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Sample records for anti-tuberculosis treatment defaulting

  1. Correlates of default from anti-tuberculosis treatment: a case study using Kenya's electronic data system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitienei, J; Kipruto, H; Mansour, O; Ndisha, M; Hanson, C; Wambu, R; Addona, V

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated that there were 120,000 new cases and 9500 deaths due to tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya. Almost a quarter of the cases were not detected, and the treatment of 4% of notified cases ended in default. To identify the determinants of anti-tuberculosis treatment default. Data from 2012 and 2013 were retrieved from a national case-based electronic data recording system. A comparison was made between new pulmonary TB patients for whom treatment was interrupted vs. those who successfully completed treatment. A total of 106,824 cases were assessed. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was the single most influential risk factor for default (aOR 2.7). More than 94% of patients received family-based directly observed treatment (DOT) and were more likely to default than patients who received DOT from health care workers (aOR 2.0). Caloric nutritional support was associated with lower default rates (aOR 0.89). Males were more likely to default than females (aOR 1.6). Patients cared for in the private sector were less likely to default than those in the public sector (aOR 0.86). Understanding the factors contributing to default can guide future program improvements and serve as a proxy to understanding the factors that constrain access to care among undetected cases.

  2. Anti-tuberculosis treatment defaulting: an analysis of perceptions and interactions in Chiapas, Mexico Abandono del tratamiento antituberculosis: un análisis de percepciones e interacciones en Chiapas, México

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    Ivett Reyes-Guillén

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the perceptions and interactions of the actors involved in anti-tuberculosis treatment, and to explore their influence in treatment defaulting in Los Altos region of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From November 2002 to August 2003, in-depth interviews were administered to patients with PTB, patients' family members, institutional physicians, community health coordinators, and traditional medicine practitioners. RESULTS: We found different perceptions about PTB between patients and their families and among health personnel, as well as communication barriers between actors. Defaulting is considered to be mainly due to the treatment's adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to conduct research and interventions in the studied area with the aim of changing perceptions, improving sensitization, quality and suitability of management of patients with PTB in a multicultural context, and promoting collaboration between institutional and traditional medicine.OBJETIVO: Analizar percepciones e interacciones entre actores involucrados en el tratamiento antituberculosis y su influencia en el abandono del tratamiento en los Altos de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De noviembre 2002 a agosto 2003, se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad a pacientes con TBP, familiares, médicos institucionales, coordinadores comunitarios de salud y médicos tradicionales. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron diferentes percepciones entre los pacientes y sus familiares, respecto a las del personal de salud, así como barreras de comunicación entre los distintos actores. Los efectos adversos del tratamiento antituberculosis, son consideradas como una de las principales causas de su abandono. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario que en la región estudiada se realicen investigaciones e intervenciones encaminadas a: cambiar percepciones y mejorar la sensibilidad, calidad y adecuación del manejo de pacientes con TBP en contextos multiculturales, así como

  3. Risk factors for treatment default among re-treatment tuberculosis patients in India, 2006.

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    Jha, Ugra Mohan; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Dewan, Puneet K; Chadha, Sarabjit; Wares, Fraser; Sahu, Suvanand; Gupta, Devesh; Chauhan, L S

    2010-01-25

    Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), >15% of previously-treated patients in the reported 2006 patient cohort defaulted from anti-tuberculosis treatment. To assess the timing, characteristics, and risk factors for default amongst re-treatment TB patients. For this case-control study, in 90 randomly-selected programme units treatment records were abstracted from all 2006 defaulters from the RNTCP re-treatment regimen (cases), with one consecutively-selected non-defaulter per case. Patients who interrupted anti-tuberculosis treatment for >2 months were classified as defaulters. 1,141 defaulters and 1,189 non-defaulters were included. The median duration of treatment prior to default was 81 days (25%-75% interquartile range 44-117 days) and documented retrieval efforts after treatment interruption were inadequate. Defaulters were more likely to have been male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), have previously defaulted anti-tuberculosis treatment (aOR 1.3 95%CI 1.1-1.6], have previous treatment from non-RNTCP providers (AOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.6], or have public health facility-based treatment observation (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.6). Amongst the large number of re-treatment patients in India, default occurs early and often. Improved pre-treatment counseling and community-based treatment provision may reduce default rates. Efforts to retrieve treatment interrupters prior to default require strengthening.

  4. review of compliance to anti tuberculosis treatment and risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study is to assess anti TB treatment compliance and the factors predictive for poor adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa in the last 10 years. Methods: We searched Medline for articles written in English using the terms: "Patient Compliance"[Mesh] OR "Medication Adherence"[Mesh])) AND ...

  5. A population-based case-control study of the safety of oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital abnormalities in newborn infants and fetuses diagnosed prenatally during the second and third trimesters, and postnatally from birth to the age of one year. RESULTS: Of 38,151 controls, 29 (0.08%) were exposed to anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study the human teratogenic potential of isoniazid and other anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cases from a large population-based dataset at the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and controls from the National Birth...... Registry, between 1980 and 1996. Information on all oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatments during pregnancy was medically recorded. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities (case group), and women who had babies with no congenital abnormality (control group). MAIN...

  6. Incidence, clinical features and impact on anti-tuberculosis treatment of anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (ATLI in China.

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    Penghui Shang

    Full Text Available Anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (ATLI is emerging as a significant threat to tuberculosis control in China, though limited data is available about the burden of ATLI at population level. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of ATLI, to better understand its clinical features, and to evaluate its impact on anti-tuberculosis (TB treatment in China.In a population-based prospective study, we monitored 4,304 TB patients receiving directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS treatment, and found that 106 patients developed ATLI with a cumulative incidence of 2.55% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 2.04%-3.06%. Nausea, vomiting and anorexia were the top three most frequently observed symptoms. There were 35 (33.02% ATLI patients with no symptoms, including 8 with severe hepatotoxicity. Regarding the prognosis of ATLI, 84 cases (79.25% recovered, 18 (16.98% improved, 2 (1.89% failed to respond to the treatment with continued elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, and 2 (1.89% died as result of ATLI. Of all the ATLI cases, 74 (69.81% cases changed their anti-TB treatment, including 4 (3.77% cases with medication administration change, 21 (19.81% cases with drugs replacement, 54 (50.94% cases with therapy interruption, and 12 (11.32% cases who discontinued therapy. In terms of treatment outcomes, 53 (51.46% cases had TB cured in time, 48 (46.60% cases had therapy prolonged, and 2 (1.94% cases died. Compared with non-ATLI patients, ATLI patients had a 9.25-fold (95%CI, 5.69-15.05 risk of unsuccessful anti-TB treatment outcomes and a 2.11-fold (95%CI, 1.23-3.60 risk of prolonged intensive treatment phase.ATLI could considerably impact the outcomes of anti-TB treatment. Given the incidence of ATLI and the size of TB population in China, the negative impact is substantial. Therefore, more research and efforts are warranted in order to enhance the diagnosis and the prevention of ATLI.

  7. Smoking behavior and beliefs about the impact of smoking on anti-tuberculosis treatment among health care workers.

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    Magee, M J; Darchia, L; Kipiani, M; Chakhaia, T; Kempker, R R; Tukvadze, N; Berg, C J; Blumberg, H M

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) health care facilities throughout Georgia. To describe smoking behaviors among health care workers (HCWs) at TB facilities and determine HCWs' knowledge and beliefs regarding the impact of tobacco use on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Cross-sectional survey from May to December 2014 in Georgia. Adult HCWs (age 18 years) at TB facilities were eligible. We administered a 60-question anonymous survey about tobacco use and knowledge of the effect of smoking on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Of the 431 HCWs at TB facilities who participated, 377 (87.5%) were female; the median age was 50 years (range 20-77). Overall, 59 (13.7%) HCWs were current smokers and 35 (8.1%) were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was more common among physicians than among nurses (18.6% vs. 7.9%, P tuberculosis treatment, and only 25.3% of physicians/nurses received formal training in smoking cessation approaches. Physicians who smoked were significantly more likely to believe that smoking does not impact anti-tuberculosis treatment than non-smoking physicians (aOR 5.11, 95%CI 1.46-17.90). Additional education about the effect of smoking on TB treatment outcomes is needed for staff of TB health care facilities in Georgia. Nurses and physicians need more training about smoking cessation approaches for patients with TB.

  8. Therapeutic drug monitoring of isoniazid and rifampicin during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Auckland, New Zealand.

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    Maze, M J; Paynter, J; Chiu, W; Hu, R; Nisbet, M; Lewis, C

    2016-07-01

    There is uncertainty as to the optimal therapeutic concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs to achieve cure. To characterise the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), and identify risk factors and outcomes for those with concentrations below the drug interval. Patients treated for tuberculosis (TB) who had rifampicin (RMP) or isoniazid (INH) concentrations measured between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012 were studied retrospectively. Matched concentrations and drug dosing time were assessed according to contemporary regional drug intervals (RMP > 6 μmol/l, INH > 7.5 μmol/l) and current international recommendations (RMP > 10 μmol/l, INH > 22 μmol/l). Outcomes were assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Of 865 patients, 121 had concentrations of either or both medications. RMP concentrations were within the regional drug intervals in 106/114 (93%) and INH in 91/100 (91%). Concentrations were within international drug intervals for RMP in 76/114 (67%) and INH in 53/100 (53%). Low weight-based dose was the only statistically significant risk factor for concentrations below the drug interval. Of the 35 patients with low concentrations, 21 were cured, 9 completed treatment and 5 transferred out. There were no relapses during follow-up (mean 66.5 months). There were no clinically useful characteristics to guide use of TDM. Many patients had concentrations below international therapeutic intervals, but were successfully treated.

  9. The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Jonnalagada Subbanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB-related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii the month of death and iii characteristics associated with "early" death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methods This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009. Results There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males of whom 492 (6% were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12% and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%. There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with "early death". Conclusion In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii co-morbidities, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed.

  10. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasker, Epco; Khodjikhanov, Maksad; Usarova, Shakhnoz; Asamidinov, Umid; Yuldashova, Umida; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Uzakova, Gulnoz; Veen, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    In Tashkent (Uzbekistan), TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21%) defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. We reviewed the records of 126

  11. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasker, Epco; Khodjikhanov, Maksad; Usarova, Shakhnoz; Asamidinov, Umid; Yuldashova, Umida; van der Werf, Marieke J; Uzakova, Gulnoz; Veen, Jaap

    2008-07-22

    In Tashkent (Uzbekistan), TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21%) defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. We reviewed the records of 126 defaulters (cases) and 132 controls and collected information on time of default, demographic factors, social factors, potential risk factors for default, characteristics of treatment and recorded reasons for default. Unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness were associated with default. Patients defaulted mostly during the intensive phase, while they were hospitalized (61%), or just before they were to start the continuation phase (26%). Reasons for default listed in the records were various, 'Refusal of further treatment' (27%) and 'Violation of hospital rules' (18%) were most frequently recorded. One third of the recorded defaulters did not really default but continued treatment under 'non-DOTS' conditions. Whereas patient factors such as unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness play a role, there are also system factors that need to be addressed to reduce default. Such system factors include the obligatory admission in TB hospitals and the inadequately organized transition from hospitalized to ambulatory treatment.

  12. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuldashova Umida

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tashkent (Uzbekistan, TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21% defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. Methods We reviewed the records of 126 defaulters (cases and 132 controls and collected information on time of default, demographic factors, social factors, potential risk factors for default, characteristics of treatment and recorded reasons for default. Results Unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness were associated with default. Patients defaulted mostly during the intensive phase, while they were hospitalized (61%, or just before they were to start the continuation phase (26%. Reasons for default listed in the records were various, 'Refusal of further treatment' (27% and 'Violation of hospital rules' (18% were most frequently recorded. One third of the recorded defaulters did not really default but continued treatment under 'non-DOTS' conditions. Conclusion Whereas patient factors such as unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness play a role, there are also system factors that need to be addressed to reduce default. Such system factors include the obligatory admission in TB hospitals and the inadequately organized transition from hospitalized to ambulatory treatment.

  13. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova.

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    Jenkins, H E; Ciobanu, A; Plesca, V; Crudu, V; Galusca, I; Soltan, V; Cohen, T

    2013-03-01

    The Republic of Moldova, in Eastern Europe, has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of tuberculosis (TB) patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance, and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. A total of 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors, such as homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis; and health-related factors such as human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, greater lung pathology and increasing TB drug resistance. Anti-tuberculosis treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova, and the default risk was highest in the month following the phase of hospitalized treatment (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default, and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce risk of default.

  14. The Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in Diagnosis of Spine Tuberculosis after Pre-operative Anti-tuberculosis Treatment

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    AH Rasit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis after 2 weeks of preoperative anti-tuberculosis treatment and to compare PCR to the Löwenstein - Jensen Culture (LJC and histopathological examination (HPE methods. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were included in this study. Sixteen patients were diagnosed and treated for spinal tuberculosis based on clinical and radiological evidence. Nine patients were controls. The LJC method and HPE of the specimen were performed according to hospital protocol. PCR was performed using primer encoding insertion of sequences IS6110 for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Clinical findings and radiological features were the gold standard for comparison. RESULTS: PCR results were 15 positive and one negative. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR was 94% and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 67% to 99% and 63% to 100%, respectively. HPE results showed 13 were positive and 3 negative in the spinal tuberculosis group; for the control group, all were negative. Sensitivity and specificity value of HPE was 82 % and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 54% to 95% and 63% to 100%, respectively. Use of LJC showed only one was positive and 15 were negative in the spinal tuberculosis group whole all nine in the control group were negative. Sensitivity and specificity value of LJC was 6% and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3% to 32% and 63% to 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is reliable as a method for diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis, even after of 2 weeks of anti-TB treatment, with an overall sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100%.

  15. Factors Associated with Fatality during the Intensive Phase of Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment

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    Casals, M.; Caminero, J. A.; García-García, J. M.; Jiménez-Fuentes, M. A.; Medina, J. F.; Millet, J. P.; Ruiz-Manzano, J.; Caylá, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the case-fatality rate (CFR) at the end of the intensive phase of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and factors associated with fatality. Methods TB patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were followed-up during treatment. We computed the CFR at the end of the intensive phase of TB treatment, and the incidence of death per 100 person-days (pd) of follow-up. We performed survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression, and calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 5,182 patients were included, of whom 180 (3.5%) died; 87 of these deaths (48.3%) occurred during the intensive phase of treatment, with a CFR of 1.7%. The incidence of death was 0.028/100 pd. The following factors were associated with death during the intensive phase: being >50 years (HR = 36.9;CI:4.8–283.4); being retired (HR = 2.4;CI:1.1–5.1); having visited the emergency department (HR = 3.1;CI:1.2–7.7); HIV infection (HR = 3.4;CI:1.6–7.2); initial standard treatment with 3 drugs (HR = 2.0;CI:1.2–3.3) or non-standard treatments (HR = 2.68;CI:1.36–5.25); comprehension difficulties (HR = 2.8;CI:1.3–6.1); and smear-positive sputum (HR = 2.3-CI:1.0–4.8). Conclusion There is a non-negligible CFR during the intensive phase of TB, whose reduction should be prioritised. The CFR could be a useful indicator for evaluating TB programs. PMID:27487189

  16. Risk factors for treatment default among adult tuberculosis patients in Indonesia.

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    Rutherford, M E; Hill, P C; Maharani, W; Sampurno, H; Ruslami, R

    2013-10-01

    Defaulting from anti-tuberculosis treatment hinders tuberculosis (TB) control. To identify potential defaulters. We conducted a cohort study in newly diagnosed Indonesian TB patients. We administered a questionnaire, prospectively identified defaulters (discontinued treatment ≥ 2 weeks) and assessed risk factors using Cox's regression. Of 249 patients, 39 (16%) defaulted, 61% in the first 2 months. Default was associated with liver disease (HR 3.40, 95%CI 1.02-11.78), chest pain (HR 2.25, 95%CI 1.06-4.77), night sweats (HR 1.98, 95%CI 1.03-3.79), characteristics of the head of the household (self-employed, HR 2.47, 95%CI 1.15-5.34; patient's mother, HR 7.72, 95%CI 1.66-35.88), household wealth (HR 4.24, 95%CI 1.12-16.09), walking to clinic (HR 4.53, 95%CI 1.39-14.71), being unaccompanied at diagnosis (HR 30.49, 95%CI 7.55-123.07) or when collecting medication (HR 3.34, 95%CI 1.24-8.98) and low level of satisfaction with the clinic (HR 3.85, 95%CI 1.17-12.62) or doctors (HR 2.45, 95%CI 1.18-5.10). Health insurance (HR 0.24, 95%CI 0.07-0.74) and paying for diagnosis (HR 0.14, 95%CI 0.04-0.48) were protective. Defaulting is common and occurs early. Interventions that improve clinic services, strengthen patient support and increase insurance coverage may reduce default in Indonesia.

  17. Diagnostic pathways and direct medical costs incurred by new adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment – Tamil Nadu, India

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    Veesa, Karun Sandeep; John, Kamalabhai Russell; Moonan, Patrick K.; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Manjunath, Krishna; Sagili, Karuna D.; Ravichandra, Chinnappareddy; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan; George, Kuryan; Minz, Shantidani

    2018-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) patients face substantial delays prior to treatment initiation, and out of pocket (OOP) expenditures often surpass the economic productivity of the household. We evaluated the pre-diagnostic cost and health seeking behaviour of new adult pulmonary TB patients registered at Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods This descriptive study, part of a randomised controlled trial conducted in three rural Tuberculosis Units from Dec 2012 to Dec 2015, collected data on number of health facilities, dates of visits prior to the initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and direct OOP medical costs associated with TB diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis examined the factors associated with delays in treatment initiation and OOP expenditures. Results Of 880 TB patients interviewed, 34.7% presented to public health facilities and 65% patients sought private health facilities as their first point of care. The average monthly individual income was $77.79 (SD 57.14). About 69% incurred some pre-treatment costs at an average of $39.74. Overall, patients experienced a median of 6 days (3–11 IQR) of time to treatment initiation and 21 days (10–30 IQR) of health systems delay. Age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 1.73; CI: 1.22–2.44), diabetes (aOR: 1.63; CI: 1.08–2.44) and first visit to a private health facility (aOR: 17.2; CI: 11.1–26.4) were associated with higher direct OOP medical costs, while age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 0.64; CI: 0.48–0.85) and first visit to private health facility (aOR: 1.79, CI: 1.34–2.39) were associated with health systems delay. Conclusion The majority of rural TB patients registering at PHCs visited private health facilities first and incurred substantial direct OOP medical costs and delays prior to diagnosis and anti-tuberculosis treatment initiation. This study highlights the need for PHCs to be made as the preferred choice for first point of contact, to combat TB more efficiently. PMID

  18. Diagnostic pathways and direct medical costs incurred by new adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment - Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veesa, Karun Sandeep; John, Kamalabhai Russell; Moonan, Patrick K; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Manjunath, Krishna; Sagili, Karuna D; Ravichandra, Chinnappareddy; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan; George, Kuryan; Minz, Shantidani

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients face substantial delays prior to treatment initiation, and out of pocket (OOP) expenditures often surpass the economic productivity of the household. We evaluated the pre-diagnostic cost and health seeking behaviour of new adult pulmonary TB patients registered at Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. This descriptive study, part of a randomised controlled trial conducted in three rural Tuberculosis Units from Dec 2012 to Dec 2015, collected data on number of health facilities, dates of visits prior to the initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and direct OOP medical costs associated with TB diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis examined the factors associated with delays in treatment initiation and OOP expenditures. Of 880 TB patients interviewed, 34.7% presented to public health facilities and 65% patients sought private health facilities as their first point of care. The average monthly individual income was $77.79 (SD 57.14). About 69% incurred some pre-treatment costs at an average of $39.74. Overall, patients experienced a median of 6 days (3-11 IQR) of time to treatment initiation and 21 days (10-30 IQR) of health systems delay. Age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 1.73; CI: 1.22-2.44), diabetes (aOR: 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.44) and first visit to a private health facility (aOR: 17.2; CI: 11.1-26.4) were associated with higher direct OOP medical costs, while age ≤ 40 years (aOR: 0.64; CI: 0.48-0.85) and first visit to private health facility (aOR: 1.79, CI: 1.34-2.39) were associated with health systems delay. The majority of rural TB patients registering at PHCs visited private health facilities first and incurred substantial direct OOP medical costs and delays prior to diagnosis and anti-tuberculosis treatment initiation. This study highlights the need for PHCs to be made as the preferred choice for first point of contact, to combat TB more efficiently.

  19. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

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    2011-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945) defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215) and 20.4% (193) abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase) of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20) attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15) to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14) to feeling better and 10.8% (13) to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3), herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7), low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0), alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9), previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68), co-infection with Human immune-deficient Virus (HIV) (OR 1

  20. Outcome correlation of smear-positivity but culture-negativity during standard anti-tuberculosis treatment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yu, Ming-Chih; Yang, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chou-Jui; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Huang, Ruay-Ming; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Chien, Shun-Tien; Chien, Jung-Yien

    2015-02-18

    The appearance of smear-positivity but culture-negativity (SPCN) for acid-fast bacilli among sputum specimen is frequently found in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients during treatment. This study aimed to investigate clinical risk factors, impacts on treatment course, and relapse pattern associated with sputum SPCN. We retrospectively enrolled 800 patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB who were receiving standard treatment and follow-up at six TB-referral hospitals in Taiwan between January 2006 and December 2007. Relevant patient characteristics and chemotherapy data were analyzed for associations with incidence of SPCN. Data from patients who relapsed within 3 years after completing treatment were analyzed for associations with SPCN during treatment. Of the 800 subjects, 111 (13.8%) had sputum SPCN during treatment. Three factors were found to predict the development of SPCN; namely, high initial acid-fast staining grading (OR, 3.407; 95% CI, 2.090-5.553), cavitation on chest-X ray films (OR, 2.217; 95% CI, 1.359-3.615), and smoking (OR, 1.609; 95% CI, 1.006-2.841). Patients with SPCN had longer treatment duration (rifampicin: 284 ± 91 vs. 235 ± 69 days, P <0.001; isoniazid: 289 ± 90 vs. 234 ± 69 days, P < 0.001) than those without SPCN. Finally, the rate of relapse within 3 years of completing treatment was similar for groups with/without SPCN (2.7%, 3/111 vs. 1.0%, 7/689, respectively; P = 0.15). In conclusion, severity of infection was a major risk factor for SPCN during treatment; however, the relapse rate within 3 years of completing treatment was not affected by the appearance of SPCN.

  1. The role of interferon gamma release assays in the monitoring of response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Junaid; Pillay, Manormoney; Jeena, Prakash

    2014-09-01

    Successful control of childhood TB requires early diagnosis, effective chemotherapy and a method of evaluating the response to therapy. Identification of suitable biomarkers that predict the response to anti-TB therapy may allow the duration of treatment to be shortened. The majority of biomarker studies in paediatric TB have focused on the role of T cell-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) in the diagnosis of either latent or active disease. Little has been published on the role of IGRAs in the monitoring response to therapy in children. We reviewed the available literature to ascertain the value of IGRAs in the monitoring of response to anti-TB therapy in children. We explored the results of the few studies that have investigated the role of IGRAs as markers of response to anti-TB treatment in children. We conclude that the role of IGRAs as surrogate markers appears promising. Robust clinical trials are, however, needed to entrench the value of IGRAs as surrogate biomarkers of response to anti-TB therapy in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Time of default in tuberculosis patients on directly observed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Geeta S

    2010-09-01

    Default remains an important challenge for the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, which has achieved improved cure rates. This study describes the pattern of time of default in patients on DOTS. Tuberculosis Unit in District Tuberculosis Centre, Yavatmal, India; Retrospective cohort study. This analysis was done among the cohort of patients of registered at the Tuberculosis Unit during the year 2004. The time of default was assessed from the tuberculosis register. The sputum smear conversion and treatment outcome were also assessed. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests. Overall, the default rate amongst the 716 patients registered at the Tuberculosis Unit was 10.33%. There was a significant difference in the default rate over time between the three DOTS categories (log rank statistic= 15.49, P=0.0004). Amongst the 331 smear-positive patients, the cumulative default rates at the end of intensive phase were 4% and 16%; while by end of treatment period, the default rates were 6% and 31% in category I and category II, respectively. A majority of the smear-positive patients in category II belonged to the group 'treatment after default' (56/95), and 30% of them defaulted during re-treatment. The sputum smear conversion rate at the end of intensive phase was 84%. Amongst 36 patients without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase, 55% had treatment failure. Patients defaulting in intensive phase of treatment and without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase should be retrieved on a priority basis. Default constitutes not only a major reason for patients needing re-treatment but also a risk for repeated default.

  3. The prevalence and factors associated for anti-tuberculosis treatment non-adherence among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in public health care facilities in South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Teshome Woimo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive statistics, bivariate and multiple logistic regression was carried out, while thematic framework analysis was applied for the qualitative data. Results The prevalence of non-adherence towards anti-Tb treatment was 24.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor knowledge towards tuberculosis and its treatment (AOR = 4.6, 95%CI: 1.4-15.6, cost of medication other than Tb (AOR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.7-13.4, having of health information at every visit (AOR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-8.4 and distance of DOTS center from individual home (AOR = 5.7, 95%CI: 1.9-16.8 showed statistically significant association with non-adherence towards anti- tuberculosis treatment. Qualitative study also revealed that distance, lack of awareness about importance of treatment completion and cost of transportation were the major barriers for adherence. Conclusions A quarter of Tb patients interrupted their treatment due to knowledge

  4. Default from Anti-Retroviral Treatment Programme in Sagamu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For those who were not met at home proxy interviewees such as a neighbour or a family member were asked if they were available. Of the 100 patients who had enrolled in the ART treatment programme during the study period, 36% of the study population defaulted treatment, 18% had died while 46% were alive and well.

  5. Treatment Default amongst Patients with Tuberculosis in Urban Morocco: Predicting and Explaining Default and Post-Default Sputum Smear and Drug Susceptibility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C.; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Objective Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Design Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals’ perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. Results 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one’s treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one’s diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. Conclusion The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings

  6. Treatment default amongst patients with tuberculosis in urban Morocco: predicting and explaining default and post-default sputum smear and drug susceptibility results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Imad; Sabouni, Radia; Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-01-01

    Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals' perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one's treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one's diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings.

  7. Treatment default amongst patients with tuberculosis in urban Morocco: predicting and explaining default and post-default sputum smear and drug susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Cherkaoui

    Full Text Available Public tuberculosis (TB clinics in urban Morocco.Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance.Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals' perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing.91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one's treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one's diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare.The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings.

  8. Availability, price and affordability of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Europe: a TBNET survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther, Gunar; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Lange, Christoph; Rupert, Stephan; van Leth, Frank; Andrejak, Claire; Pieridou-Bagatzouni, Despo; Anderson, Aase Bengard; Bojovic, Olivera; Bothamley, Graham; Bruchfeld, Judith; Codecasa, Luigi R.; Danilovits, Manfred; Davidaviciene, Edita; Dalemo, Paulina; Dimopoulos, Giorgos; Duarte, Raquel; Hafizi, Hasan; Horvath, Ildiko; Eyuboglu, Fusun; Ibraim, Elmira; Jankovic, Mateja; Kan, Boris; Kopecka, Emilia; Kruczak, Katarzyna; Kutsyna, Galyna; de lange, Wiel; Leimane, Vaira; Mack, Ulrich; Manzano, Juan Ruiz; Markova, Roumania; McDonald, Colm; McLaughlin, Anne-Marie; Mulliqi, Gjyle; Muylle, Inge; Pesut, Dragica; Polcova, Veronika; Rumetshofer, Rudolf; Rusu, Doina; Skrahina, Alena; Spiric, Nicolina; Solovic, Ivan; Svetina-Sorli, Petra; Vasakova, Martina; Vasankari, Tuula; Viiklepp, Piret; Wirz, Gil; Zakoska, Maja; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Data on availability and cost of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in relation to affordability at national level are scarce. We performed a cross-sectional study on availability and cost of anti-TB drugs at major TB-reference centres in 37 European countries. Costs of standardised treatment regimens

  9. Risk factors and mortality associated with default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; Appleton, Sasha C; Bayona, Jaime; Arteaga, Fernando; Palacios, Eda; Llaro, Karim; Shin, Sonya S; Becerra, Mercedes C; Murray, Megan B; Mitnick, Carole D

    2008-06-15

    Completing treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) may be more challenging than completing first-line TB therapy, especially in resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify risk factors for default from MDR TB therapy (defined as prolonged treatment interruption), (2) quantify mortality among patients who default from treatment, and (3) identify risk factors for death after default from treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify risk factors for default from MDR TB therapy and conducted home visits to assess mortality among patients who defaulted from such therapy. Sixty-seven (10.0%) of 671 patients defaulted from MDR TB therapy. The median time to treatment default was 438 days (interquartile range, 152-710 days), and 27 (40.3%) of the 67 patients who defaulted from treatment had culture-positive sputum at the time of default. Substance use (hazard ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.62; P = .001), substandard housing conditions (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-3.11; P = .03), later year of enrollment (hazard ratio, 1.62, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.41; P = .02), and health district (P = .02) predicted default from therapy in a multivariable analysis. Severe adverse events did not predict default from therapy. Forty-seven (70.1%) of 67 patients who defaulted from therapy were successfully traced; of these, 25 (53.2%) had died. Poor bacteriologic response, default, low education level, and diagnosis with a psychiatric disorder significantly predicted death after default in a multivariable analysis. The proportion of patients who defaulted from MDR TB treatment was relatively low. The large proportion of patients who had culture-positive sputum at the time of treatment default underscores the public health importance of minimizing treatment default. Prognosis for patients who defaulted from therapy was poor. Interventions aimed at preventing treatment default may

  10. Paradoxical response with increased tumor necrosis factor-α levels to anti-tuberculosis treatment in a patient with disseminated tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Watanabe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that tuberculosis (TB worsens after cessation of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors and starting anti-TB treatment. Little is known about the immunological pathogenesis of this paradoxical response (PR. We report the first case of a TB patient in whom PR occurred concurrently with elevation of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα levels. A 75-year-old woman, who had been treated with adalimumab for SAPHO syndrome, developed disseminated TB. Soon after administration of anti-TB treatment (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, and after discontinuation of adalimumab, a PR occurred. Serial testing of serum cytokine levels revealed a marked increase in TNFα, and a decline in interferon-γ levels. Despite intensive treatment with antibiotics, prednisolone, noradrenaline, and mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed and she died. Thus, overproduction of TNFα after cessation of TNFα inhibitors may partially account for the pathogenesis of a PR. This supports preventative or therapeutic reinitiation of TNFα inhibitors when PR occurs. Serial monitoring of circulating inflammatory cytokine levels could lead to earlier identification of a PR.

  11. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS CHEMOTHERAPY TOLERANCE IN THE LIGHT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific features of psychological state were studied in 295 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with satisfactory tolerance to anti-tuberculosis medications and 75 patients poorly tolerating the treatment.Before the treatment start the patients who later demonstrated adverse reactions to treatment were diagnosed with more intense neurotic and hypochondriac personal features, destructive reactions and higher level of emotional tension and frustration – all the above promote dysregulation of the host adaptation. The research demonstrated the need to consider psychological aspects when studying the tolerance to anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. 

