped and clinical evaluation, radiology and microbiology assays documented the absence of tubercular infection and no seizures appeared (carbamazepine dosage 800 mg/bid; serum levels 9.5 µg/ml.

  20. Efficacy of Adjunctive Tofacitinib Therapy in Mouse Models of Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Maiga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global tuberculosis (TB epidemic and the spread of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb have been fueled by low adherence to following lengthy treatment protocols, and the rapid spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Persistence of the infection in immunocompetent individuals follows from the ability of M.tb to subvert host immune responses in favor of survival within macrophages. Alternative host-directed strategies are therefore being currently sought to improve treatment efficacy and duration. In this study, we evaluated tofacitinib, a new oral Janus kinase (JAK blocker with anti-inflammatory properties, in shortening tuberculosis treatment. BALB/c mice, which are immunocompetent, showed acceleration of M.tb clearance achieving apparent sterilization after 16 weeks of adjunctive tofacitinib therapy at average exposures higher than recommended in humans, while mice receiving standard treatment alone did not achieve clearance until 24 weeks. True sterilization with tofacitinib was not achieved until five months. C3HeB/FeJ mice, which show reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines during M.tb infection, did not show improved clearance with adjunctive tofacitinib therapy, indicating that the nature of granulomatous lesions and host immunity may influence responsiveness to tofacitinib. Our findings suggest that the JAK pathway could be explored further for host-directed therapy in immunocompetent individuals.

  1. Efficacy of Adjunctive Tofacitinib Therapy in Mouse Models of Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Mamoudou; Ahidjo, Bintou Ahmadou; Maiga, Mariama C.; Cheung, Laurene; Pelly, Shaaretha; Lun, Shichun; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Bishai, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic and the spread of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) have been fueled by low adherence to following lengthy treatment protocols, and the rapid spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Persistence of the infection in immunocompetent individuals follows from the ability of M.tb to subvert host immune responses in favor of survival within macrophages. Alternative host-directed strategies are therefore being currently sought to improve treatment efficacy and duration. In this study, we evaluated tofacitinib, a new oral Janus kinase (JAK) blocker with anti-inflammatory properties, in shortening tuberculosis treatment. BALB/c mice, which are immunocompetent, showed acceleration of M.tb clearance achieving apparent sterilization after 16 weeks of adjunctive tofacitinib therapy at average exposures higher than recommended in humans, while mice receiving standard treatment alone did not achieve clearance until 24 weeks. True sterilization with tofacitinib was not achieved until five months. C3HeB/FeJ mice, which show reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines during M.tb infection, did not show improved clearance with adjunctive tofacitinib therapy, indicating that the nature of granulomatous lesions and host immunity may influence responsiveness to tofacitinib. Our findings suggest that the JAK pathway could be explored further for host-directed therapy in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:26425693

  2. Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an update on the manifestations and management of ocular tuberculosis. Tuberculosis affects one-third of the world's population. The incidence of tuberculosis has increased with the increase in the HIV infected population. Following a resurgence of the disease in the US, the incidence has recently declined. Patients may develop scleritis that can be focal, nodular or diffuse with or without keratitis. Anterior granulomatous uveitis may occur. The posterior segment reveals vitritis, choroiditis, and can mimic serpiginous choroiditis and other entities. Patients who are immunosuppressed or HIV infected may develop active mycobacterial disease in the eye leading to rapid destruction of the ocular structures. The diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis is made by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Löwestein-Jensen medium or by PCR. The diagnosis is supported by the clinical findings, imaging techniques including optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green and ultrasonography. Tuberculin skin test helps to confirm the diagnosis. Ocular tuberculosis may occur in the absence of pulmonary disease. Patients present with a spectrum of clinical signs. The disease may mimic several clinical entities. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of ocular tuberculosis may prevent ocular morbidity and blindness.

  3. Effect of prednisolone on inflammatory markers in pericardial tuberculosis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shenje

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pericardial disorders are a common cause of heart disease, and the most common cause of pericarditis in developing countries is tuberculous (TB pericarditis. It has been shown that prednisolone added to standard anti-TB therapy leads to a lower rate of constrictive pericarditis. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the effect of adjunctive prednisolone treatment on the concentration of inflammatory markers in pericardial tuberculosis, in order to inform immunological mechanisms at the disease site. Methods: Pericardial fluid, plasma and saliva samples were collected from fourteen patients with pericardial tuberculosis, at multiple time points. Inflammatory markers were measured using multiplex luminex analysis and ELISA. Results: In samples from 14 patients we confirmed a strongly compartmentalized immune response at the disease site and found that prednisolone significantly reduced IL-6 concentrations in plasma by 8 hours of treatment, IL-1beta concentrations in saliva, as well as IL-8 concentrations in both pericardial fluid and saliva by 24 hours. Conclusion: Monitoring the early effect of adjunctive immunotherapy in plasma or saliva is a possibility in pericarditis. Keywords: Tuberculosis, HIV, Pericarditis, Steroids, Treatment monitoring

  4. Impact of fluoroquinolone treatment on delay of tuberculosis diagnosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Catherine A Hogan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoroquinolones are among the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of respiratory infections. Because fluoroquinolones show bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, there is concern that their use can delay the diagnosis of tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether empiric treatment with fluoroquinol