  12. Evaluación del tratamiento antituberculoso en la zona norte del conurbano bonaerense Anti- tuberculosis treatment evaluation in Northern districts of Buenos Aires suburbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Chirico

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el impacto epidemiológico producido por la aplicación de la estrategia del tratamiento para tuberculosis (TB de corta duración y directamente observado (DOTS, y su correlación con el éxito en la Región Sanitaria V, durante el año 2003. Se evaluó la curación comparando dos grupos de estudio. Grupo 1: municipios con 65% o más de los casos con DOTS, y Grupo 2: con 64% o menos de los pacientes bajo esta estrategia o sin su aplicación. Se analizó la letalidad global y de pacientes HIV (+ en ambos grupos. En el grupo 1 el éxito del tratamiento fue 85.7%, con curación en las formas pulmonares confirmadas de 86.2% y abandono de 8.8%. En el grupo 2 la curación alcanzó el 67.6%, en pulmonares confirmados 68.1% y el abandono de 21.8%. La letalidad global fue 5.2%, en pacientes HIV (+ 22.3% y en los HIV (- 4.1%. La curación en TB/HIV en el grupo 1 fue 55.2%, con abandono de 6.9%; en el grupo 2 curó el 46.4% y abandonó el 19.7%. El 31.0% de pacientes HIV (+ fallecieron en el grupo 1 y 16.1% en el grupo 2. La implementación del DOTS, permitió alcanzar la meta de curar el 85% de los casos, probando ser una herramienta eficaz, capaz de garantizar la curación de la mayoría de los pacientes y reducir el riesgo de enfermar de la comunidad.The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic impact produced by Direct Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS application regarding to its success in the 5th Sanitary Region during the year 2 003. The cure was evaluated by a cohort study comparing two groups. Group 1: Districts in which DOTS were applied in 65% or more TB patients; group 2: Districts applying DOTS in 64% or less, or without its implementation. The global mortality was analyzed on HIV (- as well as on HIV (+ patients in both groups. In Municipalities where DOTS strategy was applied in >65% of notified cases, the treatment success was 85.7%; the cure rate of bacteriological confirmed

  13. Anti-tuberculosis lupane-type isoprenoids from Syzygium guineense Wild DC. (Myrtaceae stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Oladosu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived isoprenoids commonly called terpenoids, are not only useful as chemosytemic markers but are increasingly attracting attention in the development of newer drugs for the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculosis activity guided solvent fractionation and chromatographic separation of the chloroform extract of S. guineense stem bark resulted in the isolation of two bioactive 3-β-hydroxylupane-type isoprenoids: betulinic acid methylenediol ester (1 (MIC; 0.15 mg/mL and betulinic acid (2 (MIC; 0.60 mg/mL. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. The antituberculosis assay was done using the Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT method. This is the first report of the isolation of the anti-tuberculosis constituents of S. guineense and its potentials for the development of drug leads for the treatment of tuberculosis thus validating its ethno-medicinal uses.

  14. Risk Factors for DOTS Treatment Default Among New HIV-TB Coinfected Patients in Nalgonda (Dist.) Telangana (State): A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Satti, Siva Balaji; Kondagunta, Nagaraj

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic regimens as recommended by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis, but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. The study was conducted to assess the influence of patient related factors for DOTS Treatment Default among HIV-TB Co-infected cases. This was a case control study conducted in Nalgond, Telangana. All new HIV-TB coinfected and DOTS-defaulted patients registered under RNTCP for the period from January 2010 to December 2012 were selected. Of the 154 patients, 23 had died and 11 could not be traced, and these were excluded. Thus the total number of available cases were 120 for those age- and sex-matched controls (HIV-TB coinfected patients and those who had completed the DOTS regimen successfully) were selected. The mean age was 36.5 ± 9 years; the majority (23.3%) of patients defaulted during the second month of treatment. Significant risk factors associated with defaulting included unskilled occupation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-11.56], lower middle class socioeconomic status (AOR: 17.16; 95% CI: 3.93-74.82), small family size (AOR: 21.3; 95% CI: 6.4-70.91), marital disharmony (AOR: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.93-23.76), not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel (AOR: 7.38; 95% CI: 2.32-23.39), smoking (AOR: 8.5; 95% CI: 2.31-31.21), and side effects of drugs (AOR: 4.18; 95% CI: 1.35-12.9). Unskilled occupation, marital disharmony, small family size, lower middle class socioeconomic status, not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel, smoking, and drug side effects were significantly associated with defaulting. Information on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB), the outcome of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT), and the factors associated with it will help in planning interventions to improve adherence to DOTS treatment.

  15. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case-control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078-265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658-415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249-22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default.

  16. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case–Control Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case–control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078–265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658–415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249–22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default. PMID:26839480

  17. WHO Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy: Epidemiology of Default in Treatment in Agra District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Girdhar, Anita; Chakma, Joy Kumar; Girdhar, Bhuwneswar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To study the magnitude of default, time of default, its causes, and final clinical outcome. Methods. Data collected in active surveys in Agra is analyzed. Patients were given treatment after medical confirmation and were followed up. The treatment default and other clinical outcomes were recorded. Results. Patients who defaulted have comparable demographic characteristics. However, among defaulters more women (62.7% in PB, 42.6% in MB) were seen than those in treatment completers (PB 52.7% and MB 35.9%). Nerve involvement was high in treatment completers: 45.7% in PB and 91.3% in MB leprosy. Overall default rate was lower (14.8%) in ROM than (28.8%) in standard MDT for PB leprosy (χ 1 2 = 11.6, P = 0.001) and also for MB leprosy: 9.1% in ROM compared to 34.5% in MDT (χ 1 2 = 6.0, P = 0.015). Default rate was not different (28.8% versus 34.5%, P > 0.05) in both types of leprosy given MDT. Most patients defaulted at early stage of treatment and mainly due to manageable side effects. Conclusion. The default in standard MDT both for PB and MB leprosy was observed to be significantly higher than in ROM treatment. Most defaults occurred at early stage of treatment and major contribution of default is due to side effects like drowsiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth, related to poor general health. Although about half of the defaulters were observed to be cured 2.2% in PB-MDT and 10.9% of MB-MDT developed disability. This is an issue due to default. Attempts are needed to increase treatment compliance. The use of specially designed disease related health education along with easily administered drug regimens may help to reduce default. PMID:25705679

  18. The fourth national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Sy, D N; Hennig, C M; Dean, A S

    2015-06-01

    Viet Nam's Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey was conducted in 2011. To determine the prevalence of resistance to the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in Viet Nam. Eighty clusters were selected using a probability proportion to size approach. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs was performed. A total of 1629 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients were eligible for culture. Of these, DST results were available for 1312 patients, including 1105 new TB cases, 195 previously treated TB cases and 12 cases with an unknown treatment history. The proportion of cases with resistance to any drug was 32.7% (95%CI 29.1-36.5) among new cases and 54.2% (95%CI 44.3-63.7) among previously treated cases. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases was 4.0% (95%CI 2.5-5.4) in new cases and 23.3 (95%CI 16.7-29.9) in previously treated cases. The fourth drug resistance survey in Viet Nam found that the proportion of MDR-TB among new and previously treated cases was not significantly different from that in the 2005 survey. The National TB Programme should prioritise the detection and treatment of MDR-TB to reduce transmission of MDR-TB in the community.

  19. National anti-tuberculosis drug resistance study in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, T. M.; Basra, D.; Mfinanga, S. G. M.; Range, N.; Lwilla, F.; Shirima, R. P.; van Deun, A.; Zignol, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Egwaga, S. M.; van Leth, F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a national representative sample of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Tanzania according to recommended methodology. DESIGN: Cluster survey, with 40 clusters sampled proportional to size, of notified TB patients from all

  20. The role of the time-kill kinetics assay as part of a preclinical modeling framework for assessing the activity of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Hannelore I; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; de Vogel, Corné P; van der Meijden, Aart; Verbon, Annelies; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2017-07-01

    Novel treatment strategies for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Many different preclinical models assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity are available, but it is yet unclear which combination of models is most predictive of clinical treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of our in vitro time kill-kinetics assay as an asset to a predictive preclinical modeling framework assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity. The concentration- and time-dependent mycobacterial killing capacities of six anti-tuberculosis drugs were determined during exposure as single drugs or in dual, triple and quadruple combinations towards a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and drug resistance was assessed. Streptomycin, rifampicin and isoniazid were most active against fast-growing M. tuberculosis. Isoniazid with rifampicin or high dose ethambutol were the only synergistic drug combinations. The addition of rifampicin or streptomycin to isoniazid prevented isoniazid resistance. In vitro ranking showed agreement with early bactericidal activity in tuberculosis patients for some but not all anti-tuberculosis drugs. The time-kill kinetics assay provides important information on the mycobacterial killing dynamics of anti-tuberculosis drugs during the early phase of drug exposure. As such, this assay is a valuable component of the preclinical modeling framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kelly E; Lahlou, Ouafae; Ghali, Iraqi; Knudsen, Janine; Elmessaoudi, My Driss; Cherkaoui, Imad; El Aouad, Rajae

    2011-02-28

    Patients with tuberculosis require retreatment if they fail or default from initial treatment or if they relapse following initial treatment success. Outcomes among patients receiving a standard World Health Organization Category II retreatment regimen are suboptimal, resulting in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, and transmission.. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for initial treatment failure, default, or early relapse leading to the need for tuberculosis retreatment in Morocco. We also assessed retreatment outcomes and drug susceptibility testing use for retreatment patients in urban centers in Morocco, where tuberculosis incidence is stubbornly high. Patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting for retreatment were identified using clinic registries in nine urban public clinics in Morocco. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from clinical charts and reference laboratories. To identify factors that had put these individuals at risk for failure, default, or early relapse in the first place, initial treatment records were also abstracted (if retreatment began within two years of initial treatment), and patient characteristics were compared with controls who successfully completed initial treatment without early relapse. 291 patients presenting for retreatment were included; 93% received a standard Category II regimen. Retreatment was successful in 74% of relapse patients, 48% of failure patients, and 41% of default patients. 25% of retreatment patients defaulted, higher than previous estimates. Retreatment failure was most common among patients who had failed initial treatment (24%), and default from retreatment was most frequent among patients with initial treatment default (57%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in only 10% of retreatment patients. Independent risk factors for failure, default, or early relapse after initial treatment included male gender (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI 1

  2. Qualitative study of perceived causes of tuberculosis treatment default among health care workers in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizub, D; Ghali, I; Sabouni, R; Bourkadi, J E; Bennani, K; El Aouad, R; Dooley, K E

    2012-09-01

    In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) treatment default is increasing in some urban areas. To provide a detailed description of factors that contribute to patient default and solutions from the point of view of health care professionals who participate in TB care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 62 physicians and nurses at nine regional public pulmonary clinics and local health clinics. Participants had a median of 24 years of experience in health care. Treatment default was seen as a result of multilevel factors related to the patient (lack of means, being a migrant worker, distance to treatment site, poor understanding of treatment, drug use, mental illness), medical team (high patient load, low motivation, lack of resources for tracking defaulters), treatment organization (poor communication between treatment sites, no systematic strategy for patient education or tracking, incomplete record keeping), and health care system and society. Tailored recommendations for low- and higher-cost interventions are provided. Interventions to enhance TB treatment completion should take into account the local context and multilevel factors that contribute to default. Qualitative studies involving health care workers directly involved in TB care can be powerful tools to identify contributing factors and define strategies to help reduce treatment default.

  3. Patients with secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis towards the induced anti-tuberculosis drug category 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdhana, Raditya; Sutrisno, Sutrisno; Sugiri, Yani Jane; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Wiyasa, Arsana

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which can affect various organs, including human's genital organs such as the endometrium. Tuberculosis endometritis can cause clinical symptoms of secondary amenorrhea and infertility. Infertility in genital TB caused by the involvement of the endometrium. The case presentation is 33-year-old woman from dr. Saiful Anwar Public Hospital to consult that she has not menstruated since 5 years ago (28 years old). The diagnosis was done by performing a clinical examination until the diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis is obtained. A treatment by using category I of anti-tuberculosis drugs was done for 6 months, afterward an Anatomical Pathology observation found no signs of the tuberculosis symptoms. Based on that, patient, who was diagnosed to have secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis, has no signs of tuberculosis process after being treated by using category I of anti-tuberculosis drugs for 6 months.

  4. Risk factors of treatment default and death among tuberculosis patients in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobu, Isaac; Oshi, Sarah N; Oshi, Daniel C; Ukwaja, Kingsley N

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the rates, timing and determinants of default and death among adult tuberculosis patients in Nigeria. Routine surveillance data were used. A retrospective cohort study of adult tuberculosis patients treated during 2011 and 2012 in two large health facilities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was conducted. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors for treatment default and death. Of 1 668 treated patients, the default rate was 157 (9.4%), whilst 165 (9.9%) died. Also, 35.7% (56) of the treatment defaults and 151 (91.5%) of deaths occurred during the intensive phase of treatment. Risk of default increased with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), smear-negative TB case (aOR 2.3; CI 1.5-3.6), extrapulmonary TB case (aOR 2.7; CI 1.3-5.2), and patients who received the longer treatment regimen (aOR 1.6; 1.1-2.2). Risk of death was highest in extrapulmonary TB (aOR 3.0; CI 1.4-6.1) and smear-negative TB cases (aOR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.5), rural residents (aOR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.6), HIV co-infected (aOR 2.5; CI 1.7-3.6), not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aOR 1.6; CI 1.1-2.9), and not receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (aOR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.6). Targeted interventions to improve treatment adherence for patients with the highest risk of default or death are urgently needed. This needs to be urgently addressed by the National Tuberculosis Programme. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug addiction and alcoholism as predictors for tuberculosis treatment default in Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M R; Pereira, J C; Costa, R R; Dias, J A; Guimarães, M D C; Leite, I C G

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients' entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04-49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34-24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11-15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group). Consumers at high risk of alcoholism (OR 2·94, 95% CI 1·08-7·99) and those treated in an outpatient hospital unit (OR 8·22, 95% CI 2·79-24·21%) also were more likely to default. Our results establish that substance abuse was independently associated with default. National TB programmes might be more likely to achieve their control targets if they include interventions aimed at improving adherence and cure rates, by diagnosing and treating substance abuse concurrently with standard TB therapy.

  6. Sale of anti-tuberculosis drugs through private pharmacies: a cross sectional study in Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoo Divakaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Private health care providers are largely the first point of contact for Tuberculosis (TB patients, who either undergo treatment from private practitioners or buy medicines on their own from private pharmacies. Aims: This study assessed the availability, sale and magnitude of anti-tuberculosis drugs dispensing through private pharmacies.

    Methodology: The present cross sectional study was conducted among private pharmacies located along the national highway from Thalassery to Payyannur in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. A total of 38 private pharmacies located along the national highway were included.

    Results: The duration that anti–TB drugs had been on sale showed that 74.3% of pharmacies had started to sell these drugs only less than ten years ago. The majority (82.9% of the private pharmacies received up to 5 prescriptions for anti-TB drugs weekly. Out of the total of 35 pharmacies selling these drugs, 22 (62.9% reported an increase in their sales. Nearly 82% of those pharmacies that reported an increase in the sale of anti-TB drugs were selling these drugs for less than the past ten years.

    Conclusions: The current study shows that a large number of tuberculosis patients are still approaching private pharmacies for anti-tuberculosis drugs. This tendency has to be completely stopped and needs properly planned strategies to encourage private pharmacies to participate actively in the DOTS (Direct Observation Treatment Short course program of the Government, by providing them attractive alternative incentives

  7. Risk factors associated with default from multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, Uzbekistan: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Maeve K; Greig, Jane; Allamuratova, Sholpan; Althomsons, Sandy; Tigay, Zinaida; Khaemraev, Atadjan; Braker, Kai; Telnov, Oleksander; du Cros, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The Médecins Sans Frontières project of Uzbekistan has provided multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in the Karakalpakstan region since 2003. Rates of default from treatment have been high, despite psychosocial support, increasing particularly since programme scale-up in 2007. We aimed to determine factors associated with default in multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients who started treatment between 2003 and 2008 and thus had finished approximately 2 years of treatment by the end of 2010. A retrospective cohort analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled in treatment between 2003 and 2008 compared baseline demographic characteristics and possible risk factors for default. Default was defined as missing ≥60 consecutive days of treatment (all drugs). Data were routinely collected during treatment and entered in a database. Potential risk factors for default were assessed in univariate analysis using chi-square test and in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. 20% (142/710) of patients defaulted after a median of 6 months treatment (IQR 2.6-9.9). Factors associated with default included severity of resistance patterns (pre-extensively drug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.86), previous default (2.38, 1.09-5.24) and age >45 years (1.77, 1.10-2.87). The default rate was 14% (42/294) for patients enrolled 2003-2006 and 24% (100/416) for 2007-2008 enrolments (p = 0.001). Default from treatment was high and increased with programme scale-up. It is essential to ensure scale-up of treatment is accompanied with scale-up of staff and patient support. A successful first course of tuberculosis treatment is important; patients who had previously defaulted were at increased risk of default and death. The protective effect of severe resistance profiles suggests that understanding disease severity or fear may motivate against default. Targeted

  8. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Natasha; Ansari, Zara; Hussain, Hamidah; Jaswal, Maria; Symes, Stephen; Khan, Aamir J; Mohammed, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy. In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013. Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2%) defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71), being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08), or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88) were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03) or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77) were associated with default. In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to reduce

  9. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chida

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy.In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013.Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2% defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71, being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08, or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88 were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03 or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77 were associated with default.In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to

  10. Classifying new anti-tuberculosis drugs: rationale and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tiberi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs is important as it helps the clinician to build an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases that do not fulfil the criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines, the choice of drugs was based on efficacy and toxicity in a step-down manner, from group 1 first-line drugs and groups 2–5 second-line drugs, to group 5 drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence. In the revised WHO classification, exclusively aimed at managing drug-resistant cases, medicines are again listed in hierarchical order from group A to group D. In parallel, a possible future classification is independently proposed. The aim of this viewpoint article is to describe the evolution in WHO TB classification (taking into account an independently proposed new classification and recent changes in WHO guidance, while commenting on the differences between them. The latest evidence on the ex-group 5 drugs is also discussed.

  11. Evidence-Based Design of Fixed-Dose Combinations: Principles and Application to Pediatric Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elin M; Yngman, Gunnar; Denti, Paolo; McIlleron, Helen; Kjellsson, Maria C; Karlsson, Mats O

    2018-05-01

    Fixed-dose combination formulations where several drugs are included in one tablet are important for the implementation of many long-term multidrug therapies. The selection of optimal dose ratios and tablet content of a fixed-dose combination and the design of individualized dosing regimens is a complex task, requiring multiple simultaneous considerations. In this work, a methodology for the rational design of a fixed-dose combination was developed and applied to the case of a three-drug pediatric anti-tuberculosis formulation individualized on body weight. The optimization methodology synthesizes information about the intended use population, the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs, therapeutic targets, and practical constraints. A utility function is included to penalize deviations from the targets; a sequential estimation procedure was developed for stable estimation of break-points for individualized dosing. The suggested optimized pediatric anti-tuberculosis fixed-dose combination was compared with the recently launched World Health Organization-endorsed formulation. The optimized fixed-dose combination included 15, 36, and 16% higher amounts of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide, respectively. The optimized fixed-dose combination is expected to result in overall less deviation from the therapeutic targets based on adult exposure and substantially fewer children with underexposure (below half the target). The development of this design tool can aid the implementation of evidence-based formulations, integrating available knowledge and practical considerations, to optimize drug exposures and thereby treatment outcomes.

  12. Targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs to macrophages: targeting mannose receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, L. Yu; Klyachko, N. L.; Kudryashova, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The development of systems for targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs is a challenge of modern biotechnology. Currently, these drugs are encapsulated in a variety of carriers such as liposomes, polymers, emulsions and so on. Despite successful in vitro testing of these systems, virtually no success was achieved in vivo, because of low accessibility of the foci of infection located in alveolar macrophage cells. A promising strategy for increasing the efficiency of therapeutic action of anti-tuberculosis drugs is to encapsulate the agents into mannosylated carriers targeting the mannose receptors of alveolar macrophages. The review addresses the methods for modification of drug substance carriers, such as liposomes and biodegradable polymers, with mannose residues. The use of mannosylated carriers to deliver anti-tuberculosis agents increases the drug circulation time in the blood stream and increases the drug concentration in alveolar macrophage cells. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  13. Interaction of acupuncture treatment and manipulation laterality modulated by the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xuan; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Sun, Chuanzhu; Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiaocui; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Hongyan; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject). We observed subjective pain intensity and brain activations changes induced by capsaicin allodynia pain stimuli before and after electroacupuncture treatment at acupoint LI4 for 30 min. Analysis of variance results indicated that ipsilateral electroacupuncture treatment produced significant pain relief and wide brain signal suppressions in pain-related brain areas compared with contralateral electroacupuncture. We also found that verum electroacupuncture at either ipsi- or contralateral side to the pain site exhibited comparable significant magnitudes of analgesic effect. By contrast, placebo electroacupuncture elicited significant pain reductions only on the ipsilateral rather than contralateral side. It was inferred that placebo analgesia maybe attenuated on the region of the body (opposite to pain site) where attention was less focused, suggesting that analgesic effect of placebo electroacupuncture mainly rely on the motivation of its spatial-specific placebo responses via attention mechanism. This inference can be further supported by the evidence that the significant interaction effect of manipulation laterality and treatment was exclusively located within the default mode network, including the bilateral superior parietal

  14. Default probabilities and default correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Erlenmaier, Ulrich; Gersbach, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the Merton framework for firm defaults, we provide the analytics and robustness of the relationship between default correlations. We show that loans with higher default probabilities will not only have higher variances but also higher correlations between loans. As a consequence, portfolio standard deviation can increase substantially when loan default probabilities rise. This result has two important implications. First, relative prices of loans with different default probabili...

  15. Biosynthesis of ilamycins featuring unusual building blocks and engineered production of enhanced anti-tuberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Huang, Hongbo; Xie, Yunchang; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Chunyan; Jia, Yanxi; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Tianyu; Ju, Jianhua

    2017-08-30

    Tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-tuberculosis agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus. Here, we show the isolation of six anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners (1-6) bearing rare L-3-nitro-tyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid structural units from the deep sea-derived Streptomyces atratus SCSIO ZH16. The biosynthesis of the rare L-3-nitrotyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid units as well as three pre-tailoring and two post-tailoring steps are probed in the ilamycin biosynthetic machinery through a series of gene inactivation, precursor chemical complementation, isotope-labeled precursor feeding experiments, as well as structural elucidation of three intermediates (6-8) from the respective mutants. Most impressively, ilamycins E 1 /E 2 , which are produced in high titers by a genetically engineered mutant strain, show very potent anti-tuberculosis activity with an minimum inhibitory concentration value ≈9.8 nM to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv constituting extremely potent and exciting anti-tuberculosis drug leads.Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-TB agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of TB/HIV. Here, the authors show that anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners bearing unusual structural units possess extremely potent anti-tuberculosis activities.

  16. Successful drug desensitization in patients with delayed-type allergic reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaecho Siripassorn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of anti-tuberculosis drug desensitization. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >18 years, documented tuberculosis infection, a previous cutaneous allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs, and having undergone drug desensitization between January 2003 and March 2014. The definition of allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs included (1 a temporal relationship between drug use and the allergic reaction; (2 improvement in the allergic reaction after drug withdrawal; (3 recurrence of the allergic reaction after reintroduction of only the offending drug; and (4 absence of other causes. Results: A total of 19 desensitization procedures were performed. The drugs used for these procedures were isoniazid (n = 7, rifampicin (n = 6, or ethambutol (n = 6. Of note, severe allergic reactions (Stevens–Johnson syndrome (n = 4, erythema multiforme (n = 3, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (n = 1 were included. All patients underwent resolution of the previous allergic reactions before desensitization. The median duration of desensitization was 18 days. The success rate was 78.9%. The allergic reactions following failed desensitization were not severe; most were maculopapular rashes. Conclusions: The desensitization protocol for anti-tuberculosis drugs was associated with a high success rate, and the individuals who failed desensitization experienced mild allergic reactions. Keywords: Desensitization, Antituberculosis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, Allergic drug reaction, Tolerance induction, Drug allergy

  17. Treatment with olanzapine is associated with modulation of the default mode network in patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Gelao, Barbara; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Popolizio, Teresa; Nardini, Marcello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Earlier studies have shown widespread alterations of functional connectivity of various brain networks in schizophrenia, including the default mode network (DMN). The DMN has also an important role in the performance of cognitive tasks. Furthermore, treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs may ameliorate to some degree working memory (WM) deficits and related brain activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with olanzapine monotherapy on functional connectivity among brain regions of the DMN during WM. Seventeen patients underwent an 8-week prospective study and completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment during the performance of the N-back WM task. To control for potential repetition effects, 19 healthy controls also underwent two fMRI scans at a similar time interval. We used spatial group-independent component analysis (ICA) to analyze fMRI data. Relative to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced connectivity strength within the DMN in posterior cingulate, whereas it was greater in precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. Treatment with olanzapine was associated with increases in DMN connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but not in posterior regions of DMN. These results suggest that treatment with olanzapine is associated with the modulation of DMN connectivity in schizophrenia. In addition, our findings suggest critical functional differences in the regions of DMN.

  18. Evaluation of outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) for treatment of severe acute malnutrition in Yemen: a focus on treatment default and its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amad, Mohammed; Al-Eryani, Lina; Al Serouri, Abdulwahed; Khader, Yousef S

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to measure the treatment default rate among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) who were admitted to the outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) in Yemen and determine its risk factors. A prospective study was conducted among children with SAM who were newly admitted to the 11 OTPs in primary health centres of Sana'a city. A pretested semistructured questionnaire was used for data collection at admission and at after 2 months of admission to the OTP. Univariate and multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression were used to analyse the risk factors of treatment default. This study included 339 SAM children. Of those, 186 (55%) children discharged as defaulters, 141 (42%) were cured, and 12 (3%) were transferred to other treatment sites. Many factors related to poor accessibility, poor satisfaction with staff and system, and treatment and acceptability of OTP services factors were significantly associated with treatment default. Having difficulty to attend OTP every week (OR 8.4), unavailability of medication during follow-up visits (OR 5.0), not liking to eat Plumpy'Nut (OR 5.8), and not gaining weight since the start of treatment (OR 9.3) were the strongest predictors of treatment default. This study showed a high default rate among SAM children in Sana'a city. Factors related to poor accessibility, poor satisfaction with staff and system, and factors related to treatment and acceptability of OTP services were significantly associated with high default rate. Expansion of OTP services and training OTPs staff on SAM treatment protocols are highly recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Supplementary Material for: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody; Coll, Francesc; McNerney, Ruth; Ascher, David; Pires, Douglas; Furnham, Nick; Coeck, Nele; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Nair, Mridul; Mallard, Kim; Ramsay, Andrew; Campino, Susana; Hibberd, Martin; Pain, Arnab; Rigouts, Leen; Clark, Taane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure

  20. Substantially Higher and Earlier Occurrence of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Related Adverse Reactions in HIV Coinfected Tuberculosis Patients: A Matched-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, Takashi; Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Morino, Eriko; Takasaki, Jin; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-11-01

    Little information exists on the frequency, severity, and timing of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug-related adverse events (TB-AEs) in HIV-tuberculosis coinfected (HIV-TB) patients in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. This matched-cohort study included HIV-TB patients as cases and HIV-uninfected tuberculosis (non-HIV-TB) patients as controls. Tuberculosis was culture-confirmed in both groups. Cases were matched to controls in a 1:4 ratio on age, sex, and year of diagnosis. TB-AEs were defined as Grade 2 or higher requiring drug discontinuation/regimen change. From 2003 to 2015, 94 cases and 376 controls were analyzed (95% men, 98% Asians). Standard four-drug combination therapy was initiated in 91% of cases and 89% of controls (p = 0.45). Cases had a higher frequency of TB-AE [51% (48/94) vs. 10% (39/376), p tuberculosis treatment. HIV infection was an independent risk factor for TB-AEs in the multivariate Cox analysis [adjusted HR (aHR): 6.96; 95% confidence interval: 3.93-12.3]. TB-AEs occurred more frequently in HIV-TB than in non-HIV-TB patients, and were more severe. The majority of TB-AEs occurred within 4 weeks of initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment. Because TB-AEs may delay ART initiation, careful monitoring during this period is warranted in coinfected patients.

  1. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. OBJECTIVES: To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. METHODS......: A representative sample of 30 treatment units was randomly selected. All patient treatment cards enrolled in these units were obtained, and data were double-entered and validated before calculating the adequacy of the individual drug prescriptions. RESULTS: Of 3412 tuberculosis treatment cards, 3225 (94.5%) had...

  2. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-03-21

    National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. A representative sample of 30 treatment units was randomly selected. All patient treatment cards enrolled in these units were obtained, and data were double-entered and validated before calculating the adequacy of the individual drug prescriptions. Of 3412 tuberculosis treatment cards, 3225 (94.5%) had information on treatment regimen and the patient's weight. Treatment was successful in 89.4%. Prescriptions of tablets/vials conforming to recommendations were found for respectively 91.2%, 89.9%, 92.3% and 94.6% of the patients for RMP/isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin. Patients in the 25-39 kg weight bracket received insufficient dosages. This was almost entirely attributable to patients at the end of the weight bracket. Nevertheless, no significant association was found between treatment failure and death, body weight and insufficient RMP dosage. Adherence to national recommendations was high. RMP was given in insufficient dosage for patients at the end of a weight range bracket, but the under-dosage was small and did not measurably affect treatment outcome.

  3. Patient- and provider-level risk factors associated with default from tuberculosis treatment, South Africa, 2002: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Alyssa; Lancaster, Joey; Holtz, Timothy H; Weyer, Karin; Miranda, Abe; van der Walt, Martie

    2012-01-20

    Persons who default from tuberculosis treatment are at risk for clinical deterioration and complications including worsening drug resistance and death. Our objective was to identify risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in South Africa. We conducted a national retrospective case control study to identify factors associated with treatment default using program data from 2002 and a standardized patient questionnaire. We defined default as interrupting TB treatment for two or more consecutive months during treatment. Cases were a sample of registered TB patients receiving treatment under DOTS that defaulted from treatment. Controls were those who began therapy and were cured, completed or failed treatment. Two respective multivariable models were constructed, stratified by history of TB treatment (new and re-treatment patients), to identify independent risk factors associated with default. The sample included 3165 TB patients from 8 provinces; 1164 were traceable and interviewed (232 cases and 932 controls). Significant risk factors associated with default among both groups included poor health care worker attitude (new: AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.4; re-treatment: AOR 12, 95% CI 2.2-66.0) and changing residence during TB treatment (new: AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7; re-treatment: AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-9.9). Among new patients, cases were more likely than controls to report having no formal education (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2), feeling ashamed to have TB (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0), not receiving adequate counseling about their treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8), drinking any alcohol during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0), and seeing a traditional healer during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4). Among re-treatment patients, risk factors included stopping TB treatment because they felt better (AOR 21, 95% CI 5.2-84), having a previous history of TB treatment default (AOR 6.4, 95% CI 2.9-14), and feeling that food provisions might have helped

  4. The Effects of First-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs on the Actions of Vitamin D in Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesdachai, Supavit; Zughaier, Susu M; Hao, Li; Kempker, Russell R; Blumberg, Henry M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Patients with TB have a high rate of vitamin D deficiency, both at diagnosis and during the course of treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Although data on the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) clearance is uncertain from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), vitamin D enhances the expression of the anti-microbial peptide human cathelicidin (hCAP18) in cultured macrophages in vitro. One possible explanation for the mixed (primarily negative) results of RCTs examining vitamin D treatment in TB infection is that anti-TB drugs given to enrolled subjects may impact actions of vitamin D to enhance cathelicidin in macrophages. To address this hypothesis, human macrophage-like monocytic (THP-1) cells were treated with varying doses of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in the presence of the active form of vitamin D, 1N1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ). The expression of hCAP18 was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 strongly induced expression of hCAP18 mRNA in THP-1 cells (fold-change from control). The combination of the standard 4-drug TB therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) in the cultured THP-1 cells demonstrated a significant decrease of hCAP18 mRNA at the dosage of 10 ug/mL. In 31 subjects with newly diagnosed drug-sensitive TB randomized to either high-dose vitamin D 3 (1.2 million IU over 8 weeks, n=13) versus placebo (n=18), there was no change from baseline to week 8 in hCAP18 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in plasma concentrations of LL-37, the protein product of hCAP18.These data suggest that first-line anti-TB drugs may alter the vitamin D-dependent increase in hCAP18 and LL-37 human macrophages.

  5. Risk factors for default from tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected individuals in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruza, Magda; Albuquerque, Maria F P Militão; Coimbra, Isabella; Moura, Líbia V; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Miranda Filho, Demócrito B; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Rodrigues, Laura C; Ximenes, Ricardo A A

    2011-12-16

    Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study to identify risk factors for default from TB treatment in people living with HIV. We conducted a cohort study to monitor HIV/TB co-infected subjects in Pernambuco, Brazil, on a monthly basis, until completion or default of treatment for TB. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and P-values. From a cohort of 2310 HIV subjects, 390 individuals (16.9%) who had started treatment after a diagnosis of TB were selected, and data on 273 individuals who completed or defaulted on treatment for TB were analyzed. The default rate was 21.7% and the following risk factors were identified: male gender, smoking and CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. Age over 29 years, complete or incomplete secondary or university education and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were identified as protective factors for the outcome. The results point to the need for more specific actions, aiming to reduce the default from TB treatment in males, younger adults with low education, smokers and people with CD4 T-cell counts Default was less likely to occur in patients under HAART, reinforcing the strategy of early initiation of HAART in individuals with TB.

  6. Risk factors for unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome (failure, default and death) in public health institutions, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amante, Tariku Dingeta; Ahemed, Tekabe Abdosh

    2015-01-01

    Unsuccessful TB treatment outcome is a serious public health concern. It is compelling to identify, and deal with factors determining unsuccessful treatment outcome. Therefore, study was aimed to determine pattern of unsuccessful TB treatment outcome and associated factors in eastern Ethiopia. A case control study was used. Cases were records of TB patients registered as defaulter, dead and/or treatment failure where as controls were those cured or treatment complete. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) at 95% CI to examine the relationship between the unsuccessful TB treatment outcome and patients' characteristics. A total of 990 sample size (330 cases and 660 controls) were included. Among cases (n = 330), majority 212(64.2%) were because of death, 100(30.3%) defaulters and 18(5.5%) were treatment failure. Lack of contact person(OR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.14-2.9, P, .024), sputum smear negative treatment category at initiation of treatment (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-5.5,P, .028), smear positive sputum test result at 2(nd) month after initiation treatment (OR = 14; 95% CI 5.5-36, P,0.001) and HIV positive status (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.34-5.7, P, 0.01) were independently associated with increased risk of unsuccessful TB treatment outcome. Death was the major cause of unsuccessful TB treatment outcome. TB patients do not have contact person, sputum smear negative treatment category at initiation of treatment, smear positive on 2(nd) month after treatment initiation and HIV positive were factors significantly associated unsuccessful treatment outcome. TB patients with sputum smear negative treatment category, HIV positive and smear positive on 2(nd) nd month of treatment initiation need strict follow up throughout DOTs period.

  7. New drugs and perspectives for new anti-tuberculosis regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tiberi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the ninth cause of global death, more than any other infectious disease. With growing drug resistance the epidemic remains and will require significant attention and investment for the elimination of this disease to occur. With susceptible TB treatment not changing over the last four decades and the advent of drug resistance, new drugs and regimens are required.Recently, through greater collaboration and research networks some progress with significant advances has taken place, not withstanding the comparatively low amount of resources invested. Of late the availability of the new drugs bedaquiline, delamanid and repurposed drugs linezolid, clofazimine and carbapenems are being used more frequently in drug-resistant TB regimens.The WHO shorter multidrug-resistant tuberculosis regimen promises to reach more patients and treat them more quickly and more cheaply.With this new enthusiasm and hope we this review gives an update on the new drugs and perspectives for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Keywords: Bedaquiline, Delamanid, Linezolid, MDR, XDR-TB, TB

  8. Alcohol, hospital discharge, and socioeconomic risk factors for default from multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment in rural South Africa: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Emily A; Theron, Danie; Franke, Molly F; van Helden, Paul; Victor, Thomas C; Murray, Megan B; Warren, Robin M; Jacobson, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    Default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment remains a major barrier to cure and epidemic control. We sought to identify patient risk factors for default from MDR-TB treatment and high-risk time periods for default in relation to hospitalization and transition to outpatient care. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 225 patients who initiated MDR-TB treatment between 2007 through 2010 at a rural TB hospital in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Fifty percent of patients were cured or completed treatment, 27% defaulted, 14% died, 4% failed treatment, and 5% transferred out. Recent alcohol use was common (63% of patients). In multivariable proportional hazards regression, older age (hazard ratio [HR]= 0.97 [95% confidence interval 0.94-0.99] per year of greater age), formal housing (HR=0.38 [0.19-0.78]), and steady employment (HR=0.41 [0.19-0.90]) were associated with decreased risk of default, while recent alcohol use (HR=2.1 [1.1-4.0]), recent drug use (HR=2.0 [1.0-3.6]), and Coloured (mixed ancestry) ethnicity (HR=2.3 [1.1-5.0]) were associated with increased risk of default (PDefaults occurred throughout the first 18 months of the two-year treatment course but were especially frequent among alcohol users after discharge from the initial four-to-five-month in-hospital phase of treatment, with the highest default rates occurring among alcohol users within two months of discharge. Default rates during the first two months after discharge were also elevated for patients who received care from mobile clinics. Among patients who were not cured or did not complete MDR-TB treatment, the majority defaulted from treatment. Younger, economically-unstable patients and alcohol and drug users were particularly at risk. For alcohol users as well as mobile-clinic patients, the early outpatient treatment phase is a high-risk period for default that could be targeted in efforts to increase treatment completion rates.

  9. PROPOSAL OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS REGIMENS BASED ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPICIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Moore, David AJ; Alarcón, Valentina; Samalvides, Frine; Seas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elaborate optimal anti-tuberculosis regimens following drug susceptibility testing (DST) to isoniazid (H) and rifampicin (R). Design 12 311 M. tuberculosis strains (National Health Institute of Peru 2007-2009) were classified in four groups according H and R resistance. In each group the sensitivity to ethambutol (E), pirazinamide (Z), streptomycin (S), kanamycin (Km), capreomycin (Cm), ciprofloxacin (Cfx), ethionamide (Eto), cicloserine (Cs) and p-amino salicilic acid (PAS) was determined. Based on resistance profiles, domestic costs, and following WHO guidelines, we elaborated and selected optimal putative regimens for each group. The potential efficacy (PE) variable was defined as the proportion of strains sensitive to at least three or four drugs for each regimen evaluated. Results Selected regimes with the lowest cost, and highest PE of containing 3 and 4 effective drugs for TB sensitive to H and R were: HRZ (99,5%) and HREZ (99,1%), respectively; RZECfx (PE=98,9%) and RZECfxKm (PE=97,7%) for TB resistant to H; HZECfx (96,8%) and HZECfxKm (95,4%) for TB resistant to R; and EZCfxKmEtoCs (82.9%) for MDR-TB. Conclusion Based on resistance to H and R it was possible to select anti-tuberculosis regimens with high probability of success. This proposal is a feasible alternative to tackle tuberculosis in Peru where the access to rapid DST to H and R is improving progressively. PMID:23949502

  10. Anti-tuberculosis medication-induced oculogyric crisis and the importance of proper history taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong LH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lin Ho Wong,1 Endean Tan2 1University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore Abstract: Oculogyric crisis (OGC, frequently caused by medications such as antiemetics, antidepressants, and anti-epileptics, is an acute dystonic reaction of the ocular muscles. It consists of wide-staring gaze (lasting variably from seconds to minutes, seizures, and a widely-opened mouth. To date, there have been no reports of anti-tuberculosis medications such as rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide or ethambutol inducing OGC. It is of utmost importance to recognize this adverse reaction, which could be incorrectly diagnosed as an anaphylactic-like reaction. In this paper, we highlight a case of a 66-year-old Indian man who presented with OGC induced by anti-tuberculosis medications which was initially suspected to be an anaphylactic reaction and was subsequently halted with the administration of diphenhydramine. Keywords: oculogyric crisis, tuberculosis, rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, adverse drug reaction 

  11. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  12. Why do Patients undergoing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment Turn Defaulters? A Follow up Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Jamnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amrita; Javia, Abhay; Pithadia, Pradeep; Parmar, Dipesh

    2017-07-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a progressive respiratory illness requiring long-term treatment, is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and economic burden on the family as well as the country. In the tertiary health care facility where the study was carried out, it was observed that many COPD patients did not come for regular follow up. In these patients, treatment interruption may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to find out the reasons for defaulting follow up and treatment in COPD patients. All patients of COPD, attending TB Chest outpatient department during the study period (September 2012 to February 2013), were classified into Group A, B, C, and D according to latest Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Data was collected on patient's sociodemographic profile, severity of disease and reasons for defaulting follow up and treatment using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, patient history and clinical examination. Data obtained were entered in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and analysed using Chi-square test. The mean age of the 200 patients recruited was 59.3 years. A total of 87% patients were male. Patients belonging to Group A, B, C and D were 11%, 25.5%, 41.5% and 22% respectively. Overall, 32% patients were defaulters. Three main reasons for default were non-affordability for treatment expenses (39.07%), resolution of symptoms (26.56%), and too ill to come (18.75%). The associations between default rate and demographic variables like age and gender were found statistically significant. Default rate among COPD patients is significantly associated with GOLD Group A and D, patient's income and patient literacy level. Main reasons for default were non-affordability of treatment expenses, too ill to come and resolution of symptoms.

  13. The susceptibility of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury and chronic hepatitis C infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-En; Huang, Yi-Shin; Chang, Chih-Hao; Perng, Chin-Lin; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Hou, Ming-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATDILI) is a major safety concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The impact of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection on the risk of ATDILI is still controversial. We aimed to assess the influence of CHC infection on ATDILI through a systematic review and meta-analysis. We systemically reviewed all English-language literature in the major medical databases with the subject search terms "anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury" and "anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity". We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the papers relevant to hepatitis C in qualified publications. A total of 14 studies were eligible for analysis, which included 516 cases with ATDILI and 4301 controls without ATDILI. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of all studies for CHC infection to ATDILI was 3.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30-4.49). Subgroup analysis revealed that the CHC carriers had a higher risk of ATDILI than those without CHC both in Asians (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.79-4.90) and Caucasians (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.70-6.14), in those receiving standard four combination anti-TB therapy (OR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.95-4.41) and isoniazid monotherapy (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 2.36-7.40), in those with a strict definition of DILI (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] > 5 upper limit of normal value [ULN], OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.58-4.25) and a loose definition of DILI (ALT > 2 or 3 ULN, OR = 4.34, 95% CI: 2.96-6.37), and in prospective studies (OR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.93-5.90) and case-control studies (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.29-4.58). This meta-analysis suggests that CHC infection may increase the risk of ATDILI. Regular liver tests are mandatory for CHC carriers under anti-TB therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  14. Fresh Air and Good Food: Children and the Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign in the Netherlands c.1900-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2010-01-01

    As elsewhere in the Western world, between 1900 and 1940 the anti-tuberculosis campaign in the Netherlands produced a wide range of initiatives to promote child health. In each of these the social and the medical were linked, as the hygienic "mood" was encouraged by a child-saving ethos that focused upon the poor. In this article the…

  15. Rapid determination of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance from whole-genome sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2015-05-27

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance (DR) challenges effective tuberculosis disease control. Current molecular tests examine limited numbers of mutations, and although whole genome sequencing approaches could fully characterise DR, data complexity has restricted their clinical application. A library (1,325 mutations) predictive of DR for 15 anti-tuberculosis drugs was compiled and validated for 11 of them using genomic-phenotypic data from 792 strains. A rapid online ‘TB-Profiler’ tool was developed to report DR and strain-type profiles directly from raw sequences. Using our DR mutation library, in silico diagnostic accuracy was superior to some commercial diagnostics and alternative databases. The library will facilitate sequence-based drug-susceptibility testing.

  16. [Tuberculosis in Amazonian municipalities of the Brazil-Colombia-Peru-Venezuela border: epidemiological situation and risk factors associated with treatment default].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Elsia Nascimento; Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall; Levino, Antônio; Basta, Paulo Cesar

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiological situation and the incidence of tuberculosis and to investigate the factors associated with treatment default in the Amazonian municipalities located in the northern Brazilian international border. This retrospective study employed sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological tuberculosis data recorded in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) between 2001 and 2010. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment default. Tuberculosis affected mostly indigenous peoples (51.9%), males (57.9%), and people aged 25-44 years (31.4%). The predominant clinical presentation was pulmonary (89.7%), yet in 24.5% of the cases the patients did not undergo sputum smear microscopy, and only half received supervised treatment. In 70.0% of the cases notified, patients were discharged as cured. Treatment default was recorded in 10.0% of the patients. Of all deaths, 4.1% were by tuberculosis and other causes, and 1.7% by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The average incidence by race/color was greater among indigenous peoples, ranging from 202.3/100 000 in 2001 to 65.6/100 000 in 2010. Treatment default was associated with failure to perform the follow-up smear at the second, fourth, and sixth months (OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 7.4-19.0); with resuming treatment after default (OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-5.9); and with living in specific subregions, particularly the Alto Solimões region (OR = 6.7, 95%CI: 4.6-9.8). The present results show a high incidence of tuberculosis in the Amazon portion of the northern Brazilian international border, especially among indigenous peoples. Considering the socio-cultural specificities of these populations and the poor tuberculosis control in this area, the authors of the study conclude that the integration of different national health systems is both necessary and urgent.

  17. Evaluation of patterns of liver toxicity in patients on antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs: a prospective four arm observational study in ethiopian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence, type, severity and predictors of antiretroviral and/or anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver injury (DILI. METHODS: A total of 1,060 treatment naive patients were prospectively enrolled into four treatment groups: HIV patients receiving efavirenz based HAART alone (Arm-1; TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4≤200 cells/μL, receiving concomitant rifampicin based anti-TB and efavirenz based HAART (Arm-2; TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4>200 cells/μL, receiving anti-TB alone (Arm-3; TB patients taking rifampicin based anti-TB alone (Arm-4. Liver enzyme levels were monitored at baseline, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks during treatment. CD4 and HIV viral load was measured at baseline, 24th and 48th weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards Model. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients (15% developed DILI with severity grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 of 53.5%, 32.7%, 11.3% and 2.5% respectively. The incidence of cholestatic, hepatocellular or mixed pattern was 61%, 15% and 24%, respectively. Incidence of DILI was highest in Arm-2 (24.2%>Arm-3 (10.8%>Arm-1 (8.8%>Arm-4 (2.9%. Concomitant anti-TB-HIV therapy increased the risk of DILI by 10-fold than anti-TB alone (p<0.0001. HIV co-infection increased the risk of anti-TB DILI by 4-fold (p = 0.004. HAART associated DILI was 3-fold higher than anti-TB alone, (p = 0.02. HAART was associated with cholestatic and grade 1 DILI whereas anti-TB therapy was associated with hepatocellular and grade ≥ 2. Treatment type, lower CD4, platelet, hemoglobin, higher serum AST and direct bilirubin levels at baseline were significant DILI predictors. There was no effect of DILI on immunologic recovery or virologic suppression rate of HAART. CONCLUSION: HAART associated DILI is mainly cholestatic and mild whereas hepatocellular or mixed pattern with high severity grade is more common in anti-tuberculosis DILI. TB-HIV co-infection, disease severity

  18. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfaume Saidi M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Methods Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Results Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Conclusion Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey.

  19. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonde, Timothy M; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G; Egwaga, Saidi M

    2008-12-30

    A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey.

  20. Evaluation of anti-tuberculosis antibodies in healthy contact and non-contacts persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N; Bukhari, M.H; Muneer, M; Tayyab, M; Chaudhry, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to see the presence of the antimycobacterial antibodies in healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients and healthy normal subjects who have never been in contact with tuberculosis patients. A total of 200 subjects, 120 with history of household contact and 80 without such history were included in the study. Routine Haematological investigations were performed and all the sera of 200 subjects were tested who 19M, 19G and IgA anti tuberculosis antibodies using ELISA technique. There was no difference in the average age of the household contacts and non-contacts. The complaints of pyrexia, night sweats and loss of weight was more in house hold contacts as compared to non-contacts. The awareness about BCG vaccination was equal among the household contacts and non-contacts. The combined serological positivity of the household contacts was 65.8% and the combined serological positivity for non-contacts was 34.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of 19M among household contacts as compared to non-contacts. However both IgG and 19A were present in significantly higher number of household contacts as compared to non contacts. This study concludes that the persons living in the house with a patient suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis (household contact) have more chances of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as compared to the healthy non-contacts. (author)

  1. Packaging BCG: standardizing an anti-tuberculosis vaccine in interwar Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonah, Christian

    2008-06-01

    Using the example of the anti-tuberculosis vaccine BCG during the 1920s and 1930s, this article asks how a labile laboratory-modified bacteria was transformed into a genuine standard vaccine packaged and commercialized as a pharmaceutical product. At the center of the analysis lies the notion of standardization inquiring why and how a local laboratory process with standard operating procedures (SOPs) reached its limits and was transformed when the product faced international distribution. Moving from Paul Ehrlich's initial technological notion of Wertbestimmung referring to a practice physiologically testing the effects of ill-defined antitoxins, the concept of standardization is extended to pharmaceutical and economical meanings implying quality control for biological therapeutic agents produced by a variety of industrial entrepreneurs. Following the request for product uniformity, two ways to maintain levels of compatibility and commonality are depicted opposing SOPs and end-product control. Furthermore, standardization is understood as a spiral, never ending process where progressive transformation of the vaccine in its production and medical uses periodically recreated the necessity of standardization. Developments analyzed are thus understood as a stabilization process aligning laboratory settings, products, and practices with medical theories and practices through technical, bureaucratic, and organizational systems. A paradox of the analysis is that standardization as a historical phenomenon and moment in the history of drug development was initially linked to a problem of under-determination of what was to be standardized and to a knowledge gap before it could become a central concept for quality control.

  2. Default mode network deactivation to smoking cue relative to food cue predicts treatment outcome in nicotine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Littlewood, Rae A; Mickey, Jessica; Arenella, Pamela B; Goodreau, Natalie; Hutchison, Kent E

    2018-01-01

    Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo. Group independent components analysis was utilized to isolate the DMN, and temporal sorting was used to calculate the difference between the DMN blood-oxygen-level dependent signal during smoke cues and that during food cues for each individual. Food cues were associated with greater deactivation compared with smoke cues in the DMN. In correcting for baseline smoking and other clinical variables, which have been shown to be related to treatment outcome in previous work, a less positive Smoke - Food difference score predicted greater smoking at 6 and 12 weeks when both treatment groups were combined (P = 0.005, β = -0.766). An exploratory analysis of executive control and salience networks demonstrated that a more positive Smoke - Food difference score for executive control network predicted a more robust response to varenicline relative to placebo. These findings provide further support to theories that brain reactivity to palatable cues, and in particular in DMN, may have a direct clinical relevance in NUD. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.K.; Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Chaudhry, K

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  4. Risk factors for treatment default in close contacts with latent tuberculous infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, C T; Yan, F-X; Hirsch-Moverman, Y; Sterling, T R; Reichler, M R

    2014-04-01

    1) To characterize risk factors for non-completion of latent tuberculous infection treatment (LTBIT), and 2) to assess the impact of LTBIT regimens on subsequent risk of tuberculosis (TB). Close contacts of adults aged ⩾15 years with pulmonary TB were prospectively enrolled in a multi-center study in the United States and Canada from January 2002 to December 2006. Close contacts of TB patients were screened and cross-matched with TB registries to identify those who developed active TB. Of 3238 contacts screened, 1714 (53%) were diagnosed with LTBI. Preventive treatment was recommended in 1371 (80%); 1147 (84%) initiated treatment, of whom 723 (63%) completed it. In multivariate analysis, study site, initial interview sites other than a home or health care setting and isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) were significantly associated with non-completion of LTBIT. Fourteen TB cases were identified in contacts, all of whom initiated IPT: two TB cases among persons who received ⩾6 months of IPT (66 cases/100 000 person-years [py]), and nine among those who received 0-5 months (median 2 months) of IPT (792 cases/100 000 py, P risk of active TB.

  5. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of a novel anti-tuberculosis reconstruction implant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunFeng Dong

    Full Text Available Reconstruction materials currently used in clinical for osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB are unsatisfactory due to a variety of reasons. Rifampicin (RFP is a well-known and highly effective first-line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drug. Poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA are two promising materials that have been used both for orthopedic reconstruction and as carriers for drug release. In this study we report the development of a novel anti-TB implant for osteoarticular TB reconstruction using a combination of RFP, PDLLA and nHA.RFP, PDLLA and nHA were used as starting materials to produce a novel anti-TB activity implant by the solvent evaporation method. After manufacture, the implant was characterized and its biodegradation and drug release profile were tested. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the implant was also evaluated in pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells using multiple methodologies.A RFP/PDLLA/nHA composite was successfully synthesized using the solvent evaporation method. The composite has a loose and porous structure with evenly distributed pores. The production process was steady and no chemical reaction occurred as proved by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Meanwhile, the composite blocks degraded and released drug for at least 12 weeks. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells verified that the synthesized composite blocks did not affect cell growth and proliferation.It is feasible to manufacture a novel bioactive anti-TB RFP/PDLLA/nHA composite by the solvent evaporation method. The composite blocks showed appropriate properties such as degradation, drug release and biosafety to MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, the novel composite blocks may have great potential for clinical applications in repairing bone defects caused by osteoarticular TB.

  6. Analytical Pricing of Defaultable Bond with Stochastic Default Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    O, Hyong-Chol; Wan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We provide analytical pricing formula of corporate defaultable bond with both expected and unexpected default in the case with stochastic default intensity. In the case with constant short rate and exogenous default recovery using PDE method, we gave some pricing formula of the defaultable bond under the conditions that 1)expected default recovery is the same with unexpected default recovery; 2) default intensity follows one of 3 special cases of Willmott model; 3) default intensity is uncorr...

  7. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Velez-Segovia, Eduardo; Soria-Montoya, Andrea; Nuñez-Garbin, Alexandra; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls) were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35), overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89), anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92), MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6), and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87) were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  8. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  9. Knowledge and perception of tuberculosis and the risk to become treatment default among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated in primary health care, East Nusa Tenggara: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putera, Ikhwanuliman; Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, Elvina

    2015-06-10

    Despite the high efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) drug regiments, one of the barriers in the TB control program is the non-compliance to treatment. Morbidity, mortality, and risk to become resistant to drugs are emerging among defaulters. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify the factors, especially knowledge and perceptions of TB and association with treatment default among patients treated in primary care settings, East Nusa Tenggara. This study was part of a bigger cohort community-based controlled trial study. The subjects were newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients from four districts in East Nusa Tenggara. Knowledge, perception of TB, and other related factors were assessed prior to the treatment. Patients who interrupted the treatment in two consecutive months were classified as defaulters, as World Health Organization stated. Odds ratio (OR) looking for factors associated with becoming defaulter was analyzed. A total of 300 patients were recruited for this study. At the end of the treatment, 255 patients (85%) completed the treatment without interruption from regular visit. In univariate analysis, none of the socio-demographic factors attributed to treatment default yet lack of knowledge and incorrect perception of TB prior therapy (OR 2.49 1.30-4.79 95% CI, p = 0.006; OR 5.40 2.64-11.04 95% CI, p default (OR 4.75 2.30-9.86 95% CI). Assessing the knowledge and perception of TB prior to the treatment in newly pulmonary TB patients is important as both of them were known as risk factor for treatment default. Education and counseling may be required to improve patients' compliance to treatment.

  10. Mortgage Default Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    We use Google search query data to develop a broad-based and real-time index of mortgage default risk. Unlike established indicators, our Mortgage Default Risk Index (MDRI) directly reflects households’concerns regarding their risk of mortgage default. The MDRI predicts housing returns, mortgage ...... delinquency indicators, and subprime credit default swaps. These results persist both in- and out-of-sample and at multiple data frequencies. Together, research findings suggest internet search queries yield valuable new insights into household mortgage default risk....

  11. Optional Defaultable Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defaultable markets, one of the main research areas of mathematical finance. It proposes a new approach to the theory of such markets using techniques from the calculus of optional stochastic processes on unusual probability spaces, which was not presented before. The paper is a foundation paper and contains a number of fundamental results on modeling of defaultable markets, pricing and hedging of defaultable claims and results on the probability of default under such conditions. Moreover, several important examples are presented: a new pricing formula for a defaultable bond and a new pricing formula for credit default swap. Furthermore, some results on the absence of arbitrage for markets on unusual probability spaces and markets with default are also provided.

  12. Plasma vitamins and essential trace elements in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients and at different durations of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Edem

    2015-07-01

    This study concluded that there is micronutrient (Fe, Zn, Cu, Vit A, C, D and E malnutrition in tuberculosis patients at diagnosis and throughout the duration (6 months of chemotherapy. Supplementation with vitamins and zinc is advised within the first 4 months of commencing anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy.

  13. Supplementary Material for: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure and interaction modelling are used to understand the functional effects of putative mutations and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Methods To investigate the potential utility of these approaches, we analysed the genomes of 144 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) collection sourced from 20 countries in four continents. A genome-wide approach was applied to 127 isolates to identify polymorphisms associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations for first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. In addition, the effect of identified candidate mutations on protein stability and interactions was assessed quantitatively with well-established computational methods. Results The analysis revealed that mutations in the genes rpoB (rifampicin), katG (isoniazid), inhA-promoter (isoniazid), rpsL (streptomycin) and embB (ethambutol) were responsible for the majority of resistance observed. A subset of the mutations identified in rpoB and katG were predicted to affect protein stability. Further, a strong direct correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the distance of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional structures of rpoB and katG to their respective drugs binding sites. Conclusions Using the TDR resource, we demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome association and convergent evolution approaches to detect known and potentially novel mutations associated with drug resistance. Further, protein structural modelling could provide a means of predicting the impact of polymorphisms on drug efficacy in the absence of phenotypic data. These approaches could ultimately lead to novel

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing and protein structure modelling provides insights into anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2016-03-23

    Background Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure and interaction modelling are used to understand the functional effects of putative mutations and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Methods To investigate the potential utility of these approaches, we analysed the genomes of 144 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) collection sourced from 20 countries in four continents. A genome-wide approach was applied to 127 isolates to identify polymorphisms associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations for first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. In addition, the effect of identified candidate mutations on protein stability and interactions was assessed quantitatively with well-established computational methods. Results The analysis revealed that mutations in the genes rpoB (rifampicin), katG (isoniazid), inhA-promoter (isoniazid), rpsL (streptomycin) and embB (ethambutol) were responsible for the majority of resistance observed. A subset of the mutations identified in rpoB and katG were predicted to affect protein stability. Further, a strong direct correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the distance of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional structures of rpoB and katG to their respective drugs binding sites. Conclusions Using the TDR resource, we demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome association and convergent evolution approaches to detect known and potentially novel mutations associated with drug resistance. Further, protein structural modelling could provide a means of predicting the impact of polymorphisms on drug efficacy in the absence of phenotypic data. These approaches could ultimately lead to novel resistance

  15. The effects of CPAP treatment on task positive and default mode networks in obstructive sleep apnea patients: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Prilipko

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies enable the investigation of neural correlates underlying behavioral performance. We investigate the effect of active and sham Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP treatment on working memory function of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS considering Task Positive and Default Mode networks (TPN and DMN. METHODS: An experiment with 4 levels of visuospatial n-back task was used to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in 17 men with moderate or severe OSAS before and after 2 months of therapeutic (active or sub-therapeutic (sham CPAP treatment. RESULTS: Patients with untreated OSAS had significantly less deactivation in the temporal regions of the DMN as compared to healthy controls, but activation within TPN regions was comparatively relatively preserved. After 2 months of treatment, active and sham CPAP groups exhibited opposite trends of cerebral activation and deactivation. After treatment, the active CPAP group demonstrated an increase of cerebral activation in the TPN at all task levels and of task-related cerebral deactivation in the anterior midline and medial temporal regions of the DMN at the 3-back level, associated with a significant improvement of behavioral performance, whereas the sham CPAP group exhibited less deactivation in the temporal regions of Default Mode Network and less Task Positive Network activation associated to longer response times at the 3-back. CONCLUSION: OSAS has a significant negative impact primarily on task-related DMN deactivation, particularly in the medial temporal regions, possibly due to nocturnal hypoxemia, as well as TPN activation, particularly in the right ventral fronto-parietal network. After 2 months of active nasal CPAP treatment a positive response was noted in both TPN and DMN but without compete recovery of existing behavioral and neuronal deficits. Initiation of CPAP treatment early in the course of the

  16. Defaults and Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul

    We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...

  17. Sovereign default risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, H.A.; Altman, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach toward assessing sovereign risk by examining rigorously the health and aggregate default risk of a nation's private corporate sector. Models can be utilised to measure the probability of default of the non-financial sector cumulatively for five years, both as an absolute

  18. Cytochrome P450 2E1 gene polymorphisms/haplotypes and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in a Chinese cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowen Tang

    Full Text Available The pathogenic mechanism of anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis is associated with drug metabolizing enzymes. No tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs of cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1 in the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis have been reported. The present study was aimed at exploring the role of tSNPs in CYP2E1 gene in a population-based anti-TB treatment cohort.A nested case-control study was designed. Each hepatitis case was 14 matched with controls by age, gender, treatment history, disease severity and drug dosage. The tSNPs were selected by using Haploview 4.2 based on the HapMap database of Han Chinese in Beijing, and detected by using TaqMan allelic discrimination technology.Eighty-nine anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis cases and 356 controls were included in this study. 6 tSNPs (rs2031920, rs2070672, rs915908, rs8192775, rs2515641, rs2515644 were genotyped and minor allele frequencies of these tSNPs were 21.9%, 23.0%, 19.1%, 23.6%, 20.8% and 44.4% in the cases and 20.9%, 22.7%, 18.9%, 23.2%, 18.2% and 43.2% in the controls, respectively. No significant difference was observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the 6 tSNPs between case group and control group, and neither of haplotypes in block 1 nor in block 2 was significantly associated with the development of hepatitis.Based on the Chinese anti-TB treatment cohort, we did not find a statistically significant association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. None of the haplotypes showed a significant association with the development of hepatitis in Chinese TB population.

  19. Sensitivity Pattern of Second Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs against Clinical Isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, T.; Ikram, A.; Abbasi, S. A.; Zaman, G.; Ayyub, M.; Palomino, J. C.; Vandamme, P.; Martin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the current sensitivity pattern of second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against clinical isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from November 2011 to April 2013. Methodology: Samples received during the study period were processed on BACTEC MGIT 960 system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture followed by first line drugs susceptibility testing of culture proven MTB isolates. On the basis of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, 100 clinical isolates of MDR-TB were further subjected to susceptibility testing against amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CAP), ofloxacin (OFL) and ethionamide (ETH) as per standard BACTEC MGIT 960 instructions. Results: Out of 100 MDR-TB isolates, 62% were from male patients and 38% from female patients. 97% were sensitive to AMK, 53% to OFL, 87% to CAP; and 87% were sensitive to ETH. Conclusion: The majority of the MDR-TB isolates showed excellent sensitivity against AMK, CAP and ETH. However, sensitivity of MDR-TB isolates against fluoroquinolones like OFL was not encouraging. (author)

  20. Implementing OWL Defaults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolovski, Vladimir; Parsia, Bijan; Katz, Yarden

    2006-01-01

    ...) have often requested some form of non-monotonic reasoning. In this paper, we present preliminary optimizations and an implementation of a restricted version of Reiter's default logic as an extension to the description logic fragment of OWL, OWL DL...

  1. Loan Defaults in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H Baltagi; Panicos O Demetriades

    2011-01-01

    African financial deepening is beset by a high rate of loan defaults, which encourages banks to hold liquid assets instead of lending. We put forward a novel theoretical model that captures the salient features of African credit markets which shows that equilibrium with high loan defaults and low lending can arise when contract enforcement institutions are weak, investment opportunities are relatively scarce and information imperfections abound. We provide evidence using a panel of 110 banks ...

  2. Anti-Tuberculosis Bacteriophage D29 Delivery with a Vibrating Mesh Nebulizer, Jet Nebulizer, and Soft Mist Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigy, Nicholas B; Chang, Rachel Y; Leung, Sharon S Y; Harrison, Melissa; Petrova, Zaritza; Pope, Welkin H; Hatfull, Graham F; Britton, Warwick J; Chan, Hak-Kim; Sauvageau, Dominic; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2017-10-01

    To compare titer reduction and delivery rate of active anti-tuberculosis bacteriophage (phage) D29 with three inhalation devices. Phage D29 lysate was amplified to a titer of 11.8 ± 0.3 log 10 (pfu/mL) and diluted 1:100 in isotonic saline. Filters captured the aerosolized saline D29 preparation emitted from three types of inhalation devices: 1) vibrating mesh nebulizer; 2) jet nebulizer; 3) soft mist inhaler. Full-plate plaque assays, performed in triplicate at multiple dilution levels with the surrogate host Mycobacterium smegmatis, were used to quantify phage titer. Respective titer reductions for the vibrating mesh nebulizer, jet nebulizer, and soft mist inhaler were 0.4 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 0.6 ± 0.3 log 10 (pfu/mL). Active phage delivery rate was significantly greater (p pfu/min) than for the jet nebulizer (5.4x10 4  ± 1.3x10 4 pfu/min). The soft mist inhaler delivered 4.6x10 6  ± 2.0x10 6 pfu per 11.6 ± 1.6 μL ex-actuator dose. Delivering active phage requires a prudent choice of inhalation device. The jet nebulizer was not a good choice for aerosolizing phage D29 under the tested conditions, due to substantial titer reduction likely occurring during droplet production. The vibrating mesh nebulizer is recommended for animal inhalation studies requiring large amounts of D29 aerosol, whereas the soft mist inhaler may be useful for self-administration of D29 aerosol.

  3. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  4. Improved consistency in dosing anti-tuberculosis drugs in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Chih; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Lin, Tao-Ping; Bai, Kuan-Jen

    2012-01-01

    It was reported that 35.5% of tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in 2003 in Taipei City had no recorded pre-treatment body weight and that among those who had, inconsistent dosing of anti-TB drugs was frequent. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have taken actions to strengthen dosing of anti-TB drugs among general practitioners. Prescribing practices of anti-TB drugs in Taipei City in 2007-2010 were investigated to assess whether interventions on dosing were effective. Lists of all notified culture positive TB cases in 2007-2010 were obtained from National TB Registry at Taiwan CDC. A medical audit of TB case management files was performed to collect pretreatment body weight and regimens prescribed at commencement of treatment. Dosages prescribed were compared with dosages recommended. The proportion of patients with recorded pre-treatment body weight was 64.5% in 2003, which increased to 96.5% in 2007-2010 (pTaipei City has remarkably improved after health authorities implemented a series of interventions.

  5. Greener by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  6. Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,

  7. Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Wiebe; Meyer, John Jules; Treur, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates

  8. Prescription practice of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Yunnan, China: A clinical audit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    Full Text Available China has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. As irrational use and inadequate dosing of anti-TB drugs may contribute to the epidemic of drug-resistant TB, we assessed the drug types and dosages prescribed in the treatment of TB cases in a representative sample of health care facilities in Yunnan.We applied multistage cluster sampling using probability proportion to size to select 28 counties in Yunnan. Consecutive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled from either the TB centers of Yunnan Center of Disease Control or designated TB hospitals. Outcomes of interest included the regimen used in the treatment of new and retreatment TB patients; and the proportion of patients treated with adequate dosing of anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, we assess whether there has been reduction in the use of fluoroquinolone and second line injectables in Tuberculosis Clinical Centre (TCC after the training activity in late 2012.Of 2390 TB patients enrolled, 582 (24.4% were prescribed second line anti-TB drugs (18.0% in new cases and 60.9% in retreatment cases; 363(15.2% prescribed a fluoroquinolone. General hospitals (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.47-2.66, retreatment TB cases (adjOR 4.75, 95% CI 3.59-6.27, smear positive cases (adjOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.33, and extrapulmonary TB (adjOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.66-4.03 were significantly associated with the use of fluoroquinolones. The proportion of patients treated with fluoroquinolones decreased from 41.4% before 2013 to 13.5% after 2013 (adjOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.28 in TCC. The proportion of patients with correct, under and over dosages of isoniazid was 88.2%, 1.5%, and 10.4%, respectively; of rifampicin was 50.2%, 46.8%, and 2.9%; of pyrazinamide was 67.6%, 31.7% and 0.7%; and of ethambutol was 41.4%, 57.5%, and 1.0%.The prescribing practice of anti-TB drugs was not standardized, findings with significant programmatic implication.

  9. Default risk in project finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompjan, R.; Wouters, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Understanding default risk in project finance is relevant to investors. This article investigates which factors are most strongly associated with the occurrence of project finance default, using data from 210 projects, of which 37 were in default. The authors found that the use of proven technology,

  10. Natural Compounds from Mexican Medicinal Plants as Potential Drug Leads for Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO GÓMEZ-CANSINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL, followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC 95%, 50 µg/mL include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea divaricata, and Phoradendron robinsoni. Several active compounds have been identified, the most potent are: Licarin A (isolated from A. taliscana, and 9-amino-9-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]-chromen-2-one (transformation product of 9-methoxytariacuripyrone isolated from Aristolochia brevipes, both with MIC= 3.125 µg/mL, that is 8-fold less potent than the reference drug Rifampicin (MIC= 0.5 µg/mL. Any of the compounds or extracts here reviewed has been studied in clinical trials or with animal models; however, these should be accomplished since several are active against strains resistant to common drugs.

  11. Anti-tuberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity among Ethiopian HIV-positive and negative patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB patients in Ethiopia.In this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors and monitored biochemically and clinically for development of DIH. Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was observed in 17.3% of the patients and 8 out of the 197 (4.1% developed clinical hepatotoxicity. Seven of the 8 were HIV positive and 2 were positive for HBsAg.Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HIV co-infection (p = 0.002, concomitant drug intake (p = 0.008, and decrease in CD4 count (p = 0.001. Stepwise restarting of anti TB treatment was also successful in almost all the patients who developed clinical DIH. We therefore conclude that anti-TB DIH is a major problem in HIV-associated TB with a decline in immune status and that there is a need for a regular biochemical and clinical follow up for those patients who are at risk.

  12. Effectiveness of hepatoprotective drugs for anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenya Saito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of hepatoprotective drugs for DIH (drug induced hepatotoxicity during tuberculosis treatment is not clear. We evaluated the effectiveness of hepatoprotective drugs by comparing the period until the normalization of hepatic enzymes between patients who were prescribed with the hepatoprotective drugs after DIH was occurred and patients who were not prescribed with the hepatoprotective drugs. Methods During 2006–2010, 389 patients with active tuberculosis were included in this study. DIH was defined as elevation of peak serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT of more than twice the upper limit of normal (ULN. We divided the patients into the severe (peak serum AST and/or ALT elevation of >5 times the ULN, moderate (peak serum AST and/or ALT elevation of >3 to ≤5 times the ULN, and mild DIH groups (peak serum AST and/or ALT elevation of >2 to ≤3 times the ULN. We compared the average period until the normalization of hepatic enzymes between patient subgroups with and without hepatoprotective drugs (ursodeoxycholic acid: UDCA, stronger neo-minophagen C: SNMC, and glycyrrhizin. Results In the severe group, there was no significant difference in the average period until the normalization between subgroups with and without hepatoprotective drugs (21.4 ± 10.8 vs 21.5 ± 11.1 days, P = 0.97. In the mild group, the period was longer in the subgroup with hepatoprotective drugs than that without hepatoprotective drugs (15.7 ± 6.2 vs 12.4 ± 7.9 days, P = 0.046. Conclusion Regardless of the severity, hepatoprotective drugs did not shorten the period until the normalization of hepatic enzymes.

  13. The production and sales of anti-tuberculosis drugs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang-Mu; Zhao, Qi-Peng; Ren, Qiao-Meng; Peng, Dan-Lu; Guo, Yan

    2016-10-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease globally. Adequate and proper use of anti-TB drugs is essential for TB control. This study aims to study China's production capacity and sales situation of anti-TB drugs, and to further discuss the potential for China to contribute to global TB control. The production data of anti-TB drugs in China from 2011 to 2013 and the sales data from 2010 to 2014 were extracted from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology database of China and IMS Health database, respectively. The number of drugs was standardized to the molecular level of the key components before calculating. All data were described and analyzed by Microsoft Excel. First-line drugs were the majority in both sales (89.5 %) and production (92.3 %) of anti-TB drugs in China. The production of rifampicin held the majority share in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and finished products, whilst ethambutol and pyrazinamide were the top two sales in finished products. Fixed-dose combinations only held small percentages in total production and sales weight, though a slight increase was observed. The production and sales of streptomycin showed a tendency of decrease after 2012. The trends and proportion of different anti-TB drugs were similar in production and sales, however, the production weight was much larger than that of sales, especially for rifampicin and isoniazid. First-line drugs were the predominant medicine produced and used in China. While the low production and sales of the second-line TB drugs and FDCs rose concerns for the treatment of multiple drug resistant TB. The redundant production amount, as well as the prompt influence of national policy on drug production and sales, indicated the potential for China to better contribute to global TB control.

  14. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in resting-state default mode network connectivity in first-episode, treatment-naive major depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueling; Wang, Xiang; Xiao, Jin; Liao, Jian; Zhong, Mingtian; Wang, Wei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2012-04-01

    Imaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with altered activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN). However, the neural correlates of the resting-state DMN and MDD-related pathopsychological characteristics, such as depressive rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) phenomena, still remain unclear. Using independent component analysis, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 35 first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD and from 35 matched healthy control subjects. Patients with MDD exhibited higher levels of rumination and OGM than did the control subjects. We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex regions (especially the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex regions (especially the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus) in MDD patients compared with control subjects. In the depressed group, the increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex correlated positively with rumination score, while the decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex correlated negatively with OGM score. We report dissociation between anterior and posterior functional connectivity in resting-state DMNs of first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD. Increased functional connectivity in anterior medial regions of the resting-state DMN was associated with rumination, whereas decreased functional connectivity in posterior medial regions was associated with OGM. These results provide new evidence for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of MDD and suggest that abnormal DMN activity may be an MDD trait. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 24 CFR 320.15 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 320.15 Section 320.15... SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.15 Default. (a) Issuer default. Any failure or inability of the... default of the issuer. (b) Action upon default. Upon any default by the issuer, the Association may: (1...

  16. Bond Pricing with Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    We offer a new model for pricing bonds subject to default risk. The event of default is remodeled as the first time that a state variable that captures the solvency of the issue goes below a certain level. The payoff to the bond in case of default is a constant fraction of the value of a security with the same promised payoffs but without the risk of default. We show that our model is very tractable under different models of interest rate risk and of the interaction between default risk and i...

  17. Default from neoadjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen (38.6%) patients dropped out of treatment, before, during or after completing NAC. Ten of these defaulted due to inadequate funds to procure chemotherapy, three patients because they insisted on immediate mastectomy, and four of these patients refused surgery when they achieved complete clinical response, ...

  18. Fracking and mortgage default

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Christopher R.; Gerardi, Kristopher; Shen, Yannan

    2017-01-01

    This paper finds that increased hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking", along the Marcellus Formation in Pennsylvania had a significant, negative effect on mortgage credit risk. Controlling for potential endogeneity bias by utilizing the underlying geologic properties of the land as instrumental variables for fracking activity, we find that mortgages originated before the 2007 boom in shale gas, were, post-boom, significantly less likely to default in areas with greater drilling activity. The we...

  19. Credit Default Swap Valuation with Counterparty Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Seng Yuen; Kwok, Yue Kuen

    2005-01-01

    Using the reduced form framework with inter-dependent default correlation, we perform valuation of credit default swap with counterparty risk. The inter-dependent default risk structure between the protection buyer, protection seller and the reference entity in a credit default swap are characterized by their correlated default intensities, where the default intensity of one party increases when the default of another party occurs. We explore how settlement risk and replacement cost affect th...

  20. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public... HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.10 Default order. (a) Default. The Presiding Officer may find a party in default.... No finding of default on the basis of a failure to appear at a hearing shall be made against the...

  1. 40 CFR 22.17 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 22.17 Section 22.17 Protection... Procedures § 22.17 Default. (a) Default. A party may be found to be in default: after motion, upon failure to... hearing. Default by respondent constitutes, for purposes of the pending proceeding only, an admission of...

  2. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24... Default order. (a) Default. A party may be found to be in default: after motion, upon failure of the... default on the basis of failure to appear at a hearing shall be made against the Claims Official unless...

  3. Reagent Precoated Targets for Rapid In-Tissue Derivatization of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Isoniazid Followed by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, M. Lisa; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Goh, Anne; Dartois, Veronique; Via, Laura E.; Barry, Clifton E.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-08-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an important component of front-line anti-tuberculosis therapy with good serum pharmacokinetics but unknown ability to penetrate tuberculous lesions. However, endogenous background interferences hinder our ability to directly analyze INH in tissues. Chemical derivatization has been successfully used to measure isoniazid directly from tissue samples using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). MALDI targets were pretreated with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) prior to mounting tissue slices. Isoniazid present in the tissues was efficiently derivatized and the INH-CA product measured by MS/MS. Precoating of MALDI targets allows the tissues to be directly thaw-mounted and derivatized, thus simplifying the preparation. A time-course series of tissues from tuberculosis infected/INH dosed animals were assayed and the MALDI MS/MS response correlates well with the amount of INH determined to be in the tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS.

  4. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy in rapid and simultaneous determination of essential components in five varieties of anti-tuberculosis tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Le-sheng; Wang, Di; Song, Jia; Zhang, Yi-bo; Guo, Wei-liang; Teng, Li-rong

    2008-08-01

    Since 1980s, tuberculosis has become increasingly serious. Rifampicin tablets, isoniazide tablets, pyrazinamide tablets, rifampicin and isoniazide tablets and rifampicin isoniazide and pyrazinamide tablets are currently relatively efficacious antituberculosis drugs. In the present paper, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with partial least squares (PLS) was applied to the simultaneous determination of rifampicin (RMP), isoniazide (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) contents in 5 varieties of anti-tuberculosis tablets. As the results showed, all of the models for the determination of RMP, INH and PZA contents applied the original NIR spectra. The most efficacious wavelength range for the determination of RMP contents was 1981-2195 nm, it was 1540-1717 nm and 2086-2197 nm for the determination of INH contents, and it was 1460-1537 nm, 1956-2022 nm and 2268-2393 nm for determination of PZA contents. The root mean square error of the calibration set obtained by cross-validation (RMSECV) of the optimum models for the quantitative analysis of RMP, INH and PZA contents was 0.0494, 0.0257 and 0.0307, respectively. Using these optimum models for the determination of RMP, INH and PZA contents in prediction set, the root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) was 0.0182, 0.0166 and 0.0134, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r(p)) between the predicted values and actual values was 0.9864, 0.9989 and 0.9993, respectively. These results demonstrated that this method was precise and reliable, and is significative for in situ measurement and the on-line quality control for anti-tuberculosis tablets production.

  5. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2)trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02). There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  6. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory’s database for the 2000–2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X 2 trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000–2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010–2014; p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. PMID:26421930

  7. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is the classical modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature tends to specify the cumulative haz...

  8. Default options and training participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Golsteyn, B.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether defaults affect the choice for courses followed at work. In addition, we analyze whether the size of the default effect varies with employees’ personality and skill-deficiencies. We perform an experiment in which workers are hypothetically offered three courses which they

  9. Default options and training participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Golsteyn, B.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether defaults affect the choice for courses followed at work. In addition, we analyze whether the size of the default effect varies with employees' personality and skill- deficiencies. We perform an experiment in which workers are hypothetically offered three courses which

  10. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is classically the modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature has shown a tendency towards...

  11. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  12. 48 CFR 252.217-7009 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default. 252.217-7009... Clauses 252.217-7009 Default. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Default (DEC 1991... of default to the Contractor, terminate the whole or any part of a job order if the Contractor fails...

  13. 24 CFR 241.1235 - Cross default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross default. 241.1235 Section 241... Rights and Obligations § 241.1235 Cross default. In the event the borrower commits a default under a prior recorded insured mortgage and the holder thereof initiates a foreclosure proceeding, said default...

  14. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default order. 209.24 Section 209.24... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a) Default. Respondent may be found to be in default upon failure to comply with a prehearing or hearing ruling of the...

  15. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 120.938 Section 120.938... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.938 Default. (a) Upon occurrence of an event of default... occurrence of an event of default which does not require automatic acceleration, SBA may forbear acceleration...

  16. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bobadilla-del Valle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City.Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2trend, p<0.001. Primary STR resistance was higher among M. bovis compared with M. tuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, p<0.001. Secondary multidrug resistance (MDR rates were 38.5% and 34.4% for M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637. A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02.There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  17. THE DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD DEBT DEFAULT

    OpenAIRE

    ALFARO, RODRIGO; GALLARDO, NATALIA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study household debt default behavior in Chile using survey data. Previous research in this area suggests financial and personal variables help estimate individual and group probabilities of default. We study mortgage and consumer default separately, as the default decisions and overall borrower behavior are different for each type of debt. Our study finds that income and income-related variables are the only significant and robust variables that explain default for both typ...

  18. Development of a Nafion/MWCNT-SPCE-Based Portable Sensor for the Voltammetric Analysis of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Ethambutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa A. S. Couto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the development, characterization and application of an electrochemical sensor based on the use of Nafion/MWCNT-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs for the voltammetric detection of the anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drug ethambutol (ETB. The electrochemical behaviour of the drug at the surface of the developed Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs was studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV techniques. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were employed to characterize the modified surface of the electrodes. Results showed that, compared to both unmodified and MWCNTs-modified SPCEs, negatively charged Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs remarkably enhanced the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity for ETB due to the synergistic effect of the electrostatic interaction between cationic ETB molecules and negatively charged Nafion polymer and the inherent electrocatalytic properties of both MWCNTs and Nafion. Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs provided excellent biocompatibility, good electrical conductivity, low electrochemical interferences and a high signal-to-noise ratio, providing excellent performance towards ETB quantification in microvolumes of human urine and human blood serum samples. The outcomes of this paper confirm that the Nafion/MWCNT-SPCE-based device could be a potential candidate for the development of a low-cost, yet reliable and efficient electrochemical portable sensor for the low-level detection of this antimycobacterial drug in biological samples.

  19. Investigation of Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples Against the First and Second-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs by the Sensititre MycoTB Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen KAYSERİLİ ORHAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenotypic methods for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC to second-line drugs are not yet standardized. The Sensititre MycoTB Plate is a microtiter plate containing lyophilized antibiotics and configured for determination of MIC to first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The purpose of this study is to detect the susceptibility rates of MTC strains isolated from patients’ specimens for first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Materials and Methods: This study included 50 MTC strains isolated from various clinical specimens. Out of the 50 strains, 38 were isolated from sputum, three from cerebrospinal fluid, three from bronchoalveolar lavage, and six from other samples in this study. The susceptibility of strains to anti-tuberculosis drugs were determined by the Sensititre MycoTB Plate Method. Thawed isolates were subcultured, and dilutions were inoculated into MycoTB wells. The results were read at days 7, 14 and 21. Results: At the end of study, out of 50 MTC isolates, 7 (14% showed resistance to Isoniazid (INH, 5 (10% to streptomycin (SM, 4 (8% to ethambutol (EMB, 4 (8% to ethionamide (ETH, 3 (6% to rifampicin (RIF, 3 (6% to rifabutin (RFB, 2 (4% to kanamycin (KAN, 2 (4% to ofloxacin (OFL, 2 (4% to P-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS, 1 (2% to moxiflocacin (MOX, and 1 (2% to cycloserine (CYC. All strains were found sensitive to amikacin while 2 strains (4% were identified as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Thirty-five strains (70% were sensitive to all drugs. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB was not determined in this study. Conclusion: This is the first study that tests second line anti-tuberculosis drugs in our location and provides us valuable data regarding MDR-TB and XDR-TB rates. The Sensititre MycoTB Plate Method is a fast, reliable and practical method and can be used to determine the susceptibility of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  20. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  1. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  2. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    Distance-to-default is a remarkably robust measure for ranking firms according to their risk of default. The ranking seems to work despite the fact that the Merton model from which the measure is derived produces default probabilities that are far too small when applied to real data. We use...... simulations to investigate the robustness of the distance-to-default measure to different model specifications. Overall we find distance-to-default to be robust to a number of deviations from the simple Merton model that involve different asset value dynamics and different default triggering mechanisms....... A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...

  3. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  4. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  5. Testing the effect of defaults on the thermostat settings of OECD employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Zachary; Johnstone, Nick; Haščič, Ivan; Vong, Laura; Barascud, Francis

    2013-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled experiment in which the default settings on office thermostats in an OECD office building were manipulated during the winter heating season, and employees' chosen thermostat setting observed over a 6-week period. Using difference-in-differences, panel, and censored regression models (to control for maximum allowable thermostat settings), we find that a 1 °C decrease in the default caused a reduction in the chosen setting by 0.38 °C, on average. Sixty-five percent of this effect could be attributed to office occupant behavior (p-value = 0.044). The difference-in-differences models show that small decreases in the default (1°) led to a greater reduction in chosen settings than large decreases (2°). We also find that office occupants who were more apt to adjust their thermostats prior to the intervention were less susceptible to the default. We conclude that this kind of intervention can increase building-level energy efficiency, and discuss potential explanations and broader policy implications of our findings. - Highlights: • We conduct a randomized controlled trial to test if thermostat defaults affect agent behavior. • Two treatments (schedules of default settings) were tested against a control for 6 weeks at OECD. • Small changes in defaults had a greater effect on chosen settings than larger changes in defaults. • Occupants who frequently changed their thermostats in baseline were less affected by defaults. • Thermostat defaults in office environments can be manipulated to increase energy efficiency

  6. Initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients at a referral hospital in Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Darshan; Kaushik, Rajeev M; Kaushik, Reshma; Rawat, Jagdish; Kakkar, Rajesh

    2013-09-01

    Initial default is a serious issue which can enhance the transmission of TB. We determined the magnitude of and the causative factors for initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. In this prospective study, 2310 patients attending a referral hospital in Uttarakhand state, north India, with presumptive TB were investigated and 555 patients with sputum-positive PTB were followed-up for initiation of anti-TB treatment (ATT) during 2010-2012. The patients not confirmed as having started ATT were considered initial defaulters. Initial default was seen in 120 (21.6%) patients comprising 22 (18.3%) defaulters during diagnosis and 98 (81.6%) defaulters after referral for directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The initial default rate was significantly higher among patients from rural areas than urban areas, illiterate patients than literate patients and smokeless tobacco-users than non-users (pdefault among patients referred for DOTS were limited trust in DOTS (n = 44, 44.8%), adverse effects of previous ATT (n = 41, 41.8%), dissatisfaction with health services (n = 38, 38.7%), local deaths while taking DOTS (n = 28, 28.5%), advice by others against DOTS (n = 25, 25.5%), disbelief in the diagnosis (n = 18, 18.3%) and patient death before starting treatment (n = 4, 4.0%). A high initial default rate was seen among patients with PTB. There is an urgent need to promote public awareness to lower the initial default rate.

  7. Default neglect in attempts at social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatev, Julian J; Daniels, David P; Kim, Hajin; Neale, Margaret A

    2017-12-26

    Current theories suggest that people understand how to exploit common biases to influence others. However, these predictions have received little empirical attention. We consider a widely studied bias with special policy relevance: the default effect, which is the tendency to choose whichever option is the status quo. We asked participants (including managers, law/business/medical students, and US adults) to nudge others toward selecting a target option by choosing whether to present that target option as the default. In contrast to theoretical predictions, we find that people often fail to understand and/or use defaults to influence others, i.e., they show "default neglect." First, in one-shot default-setting games, we find that only 50.8% of participants set the target option as the default across 11 samples ( n = 2,844), consistent with people not systematically using defaults at all. Second, when participants have multiple opportunities for experience and feedback, they still do not systematically use defaults. Third, we investigate beliefs related to the default effect. People seem to anticipate some mechanisms that drive default effects, yet most people do not believe in the default effect on average, even in cases where they do use defaults. We discuss implications of default neglect for decision making, social influence, and evidence-based policy.

  8. Overlapping defaults. The case of intertemporal choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People make different choices depending on which decision is the default option. In intertemporal choices, the default option is typically imposed externally. For example, people expect more for delaying the gain (default in the present than are willing to pay for accelerating the future gain over the same period (default in the future. We claim that apart from the external default, people’s choices are also influenced by the internal (natural default such as the time perspective resulting in the reference point in the present. By manipulating the congruency between the internal and external defaults, we show that incongruence between defaults decreases the strength of discounting of gains, but not of losses.

  9. Firm default and aggregate fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Tor; Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper

    This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes

  10. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  11. Trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in referral hospitals in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis is one of major current challenges to global public health. The transmission of resistant strains is increasing as a burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients in extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB cases in India. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of EPTB in referral hospitals in northern India. Study Design and Setting: A prospectively observational study and referral medical institutions in northern India. Materials and Methods: All EPTB specimens were processed for Ziehl Neelsen staining, BACTEC culture and BACTEC NAP test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. All M. tuberculosis complex isolates were performed for radiometric-based drug susceptibility pattern against streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol using the 1% proportion method. Results: We found that 165/756 (20.5% isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis complex by the NAP test. We observed that 39.9% were resistant to first-line antitubercular drugs. The resistance rate was higher in previously treated patients: H (30.3%, R (16.3%, E (15.7% and S (16.3%. MDR-TB was observed in 13.4%, but, in new cases, this was 11.4% and 19.1% of the previously treated patients (P<0.05. Conclusion: MDR-TB is gradually increased in EPTB cases and predominant resistance to previous treated cases of EPTB. The molecular drug sensitivity test (DST method can be an early decision for chemotherapy in MDR-TB patients. The International Standards of TB Care need to be used by the RNTCP and professional medical associations as a tool to improve TB care in the country.

  12. 17 CFR 201.155 - Default; motion to set aside default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default; motion to set aside default. 201.155 Section 201.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.155 Default; motion to set aside default. (a) A...

  13. 49 CFR 1112.3 - Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default. 1112.3 Section 1112.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 1112.3 Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default. If a party fails to comply with...

  14. 39 CFR 965.7 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 965.7 Section 965.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAIL DISPUTES § 965.7 Default. A party who fails to file the submittal required by § 965.5 may be held in default and the...

  15. 15 CFR 280.208 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 280.208 Section 280.208... Enforcement § 280.208 Default. (a) General. Failure of the respondent to file an answer within the time...) Petition to set aside default—(1) Procedure. Upon petition filed by a respondent against whom a default...

  16. 31 CFR 10.64 - Answer; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer; default. 10.64 Section 10.64... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.64 Answer; default. (a) Filing. The respondent's... need be adduced at a hearing. (d) Default. Failure to file an answer within the time prescribed (or...

  17. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 128.4 Section 128.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 128.4 Default. (a... default. The case shall then be referred to the Administrative Law Judge for consideration in a manner as...

  18. What should your DC default be?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.

    2009-01-01

    As reported, most DC pension scheme participants simply follow proposed defaults, even though they have the freedom to choose. Consequently, default designs have dramatic impacts on individuals’retirement saving outcomes. Given the fact that the default design matters, this paper evaluates

  19. 39 CFR 952.11 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 952.11 Section 952.11 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.11 Default. (a) If the Respondent fails to file an answer within the time specified in the notice of answer and hearing, he shall be deemed in default, and to have waived hearing and...

  20. 10 CFR 820.33 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default order. 820.33 Section 820.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.33 Default order. (a) Default. The Presiding Officer, upon motion by a party or the filing of a Notice of Intent to issue a...

  1. 24 CFR 320.31 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 320.31 Section 320.31 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT... SECURITIES Bond-Type Securities § 320.31 Default. Upon default of the issuer, the Association has the right...

  2. 24 CFR 886.314 - Financial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial default. 886.314 Section... Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.314 Financial default. In the event of a financial default under the project mortgage, HUD shall have the right to make subsequent housing assistance...

  3. 10 CFR 110.110 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 110.110 Section 110.110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Hearings § 110.110 Default. When a participant fails to act within a specified time, the presiding officer may consider him in default, issue an...

  4. 24 CFR 201.16 - Default provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default provision. 201.16 Section... PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.16 Default provision. The... default by the borrower. ...

  5. 39 CFR 953.7 - Default; Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default; Appearances. 953.7 Section 953.7 Postal... § 953.7 Default; Appearances. If a timely reply to the appeal is not filed, the presiding officer shall... Inspector or his or her designee is in default. Whenever the General Counsel or the Chief Postal Inspector...

  6. 15 CFR 766.7 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 766.7 Section 766.7 Commerce... PROCEEDINGS § 766.7 Default. (a) General. Failure of the respondent to file an answer within the time provided... aside default—(1) Procedure. Upon petition filed by a respondent against whom a default order has been...

  7. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial default. 902.79 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.79 Substantial default. (a) Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. The following events or conditions shall constitute...

  8. 29 CFR 4043.67 - Loan default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan default. 4043.67 Section 4043.67 Labor Regulations... CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Advance Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.67 Loan default. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a loan default, as described in...

  9. 27 CFR 41.116 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 41.116 Section 41... Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.116 Default. Where a check or money order... the full amount of tax due thereunder, or where a bonded manufacturer is otherwise in default in...

  10. Reasoning by cases in Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Roos, Nico

    1998-01-01

    Reiter's Default Logic is one of the most popular formalisms for describing default reasoning. One important defect of Default Logic is, however, the inability to reason by cases. Over the years, several solutions for this problem have been proposed. All these proposals deal with deriving new

  11. 10 CFR 800.304 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 800.304 Section 800.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.304 Default. (a) In the event that the borrower fails to perform the terms and conditions of the loan, the borrower shall be in default and the Secretary shall have the...

  12. 39 CFR 963.11 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 963.11 Section 963.11 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.11 Default. If a petitioner, without notice or cause... thereupon may find the petitioner to be in default and refer the matter to the Judicial Officer for...

  13. 39 CFR 959.10 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 959.10 Section 959.10 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.10 Default. (a) If the respondent fails to file an answer within the time specified in the notice of hearing, the respondent shall be deemed in default and to have waived hearing and further...

  14. 24 CFR 26.41 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 26.41 Section 26.41... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Prehearing Procedures § 26.41 Default. (a) General. The respondent may be found in default, upon motion, for failure to file a timely response to the...

  15. 29 CFR 4043.34 - Loan default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan default. 4043.34 Section 4043.34 Labor Regulations... CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.34 Loan default. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for a plan whenever there is a default by a member of the plan's...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.891 - Liquidation; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Liquidation; default. 1951.891 Section 1951.891... Liquidation; default. (a) In the event that FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 takes over... Public Law 103-354 in connection with any default or breach of conditions under any loan made hereunder...

  17. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2015-01-01

    Distance-to-default (DD) is a measure of default risk derived from observed stock prices and book leverage using the structural credit risk model of Merton (1974). Despite the simplifying assumptions that underlie its derivation, DD has proven empirically to be a strong predictor of default. We use...

  18. 19 CFR 210.16 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 210.16 Section 210.16 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.16 Default. (a) Definition of default. (1) A party shall be found in...

  19. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    . A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...

  20. Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ping

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB patients are receiving the standard anti-TB treatment provided by China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS in China every year. Adverse reactions (ADRs induced by anti-TB drugs could both do harm to patients and lead to anti-TB treatment failure. The ADACS aimed to explore ADRs' incidences, prognoses, economical and public health impacts for TB patients and TB control, and build a DNA bank of TB patients. Methods/Design Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA. Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI, a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis. Discussion ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy.

  1. Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB) patients are receiving the standard anti-TB treatment provided by China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS) in China every year. Adverse reactions (ADRs) induced by anti-TB drugs could both do harm to patients and lead to anti-TB treatment failure. The ADACS aimed to explore ADRs' incidences, prognoses, economical and public health impacts for TB patients and TB control, and build a DNA bank of TB patients. Methods/Design Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI), a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis. Discussion ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy. PMID:20492672

  2. Primary and secondary anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Hitossa District of Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallo Daba Hamusse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB drugs which is resistant to the major first-line anti-TB drugs, Isoniazid and Rifampicin, has become a major global challenge in tuberculosis (TB control programme. However, its burden at community level is not well known. Thus, the aim of study was to assess the prevalence of primary and secondary resistance to any first line anti-TB drugs and MDR TB in Hitossa District of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia. Methods Population based cross- sectional study was conducted on individuals aged ≥15 years. Those with symptoms suggestive of TB were interviewed and two sputum specimens were collected from each and examined using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture medium. Further, the isolates were confirmed by the Ziehl-Neelsen microscopic examination method. Drug susceptibility test (DST was also conducted on LJ medium using a simplified indirect proportion method. The resistance strains were then determined by percentage of colonies that grew on the critical concentration of Isoniazid, Streptomycin, Rifampicin and Ethambutol. Results The overall resistance of all forms of TB to any first-line anti-TB drug was 21.7 %. Of the total new and previously treated culture positive TB cases, 15.3 and 48.8 % respectively were found to be a resistant to any of the first-line anti-TB drugs. Further, of all forms of TB, the overall resistance of MDR-TB was 4.7 %. However, of the total new TB cases, 2.4 % had primary while 14.3 % had secondary MDR-TB. Resistance to any of the first-line anti-TB drugs (adjusted odd ratio (AOR, 8.1; 95 % CI: 2.26–29.30 and MDR-TB (AOR, 7.1; 95 % CI: 2.6–43.8 was found to be linked with previous history of anti-TB treatment. Conclusions The study has identified a high rate of primary and secondary resistance to any of the first-line anti-TB drugs and MDR-TB in the study area. The resistance may have resulted from sub-optimal performance of directly observed

  3. Inequality and Sovereign Default under Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONG KYUN KIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Do differences in the inequality of income affect the likelihood that democratic governments decide not to honor their foreign debt contracts? I argue that sovereign default involves an intertemporal tradeoff between an immediate consumption boost and a future tax increase. Since a poorer voter internalizes less of the future cost of default, as the median is poorer, the majority’s demand for default increases. Therefore, greater income inequality implies a higher default risk. I then present a signaling game that models strategic selection that a sovereign must go through to get to the default decision node. I show that sovereign default is most likely to actually occur when the level of income inequality is intermediate. The intuition is that sovereign default occurs when risky sovereigns successfully induce creditors to provide a loan, but the most risky ones are among those least able to do so. Empirical findings support the claim.

  4. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    -change of a homogeneous Levy process. While the processes in these two classes share the same average behavior over time, the associated intensities exhibit very different properties. Concrete specifications are calibrated to data on the single names included in the iTraxx Europe index. The performances are compared......In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is classically the modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature has shown a tendency towards...... specifying the cumulative hazard process directly. Within this framework we present a new model class where cumulative hazards are described by self-similar additive processes, also known as Sato processes. Furthermore we also analyze specifications obtained via a simple deterministic time...

  5. Distribution, incidence, prevalence and default of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The study showed that the majority (38.7%) of patients with diabetes on the public sector register were from the district of eThekwini. Positive correlations were found between the prevalence of diabetes, the mortality rate and the number of defaulters (patients with diabetes who did not return for regular treatment).

  6. Correlated Default and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Phelan

    2015-01-01

    Financial intermediation naturally arises when knowledge about the aggregate state is valuable for managing investments and lenders cannot easily observe the aggregate state. I show this using a costly enforcement model in which lenders need ex-post incentives to enforce payments from defaulted loans and borrowers' payoffs are correlated. When projects have correlated outcomes, learning the state of one project (via enforcement) provides information about the states of other projects. A large...

  7. Accelerating early anti-tuberculosis drug discovery by creating mycobacterial indicator strains that predict mode of action

    KAUST Repository

    Boot, Maikel

    2018-04-13

    Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin. The resulting dataset comprises the first overview of transcriptional stress responses of mycobacteria to different antibiotics. We show that antibiotics can be distinguished based on their specific transcriptional stress fingerprint. Notably, this fingerprint was more distinctive in M. marinum. We decided to use this to our advantage and continue with this model organism. A selection of diverse antibiotic stress genes was used to construct stress reporters. In total, three functional reporters were constructed to respond to DNA damage, cell wall damage and ribosomal inhibition. Subsequently, these reporter strains were used to screen a small anti-TB compound library to predict the mode of action. In doing so, we could identify the putative mode of action for three novel compounds, which confirms our approach.

  8. Increased risk of default among previously treated tuberculosis cases in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F M; Dunbar, R; Hesseling, A C; Enarson, D A; Fielding, K; Beyers, N

    2012-08-01

    To investigate, in two urban communities with high tuberculosis (TB) incidence and high rates of TB recurrence, whether a history of previous TB treatment is associated with treatment default. Retrospective cohort study of TB cases with an episode of treatment recorded in the clinic-based treatment registers between 2002 and 2007. Probabilistic record linkage was used to ascertain treatment history of TB cases back to 1996. Based on the outcome of their most recent previous treatment episode, previously treated cases were compared to new cases regarding their risk of treatment default. Previous treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95%CI 1.17-2.73), previous default (aOR 6.18, 95%CI 3.68-10.36) and previous failure (aOR 9.72, 95%CI 3.07-30.78) were each independently associated with treatment default (P default were male sex (P = 0.003) and age 19-39 years (P risk of treatment default, even after previous successful treatment. This finding is of particular importance in a setting where recurrent TB is very common. Adherence to treatment should be ensured in new and retreatment cases to increase cure rates and reduce transmission of TB in the community.

  9. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, I.; Iqbal, R.; Khan, S.U.; Munir, K.; Nazir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of spinal tuberculosis after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Cheng Gu; Rong-Huan Wu; Xiang-Jin Lin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal tuberculosis is a common disease in orthopedic clinical practice; however, it is seldom reported after organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of spinal tuberculosis after organ transplantation. METHOD: Two cases were diagnosed as spinal tuberculosis after liver transplantation and were treated with socarboxazide, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol for more than one year. RESULTS: After treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs for several months, the symptoms of both patients clearly improved. Back pain disappeared, and erythrocyte sedimentation and body temperature returned to normal. CONCLUSIONS: We should highly suspect spinal tuberculosis if notalgia and night sweats are present after organ transplantation. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is an effective treatment for spinal tuberculosis after organ transplantation.

  11. 7 CFR 2201.33 - Defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defaults. 2201.33 Section 2201.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.33 Defaults. (a) In determining...

  12. 31 CFR 501.716 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge (or the Secretary's designee) pursuant to § 501.729(b). (b) In deciding whether to determine the proceedings against a party deemed to be in default, the Administrative Law Judge shall... default and the Administrative Law Judge (or the Secretary's designee during review proceedings) may...

  13. 39 CFR 964.6 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 964.6 Section 964.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING DISPOSITION OF MAIL WITHHELD FROM DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.6 Default. If a Petitioner fails to appear at the hearing without...

  14. 14 CFR 302.409 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 302.409 Section 302.409 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules Applicable to Enforcement Proceedings § 302.409 Default...

  15. 10 CFR 2.320 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 2.320 Section 2.320 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules of General... § 2.320 Default. If a party fails to file an answer or pleading within the time prescribed in this...

  16. A proof theory for constructive default logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y-H. Tan (Yao-Hua)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractWe present what we call Constructive Default Logic (CDL) - a default logic in which the fixed-point definition of extensions is replaced by a constructive definition which yield so-called constructive extensions. Selection functions are used to represent explicitly the control of the

  17. 39 CFR 954.9 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 954.9 Section 954.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.9 Default. If a publisher fails to appear at the hearing, the...

  18. 48 CFR 245.7309-7 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default. 245.7309-7 Section 245.7309-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Default. If the successful Bidder fails to make full payment, remove property by the specified date, or...

  19. Error probabilities in default Bayesian hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Xin; Hoijtink, Herbert; Mulder, J,

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the classical type I and type II error probabilities of default Bayes factors for a Bayesian t test. Default Bayes factors quantify the relative evidence between the null hypothesis and the unrestricted alternative hypothesis without needing to specify prior distributions for

  20. 12 CFR 622.81 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 622.81 Section 622.81 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules and Procedures... Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for a hearing, or fails to appear at a hearing...

  1. On the importance of default breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment

  2. 12 CFR 508.8 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 508.8 Section 508.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for a...

  3. Strategic default and equity risk across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2010-01-01

    We test whether the firm’s systematic equity risk reflects the shareholders’ incentives to default strategically on the firm’s debt. We use a real options model to relate the shareholders’ strategic default behavior to frictions in the debt renegotiation procedure. We test the model’s predictions

  4. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  5. Credit default swaps and risk-shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campello, M.; Matta, R.

    2012-01-01

    Credit default swaps (CDSs) are thought to ease borrowing by protecting lenders against default. This paper develops a model of the demand for CDS when borrowers choose the riskiness of investment and verification is imperfect. The model shows that CDSs may lead to risk-shifting, increasing the

  6. Quadratic Hedging Methods for Defaultable Claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Francesca; Cretarola, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    We apply the local risk-minimization approach to defaultable claims and we compare it with intensity-based evaluation formulas and the mean-variance hedging. We solve analytically the problem of finding respectively the hedging strategy and the associated portfolio for the three methods in the case of a default put option with random recovery at maturity

  7. Default options and neonatal resuscitation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Marlyse Frieda; Murphy, Ryan O; Lorenz, John M

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether presenting delivery room management options as defaults influences decisions to resuscitate extremely premature infants. Adult volunteers recruited from the world wide web were randomised to receive either resuscitation or comfort care as the delivery room management default option for a hypothetical delivery of a 23-week gestation infant. Participants were required to check a box to opt out of the default. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of respondents electing resuscitation. Data were analysed using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression. Participants who were told the delivery room management default option was resuscitation were more likely to opt for resuscitation (OR 6.54 95% CI 3.85 to 11.11, pmanipulation. Further, this effect may operate in ways that a decision maker is not aware of and this raises questions of patient autonomy. Presenting delivery room options for extremely premature infants as defaults may compromise autonomous decision-making.

  8. Asymmetric default bias in dishonesty – how defaults work but only when in one’s favor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt

    Based on a dice rolling task where participants can cheat on the outcome, this paper asks if default answers change dishonesty? The paper finds that various default answers have asymmetric effects. Compared to not having a default answer at all, providing a low default answer, or adding the expec......Based on a dice rolling task where participants can cheat on the outcome, this paper asks if default answers change dishonesty? The paper finds that various default answers have asymmetric effects. Compared to not having a default answer at all, providing a low default answer, or adding...

  9. 17 CFR 12.23 - Setting aside of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 12... aside of default. (a) Default order not final. In order to prevent injustice or for good cause shown, and on such conditions as may be appropriate, a non-final default order (including any award therein...

  10. 46 CFR 298.41 - Remedies after default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies after default. 298.41 Section 298.41 Shipping... Defaults and Remedies, Reporting Requirements, Applicability of Regulations § 298.41 Remedies after default... governing remedies after a default, which relate to our rights and duties, the rights and duties of the...

  11. 24 CFR 241.840 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 241.840 Section... § 241.840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered... of the lender's acceleration of the debt because of the borrower's default under the first...

  12. 24 CFR 232.850 - Notice of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default. 232.850 Section....850 Notice of default. (a) If the default is not cured within the 30 day grace period, as defined in... default. (b) The lender shall give notice in writing to the Commissioner of the failure of the borrower to...

  13. 24 CFR 241.850 - Notice of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default. 241.850 Section... § 241.850 Notice of default. (a) If the default is not cured within the 30 day grace period, as defined... such default. (b) The lender shall give notice in writing to the Commissioner of the failure of the...

  14. 48 CFR 1349.402-3 - Procedure for default

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for default 1349... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 1349.402-3 Procedure for default No action relating to a default termination, including issuance of a show cause letter, cure notice, or notice of...

  15. Interferon-gamma response to the treatment of active pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L; Shi, R; Liu, X; Yuan, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, G; Wang, W; Wang, J; England, K; Via, L E; Cai, Y; Goldfeder, L C; Dodd, L E; Barry, C E; Chen, R Y

    2017-10-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The QuantiFERON® TB-Gold assay was run on collected blood samples. Participants received a follow-up telephone call at 24 months to determine relapse status. Of the 152 TB patients enrolled, 135 were eligible for this analysis: 118 pulmonary (PTB) and 17 extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) patients. IFN-γ levels declined significantly over time among all patients (P = 0.002), with this decline driven by PTB patients (P = 0.001), largely during the initial 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.019). IFN-γ levels did not change among EPTB patients over time or against baseline culture or drug resistance status. After 6 months of effective anti-tuberculosis treatment, IFN-γ levels decreased significantly in PTB patients, largely over the initial 8 weeks of treatment. IFN-γ concentrations may offer some value for monitoring anti-tuberculosis treatment response among PTB patients.

  16. The Welfare Cost of Sovereign Default and Liquidity Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous default on entrepreneur loans and funds borrowed from the central bank (liquidity injections) and investigates the welfare cost of sovereign default. The results show that sovereign default affects production through households' investment decisions and the bank's asset portfolio adjustment. The effect of sovereign default on entrepreneurs tends to be in favor of production. Sovereign default reduces the variability of th...

  17. Hypothyroidism during second-line treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, R; Khalid, N; Daniel, H; Dittmann, H; Reimold, M; Gallwitz, B; Schmotzer, C

    2016-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is an adverse effect of certain anti-tuberculosis drugs. This is a prospective study of the frequency and possible pathomechanisms associated with hypothyroidism due to second-line treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Fifty human immunodeficiency virus negative patients and 20 controls were included. All participants underwent ultrasonography of the thyroid and measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH levels were checked every 3 months. If hypothyroidism was present, T3, T4 and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies were measured, and imaging extended to scintigraphy and repeated ultrasonography. Before treatment, 7 patients (14%) and 1 control (5%) were hypothyreotic. During the first 6 months of treatment, TSH levels increased in 41 patients (82%), 39 (78%) had values above the normal range and 19 (38%) had overt hypothyroidism. As none of the patients had signs of autoimmune thyroiditis, interaction with anti-tuberculosis drugs was assumed to be the cause of hypothyroidism. Nine patients died during treatment, all of whom had developed hypothyroidism. In seven, the metabolic situation at their death was known, and they had become euthyreotic following levothyroxine substitution. TSH levels should be checked before initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment and after 3 and 6 months to start timely replacement of levothyroxine. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact pathomechanism involved in hypothyroidism and whether hypothyroidism can be used as predictor of treatment failure.

  18. Default Mode Network Connectivity in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Anil Man; Snaphaan, Liselore; Shumskaya, Elena; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernandez, Guillén; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of episodic memory dysfunction after infarction is not completely understood. It has been suggested that infarctions located anywhere in the brain can induce widespread effects causing disruption of functional networks of the cortical regions. The default mode network, which includes the medial temporal lobe, is a functional network that is associated with episodic memory processing. We investigated whether the default mode network activity is reduced in stroke patients compared to healthy control subjects in the resting state condition. We assessed the whole brain network properties during resting state functional MRI in 21 control subjects and 20 'first-ever' stroke patients. Patients were scanned 9-12 weeks after stroke onset. Stroke lesions were located in various parts of the brain. Independent component analyses were conducted to identify the default mode network and to compare the group differences of the default mode network. Furthermore, region-of-interest based analysis was performed to explore the functional connectivity between the regions of the default mode network. Stroke patients performed significantly worse than control subjects on the delayed recall score on California verbal learning test. We found decreased functional connectivity in the left medial temporal lobe, posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortical areas within the default mode network and reduced functional connectivity between these regions in stroke patients compared with controls. There were no significant volumetric differences between the groups. These results demonstrate that connectivity within the default mode network is reduced in 'first-ever' stroke patients compared to control subjects. This phenomenon might explain the occurrence of post-stroke cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients.

  19. Risk factors associated with default among new pulmonary TB patients and social support in six Russian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowiak, W M; Bogorodskaya, E M; Borisov, S E; Borisov, E S; Danilova, I D; Danilova, D I; Kourbatova, E V; Kourbatova, E K

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) services in six Russian regions in which social support programmes for TB patients were implemented. To identify risk factors for default and to evaluate possible impact of social support. Retrospective study of new pulmonary smear-positive and smear-negative TB patients registered during the second and third quarters of the 2003. Data were analysed in a case-control study including default patients as cases and successfully treated patients as controls, using multivariate logistic regression modelling. A total of 1805 cases of pulmonary TB were enrolled. Default rates in the regions were 2.3-6.3%. On multivariate analysis, risk factors independently associated with default outcome included: unemployment (OR 4.44; 95%CI 2.23-8.86), alcohol abuse (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.04-3.81), and homelessness (OR 3.49; 95%CI 1.25-9.77). Social support reduced the default outcome (OR 0.13; 95%CI 0.06-0.28), controlling for age, sex, region, residence and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear of sputum. Unemployment, alcohol abuse and homelessness were associated with increased default outcome among new TB patients, while social support for TB patients reduced default. Further prospective randomised studies are necessary to evaluate the impact and to determine the most cost-effective social support for improving treatment outcomes of TB in patients in Russia, especially among populations at risk of default.

  20. Default mode network connectivity during task execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, D; Menon, D K; Manktelow, A E; Sahakian, B J; Stamatakis, E A

    2015-11-15

    Initially described as task-induced deactivations during goal-directed paradigms of high attentional load, the unresolved functionality of default mode regions has long been assumed to interfere with task performance. However, recent evidence suggests a potential default mode network involvement in fulfilling cognitive demands. We tested this hypothesis in a finger opposition paradigm with task and fixation periods which we compared with an independent resting state scan using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive analysis pipeline including activation, functional connectivity, behavioural and graph theoretical assessments. The results indicate task specific changes in the default mode network topography. Behaviourally, we show that increased connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with the left superior frontal gyrus predicts faster reaction times. Moreover, interactive and dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network regions' functional connections illustrates their involvement with the task at hand with higher-level global parallel processing power, yet preserved small-world architecture in comparison with rest. These findings demonstrate that the default mode network does not disengage during this paradigm, but instead may be involved in task relevant processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DETERMINANTS OF BUSINESS LOAN DEFAULT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation, funding, servicing and monitoring of loans by financial intermediaries has been done without regard to some critical factors which could have averted the likelihood of default. The study aimed at measuring the extent that owner-specific, borrower-specific, loan and lender-specific characteristics could determine the probability of loan default. The study used logistic regression for 224 business customers of a bank in Ghana from its nation-wide branches. The study found that owner’s extra income (ownership characteristics, multiple borrowing, diversion of loan purpose (borrower characteristics, loan price, loan purpose, loan age, repayment plan (loan characteristics and underfunding (lender characteristics significantly determined the probability of business loan default. The overall model predicted up to 78.5% of variations in the likelihood of default. The hierarchy of strong determinants given by their odd ratios were loan purpose (47.9 times, underfunding (19.2 times, diversion of loan purpose (11.7 times multiple borrowing (9.4 times and owner’s extra income (8.2 times. The study can conclude that financial intermediaries should be wary of the credit granting process taking cognisance of ownership, borrower, loan and lender characteristics especially the significant predictors. Combining quantitative and qualitative variables as determinants of default could be considered in future.

  2. Risk factors associated with default among tuberculosis patients in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nirmalya; Basu, Mausumi; Das, Sibasis; Mandal, Amitava; Dutt, Debashis; Dasgupta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The treatment outcome "default" under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) is a patient who after treatment initiation has interrupted treatment consecutively for more than 2 months. To assess the timing, characteristics and distribution of the reasons for default with relation to some sociodemographic variables among new sputum-positive (NSP) tuberculosis (TB) patients in Darjeeling District, West Bengal. A case-control study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of Darjeeling from August'2011 to December'2011 among NSP TB patients enrolled for treatment in the TB register from 1(st) Qtr'09 to 2(nd) Qtr'10. Patients defaulted from treatment were considered as "cases" and those completed treatment as "controls" (79 cases and 79 controls). The enrolled cases and controls were interviewed by the health workers using a predesigned structured pro-forma. Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR). 75% of the default occurred in the intensive phase (IP); 54.24% retrieval action was done within 1 day during IP and 75% within 1 week during continuation phase (CP); cent percent of the documented retrieval actions were undertaken by the contractual TB program staffs. Most commonly cited reasons for default were alcohol consumption (29.11%), adverse effects of drugs (25.32%), and long distance of DOT center (21.52%). In the logistic regression analysis, the factors independently associated were consumption of alcohol, inadequate knowledge about TB, inadequate patient provider interaction, instances of missed doses, adverse reactions of anti-TB drugs, Government Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) provider and smoking. Most defaults occurred in the intensive phase; pre-treatment counseling and initial home visit play very important role in this regard. Proper counseling by health care workers in patient provider meeting is needed.

  3. Default mode contributions to automated information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Menon, David K; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2017-11-28

    Concurrent with mental processes that require rigorous computation and control, a series of automated decisions and actions govern our daily lives, providing efficient and adaptive responses to environmental demands. Using a cognitive flexibility task, we show that a set of brain regions collectively known as the default mode network plays a crucial role in such "autopilot" behavior, i.e., when rapidly selecting appropriate responses under predictable behavioral contexts. While applying learned rules, the default mode network shows both greater activity and connectivity. Furthermore, functional interactions between this network and hippocampal and parahippocampal areas as well as primary visual cortex correlate with the speed of accurate responses. These findings indicate a memory-based "autopilot role" for the default mode network, which may have important implications for our current understanding of healthy and adaptive brain processing.

  4. Systematic and Idiosyncratic Default Risk in Synthetic Credit Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldhütter, Peter; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    2012-01-01

    We present a new estimation approach that allows us to extract from spreads in synthetic credit markets the contribution of systematic and idiosyncratic default risk to total default risk. Using an extensive dataset of 90,600 credit default swap and collateralized debt obligation (CDO) tranche...... spreads on the North American Investment Grade CDX index, we conduct an empirical analysis of an intensity-based model for correlated defaults. Our results show that systematic default risk is an explosive process with low volatility, while idiosyncratic default risk is more volatile but less explosive...

  5. Microcredit Loan Repayment Default among Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model is applied to primary data from a survey of 200 small scale entrepreneurs in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Results show that enterprise size, interest rate, loan duration, level of profit and loan amount are the simultaneous determinants of probability and rate of default. The study recommends that the National ...

  6. Student Loan Default and Repayment in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As college costs continue to rise, student loan default and repayment are issues of increasing concern to students and families, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments. Helping students borrow responsibly and manage their debt are vitally important to maintaining college access and affordability and increasing the education…

  7. Student Loan Default Rates in Minnesota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    While Minnesota undergraduates are more likely to take out student loans, they are substantially less likely than their peers nationally to default on federal student loans. Fifty-four percent of Minnesota undergraduates took out student loans in 2007-2008, compared to 39 percent of undergraduates across the U.S. Minnesota undergraduates were also…

  8. Updating default depths in the ISC bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Maiclaire K.; Storchak, Dmitry A.; Harris, James

    2006-09-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) publishes the definitive global bulletin of earthquake locations. In the ISC bulletin, we aim to obtain a free depth, but often this is not possible. Subsequently, the first option is to obtain a depth derived from depth phases. If depth phases are not available, we then use the reported depth from a reputable local agency. Finally, as a last resort, we set a default depth. In the past, common depths of 10, 33, or multiples of 50 km have been assigned. Assigning a more meaningful default depth, specific to a seismic region will increase the consistency of earthquake locations within the ISC bulletin and allow the ISC to publish better positions and magnitude estimates. It will also improve the association of reported secondary arrivals to corresponding seismic events. We aim to produce a global set of default depths, based on a typical depth for each area, from well-constrained events in the ISC bulletin or where depth could be constrained using a consistent set of depth phase arrivals provided by a number of different reporters. In certain areas, we must resort to using other assumptions. For these cases, we use a global crustal model (Crust2.0) to set default depths to half the thickness of the crust.

  9. Collective strategic defaults: Bailouts and repayment incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahu, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that under a global games approach banks may be subject to risk of failure even when fundamentals are strong due to a coordination problem among debtors. As a result of collective strategic default a financially sound firm may claim inability to repay if it expects a sufficient

  10. Risk factors associated with default among retreatment tuberculosis patients on DOTS in Paschim Medinipur district (West Bengal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, S S; Dutt, D

    2014-07-01

    In India in 2010, 14.1% of retreatment of TB patients' treatment outcome was 'default'. Since 2002, in Paschim Midnapur District (West Bengal), it has been around 15-20%. To determine the timing, characteristics and risk factors associated with default among retreatment TB patients on DOTS. It was a case control study, conducted in six TB units (TU) of Paschim Midnapur District, which were selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected from treatment records of TUs/DTC. Data was also collected through interviews of the patients using the same pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 87 defaulters and 86 consecutively registered non-defaulters registered in first quarter, 2009 to second quarter, 2010. Median duration of treatment taken before default was 121 days (inter-quartile range of 64-176 days). Median number of doses of treatment taken before default was 36 (inter -quartile range of 26-63 doses). No retrieval action was documented in 57.5% cases. Retrieval was done between 0-7 days of missed doses in 29.9% cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated the following important risk factors for default at 95% confidence interval: male-sex limit: [aOR 3.957 (1.162-13.469)], alcoholic inebriation[ aOR6.076 (2.088-17.675)], distance from DOT centre [aOR 4.066 (1.675-9.872)], number of missed doses during treatment [aOR 1.849 (1.282-2.669)] and no initial home visit [aOR 10.607 (2.286 -49.221)]. In Paschim Midnapur district, default of retreatment TB occurs mostly after a few doses in continuation phase. Initial home visit, patient provider meeting, retrieval action, community-based treatment as per RNTCP guidelines are required to uplift the programme.

  11. Of religion and redemption : Evidence from default on Islamic loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.T.M.; Farooq, Moazzam; Ongena, S.R.G.

    We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on conventional

  12. 17 CFR 10.94 - Setting aside of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 10... PRACTICE Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.94 Setting aside of default. In order to prevent injustice and on such conditions as may be appropriate, (a) the Commission may at any time set aside a default...

  13. 24 CFR 232.840 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 232.840 Section 232.840 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered as...

  14. 48 CFR 252.237-7007 - Termination for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for default... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7007 Termination for default. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Termination for Default (DEC 1991) (a) This clause supplements and is in addition to the...

  15. 75 FR 60258 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Termination for Default Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ..., Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL45 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Termination for Default Reporting AGENCIES... terminations for cause or default and defective cost or pricing data, into the Past Performance Information... defective cost or pricing data and terminations for cause or default into the FAPIIS module of the PPIRS...

  16. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.811 Date of default. For the purposes of §§ 220.800 et seq., the date of default shall be considered as: (a) The date of the first...

  17. Default options and social welfare : Opt in versus opt out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    We offer a social-welfare comparison of the two most prominent default options – opt in and opt out – using a two-period model of localized competition. We demonstrate that when consumers stick to the default option, the prevailing default policy shapes firms' ability to collect and use customer

  18. 24 CFR 232.830 - Definition of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of default. 232.830... Insurance § 232.830 Definition of default. (a) If the borrower fails to make any payments due under or... default for the purposes of this subpart. (b) The failure to perform any other covenant under the note or...

  19. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH... default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make full...

  20. 17 CFR 10.93 - Obtaining default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining default order. 10.93... Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.93 Obtaining default order. When a respondent has failed to (a) file an... enter findings and conclusions and a default order against that respondent based upon the matters set...

  1. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brewer in default. 25.173... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a... the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  2. 48 CFR 449.402-3 - Procedure for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for default. 449.402-3 Section 449.402-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 449.402-3 Procedure for default. In addition to...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5280 - Retirement in event of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement in event of default. 615.5280... Dividends § 615.5280 Retirement in event of default. (a) When the debt of a holder of eligible borrower... association or agricultural credit association is in default, such institution may, but shall not be required...

  4. 48 CFR 22.1023 - Termination for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for default... Amended 22.1023 Termination for default. As provided by the Act, any contractor failure to comply with the requirements of the contract clauses related to the Act may be grounds for termination for default (see...

  5. 24 CFR 220.810 - Definition of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of default. 220.810... Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.810 Definition of default... note or security instrument and such default continues for a period of 30 days, the note or security...

  6. 29 CFR 2570.5 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.5 Section 2570.5 Labor... ERISA Section 502(i) § 2570.5 Consequences of default. For prohibited transaction penalty proceedings... administrative law judge may set aside a default entered under this provision where there is proof of defective...

  7. 48 CFR 1449.402-3 - Procedure for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for default. 1449.402-3 Section 1449.402-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 1449.402-3 Procedure for default. In...

  8. 27 CFR 40.166 - Default, prepayment of tax required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default, prepayment of tax... Payment of Taxes on Tobacco Products § 40.166 Default, prepayment of tax required. Where a check or money... tax due thereunder, or where a manufacturer is otherwise in default in payment of tax on tobacco...

  9. 24 CFR 220.812 - Notice of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default. 220.812 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.812 Notice of default. (a) If the default as defined in § 220.810 is not cured within the 30 day grace period, the lender shall, within 30...

  10. Change and status quo in decisions with defaults: The effect of incidental emotions depends on the type of default

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Yury; von Helversen, Bettina; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Affective states can change how people react to measures aimed at influencing their decisions such as providing a default option. Previous research has shown that when defaults maintain the status quo positive mood increases reliance on the default and negative mood decreases it. Similarly, it has been demonstrated that positive mood enhances the preference for inaction. We extend this research by investigating how mood states influence reliance on the default if the defa...

  11. A Study of the Impact of Default Management Practices and Other Factors on Student Loan Default Rates in Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Randell W.

    2013-01-01

    Default management practices and their relationship to the student loan default rate in public two-year community colleges was the focus of this investigation. Five research questions regarding written default management plans, default management practices, process management, accountability, and other factors impacting default guided the study.…

  12. Nudge for (the Public) Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosgaard, Toke R; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default.

  13. Nudge for (the Public Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toke R Fosgaard

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default.

  14. On strategic default and liquidity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Tambakis, Demosthenes N

    2002-01-01

    How does the uncertain provision of external finance affect investment projects' default probability and liquidity risk? In this paper, I study the strategic interaction between many creditors and a single borrower in the context of a two-period investment project requiring external credit. Loans mature in one period but the project requires two periods to complete. The key working assumptions are that creditors are risk-averse and that any uncertainty is common knowledge: information about ...

  15. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities.

  16. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2014-11-04

    Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities.

  17. Understanding Emerging Market Sovereign Bond Yield Spread: Role of Default and Non-Default Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Surya Pratiwi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the fact that emerging market assets size has been expanding and trying to use sovereign debt market as part of capital market as main research focus. It is highlighting the distinction between default and non-default determinants and examining their significance in explaining emerging market sovereign bond yield spread. Using Cross-Sectional Fixed-Effect Panel Estimator, we found that both default (as proxied by Credit Rating and Outlook Index and non-default (as proxied by 3-month Fed Funds Futures determinants has significant explanatory power to sovereign bond yield spread. Extensively, we also found the significance to add volatility of 3-month Fed Funds Futures and Fed Target Rate basis and volatility of advanced stock markets as variables to stand for non-default determinants in the model. The significance of the latter model is strengthened by higher forecasting as well as indicates the significant role of US market to emerging market sovereign bond market.

  18. Conceptual and Statistical Issues Regarding the Probability of Default and Modeling Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia TITAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapidly evolving financial markets, risk management offers different techniques in order to implement an efficient system against market risk. Probability of default (PD is an essential part of business intelligence and customer relation management systems in the financial institutions. Recent studies indicates that underestimating this important component, and also the loss given default (LGD, might threaten the stability and smooth running of the financial markets. From the perspective of risk management, the result of predictive accuracy of the estimated probability of default is more valuable than the standard binary classification: credible or non credible clients. The Basle II Accord recognizes the methods of reducing credit risk and also PD and LGD as important components of advanced Internal Rating Based (IRB approach.

  19. Safety of Resuming Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Concomitant with the Treatment of Active Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Nationwide Registry of the Korean Society of Spondyloarthritis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Won; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Baek, Han Joo; Seo, Mi Ryung; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Suh, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ju Yang; Son, Chang-Nam; Shim, Seung Cheol; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Geun; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Patients who develop an active tuberculosis infection during tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment typically discontinue TNF inhibitor and receive standard anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, there is currently insufficient information on patient outcomes following resumption of TNF inhibitor treatment during ongoing anti- tuberculosis treatment. Our study was designed to investigate the safety of resuming TNF inhibitors in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who developed tuberculosis as a complication of the use of TNF inhibitors. Methods Through the nationwide registry of the Korean Society of Spondyloarthritis Research, 3929 AS patients who were prescribed TNF inhibitors were recruited between June 2003 and June 2014 at fourteen referral hospitals. Clinical information was analyzed about the patients who experienced tuberculosis after exposure to TNF inhibitors. The clinical features of resumers and non-resumers of TNF inhibitors were compared and the outcomes of tuberculosis were surveyed individually. Findings Fifty-six AS patients were treated for tuberculosis associated with TNF inhibitors. Among them, 23 patients resumed TNF inhibitors, and these patients were found to be exposed to TNF inhibitors for a longer period of time and experienced more frequent disease flare-up after discontinuation of TNF inhibitors compared with those who did not resume. Fifteen patients resumed TNF inhibitors during anti-tuberculosis treatment (early resumers) and 8 after completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (late resumers). Median time to resuming TNF inhibitor from tuberculosis was 3.3 and 9.0 months in the early and late resumers, respectively. Tuberculosis was treated successfully in all resumers and did not relapse in any of them during follow-up (median 33.8 [IQR; 20.8–66.7] months). Conclusions Instances of tuberculosis were treated successfully in our AS patients, even when given concomitantly with TNF inhibitors. We suggest that early

  20. Anti-tuberculosis drug combination for controlled oral delivery using 3D printed compartmental dosage forms: From drug product design to in vivo testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Boetker, Johan Peter; Colombo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    for treatment of tuberculosis (TB) that negatively interact with each other upon simultaneous release in acidic environment. The dcDUs were designed in silico by computer aided design (CAD) and fabricated in two steps; first three-dimensional (3D) printing of the outer structure, followed by hot-melt extrusion...... (HME) of the drug-containing filaments. The structure of the fabricated dcDUs was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 3D printed compartmentalized shells were loaded with filaments containing active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and selectively sealed to modulate drug dissolution...

  1. Default options in the ICU: widely used but insufficiently understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352

  2. Default Mode Dynamics for Global Functional Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Menon, David K; Manktelow, Anne E; Sahakian, Barbara J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2015-11-18

    The default mode network (DMN) has been traditionally assumed to hinder behavioral performance in externally focused, goal-directed paradigms and to provide no active contribution to human cognition. However, recent evidence suggests greater DMN activity in an array of tasks, especially those that involve self-referential and memory-based processing. Although data that robustly demonstrate a comprehensive functional role for DMN remains relatively scarce, the global workspace framework, which implicates the DMN in global information integration for conscious processing, can potentially provide an explanation for the broad range of higher-order paradigms that report DMN involvement. We used graph theoretical measures to assess the contribution of the DMN to global functional connectivity dynamics in 22 healthy volunteers during an fMRI-based n-back working-memory paradigm with parametric increases in difficulty. Our predominant finding is that brain modularity decreases with greater task demands, thus adapting a more global workspace configuration, in direct relation to increases in reaction times to correct responses. Flexible default mode regions dynamically switch community memberships and display significant changes in their nodal participation coefficient and strength, which may reflect the observed whole-brain changes in functional connectivity architecture. These findings have important implications for our understanding of healthy brain function, as they suggest a central role for the DMN in higher cognitive processing. The default mode network (DMN) has been shown to increase its activity during the absence of external stimulation, and hence was historically assumed to disengage during goal-directed tasks. Recent evidence, however, implicates the DMN in self-referential and memory-based processing. We provide robust evidence for this network's active contribution to working memory by revealing dynamic reconfiguration in its interactions with other networks

  3. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  4. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-01-01

    In designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought at best. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past five to seven years reach an important juncture in retail market design and consider an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial customers. The authors describe the experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price-responsive demand. (author)

  5. Default Bayesian Estimation of the Fundamental Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Joint fundamental frequency and model order esti- mation is an important problem in several applications. In this paper, a default estimation algorithm based on a minimum of prior information is presented. The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework, and it can be applied to both real....... Moreover, several approximations of the posterior distributions on the fundamental frequency and the model order are derived, and one of the state-of-the-art joint fundamental frequency and model order estimators is demonstrated to be a special case of one of these approximations. The performance...

  6. Default contagion risks in Russian interbank market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    Systemic risks of default contagion in the Russian interbank market are investigated. The analysis is based on considering the bow-tie structure of the weighted oriented graph describing the structure of the interbank loans. A probabilistic model of interbank contagion explicitly taking into account the empirical bow-tie structure reflecting functionality of the corresponding nodes (borrowers, lenders, borrowers and lenders simultaneously), degree distributions and disassortativity of the interbank network under consideration based on empirical data is developed. The characteristics of contagion-related systemic risk calculated with this model are shown to be in agreement with those of explicit stress tests.

  7. Shopping Center Financing: Pricing Loan Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Chinloy; James Musumeci

    1994-01-01

    The financing structure of a shopping center is decomposed into an income security and two put options. These put options are respectively held by the borrower against the lender for default, and by the lender against an insurer or reinsurer. The prices of the put option depend on the loan-to-value ration of the loan and on the risk of the investment. The interest rate charged on the loan is the sum of four components: a riskless rate, lender production costs, and the net price of the put opt...

  8. Default, non-default, markedness and complexity in the L2 English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Principles and Parameters approach, parameters capture variation: languages do not differ randomly but along well-defined lines. Parameters typically take the form of a binary choice, such as yes/no or a similar option. In acquisition, a parameter is assumed to have a default setting as a starting point, which is ...

  9. Default Drug Doses in Anesthesia Information Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis I; Smaka, Todd J; Mahla, Michael; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-07-01

    In the United States, anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are well established, especially within academic practices. Many hospitals are replacing their stand-alone AIMS during migration to an enterprise-wide electronic health record. This presents an opportunity to review choices made during the original implementation, based on actual usage. One area amenable to this informatics approach is the configuration in the AIMS of quick buttons for typical drug doses. The use of such short cuts, as opposed to manual typing of doses, simplifies and may improve the accuracy of drug documentation within the AIMS. We analyzed administration data from 3 different institutions, 2 of which had empirically configured default doses, and one in which defaults had not been set up. Our first hypothesis was that most (ie, >50%) of drugs would need at least one change to the existing defaults. Our second hypothesis was that for most (>50%) drugs, the 4 most common doses at the site lacking defaults would be included among the most common doses at the 2 sites with defaults. If true, this would suggest that having default doses did not affect the typical administration behavior of providers. The frequency distribution of doses for all drugs was determined, and the 4 most common doses representing at least 5% of total administrations for each drug were identified. The appropriateness of the current defaults was determined by the number of changes (0-4) required to match actual usage at the 2 hospitals with defaults. At the institution without defaults, the most frequent doses for the 20 most commonly administered drugs were compared with the default doses at the other institutions. At the 2 institutions with defaults, 84.7% and 77.5% of drugs required at least 1 change in the default drug doses (P default drug doses, 100% of the 20 most commonly administered doses (representing ≥5% of use for that drug) were included in the most commonly administered doses at the other 2

  10. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  11. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Sophia; Kumar, Prahlad; Chauhan, Lakbir Singh; Vollepore, Balasangameshwara Hanumanthappa; Kizhakkethil, Unnikrishnan Pallikkara; Rao, Sumathi Govinda

    2010-04-06

    Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance. Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44)], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92)], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09)], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63)], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44)], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64)], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57)], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47)] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1.14-2.6)]. Majority of

  12. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Vijay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance.Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1

  13. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, Michèle B; Wetzels, Ruud; Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-03-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between multiple variables, researchers often carry out a mediation analysis. In such an analysis, a mediator (e.g., knowledge of a healthy diet) transmits the effect from an independent variable (e.g., classroom instruction on a healthy diet) to a dependent variable (e.g., consumption of fruits and vegetables). Almost all mediation analyses in psychology use frequentist estimation and hypothesis-testing techniques. A recent exception is Yuan and MacKinnon (Psychological Methods, 14, 301-322, 2009), who outlined a Bayesian parameter estimation procedure for mediation analysis. Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow approach. We further extend this default Bayesian test by allowing a comparison to directional or one-sided alternatives, using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques implemented in JAGS. All Bayesian tests are implemented in the R package BayesMed (Nuijten, Wetzels, Matzke, Dolan, & Wagenmakers, 2014).

  14. Default supply issues divides consumer advocates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    In Toronto, various agencies, all claiming to represent the best interests of consumers, have taken very different positions on the limits that should be placed on suppliers of standard electricity service, due to an unexpected effect of Ontario's market design. The debate has polarized into either support for the Market Design Committee's recommendations restricting local companies' distribution of electricity to one of passing on the spot market price to their standard customers or the view that municipal utilities should be permitted to enter into contracts for power in order to supply the needs of their standard service customers. The Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) takes the position that its member companies should have direct access to the default supply market and not to be forced to deal solely with the spot market to reach this market sector. This default market is expected to be the largest potential end use market in Ontario for the power produced and/or sold by IPPSO members. It is expected to be 70% of the total Ontario wholesale electricity market for many years to come

  15. Further evidence of alerted default network connectivity and association with theory of mind ability in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, Omar; Tangney, Noreen; Morris, Derek W; McCarthy, Hazel; Frodl, Thomas; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary

    2017-06-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI. Based on seed regions from previous studies, we examined functional connectivity of the default, cognitive control, affective and attention networks. Effects of symptom severity and theory of mind performance on functional connectivity were also examined. Patients showed increased connectivity between key nodes of the default network including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex compared to controls (pmind performance were both associated with altered connectivity of default regions within the patient group (pmind performance. Extending these findings by examining the effects of emerging social cognition treatments on both default connectivity and theory of mind performance is now an important goal for research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pricing constant maturity credit default swaps under jumo dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsson, H.; Schoutens, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the pricing of Constant Maturity Credit Default Swaps (CMCDS) under single sided jump models. The CMCDS offers default protection in exchange for a floating premium which is periodically reset and indexed to the market spread on a CDS with constant maturity tenor written on

  17. Cyclicality and Firm Size in Private Firm Defaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thais Lærkholm; Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh

    2017-01-01

    The Basel II/III and CRD IV Accords reduce capital charges on bank loans to smaller firms by assuming that the default probabilities of smaller firms are less sensitive to macroeconomic cycles. We test this assumption in a default intensity framework using a large sample of bank loans to private...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.114 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.114 Section 2570.114 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(6) § 2570.114 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(6) civil penalty proceedings...

  19. 25 CFR 101.15 - Penalties on default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties on default. 101.15 Section 101.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.15 Penalties on default. Unless otherwise provided in the loan agreement between...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.94 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.94 Section 2570.94 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(5) § 2570.94 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(5) civil penalty proceedings, this...

  1. 29 CFR 2570.64 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.64 Section 2570.64 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(2) § 2570.64 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(2) civil penalty proceedings, this...

  2. 49 CFR 31.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 31.10 Section 31.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the defendant does not answer within the time prescribed in § 31.9...

  3. Are Student Loan Default Rates Linked to Institutional Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.; McKitrick, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    As more undergraduates have taken out loans to attend college, the number of borrowers who fail to repay their student loans has increased. While previous research has focused on students' likelihood to default, this study employed institutional cohort default rates (CDRs) as an outcome variable. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data…

  4. Partitioning Default Effects: Why People Choose Not to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinner, Isaac; Johnson, Eric J.; Goldstein, Daniel G.; Liu, Kaiya

    2011-01-01

    Default options exert an influence in areas as varied as retirement program design, organ donation policy, and consumer choice. Past research has offered potential reasons why no-action defaults matter: (a) effort, (b) implied endorsement, and (c) reference dependence. The first two of these explanations have been experimentally demonstrated, but…

  5. Cohort Default Rates: Predicting the Probability of Federal Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the institutional factors associated with student loan default. When a college has more than 30% of its students default on their loans, then the institution faces federal sanctions that could make them ineligible from participating in the federal student loan program. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System…

  6. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  7. 29 CFR 2570.134 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.134 Section 2570.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(7) § 2570.134 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(7) civil penalty proceedings...

  8. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  9. In Good Standing: "Helping Colleges Manage Student Default Rates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education estimates that 20 percent of community college students default on their student loan obligations (compared with 14.7 percent of all student loan borrowers), and that number is rising. What can community college financial officers do to keep their default numbers low? In this article, Heather Boerner describes the…

  10. 29 CFR 2570.164 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.164 Section 2570.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(8) § 2570.164 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings...

  11. Protecting Colleges and Students: Community College Strategies to Prevent Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…

  12. The effect of default values in regulation matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung-cheol; Jung, Won-dea; Ha, Jae-joo; Jin, Young-ho

    1998-01-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) in regulatory decision making, both PRA practitioners (usually, licensees) and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PRA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PRA. The use of defaults can also ensure more uniform standards of PRA quality. However, different regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet widely understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This paper will focus on the effect of default values on estimates of risk. In particular, the following questions will be explored: ''How should defaults be set?''; and ''What are the implications of choosing different default values?'' Some insights on the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults will be provided. This can help decision makers evaluate the levels of safety likely to result from regulatory decisions

  13. An Empirical Comparison of Default Swap Pricing Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this paper we compare market prices of credit default swaps with model prices. We show that a simple reduced form model with a constant recovery rate outperforms the market practice of directly comparing bonds' credit spreads to default swap premiums. We find that the

  14. Analysis of Default Risk of Agricultural Loan by Some Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to reduce default rate and loan diversions since members can serve as watch dog to each other. Banks should also prevent unnecessary delay in loan disbursement to allow for timely use of the loan. Banks should also explore the Agricultural credit guarantee scheme (ACGS) to offset part of the risk in case of default.

  15. 6 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the Defendant does not answer within the time...

  16. 24 CFR 241.830 - Definition of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Contract Rights and Obligations-Multifamily Projects... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of default. 241.830... § 241.830 Definition of default. (a) If the borrower fails to make any payments due under or provided to...

  17. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  18. Student Borrowing in America: Metrics, Demographics, Default Aversion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The use of Cohort Default Rate (CDR) as the primary measure of student loan defaults among undergraduates was investigated. The study used data extracted from the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS), quantitative analysis of Likert-scale survey responses from 153 student financial aid professionals on proposed changes to present metrics and…

  19. Parametric modeling of probability of bank loan default in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This makes the study on probability of a customer defaulting very useful while analyzing the credit risk policies. In this paper, we use a raw data set that contains demographic information about the borrowers. The data sets have been used to identify which risk factors associated with the borrowers contribute towards default.

  20. ANEMIA DAN LAMA KONSUMSI OBAT ANTI TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Thuraidah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberkulosis adalah penyakit infeksi akibat kuman Mycobacterium tuberculosis yang dapat menginfeksi beberapa organ tubuh, diantaranya paru-paru, ginjal, dan tulang.Tujuan pengobatan tuberkulosis adalah memusnahkan basil tuberkulosis dengan cepat dan mencegah kekambuhan. Obat anti tuberkulosis (OAT dapat diterima dalam terapi, namun mempunyai efek toksik seperti agranulositosis, eosinofilia, trombositopenia dan anemia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama konsumsi OAT pada pasien TB paru terhadap anemia. Penelitian ini bersifat Survey Analitic dengan rancangan Cross Sectional. Hasil penelitian rata-rata hitung sel darah merah 0 bulan 5,16 106/uL, 2 bulan 4,39 106/uL dan 6 bulan 4,61 106/uL, rata-rata kadar hemoglobin 0 bulan 15,17 g/dL, 2 bulan 12,73 g/dL dan 6 bulan 13,28 g/dL serta ratarata nilai hematokrit 0 bulan 44,26 %, 2 bulan 38,24 % dan 6 bulan 39,04 %. Dari hasil uji Spearman diperoleh nilai signifikan sebesar hitung sel darah merah 0,004 < α (0,05, kadar hemoglobin 0,007 < α (0,05 dan nilai hematokrit 0,015 < α (0,05 sehingga dapat disimpulkan ada hubungan antara lama konsumsi obat anti tuberkulosis pada pasien TB paru terhadap anemia dan nilai correlation coefficient hitung sel darah merah -0,531, kadar hemoglobin -0,479 serta nilai hematokrit -0,440 berarti memiliki kekuatan hubungan yang sedang. Disarankan untuk penelitian selanjutnya menggunakan parameter yang berbeda seperti jumlah trombosit, kadar AST/ALT dan sebaiknya menggunakan sampel atau pasien yang sama dari 0 bulan sampai 6 bulan.

  1. Combined antiretroviral and anti- tuberculosis drug resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these epidemics, many challenges remain.[3] Antiretroviral and anti-TB drug resistance pose considerable threats to the control of these epidemics.[4,5]. The breakdown in HIV/TB control within prisons is another emerging threat.[6,7] We describe one of the first reports of combined antiretroviral and anti-TB drug resistance ...

  2. Consumer default risk assessment in a banking institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Eliana; Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Correia, Aldina; Faria, Susana

    2016-12-01

    Credit scoring is an application of financial risk forecasting to consumer lending. In this study, statistical analysis is applied to credit scoring data from a financial institution to evaluate the default risk of consumer loans. The default risk was found to be influenced by the spread, the age of the consumer, the number of credit cards owned by the consumer. A lower spread, a higher number of credit cards and a younger age of the borrower are factors that decrease the risk of default. Clients receiving the salary in the same banking institution of the loan have less chances of default than clients receiving their salary in another institution. We also found that clients in the lowest income tax echelon have more propensity to default.

  3. Why do Investors Buy Sovereign Default Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, Patrick; Sokolovski, Valeri; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

    local and regional channels that may explain the trading in sovereign CDS: (a) country-specific credit risk shocks, including changes in a country's credit rating and related outlook changes, (b) the announcement and issuance of domestic and international debt, (c) macroeconomic sentiment derived from......We provide a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of trading in the sovereign credit default swaps (CDS) market, using weekly data for single-name sovereign CDS from October 2008 to September 2015. We describe the anatomy of the sovereign CDS market, derive a law of motion for gross positions...... of the variation in sovereign CDS net notional amounts outstanding. Moreover, unlike for CDS spreads, common global factors explain very little of the variation in sovereign CDS trading and net notional amounts outstanding, suggesting that it is driven primarily by idiosyncratic country risk. We analyze several...

  4. Sovereign Default Analysis through Extreme Events Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile George MARICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates contagion in international credit markets through the use of a novel jump detection technique proposed by Chan and Maheuin (2002. This econometrical methodology is preferred because it is non-linear by definition and not a subject to volatility bias. Also, the identified jumps in CDS premiums are considered as outliers positioned beyond any stochastic movement that can and is already modelled through well-known linear analysis. Though contagion is hard to define, we show that extreme discrete movements in default probabilities inferred from CDS premiums can lead to sound economic conclusions about the risk profile of sovereign nations in international bond markets. We find evidence of investor sentiment clustering for countries with unstable political regimes or that are engaged in armed conflict. Countries that have in their recent history faced currency or financial crises are less vulnerable to external unexpected shocks. First we present a brief history of sovereign defaults with an emphasis on their increased frequency and geographical reach, as financial markets become more and more integrated. We then pass to a literature review of the most important definitions for contagion, and discuss what quantitative methods are available to detect the presence of contagion. The paper continues with the details for the methodology of jump detection through non-linear modelling and its use in the field of contagion identification. In the last sections we present the estimation results for simultaneous jumps between emerging markets CDS and draw conclusions on the difference of behavior in times of extreme movement versus tranquil periods.

  5. Default Mode of Brain Function in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions—the default-mode network (DMN)—that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment. PMID:21900574

  6. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  7. Optimization problem and mean variance hedging on defaultable claims

    OpenAIRE

    Goutte, Stephane; Ngoupeyou, Armand

    2012-01-01

    We study the pricing and the hedging of claim {\\psi} which depends on the default times of two firms A and B. In fact, we assume that, in the market, we can not buy or sell any defaultable bond of the firm B but we can only trade defaultable bond of the firm A. Our aim is then to find the best price and hedging of {\\psi} using only bond of the firm A. Hence, we solve this problem in two cases: firstly in a Markov framework using indifference price and solving a system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellm...

  8. Alarming Default Rates in South African Children with Moderate Malnutrition on Targeted Supplementary Feeding Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkamp, Juliana; Lategan, Ronette

    2014-01-01

    Full text: In 2008, 4.7% South African children under five years suffered from moderate wasting and 23.9% from moderate stunting. Intervention strategies in the public health care system allow for targeted supplementation of children with moderate malnutrition and/or growth failure for three to six months or less if catch-up growth is established. Earlier research among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy showed that only about 50% of adults could be retained in a nutrition supplementation programme. The aim of this research was to determine default rates of children with moderate malnutrition on a targeted supplementary feeding programme, using Ready-to-use Supplementary Food (RUSF) as home treatment and to explore possible associations between socio-demographic and nutritional factors and defaulting. Between September 2012 and August 2013, a prospective controlled trial was performed in three provinces of South Africa. Children between 12 and 60 months, classified as moderately malnourished, were purposefully selected by dieticians for inclusion in the study, after informed consent was obtained from the legal guardian. Ethical approval was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee, NNMU. In this study defaulting refers to failure to return to the programme after admission, or more than two consecutive absences. Participants had to attend five follow-up sessions, during which children were weighed, measured and data collected in a structured questionnaire. At each visit participants received RUSF as treatment for moderate malnutrition. Parents received a stipend to encourage return. Data were analyzed using PASW (Predictive Analytics SoftWare) by SPSS (Version 21). Frequencies and percentages were used to describe categorical data. Comparisons of means were performed using t-tests. Chi-square tests and two-tailed Pearson correlations were used to describe and test associations and correlations between variables. A p-level ≤0.05 was considered

  9. Pengembangan Metode Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi Spektrometri Massa untuk Penetapan Kadar Rifampisin, Isoniazid dan Pirazinamid dari Plasma Manusia dan Sediaan Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Nerdy

    2012-01-01

    The drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis can be divided into two categories, i.e.: primary anti-tuberculosis and secondary anti-tuberculosis. The primary anti-tuberculosis have a higher efficacy and better safety than those of secondary anti-tuberculosis drugs. Primary anti-tuberculosis drugs are rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. In their use rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide are usually combined. According to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 36 yea...

  10. Emotional faces and the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, S; Boehm, S G; Linden, D E J

    2012-01-11

    The default-mode network (DMN) of the human brain has become a central topic of cognitive neuroscience research. Although alterations in its resting state activity and in its recruitment during tasks have been reported for several mental and neurodegenerative disorders, its role in emotion processing has received relatively little attention. We investigated brain responses to different categories of emotional faces with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and found deactivation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), posterior cingulate gyrus (PC) and cuneus. This deactivation was modulated by emotional category and was less prominent for happy than for sad faces. These deactivated areas along the midline conformed to areas of the DMN. We also observed emotion-dependent deactivation of the left middle frontal gyrus, which is not a classical component of the DMN. Conversely, several areas in a fronto-parietal network commonly linked with attention were differentially activated by emotion categories. Functional connectivity patterns, as obtained by correlation of activation levels, also varied between emotions. VMPFC, PC or cuneus served as hubs between the DMN-type areas and the fronto-parietal network. These data support recent suggestions that the DMN is not a unitary system but differentiates according to task and even type of stimulus. The emotion-specific differential pattern of DMN deactivation may be explored further in patients with mood disorder, where the quest for biological markers of emotional biases is still ongoing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern of attendance and predictors of default among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... has implicated a host of factors as predictive of psychiatric clinic default, findings have ... support and care of persons with mental illness is of utmost importance.9 Recently, a ..... Mental Health & Religion & Culture 2007; 1 – 2. 13. Overall JE ...

  12. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  13. A new estimation technique of sovereign default risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Soytaş

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the fixed-point theorem, sovereign default models are solved by numerical value function iteration and calibration methods, which due to their computational constraints, greatly limits the models' quantitative performance and foregoes its country-specific quantitative projection ability. By applying the Hotz-Miller estimation technique (Hotz and Miller, 1993- often used in applied microeconometrics literature- to dynamic general equilibrium models of sovereign default, one can estimate the ex-ante default probability of economies, given the structural parameter values obtained from country-specific business-cycle statistics and relevant literature. Thus, with this technique we offer an alternative solution method to dynamic general equilibrium models of sovereign default to improve upon their quantitative inference ability.

  14. Local Risk-Minimization for Defaultable Claims with Recovery Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Francesca; Cretarola, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    We study the local risk-minimization approach for defaultable claims with random recovery at default time, seen as payment streams on the random interval [0,τ∧T], where T denotes the fixed time-horizon. We find the pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy in the case when the agent information takes into account the possibility of a default event (local risk-minimization with G-strategies) and we provide an application in the case of a corporate bond. We also discuss the problem of finding a pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy if we suppose the agent obtains her information only by observing the non-defaultable assets.

  15. Morality constrains the default representation of what is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Cushman, Fiery

    2017-05-02

    The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition. Collectively, these studies differentiate explicit reasoning about possibilities from default implicit representations, demonstrate that human adults often default to treating immoral and irrational events as impossible, and provide a case study of high-level cognitive judgments relying on default implicit representations of possibility rather than explicit deliberation.

  16. Interbank lending, network structure and default risk contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the default risk contagion in banking systems based on a dynamic network model with two different kinds of lenders' selecting mechanisms, namely, endogenous selecting (ES) and random selecting (RS). From sensitivity analysis, we find that higher risk premium, lower initial proportion of net assets, higher liquid assets threshold, larger size of liquidity shocks, higher proportion of the initial investments and higher Central Bank interest rates all lead to severer default risk contagion. Moreover, the autocorrelation of deposits and lenders' selecting probability have non-monotonic effects on the default risk contagion, and the effects differ under two mechanisms. Generally, the default risk contagion is much severer under RS mechanism than that of ES, because the multi-money-center structure generated by ES mechanism enables borrowers to borrow from more liquid banks with lower interest rates.

  17. Correlation Structures of Correlated Binomial Models and Implied Default Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mori; K. Kitsukawa; M. Hisakado

    2006-01-01

    We show how to analyze and interpret the correlation structures, the conditional expectation values and correlation coefficients of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. We study implied default distributions for the iTraxx-CJ tranches and some popular probabilistic models, including the Gaussian copula model, Beta binomial distribution model and long-range Ising model. We interpret the differences in their profiles in terms of the correlation structures. The implied default distribution h...

  18. Loss given default models incorporating macroeconomic variables for credit cards

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, J.; Bellotti, T.

    2012-01-01

    Based on UK data for major retail credit cards, we build several models of Loss Given Default based on account level data, including Tobit, a decision tree model, a Beta and fractional logit transformation. We find that Ordinary Least Squares models with macroeconomic variables perform best for forecasting Loss Given Default at the account and portfolio levels on independent hold-out data sets. The inclusion of macroeconomic conditions in the model is important, since it provides a means to m...

  19. Banks, Government Bonds, and Default: What do the Data Say?

    OpenAIRE

    Gennaioli, Nicola; Martin, Alberto; Rossi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze holdings of public bonds by over 20,000 banks in 191 countries, and the role of these bonds in 20 sovereign defaults over 1998-2012. Banks hold many public bonds (on average 9% of their assets), particularly in less financially-developed countries. During sovereign defaults, banks increase their exposure to public bonds, especially large banks and when expected bond returns are high. At the bank level, bondholdings correlate negatively with subsequent lending during sovereign defau...

  20. Default network connectivity during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Robyn L; Clark, C Richard; McFarlane, Alexander C; Moores, Kathryn A; Shaw, Marnie E; Lanius, Ruth A

    2011-07-01

    The default network exhibits correlated activity at rest and has shown decreased activation during performance of cognitive tasks. There has been little investigation of changes in connectivity of this network during task performance. In this study, we examined task-related modulation of connectivity between two seed regions from the default network posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the rest of the brain in 12 healthy adults. The purpose was to determine (1) whether connectivity within the default network differs between a resting state and performance of a cognitive (working memory) task and (2) whether connectivity differs between these nodes of the default network and other brain regions, particularly those implicated in cognitive tasks. There was little change in connectivity with the other main areas of the default network for either seed region, but moderate task-related changes in connectivity occurred between seed regions and regions outside the default network. For example, connectivity of the mPFC with the right insula and the right superior frontal gyrus decreased during task performance. Increased connectivity during the working memory task occurred between the PCC and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and between the mPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cuneus, superior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum. Overall, the areas showing greater correlation with the default network seed regions during task than at rest have been previously implicated in working memory tasks. These changes may reflect a decrease in the negative correlations occurring between the default and task-positive networks at rest. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0491 TITLE: Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer R...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Default, Cognitive and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Tinnitus is a major health problem among those currently and formerly in military

  2. Study on default setting for risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.C.; Ha, J.J.; Jung, W.D.; Jeong, K.S.; Han, S.H.

    1998-12-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in regulatory decision making, both regulated parties and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults, because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PSA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PSA. The use of defaults may also ensure more uniform standards of PSA quality. However, regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet well understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This study focus on the development of model for setting defaults in order to achieve more applicability of risk-informed regulation. In particular, explored are the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults, and their implications for the crafting of regularity incentives. (author). 17 refs., 1 tab

  3. Goal-congruent default network activity facilitates cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; DuPre, Elizabeth; Selarka, Dhawal; Garcia, Juliana; Gojkovic, Stefan; Mildner, Judith; Luh, Wen-Ming; Turner, Gary R

    2014-10-15

    Substantial neuroimaging evidence suggests that spontaneous engagement of the default network impairs performance on tasks requiring executive control. We investigated whether this impairment depends on the congruence between executive control demands and internal mentation. We hypothesized that activation of the default network might enhance performance on an executive control task if control processes engage long-term memory representations that are supported by the default network. Using fMRI, we scanned 36 healthy young adult humans on a novel two-back task requiring working memory for famous and anonymous faces. In this task, participants (1) matched anonymous faces interleaved with anonymous face, (2) matched anonymous faces interleaved with a famous face, or (3) matched a famous faces interleaved with an anonymous face. As predicted, we observed a facilitation effect when matching famous faces, compared with anonymous faces. We also observed greater activation of the default network during these famous face-matching trials. The results suggest that activation of the default network can contribute to task performance during an externally directed executive control task. Our findings provide evidence that successful activation of the default network in a contextually relevant manner facilitates goal-directed cognition. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414108-07$15.00/0.

  4. Interruption and defaulting of multidrug therapy against leprosy: population-based study in Brazil's Savannah Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Heukelbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low adherence to multidrug therapy against leprosy (MDT is still an important obstacle of disease control, and may lead to remaining sources of infection, incomplete cure, irreversible complications, and multidrug resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We performed a population-based study in 78 municipalities in Tocantins State, central Brazil, and applied structured questionnaires on leprosy-affected individuals. We used two outcomes for assessment of risk factors: defaulting (not presenting to health care center for supervised treatment for >12 months; and interruption of MDT. In total, 28/936 (3.0% patients defaulted, and 147/806 (18.2% interrupted MDT. Defaulting was significantly associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 3.43; 0.98-9.69; p = 0.03; moving to another residence after diagnosis (OR = 2.90; 0.95-5.28; p = 0.04; and low family income (OR = 2.42; 1.02-5.63: p = 0.04. Interruption of treatment was associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 1.95; 0.98-3.70; p = 0.04; difficulty in swallowing MDT drugs (OR = 1.66; 1.03-2.63; p = 0.02; temporal non-availability of MDT at the health center (OR = 1.67; 1.11-2.46; p = 0.01; and moving to another residence (OR = 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.40; p = 0.03. Logistic regression identified temporal non-availability of MDT as an independent risk factor for treatment interruption (adjusted OR = 1.56; 1.05-2.33; p = 0.03, and residence size as a protective factor (adjusted OR = 0.89 per additional number of rooms; 0.80-0.99; p = 0.03. Residence size was also independently associated with defaulting (adjusted OR = 0.67; 0.52-0.88; p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Defaulting and interruption of MDT are associated with some poverty-related variables such as family income, household size, and migration. Intermittent problems of drug supply need to be resolved, mainly on the municipality level. MDT producers should consider oral drug formulations that may

  5. Predictors of default from follow-up care in a cervical cancer screening program using direct visual inspection in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Petterson, Karen Odberg; Gbajabiamila, Titilola A; Idigbe, Ifeoma Eugenia; Kuyoro, Olutunmike; Ujah, Innocent Achaya Otobo; Ostergren, Per Olof

    2014-03-31

    Increasingly evidence is emerging from south East Asia, southern and east Africa on the burden of default to follow up care after a positive cervical cancer screening/diagnosis, which impacts negatively on cervical cancer prevention and control. Unfortunately little or no information exists on the subject in the West Africa sub region. This study was designed to determine the proportion of and predictors and reasons for default from follow up care after positive cervical cancer screen. Women who screen positive at community cervical cancer screening using direct visual inspection were followed up to determine the proportion of default and associated factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of default. One hundred and eight (16.1%) women who screened positive to direct visual inspection out of 673 were enrolled into the study. Fifty one (47.2%) out of the 108 women that screened positive defaulted from follow-up appointment. Women who were poorly educated (OR: 3.1, CI: 2.0 - 5.2), or lived more than 10 km from the clinic (OR: 2.0, CI: 1.0 - 4.1), or never screened for cervical cancer before (OR: 3.5, CI:3:1-8.4) were more likely to default from follow-up after screening positive for precancerous lesion of cervix . The main reasons for default were cost of transportation (48.6%) and time constraints (25.7%). The rate of default was high (47.2%) as a result of unaffordable transportation cost and limited time to keep the scheduled appointment. A change from the present strategy that involves multiple visits to a "see and treat" strategy in which both testing and treatment are performed at a single visit is recommended.

  6. ORIGIN CREDIT-DEFAULT SWAPS, AND IDIOSYNCRATIC THEIR FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марсель Альбертович Шарипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Credit-default swaps as well as all derivatives have appeared as a result of policy of a decontrol the American government of bank sector of economy.In article attempt to open motives of unfair use swaps is lead by some states, and modern anti-recessionary decisions concerning derivatives are considered. The objective of research consist it is revealing history and the reasons by occurrence the credit-default swaps, also the history of development the institutional infrastructures for stable and not causing suspicions functioning of the market of credit-default swaps by national regulators.  The research of the given problem in modern aspect of its progress has outstanding of novelty character. The reaction of regulators for the crisis are remarkable which events caused by shadow use of derivative financial tools including and credit-default swaps. In research the authors come to following conclusions. First, credit-default swaps are compatible to qualitative variations in corporate economy and answers to modern calls of more globalized financial system. The second, the functioning of the market of derivatives is really idiosyncratic that predetermines a final adage of that sort that arising problems with derivatives occurs not in their essence, but in purposefulness of their use.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-40

  7. The Two Defaults Scenario for Stressing Credit Portfolio Loss Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Tasche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a stress scenario of default events on the loss distribution of a credit portfolio can be assessed by determining the loss distribution conditional on these events. While it is conceptually easy to estimate loss distributions conditional on default events by means of Monte Carlo simulation, it becomes impractical for two or more simultaneous defaults as then the conditioning event is extremely rare. We provide an analytical approach to the calculation of the conditional loss distribution for the CreditRisk + portfolio model with independent random loss given default distributions. The analytical solution for this case can be used to check the accuracy of an approximation to the conditional loss distribution whereby the unconditional model is run with stressed input probabilities of default (PDs. It turns out that this approximation is unbiased. Numerical examples, however, suggest that the approximation may be seriously inaccurate but that the inaccuracy leads to overestimation of tail losses and, hence, the approach errs on the conservative side.

  8. Prior Sensitivity Analysis in Default Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Sara; Mulder, Joris; Oberski, Daniel L

    2017-11-27

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information. However, the prior can have a serious influence on the estimation of the model parameters, which affects the mean squared error, bias, coverage rates, and quantiles of the estimates. In this article, we investigate the performance of three different default priors: noninformative improper priors, vague proper priors, and empirical Bayes priors-with the latter being novel in the BSEM literature. Based on a simulation study, we find that these three default BSEM methods may perform very differently, especially with small samples. A careful prior sensitivity analysis is therefore needed when performing a default BSEM analysis. For this purpose, we provide a practical step-by-step guide for practitioners to conducting a prior sensitivity analysis in default BSEM. Our recommendations are illustrated using a well-known case study from the structural equation modeling literature, and all code for conducting the prior sensitivity analysis is available in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. A Technical Note on Australian Default Superannuation Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Iskra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Superannuation has become more complex over time. Individual investors are inclined to seek the ‘path of least resistance’ and invest in default investment funds which are typically concentrated in high risk assets. Understanding how these funds will meet the individual needs of members relative to their changing circumstances can provide peace of mind and confidence in the market. Given the value of superannuation as an investment in terms of the economy, it is paramount than an appropriate mechanism be in place for default fund investors. This paper will clarify the existing position relative to default fund investment options and outline future research which will provide the impetus for change in terms ofgovernment policy, the financial planning profession and for industry superannuation funds.

  11. On the spillover of exchange rate risk into default risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the exchange-rate risk, banks in emerging markets are typically denominating their loans in foreign currencies. However, in the event of a substantial depreciation of the local currency, the payment ability of a foreign-currency borrower may be reduced significantly, exposing the lender to additional default risk. This paper analyses how the exchange-rate risk of foreign currency loans spills over into default risk. We show that in an economy where foreign currency loans are a dominant source of financing economic activity, depreciation of the local currency establishes a negative feedback mechanism that leads to higher default probabilities, reduced credit supply, and reduced growth. This finding has some important implications that may be of special interest for regulators and market participants in emerging economies.

  12. Correlation Structures of Correlated Binomial Models and Implied Default Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shintaro; Kitsukawa, Kenji; Hisakado, Masato

    2008-11-01

    We show how to analyze and interpret the correlation structures, the conditional expectation values and correlation coefficients of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. We study implied default distributions for the iTraxx-CJ tranches and some popular probabilistic models, including the Gaussian copula model, Beta binomial distribution model and long-range Ising model. We interpret the differences in their profiles in terms of the correlation structures. The implied default distribution has singular correlation structures, reflecting the credit market implications. We point out two possible origins of the singular behavior.

  13. Antidepressants normalize the default mode network in patients with dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Jonathan; Hellerstein, David J; Gat, Inbal; Mechling, Anna; Klahr, Kristin; Wang, Zhishun; McGrath, Patrick J; Stewart, Jonathan W; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-04-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a collection of brain regions that reliably deactivate during goal-directed behaviors and is more active during a baseline, or so-called resting, condition. Coherence of neural activity, or functional connectivity, within the brain's DMN is increased in major depressive disorder relative to healthy control (HC) subjects; however, whether similar abnormalities are present in persons with dysthymic disorder (DD) is unknown. Moreover, the effect of antidepressant medications on DMN connectivity in patients with DD is also unknown. To use resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study (1) the functional connectivity of the DMN in subjects with DD vs HC participants and (2) the effects of antidepressant therapy on DMN connectivity. After collecting baseline MRI scans from subjects with DD and HC participants, we enrolled the participants with DD into a 10-week prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine and collected MRI scans again at the conclusion of the study. Enrollment occurred between 2007 and 2011. University research institute. Volunteer sample of 41 subjects with DD and 25 HC participants aged 18 to 53 years. Control subjects were group matched to patients with DD by age and sex. We used resting-state functional-connectivity MRI to measure the functional connectivity of the brain's DMN in persons with DD compared with HC subjects, and we examined the effects of treatment with duloxetine vs placebo on DMN connectivity. Of the 41 subjects with DD, 32 completed the clinical trial and MRI scans, along with the 25 HC participants. At baseline, we found that the coherence of neural activity within the brain's DMN was greater in persons with DD compared with HC subjects. Following a 10-week clinical trial, we found that treatment with duloxetine, but not placebo, normalized DMN connectivity. The baseline imaging findings are consistent with those found in patients with major

  14. 29 CFR 4219.32 - Interest on overdue, defaulted and overpaid withdrawal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., as reported by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Statistical Release H.15... default, the date of the missed payment that gave rise to the delinquency or the default. (e) Date paid...

  15. Sovereign default and the stability of inflation targeting regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the impact of interactions between monetary and fiscal policy on macroeconomic stability. We find that in the presence of sovereign default beliefs a monetary policy, which aims to stabilize inflation through an active interest rate policy, will destabilize the economy if the feedback

  16. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations and partial correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a default Bayesian hypothesis test for the presence of a correlation or a partial correlation. The test is a direct application of Bayesian techniques for variable selection in regression models. The test is easy to apply and yields practical advantages that the standard frequentist tests

  17. Nonmonotonic Skeptical Consequence Relation in Constrained Default Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaiela Lupea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the nonmonotonic consequence relation which models the skeptical reasoning formalised by constrained default logic. The nonmonotonic skeptical consequence relation is defined using the sequent calculus axiomatic system. We study the formal properties desirable for a good nonmonotonic relation: supraclassicality, cut, cautious monotony, cumulativity, absorption, distribution. 

  18. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  19. Government interventions and default risk: Does one size fit all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the financial sector rescue packages provided by the national governments during the 2008 financial crisis. This study questions the implicit assumption that government interventions have an uniform effect on the default risk of individual banks. After testing the

  20. Improving default risk prediction using Bayesian model uncertainty techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Credit risk is the potential exposure of a creditor to an obligor's failure or refusal to repay the debt in principal or interest. The potential of exposure is measured in terms of probability of default. Many models have been developed to estimate credit risk, with rating agencies dating back to the 19th century. They provide their assessment of probability of default and transition probabilities of various firms in their annual reports. Regulatory capital requirements for credit risk outlined by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision have made it essential for banks and financial institutions to develop sophisticated models in an attempt to measure credit risk with higher accuracy. The Bayesian framework proposed in this article uses the techniques developed in physical sciences and engineering for dealing with model uncertainty and expert accuracy to obtain improved estimates of credit risk and associated uncertainties. The approach uses estimates from one or more rating agencies and incorporates their historical accuracy (past performance data) in estimating future default risk and transition probabilities. Several examples demonstrate that the proposed methodology can assess default probability with accuracy exceeding the estimations of all the individual models. Moreover, the methodology accounts for potentially significant departures from "nominal predictions" due to "upsetting events" such as the 2008 global banking crisis. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Strategic loan defaults and coordination : An experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; Vlahu, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper experimentally studies the impact of bank and borrower fundamentals on loan repayment. We find that solvent borrowers are more likely to default strategically when the bank’s expected strength is low, although loan repayment is a Pareto dominant Nash equilibrium. Borrowers are also less

  2. Credit Default Risk and its Determinants of Microfinance Industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    limitations prevailed in the selected 6 MFIs in Ethiopia schemed by determining the ... the probit model show that education, income, loan supervision, suitability of repayment ..... of Ethiopia as Large, Medium, and Small MFIs. ..... /sigma. 0.5177089. 0.0467682. *significant at 1%. ***significant at 10% .... businesses default.

  3. Additive Intensity Regression Models in Corporate Default Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    2013-01-01

    We consider additive intensity (Aalen) models as an alternative to the multiplicative intensity (Cox) models for analyzing the default risk of a sample of rated, nonfinancial U.S. firms. The setting allows for estimating and testing the significance of time-varying effects. We use a variety of mo...

  4. 47 CFR 25.217 - Default service rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default service rules. 25.217 Section 25.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... licenses to operate a satellite system in a frequency band granted after a domestic frequency allocation...

  5. 7 CFR 1717.653 - Borrowers in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., to be in the financial interest of the government with respect to loan security and/or repayment. If... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Investments, Loans, and Guarantees by Electric Borrowers § 1717.653 Borrowers in default. Any borrower not in...

  6. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  7. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  8. 47 CFR 64.1703 - Dispute resolution default process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution default process. 64.1703 Section 64.1703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... recommendation(s) must be included in the final industry-wide standard or industry-wide generic requirement...

  9. Of Religion and Redemption : Evidence from Default on Islamic Loans (Replaces EBC DP 2010-032)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.; Farooq, M.; Ongena, S.

    2012-01-01

    We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on conventional

  10. 34 CFR 668.207 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.207 Section 668.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Cohort Default Rates § 668.207 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. (a...

  11. 34 CFR 668.188 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.188 Section 668.188 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.188 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates...

  12. Student Loan Default: Do Characteristics of Four-Year Institutions Contribute to the Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Rogers, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    College student debt and loan default are growing concerns in the United States. For each U.S. institution, the federal government is now reporting a cohort default rate, which is the percent of students who defaulted on their loan, averaged over a three-year period. Previous studies have amply shown that student characteristics are strongly…

  13. Social by default : the default-mode network and social cognition in healthy volunteers and siblings of schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, M.

    2012-01-01

    During rest, a set of brain areas shows increased activity compared to when people are performing complex tasks. This network is commonly referred to as the default-mode network (DMN) and includes the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and lateral posterior

  14. Analysis of the economic burden of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H-Q; Bele, S; Feng, Y; Qiu, S-S; Lü, J-Q; Tang, S-W; Shen, H-B; Wang, J-M; Zhu, L-M

    2013-12-01

    A county in Jiangsu Province, China. To estimate the costs of the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) from the patient's perspective and to identify determinants of the patient's financial burden. In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 316 patients diagnosed from January 2010 to May 2011 who had already completed their anti-tuberculosis treatment. The financial burden on TB patients included out-of-pocket costs and productivity losses. The average per capita total out-of-pocket cost was 3024.0 Chinese yuan (CNY), with a median cost of 1086 CNY (interquartile range [IQR] 480-2456). Mean out-of-pocket medical and non-medical costs were respectively 2565.7 CNY and 458.3 CNY. Productivity lost by patients and family members was 2615.2 CNY (median 500, IQR 250-2025). Factors associated with out-of-pocket costs and productivity losses included hospitalisation, adverse drug reactions, cost of drugs to 'protect' the liver, cost of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs and diagnostic delay. Although the government of China has implemented a 'free TB service policy', the economic burden on patients is still heavy. More patient-centred interventions are essential to reduce the financial burden on patients.

  15. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur eLuczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  16. Ensemble Learning or Deep Learning? Application to Default Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Hamori

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper credit-risk management is essential for lending institutions, as substantial losses can be incurred when borrowers default. Consequently, statistical methods that can measure and analyze credit risk objectively are becoming increasingly important. This study analyzes default payment data and compares the prediction accuracy and classification ability of three ensemble-learning methods—specifically, bagging, random forest, and boosting—with those of various neural-network methods, each of which has a different activation function. The results obtained indicate that the classification ability of boosting is superior to other machine-learning methods including neural networks. It is also found that the performance of neural-network models depends on the choice of activation function, the number of middle layers, and the inclusion of dropout.

  17. Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2010-09-01

    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention.

  18. Defaultable Game Options in a Hazard Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Bielecki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The valuation and hedging of defaultable game options is studied in a hazard process model of credit risk. A convenient pricing formula with respect to a reference filteration is derived. A connection of arbitrage prices with a suitable notion of hedging is obtained. The main result shows that the arbitrage prices are the minimal superhedging prices with sigma martingale cost under a risk neutral measure.

  19. Exploring default mode and information flow on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mizuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Social networking services (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) are now major sources of World Wide Web (called "Web") dynamics, together with Web search services (e.g., Google). These two types of Web services mutually influence each other but generate different dynamics. In this paper, we distinguish two modes of Web dynamics: the reactive mode and the default mode. It is assumed that Twitter messages (called "tweets") and Google search queries react to significant social movements and events, but they also demonstrate signs of becoming self-activated, thereby forming a baseline Web activity. We define the former as the reactive mode and the latter as the default mode of the Web. In this paper, we investigate these reactive and default modes of the Web's dynamics using transfer entropy (TE). The amount of information transferred between a time series of 1,000 frequent keywords in Twitter and the same keywords in Google queries is investigated across an 11-month time period. Study of the information flow on Google and Twitter revealed that information is generally transferred from Twitter to Google, indicating that Twitter time series have some preceding information about Google time series. We also studied the information flow among different Twitter keywords time series by taking keywords as nodes and flow directions as edges of a network. An analysis of this network revealed that frequent keywords tend to become an information source and infrequent keywords tend to become sink for other keywords. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that frequent keywords form the Web's default mode, which becomes an information source for infrequent keywords that generally form the Web's reactive mode. We also found that the Web consists of different time resolutions with respect to TE among Twitter keywords, which will be another focal point of this paper.

  20. Identification of Indicators’ Applicability to Settle Borrowers’ Probability of Default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurevičienė Daiva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Borrowers default risk is one of the most relevant types of risk in commercial banking and its assessment is important to secure business profitability and avoid huge losses during economic turbulences. This leads to necessity to investigate topics related to assessment of borrowers’ default probability and applicability of factors, which would enable to capture the newest trends of borrowers’ markets. Leading economic indicators (in addition to financial and other economic indicators are often suggested as forward-looking in scientific literature. However, there is still a discussion going on applicability of financial ratios and economic indicators. As the problem is relevant in theoretical view as well as for practitioners, this article aims to identify applicability of leading economic indicators for the estimation of default probability. Further, the qualitative criteria for factor selection were identified and used when using detailing, grouping and SWOT analysis methods. Based on current scientific literature analysis, this paper concludes that although leading economic indicators are able to capture forward-looking signals, they should be used with careful analysis of its drawbacks and in combination with financial factors in order to avoid overshooting effects. The limitation of the article is the analysis of factors based on rather theoretical analysis than estimation of quantitative criteria. This suggests that every time using leading economic indicators requires using empirical study of particular indicators’ set.

  1. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals' capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects.

  2. Market Microstructure Effects on Firm Default Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Barsotti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Default probability is a fundamental variable determining the credit worthiness of a firm and equity volatility estimation plays a key role in its evaluation. Assuming a structural credit risk modeling approach, we study the impact of choosing different non parametric equity volatility estimators on default probability evaluation, when market microstructure noise is considered. A general stochastic volatility framework with jumps for the underlying asset dynamics is defined inside a Merton-like structural model. To estimate the volatility risk component of a firm we use high-frequency equity data: market microstructure noise is introduced as a direct effect of observing noisy high-frequency equity prices. A Monte Carlo simulation analysis is conducted to (i test the performance of alternative non-parametric equity volatility estimators in their capability of filtering out the microstructure noise and backing out the true unobservable asset volatility; (ii study the effects of different non-parametric estimation techniques on default probability evaluation. The impact of the non-parametric volatility estimators on risk evaluation is not negligible: a sensitivity analysis defined for alternative values of the leverage parameter and average jumps size reveals that the characteristics of the dataset are crucial to determine which is the proper estimator to consider from a credit risk perspective.

  3. In Debt and in the Dark: It's Time for Better Information on Student Loan Defaults. Charts You Can Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Student college loan default rates have nearly doubled in recent years. The three-year default rate exceeds 13 percent nationally. Tracking and reporting default rates is a crucial means of monitoring how well higher education dollars are spent. Yet, the way default data is gathered, measured, and reported by the federal government clouds…

  4. Integrating tuberculosis/HIV treatment: an evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Seventy-four per cent of patients completed their treatment and 26% were cured, with no defaults or deaths, in the tubercuolosis/HIV integrated cohort. Thirty-eight per cent completed their treatment, 45% were cured, 9% died and another 9% defaulted in the cohort receiving their tuberculosis treatment at a local ...

  5. At Home with Sustainability: From Green Default Rules to Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Anne Hale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is often assumed that default rules affect change without awareness, this paper suggests that contrast with the default and transition into conscious adoption of the default design may be the starting point to establish long-term changes in consumer behavior. Despite the rooting of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green consumers do come from somewhere. Green default rules offer interesting prospects for sidestepping the drawbacks of direct marketing to individuals. Under green default rules, behavior is guided by a default, such as utilities automatically sending customers renewables-sourced instead of fossil-fuel-based energy. To act otherwise requires additional effort and is less likely. Motivated by a need to understand how defaults might bridge standards and sustainable consumption, I investigate how organizational processes potentially lead from standardized green default rules to individual awareness that can spread and facilitate sustainable consumption. This paper examines the Active House sustainable building demonstrations in Europe in order to understand how (1 communications and market creation and (2 responsible, user-centered experimentation are organized to move from defaults to sustainable consumption.

  6. Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S

    2017-12-01

    To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that

  7. On Partial Defaults in Portfolio Credit Risk : A Poisson Mixture Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weißbach, Rafael; von Lieres und Wilkau, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Most credit portfolio models exclusively calculate the loss distribution for a portfolio of performing counterparts. Conservative default definitions cause considerable insecurity about the loss for a long time after the default. We present three approaches to account for defaulted counterparts in the calculation of the economic capital. Two of the approaches are based on the Poisson mixture model CreditRisk+ and derive a loss distribution for an integrated portfolio. The third method treats ...

  8. Estimating the Probabilities of Default for Callable Bonds: A Duffie-Singleton Approach

    OpenAIRE

    David Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a model for estimating the default risks implicit in the prices of callable corporate bonds. The model considers three essential ingredients in the pricing of callable corporate bonds: stochastic interest rate, default risk, and call provision. The stochastic interest rate is modeled as a square-root diffusion process. The default risk is modeled as a constant spread, with the magnitude of this spread impacting the probability of a Poisson process governing the arrival of ...

  9. Dependent defaults and losses with factor copula models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerer Damien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a class of flexible and tractable static factor models for the term structure of joint default probabilities, the factor copula models. These high-dimensional models remain parsimonious with paircopula constructions, and nest many standard models as special cases. The loss distribution of a portfolio of contingent claims can be exactly and efficiently computed when individual losses are discretely supported on a finite grid. Numerical examples study the key features affecting the loss distribution and multi-name credit derivatives prices. An empirical exercise illustrates the flexibility of our approach by fitting credit index tranche prices.

  10. Default cycle phases determined after modifying discrete DNA sequences in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sans, J.; Leyton, C.

    1997-01-01

    After bromosubstituting DNA sequences replicated in the first, second, or third part of the S phase, in Allium cepa L. meristematic cells, radiation at 313 nm wavelength under anoxia allowed ascription of different sequences to both the positive and negative regulation of some cycle phase transitions. The present report shows that the radiation forced cells in late G 1 phase to advance into S, while those in G 2 remained in G 2 and cells in prophase returned to G 2 when both sets of sequences involved in the positive and negative controls were bromosubstituted and later irradiated. In this way, not only G 2 but also the S phase behaved as cycle phases where cells accumulated by default when signals of different sign functionally cancelled out. The treatment did not halt the rates of replication or transcription of plant bromosubstituted DNA. The irradiation under hypoxia apparently prevents the binding of regulatory proteins to Br-DNA. (author)

  11. Default settings of computerized physician order entry system order sets drive ordering habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jordan; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Donaldson, Keri; Abendroth, Thomas; Castellani, William

    2015-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are quickly becoming ubiquitous, and groups of orders ("order sets") to allow for easy order input are a common feature. This provides a streamlined mechanism to view, modify, and place groups of related orders. This often serves as an electronic equivalent of a specialty requisition. A characteristic, of these order sets is that specific orders can be predetermined to be "preselected" or "defaulted-on" whenever the order set is used while others are "optional" or "defaulted-off" (though there is typically the option is to "deselect" defaulted-on tests in a given situation). While it seems intuitive that the defaults in an order set are often accepted, additional study is required to understand the impact of these "default" settings in an order set on ordering habits. This study set out to quantify the effect of changing the default settings of an order set. For quality improvement purposes, order sets dealing with transfusions were recently reviewed and modified to improve monitoring of outcome. Initially, the order for posttransfusion hematocrits and platelet count had the default setting changed from "optional" to "preselected." The default settings for platelet count was later changed back to "optional," allowing for a natural experiment to study the effect of the default selections of an order set on clinician ordering habits. Posttransfusion hematocrit values were ordered for 8.3% of red cell transfusions when the default order set selection was "off" and for 57.4% of transfusions when the default selection was "preselected" (P default order set selection was "optional," increased to 59.4% when the default was changed to "preselected" (P default selection was returned to "optional." The posttransfusion platelet count rates during the two "optional" periods: 7.0% versus 7.5% - were not statistically different (P = 0.620). Default settings in CPOE order sets can significantly influence physician selection of

  12. Developing a java android application of KMV-Merton default rate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Norliza Muhamad; Anuar, Aini Hayati; Isa, Norsyaheeda Natasha; Zulkafli, Sharifah Nursyuhada Syed; Sapini, Muhamad Luqman

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a developed java android application for KMV-Merton model in predicting the defaut rate of a firm. Predicting default rate is essential in the risk management area as default risk can be immediately transmitted from one entity to another entity. This is the reason default risk is known as a global risk. Although there are several efforts, instruments and methods used to manage the risk, it is said to be insufficient. To the best of our knowledge, there has been limited innovation in developing the default risk mathematical model into a mobile application. Therefore, through this study, default risk is predicted quantitatively using the KMV-Merton model. The KMV-Merton model has been integrated in the form of java program using the Android Studio Software. The developed java android application is tested by predicting the levels of default risk of the three different rated companies. It is found that the levels of default risk are equivalent to the ratings of the respective companies. This shows that the default rate predicted by the KMV-Merton model using the developed java android application can be a significant tool to the risk mangement field. The developed java android application grants users an alternative to predict level of default risk within less procedure.

  13. Gynaecomastia in two men on stable antiretroviral therapy who commenced treatment for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; El-Shazly, Ahmad Y; Mambuque, Santos G; Demetria, Elpidio; Veldkamp, Peter; Anderson, Timothy S

    2016-12-01

    Gynaecomastia is a common clinical presentation that varies from benign presentations in stages of human development to hormonal pathology, mainly due to hepatic dysfunction, malignancy, and adverse pharmacologic effects. We describe the development of significant bilateral gynaecomastia after starting treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in two males with WHO stage III Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection on stable antiretroviral regimens. Emerging reports suggest that distinct hepatic impairment in efavirenz metabolism modulates oestrogenic activity, which may be potentiated by anti-tuberculosis therapy. Clinical application includes early recognition of efavirenz-induced gynaecomastia, especially after commencing tuberculosis treatment. To avoid decreased adherence resulting from the distressing side effect of gynecomastia, transition to an alternative ART regimen over the course of tuberculosis treatment should be considered.

  14. Possible paradoxical reaction to treatment of tubercular meningitis in an HIV negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Rey Deutsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paradoxical response to tuberculosis treatment consists in the appearance of new clinical or radiologic manifestations or worsening of previous injuries after an initial improvement with anti-tuberculosis therapy. It can be observed in 6 to 30 percent of the cases of tubercular meningitis. It is the consequence of an exaggerated immune reaction that should be considered since the treatment is based on the use of immunomodulators and not in the change of anti-tuberculous drugs. We present the case of an HIV negative adult with tuberculous meningitis with a good initial response to specific therapy who showed, 10 weeks later, a paradoxical reaction to treatment that responded successfully to corticosteroids

  15. Prefrontal Engagement and Reduced Default Network Suppression Co-occur and Are Dynamically Coupled in Older Adults: The Default-Executive Coupling Hypothesis of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gary R; Spreng, R Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Reduced executive control is a hallmark of neurocognitive aging. Poor modulation of lateral pFC activity in the context of increasing task challenge in old adults and a "failure to deactivate" the default network during cognitive control tasks have been observed. Whether these two patterns represent discrete mechanisms of neurocognitive aging or interact into older adulthood remains unknown. We examined whether altered pFC and default network dynamics co-occur during goal-directed planning over increasing levels of difficulty during performance on the Tower of London task. We used fMRI to investigate task- and age-related changes in brain activation and functional connectivity across four levels of task challenge. Frontoparietal executive control regions were activated and default network regions were suppressed during planning relative to counting performance in both groups. Older adults, unlike young, failed to modulate brain activity in executive control and default regions as planning demands increased. Critically, functional connectivity analyses revealed bilateral dorsolateral pFC coupling in young adults and dorsolateral pFC to default coupling in older adults with increased planning complexity. We propose a default-executive coupling hypothesis of aging. First, this hypothesis suggests that failure to modulate control and default network activity in response to increasing task challenge are linked in older adulthood. Second, functional brain changes involve greater coupling of lateral pFC and the default network as cognitive control demands increase in older adults. We speculate that these changes reflect an adaptive shift in cognitive approach as older adults come to rely more upon stored representations to support goal-directed task performance.

  16. 48 CFR 49.503 - Termination for convenience of the Government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the Government and default. 49.503 Section 49.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 49.503 Termination for convenience of the Government and default. (a) Cost-reimbursement contracts—(1...

  17. 48 CFR 970.4905-1 - Termination for convenience of the government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the government and default. 970.4905-1 Section 970.4905-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Termination of Contracts 970.4905-1 Termination for convenience of the government and default. (a) The...

  18. Fuel Supply Defaults for Regional Fuels and Fuel Wizard Tool in MOVES201X

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fuel supply report documents the data and methodology used to derive the default gasoline, diesel and fuel-blend fuel properties, and their respective fuel market share in MOVES. The default market share of the individual fuels varies by calendar year, seasons, and several do...

  19. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ggg of... - Default Biorates for Soluble HAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Biorates for Soluble HAP 9 Table 9 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Subpart GGG of Part 63—Default Biorates for Soluble HAP Compound name Biorate (K1),L/g MLVSS-hr...

  20. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for solvent...

  1. Default network modulation and large-scale network interactivity in healthy young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    We investigated age-related changes in default, attention, and control network activity and their interactions in young and old adults. Brain activity during autobiographical and visuospatial planning was assessed using multivariate analysis and with intrinsic connectivity networks as regions of interest. In both groups, autobiographical planning engaged the default network while visuospatial planning engaged the attention network, consistent with a competition between the domains of internalized and externalized cognition. The control network was engaged for both planning tasks. In young subjects, the control network coupled with the default network during autobiographical planning and with the attention network during visuospatial planning. In old subjects, default-to-control network coupling was observed during both planning tasks, and old adults failed to deactivate the default network during visuospatial planning. This failure is not indicative of default network dysfunction per se, evidenced by default network engagement during autobiographical planning. Rather, a failure to modulate the default network in old adults is indicative of a lower degree of flexible network interactivity and reduced dynamic range of network modulation to changing task demands.

  2. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 609... PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation... Guaranteed Obligation. Such assignment shall include all related liens, security, and collateral rights to...

  3. 10 CFR 611.111 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 611... collateral liquidation. (a) In the event that the Borrower has defaulted in the making of required payments.... Attorney General, may seek to foreclose on the collateral assets and/or take such other legal action as...

  4. I'm still standing : A longitudinal study on the effect of a default nudge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.G.; Kroese, F.M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    Objective: This study assessed the effect of a default nudge to reduce sedentary behaviour at work over time. Design and main outcome measures: A field study was conducted at a governmental organisation. In the present study, the default setting of sit–stand desks (SSDs) was changed from sitting to

  5. 24 CFR 266.626 - Notice of default and filing an insurance claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default and filing an... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Claim Procedures § 266.626 Notice of default and filing an...

  6. Default network connectivity as a vulnerability marker for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z W; Xu, T; He, Q H; Shi, C Z; Wei, Z; Miao, G D; Jing, J; Lim, K O; Zuo, X N; Chan, R C K

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant functional connectivity within the default network is generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the genetic risk of default network connectivity in OCD remains largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated default network connectivity in 15 OCD patients, 15 paired unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. We sought to examine the profiles of default network connectivity in OCD patients and their siblings, exploring the correlation between abnormal default network connectivity and genetic risk for this population. Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients exhibited reduced strength of default network functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and increased functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal lobe, insula, superior parietal cortex and superior temporal cortex, while their unaffected first-degree siblings only showed reduced local connectivity in the PCC. These findings suggest that the disruptions of default network functional connectivity might be associated with family history of OCD. The decreased default network connectivity in both OCD patients and their unaffected siblings may serve as a potential marker of OCD.

  7. Student Loan Forbearance and Its Relationship to Default. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek V.

    As the number and volume of student loans increase nationally, lenders and policymakers look more closely at the use of loan forbearance. This paper examines whether forbearance really cuts the risk of loan default by reporting on a study of more than 9,800 Stafford loans in forbearance in December 1996. That research shows that the default rate…

  8. 14 CFR 1261.413 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. 1261.413 Section 1261.413 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL...) § 1261.413 Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. The...

  9. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may periodically...

  10. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relevant default prevention statistics, including a statistical analysis of the borrowers who default on...'s delinquency status by obtaining reports from data managers and FFEL Program lenders. 5. Enhance... academic study. III. Statistics for Measuring Progress 1. The number of students enrolled at your...

  11. 48 CFR 52.249-9 - Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Research and Development). 52.249-9 Section 52.249-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.249-9 Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development). As prescribed in 49.504(b), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The...

  12. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Wijk, de René A.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as

  13. Assessing Credit with Equity : A CEV Model with Jump to Default

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campi, L.; Polbennikov, S.Y.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in structural and reduced-form models, we use equity as a liquid and observable primitive to analytically value corporate bonds and credit default swaps.Restrictive assumptions on the .rm.s capital structure are avoided.Default is parsimoniously represented by equity value hitting the zero

  14. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  15. Determinants of Banking Credit Default in Indonesia: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imaduddin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the determinants of Islamic banking credit default compared with conventional banking in Indonesia. This study utilized timeseries analysis, by which ordinary least square method is adopted. 40 monthly data observations from January 2003 until April 2006 are used. The study is divided into two models, namely Islamic banking model and conventional banking model. The values of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking and non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking are treated as the dependent variables. The results showed that two-month lagged of non-performing financing (NPF, total asset (ASSET, the amount of thirdparty-funds (TPF, one-month lagged of total financing (DFIN, and growthof gross-domestic product (GDPG variables have significant impact to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking. Meanwhile, the three-month lagged of non-performing loan (DDDNPL, total asset (CASSET, three-month as well as two-month period lagged of total loan (DDDCRED and DDCRED, inter-bank money market (PUAB, and growth of gross-domestic (GDPG are significant to influence the ratio of non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking. The result also implied that the general election in 2004 had a significant influence to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking.Even tough from the outset, it seems Islamic banking has a better performance than conventional banking by having a relatively low NPF, this study, however, has found the opposite. Albeit, Islamic banking showing a good long-runas well as short-run dynamics among all variables in the beginning, after modifying the model into autoregressive in the main analysis, results showed that conventional banking has a better performance than Islamic banking with higher correlation of determination. In this regard, we cannot assume thatIslamic banking is performing poorly in managing credit default problems. This is because the result

  16. Altered effective connectivity within default mode network in major depression disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Linchuan; Cui, Longbiao; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the neural basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is important for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. The default mode network (DMN) is considered to be highly involved in the MDD. To find directed interaction between DMN regions associated with the development of MDD, the effective connectivity within the DMN of the MDD patients and matched healthy controls was estimated by using a recently developed spectral dynamic causal modeling. Sixteen patients with MDD and sixteen matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. While the control group underwent the resting state fMRI scan just once, all patients underwent resting state fMRI scans before and after two months' treatment. The spectral dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate directed connections between four DMN nodes. Statistical analysis on connection strengths indicated that efferent connections from the medial frontal cortex (MFC) to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and to right parietal cortex (RPC) were significant higher in pretreatment MDD patients than those of the control group. After two-month treatment, the efferent connections from the MFC decreased significantly, while those from the left parietal cortex (LPC) to MFC, PCC and RPC showed a significant increase. These findings suggest that the MFC may play an important role for inhibitory conditioning of the DMN, which was disrupted in MDD patients. It also indicates that disrupted suppressive function of the MFC could be effectively restored after two-month treatment.

  17. The brain's default network: origins and implications for the study of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L

    2013-09-01

    The brain's default network is a set of regions that is spontaneously active during passive moments. The network is also active during directed tasks that require participants to remember past events or imagine upcoming events. One hypothesis is that the network facilitates construction of mental models (simulations) that can be used adaptively in many contexts. Extensive research has considered whether disruption of the default network may contribute to disease. While an intriguing possibility, a specific challenge to this notion is the fact that it is difficult to accurately measure the default network in patients where confounds of head motion and compliance are prominent. Nonetheless, some intriguing recent findings suggest that dysfunctional interactions between front-oparietal control systems and the default network contribute to psychosis. Psychosis may be a network disturbance that manifests as disordered thought partly because it disrupts the fragile balance between the default network and competing brain systems.

  18. Top management turnover and firm default risk: Evidence from the Chinese securities market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available China has moved rapidly from a socialist planned economy to a market economy. As a result, many enterprises in China are seeking talented top management to increase their performance and decrease their default risk. Studies abound regarding top management turnover and its relationship with firm performance, however, few studies have connected top management turnover with firm default risk. In China, a market with extensive financial fraud, firm default risk is an important factor and thus we explore this relationship in the Chinese securities market. Our results indicate that firms with higher default risk are more likely to change their top management in the next financial reporting period. In addition, following changes in top management, such firms default less than other companies.

  19. Top management turnover and firm default risk:Evidence from the Chinese securities market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Ting

    2011-01-01

    China has moved rapidly from a socialist planned economy to a market economy.As a result,many enterprises in China are seeking talented top management to increase their performance and decrease their default risk.Studies abound regarding top management turnover and its relationship with firm performance,however,few studies have connected top management turnover with firm default risk.In China,a market with extensive financial fraud,firm default risk is an important factor and thus we explore this relationship in the Chinese securities market.Our results indicate that firms with higher default risk are more likely to change their top management in the next financial reporting period.In addition,following changes in top management,such firms default less than other companies.

  20. Default cascades in complex networks: topology and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukny, Tarik; Bersini, Hugues; Pirotte, Hugues; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2013-09-26

    The recent crisis has brought to the fore a crucial question that remains still open: what would be the optimal architecture of financial systems? We investigate the stability of several benchmark topologies in a simple default cascading dynamics in bank networks. We analyze the interplay of several crucial drivers, i.e., network topology, banks' capital ratios, market illiquidity, and random vs targeted shocks. We find that, in general, topology matters only--but substantially--when the market is illiquid. No single topology is always superior to others. In particular, scale-free networks can be both more robust and more fragile than homogeneous architectures. This finding has important policy implications. We also apply our methodology to a comprehensive dataset of an interbank market from 1999 to 2011.

  1. Cognitive and emotional modulation of brain default operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    cognitive load and emotional stimulus connotation on task-related decreases in the default network by employing an auditory working memory (WM) task with musical sounds. The performance of the WM task, compared to passive listening, lowered the activity in medial and lateral, prefrontal, parietal, temporal......, and limbic regions. In a subset of these regions, the magnitude of decrease depended on the memory load; the greater the cognitive load, the larger the magnitude of the observed decrease. Furthermore, in the right amygdala and the left precuneus, areas previously associated with processing of unpleasant...... of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful state. Previously, the nature of these processes was probed by varying cognitive task parameters, but the presence of emotional processes, while often assumed, was little investigated. With fMRI, we studied the effect of systematic variations of both...

  2. Default-mode-like network activation in awake rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymin Upadhyay

    Full Text Available During wakefulness and in absence of performing tasks or sensory processing, the default-mode network (DMN, an intrinsic central nervous system (CNS network, is in an active state. Non-human primate and human CNS imaging studies have identified the DMN in these two species. Clinical imaging studies have shown that the pattern of activity within the DMN is often modulated in various disease states (e.g., Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or chronic pain. However, whether the DMN exists in awake rodents has not been characterized. The current data provides evidence that awake rodents also possess 'DMN-like' functional connectivity, but only subsequent to habituation to what is initially a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI environment as well as physical restraint. Specifically, the habituation process spanned across four separate scanning sessions (Day 2, 4, 6 and 8. At Day 8, significant (p<0.05 functional connectivity was observed amongst structures such as the anterior cingulate (seed region, retrosplenial, parietal, and hippocampal cortices. Prior to habituation (Day 2, functional connectivity was only detected (p<0.05 amongst CNS structures known to mediate anxiety (i.e., anterior cingulate (seed region, posterior hypothalamic area, amygdala and parabracial nucleus. In relating functional connectivity between cingulate-default-mode and cingulate-anxiety structures across Days 2-8, a significant inverse relationship (r = -0.65, p = 0.0004 was observed between these two functional interactions such that increased cingulate-DMN connectivity corresponded to decreased cingulate anxiety network connectivity. This investigation demonstrates that the cingulate is an important component of both the rodent DMN-like and anxiety networks.

  3. Of Religion and Redemption : Evidence from Default on Islamic Loans (Replaces CentER DP 2010-136)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.; Farooq, M.; Ongena, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on

  4. The relationship between operating cash flow per share and portfolio default probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary duties of the depositary banks is to protect themselves against any possibility of bankruptcy. This requires the identification and measurement of risks, including default risk, which is important given the nature of the activities of banks. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between default probability and some financial figures including operating cash flow, liabilities and return of equities. The proposed study of this paper uses historical data of twenty-two firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. Default probability as the dependent variable is measured by the method developed by Moody’s KMV Company. The study uses linear regression model to examine the relationship between default probability and some independent variables. The results of the present study suggest that there were some reverse relationship between operating cash flow per share, return on equities and default probability. In addition, there was a direct relationship between log facilities and default probability. However, there was not any relationship between net sales and default probability.

  5. Default risk modeling beyond the first-passage approximation: Extended Black-Cox model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.; Shokhirev, Nikolai V.

    2010-07-01

    We develop a generalization of the Black-Cox structural model of default risk. The extended model captures uncertainty related to firm’s ability to avoid default even if company’s liabilities momentarily exceeding its assets. Diffusion in a linear potential with the radiation boundary condition is used to mimic a company’s default process. The exact solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation allows for derivation of analytical expressions for the cumulative probability of default and the relevant hazard rate. Obtained closed formulas fit well the historical data on global corporate defaults and demonstrate the split behavior of credit spreads for bonds of companies in different categories of speculative-grade ratings with varying time to maturity. Introduction of the finite rate of default at the boundary improves valuation of credit risk for short time horizons, which is the key advantage of the proposed model. We also consider the influence of uncertainty in the initial distance to the default barrier on the outcome of the model and demonstrate that this additional source of incomplete information may be responsible for nonzero credit spreads for bonds with very short time to maturity.

  6. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies had used small groups, whereas in the present study we tested these hypotheses in a larger group. The results indicated that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network, relative to an active task, for meditators as compared to controls. Regions of the default mode network showing a Group × Task interaction included the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that the suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and they suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task.

  7. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE PROBABILITY OF DEFAULT IN CASE OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES LISTED ON STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton Noemi, Racz Timea Erzsebet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of estimation of a firm's probability of default increased significantly during the economic and financial crisis for financial institutions, which can be explained by the fact that the share of nonperforming loans increased in this period. The probability of default can be estimated with structural models, which have on base the methodology developed by Merton (1974, methodology used by Moody's Corporation (known as KMV Merton model. The aim of this study is to estimate the probability of default of companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange using this methodology. This approach was widely used in the literature by many researchers (i.e., Kealhofer and Kurbat (2000, Crosbie and Bohn (2002, Duffie and Wang (2004, Bharath and Shumway (2004, 2008. In Romania this methodology was empirically tested by Codirlaşu (2007, who estimated using Merton's methodology the probability of default of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, respectively by Bobircă et al. (2008, where the probabilities of default were estimated in case of 42 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange for 2000-2008 time period. In this paper we used Merton's model, which assumes that a company defaults if the value of its assets is less than the promised dept repayment at time T. The process of estimating the probability of default starts from the following firm specific variables: the market value of the firm's assets, the share prices, the value of the liabilities and the risk-free rate. The analyzed period is 2003-2010, containing the economic and financial crisis period, too. Analyzing the financial statements of the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, we determined the input parameters of the model and calculated the quarterly probabilities of default of each analyzed company. According to our results the probabilities of default have a reduced value in the majority of the cases.

  8. Implementing Electronic Health Record Default Settings to Reduce Opioid Overprescribing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; White, Jessica O; Chao, Sandra; Christensen, Anna L; Horner, Luke; Petersen, Dana M; Hobbs, Morgan R; Capreol, Grace; Halbritter, Kevin A; Jones, Christopher M

    2018-01-09

    To pilot test the effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of instituting a 15-pill quantity default in the electronic health record for new Schedule II opioid prescriptions. A mixed-methods pilot study in two health systems, including pre-post analysis of prescribed opioid quantity and focus groups or interviews with prescribers and health system administrators. We implemented a 15-pill electronic health record default for new Schedule II opioids and assessed opioid quantity before and after implementation using electronic health record data on 6,390 opioid prescriptions from 448 prescribers. We then analyzed themes from focus groups and interviews with four staff members and six prescribers. The proportion of opioid prescriptions for 15 pills increased at both sites after adding an electronic health record default, with one reaching statistical significance (from 4.1% to 7.2% at CHC, P = 0.280, and 15.9% to 37.2% at WVU, P default, although ease of implementation varied by electronic health record vendor. Most prescribers were not aware of the default change and stated that they made prescribing decisions based on patient clinical characteristics rather than defaults. This pilot provides initial evidence that changing default settings can increase the number of prescriptions at the default level. This low-cost and relatively simple intervention could have an impact on opioid overprescribing. However, default settings should be selected carefully to avoid unintended consequences. © 2018 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2018-02-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as brown or white bread. A pilot survey (N = 291) examined the strength of combinations of toppings and bread type as carrier to select stimuli for the main study. In the main experimental study consisting of a two (bread type) by two (topping type) between-subjects design, participants (N = 226) were given a free sandwich at a university stand with either a relatively unhealthy deep-fried snack (croquette) or a healthy topping. About half of the participants were offered a whole wheat bun unless they asked for white bun, and the other half were offered a white bun unless they asked for a whole wheat bun. Regardless of the topping, the results show that when the whole wheat bun was the default option, 108 out of 115 participants (94%) decided to stick with this default option. When the default of bread offered was white, 89 out of 111 participants (80%) similarly chose to stick with this default. Across conditions, participants felt equally free to make a choice. The attractiveness of and willingness to pay for the sandwich were not affected by default type of bread. This study demonstrated a strong default effect of bread type. This clearly shows the benefit of steering consumers towards a healthier bread choice, by offering healthier default bread at various locations such as restaurants, schools and work place canteens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-tuberculosis activity of -lactam antibiotics: prospects for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review is prepared to show results on the anti-TB activity of -lactam antibiotics. -Lactams are among the oldest drugs with little or no side effects. Both in vitro studies and clinical data indicate that -lactams have a promising activity for use in the management of MDR-TB. More studies are required to define the interaction ...

  11. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Tuberculosis (TB) is of great public health burden globally especially in developing countries of Africa and Asia . Current TB regimen involves multiple therapies and of long duration leading to poor patient adherence. There is also the challenge of multidrug resistant TB. Hence, there is a need for discovery of new ...

  12. Factores asociados a la no adherencia al tratamiento anti tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés Plata-Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir los factores de riesgo asociados a la no adherencia al tratamiento en los pacientes adscritos al programa de tuberculosis en el Municipio de Villavicencio, cohorte 2012. Materiales y Métodos: se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con enfoque cuantitativo. Se obtuvieron datos de caracterización sociodemográfica sobre factores de riesgo de personas que abandonaron el tratamiento para la enfermedad- cohorte 2012- mediante la aplicación de un instrumento diseñado por el investigador y revisado por expertos. Los datos fueron tabulados y analizados mediante la herramienta Microsoft Excel® 2007 y Epi-info 7.0. Resultados: el 75% de los pacientes pertenecen al género masculino; el promedio de edad es de 30 años, el 63% pertenecen al régimen subsidiado de salud. Las principales causas de abandono fueron: efectos adversos a los medicamentos (58%, inadecuada atención del personal de salud (43%, dificultad de acceso al servicio (32%. Los factores sociales encontrados fueron hacinamiento 67% y desempleo 62%. Conclusiones: algunos factores no modificables como la edad y el género, así como factores modificables como estilos de vida inadecuados y efectos adversos; cuyo control mejoraría el cumplimiento; contribuyen al abandono del tratamiento. Las variables psicológicas y sociales deben ser evaluadas para que se conviertan en predictores de probables abandonos o irregularidades en el tratamiento antituberculoso.

  13. Anti-tuberculosis activities of the crude methanolic extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    standard drugs. The petri dishes were sealed with a carbon-dioxide permeable tape, left overnight in biosafety hood to allow diffusion of the extract, fractions. It was then incubated at 370C in a carbon- dioxide incubator for 4 weeks. The susceptibility of. M. tuberculosis isolates to the extract and the drugs was determined by ...

  14. Application of historical Y-12 default radiological activity values to legacy waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.

    2009-01-01

    In June of 2003, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC tasked Pacific Western Technologies (PWT) to perform a comprehensive audit of the Facility Acceptance Testing/ Container Analysis Tool (FAT-CAT), which is currently administered, by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC... During this audit, a finding was issued on the subject of assigning historic Y-12 default radiological activity values to radiological containers, having no radiological data. Analysis of default radiological values versus known real radiological values showed the default values to be conservative as a place-holder for containers with no known radiological values. (authors)

  15. Markov Chain Model with Catastrophe to Determine Mean Time to Default of Credit Risky Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraja, Selvamuthu; Pasricha, Puneet; Tardelli, Paola

    2017-11-01

    This article deals with the problem of probabilistic prediction of the time distance to default for a firm. To model the credit risk, the dynamics of an asset is described as a function of a homogeneous discrete time Markov chain subject to a catastrophe, the default. The behaviour of the Markov chain is investigated and the mean time to the default is expressed in a closed form. The methodology to estimate the parameters is given. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model on real data and their analysis is discussed.

  16. Default mode network as a potential biomarker of chemotherapy-related brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Shelli R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic medical conditions and/or their treatments may interact with aging to alter or even accelerate brain senescence. Adult onset cancer, for example, is a disease associated with advanced aging and emerging evidence suggests a profile of subtle but diffuse brain injury following cancer chemotherapy. Breast cancer is currently the primary model for studying these “chemobrain” effects. Given the widespread changes to brain structure and function as well as the common impairment of integrated cognitive skills observed following breast cancer chemotherapy, it is likely that large-scale brain networks are involved. Default mode network (DMN) is a strong candidate considering its preferential vulnerability to aging and sensitivity to toxicity and disease states. Additionally, chemotherapy is associated with several physiologic effects including increased inflammation and oxidative stress that are believed to elevate toxicity in the DMN. Biomarkers of DMN connectivity could aid in the development of treatments for chemotherapy-related cognitive decline. For example, certain nutritional interventions could potentially reduce the metabolic changes (e.g. amyloid beta toxicity) associated with DMN disruption. PMID:24913897

  17. Gamification of learning deactivates the Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Alexander Howard-Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesised that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN and deactivation of Default Mode Network (DMN regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer, Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards. DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  18. Reduced Default Mode Connectivity in Adolescents With Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulidakis, M John; Fairchild, Graeme; Sully, Kate; Blumensath, Thomas; Darekar, Angela; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-09-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviors that might be related to deficits in empathy and moral reasoning. The brain's default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in self-referential cognitive processes of this kind. This study examined connectivity between key nodes of the DMN in 29 adolescent boys with CD and 29 age- and sex-matched typically developing adolescent boys. The authors ensured that group differences in DMN connectivity were not explained by comorbidity with other disorders by systematically controlling for the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, psychopathic traits, and other common mental health problems. Only after adjusting for co-occurring ADHD symptoms, the group with CD showed hypoconnectivity between core DMN regions compared with typically developing controls. ADHD symptoms were associated with DMN hyperconnectivity. There was no effect of psychopathic traits on DMN connectivity in the group with CD, and the key results were unchanged when controlling for SUDs and other common mental health problems. Future research should directly investigate the possibility that the aberrant DMN connectivity observed in the present study contributes to CD-related deficits in empathy and moral reasoning and examine self-referential cognitive processes in CD more generally. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  19. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  20. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Robert W; North, Duane M; Biver, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300-350 ms and (2) 350-450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a "shutter" that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  1. Estimating Probability of Default on Peer to Peer Market – Survival Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Andrija

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Arguably a cornerstone of credit risk modelling is the probability of default. This article aims is to search for the evidence of relationship between loan characteristics and probability of default on peer-to-peer (P2P market. In line with that, two loan characteristics are analysed: 1 loan term length and 2 loan purpose. The analysis is conducted using survival analysis approach within the vintage framework. Firstly, 12 months probability of default through the cycle is used to compare riskiness of analysed loan characteristics. Secondly, log-rank test is employed in order to compare complete survival period of cohorts. Findings of the paper suggest that there is clear evidence of relationship between analysed loan characteristics and probability of default. Longer term loans are more risky than the shorter term ones and the least risky loans are those used for credit card payoff.

  2. The default network and self-generated thought: component processes, dynamic control, and clinical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Spreng, R. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Though only a decade has elapsed since the default network was first emphasized as being a large-scale brain system, recent years have brought great insight into the network’s adaptive functions. A growing theme highlights the default network as playing a key role in internally-directed—or self-generated—thought. Here, we synthesize recent findings from cognitive science, neuroscience, and clinical psychology to focus attention on two emerging topics as current and future directions surrounding the default network. First, we present evidence that self-generated thought is a multi-faceted construct whose component processes are supported by different subsystems within the network. Second, we highlight the dynamic nature of the default network, emphasizing its interaction with executive control systems when regulating aspects of internal thought. We conclude by discussing clinical implications of disruptions to the integrity of the network, and consider disorders when thought content becomes polarized or network interactions become disrupted or imbalanced. PMID:24502540

  3. Prediction of default probability in banking industry using CAMELS index: A case study of Iranian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between CAMELS index and default probability among 20 Iranian banks. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from their financial statements over the period 2005-2011. The study uses logistic regression along with Pearson correlation analysis to consider the relationship between default probability and six independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning quality, liquidity quality and sensitivity of market risk. The results indicate that there were no meaningful relationship between default probability and three independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality and sensitivity of market risk. However, the results of our statistical tests support such relationship between default probability and three other variables including management quality, earning quality and liquidity quality.

  4. Emergentism as a default: Cancer as a problem of tissue organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    default state of cell proliferation in metazoa is quiescence; and (iii) cancer is a disease of cell proliferation caused by ..... oncogenes to growth factor receptors and to signal trans- ..... ample, neoplasms of the breast and prostate usually.

  5. How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Stracke, C. M. (2016, 14 April). How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative. Results from the Action Lab at the Open Education Global Conference 2016, Krakow, Poland. More about the Action Lab:

  6. 75 FR 64710 - Joint Public Roundtable on Issues Related to the Clearing of Credit Default Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... certain issues related to the clearing of Credit Default Swaps in the context of the Agencies rulemaking... comments must be in English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to either...

  7. Emission of biocides from hospitals: comparing current survey results with European Union default values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Bitsch, Annette; Hahn, Stefan; Hahn, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    Under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, comprehensive evaluations on substances of the Third Priority List were conducted until 31 July 2007. This list includes, among other categories, disinfectants for human hygiene (e.g., skin and surface disinfection). For environmental exposure assessment of biocides, the EU emission scenarios apply. Currently available default values for disinfectants are based on consumption data from not more than 8 hospitals and were originally assembled for other purposes. To revalidate these default values, a survey on annual consumption data was performed in 27 German hospitals. These data were analyzed to provide consumption data per bed and day and per nurse and day for particular categories of active ingredients and were compared with default values from the EU emission scenario documents. Although several deviations were detected, an overall acceptable correspondence between Emission Scenario Documents default values and the current survey data was found. (c) 2009 SETAC

  8. Empirical estimation of default and asset correlation of large corporates and banks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Arindam; Ganguly, Sonali

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of default and asset correlation is crucial for banks to manage and measure portfolio credit risk. This would require studying the risk profile of the banks’ entire credit portfolio and developing the appropriate methodology for the estimation of default dependence. Measurement and management of correlation risk in the credit portfolio of banks has also become an important area of concern for bank regulators worldwide. The BCBS (2006) has specifically included an asset correlation ...

  9. Analysis Of Default Passwords In Routers Against Brute-Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Farik; ABM Shawkat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Password authentication is the main means of access control on network routers and router manufacturers provide a default password for initial login to the router. While there has been many publications regarding the minimum requirements of a good password how widely the manufacturers themselves are adhering to the minimum standards and whether these passwords can withstand brute-force attack are not widely known. The novelty of this research is that this is the first time default...

  10. Directed connectivity of brain default networks in resting state using GCA and motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhuqing; Wang, Huan; Ma, Kai; Zou, Ling; Xiang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between key brain regions. In this paper, Granger causality analysis (GCA) and motif structure are adopted to study directed connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs) in resting state. Firstly, the time series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in resting state were extracted, and the causal relationship values of the nodes representing related brain regions are analyzed in time domain to construct a default network. Then, the network structures were searched from the default networks of controls and patients to determine the fixed connection mode in the networks. The important degree of motif structures in directed connectivity of default networks was judged according to p-value and Z-score. Both node degree and average distance were used to analyze the effect degree an information transfer rate of brain regions in motifs and default networks, and efficiency of the network. Finally, activity and functional connectivity strength of the default brain regions are researched according to the change of energy distributions between the normals and the patients' brain regions. Experimental results demonstrate that, both normal subjects and stroke patients have some corresponding fixed connection mode of three nodes, and the efficiency and power spectrum of the patient's default network is somewhat lower than that of the normal person. In particular, the Right Posterior Cingulate Gyrus (PCG.R) has a larger change in functional connectivity and its activity. The research results verify the feasibility of the application of GCA and motif structure to study the functional connectivity of default networks in resting state.

  11. The application of defaults to optimize parents' health-based choices for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Keller, Kathleen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Marcus, Sue; Pierson, Richard N; Shannon, Michael; DeLaurentis, Danielle

    2017-06-01

    Optimal defaults is a compelling model from behavioral economics and the psychology of human decision-making, designed to shape or "nudge" choices in a positive direction without fundamentally restricting options. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of optimal (less obesogenic) defaults and parent empowerment priming on health-based decisions with parent-child (ages 3-8) dyads in a community-based setting. Two proof-of-concept experiments (one on breakfast food selections and one on activity choice) were conducted comparing the main and interactive effects of optimal versus suboptimal defaults, and parent empowerment priming versus neutral priming, on parents' health-related choices for their children. We hypothesized that in each experiment, making the default option more optimal will lead to more frequent health-oriented choices, and that priming parents to be the ultimate decision-makers on behalf of their child's health will potentiate this effect. Results show that in both studies, default condition, but not priming condition or the interaction between default and priming, significantly predicted choice (healthier vs. less healthy option). There was also a significant main effect for default condition (and no effect for priming condition or the interaction term) on the quantity of healthier food children consumed in the breakfast experiment. These pilot studies demonstrate that optimal defaults can be practicably implemented to improve parents' food and activity choices for young children. Results can inform policies and practices pertaining to obesogenic environmental factors in school, restaurant, and home environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Conditionally Beta Distributed Time-Series Model With Application to Monthly US Corporate Default Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thor Pajhede

    2017-01-01

    We consider an observation driven, conditionally Beta distributed model for variables restricted to the unit interval. The model includes both explanatory variables and autoregressive dependence in the mean and precision parameters using the mean-precision parametrization of the beta distribution...... the monthly default rate. (3) There is evidence for volatility clustering beyond what is accounted for by the inherent mean-precision relationship of the Beta distribution in the default rate data....

  13. Effect of loan value and collateral on value of mortgage default

    OpenAIRE

    Itoo, R. A.; Selvarasu, A.; Filipe, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explore the factors influencing mortgage loan default by using the data of mortgage default case from Jammu and Kashmir Bank. To achieve the study objectives sixteen variables are taken. The variables are categorized into three dimensions as borrower’s profile, loan value contents and collateral security. The tools used for analysis of data describing mortgage loan defaulter’s are chi-square, regression, ANOVA, and logistic regression through SPSS 18.0. The results indicate that th...

  14. Risk Factors of Loan Default Payment in Ghana: A case study of Akuapem Rural Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Antwi; Ebenezer Fiifi Emire Atta Mills; Gifty Atta Mills; Xicang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine some risk factors that influence loan default repayment among customers in Akuapem rural bank. Secondary data on some variables which influence customer loan default was obtained from the credit department of Akuapem rural bank. Data was collected for the period 2006 to 2010. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data. It was found that among the variables that were used, Security and Type of Loan were significant to the study whereas Sex, Marital Status,...

  15. Default, Framing and Spillover Effects: The Case of Lifecycle Funds in 401(k) Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia S. Mitchell; Gary R. Mottola; Stephen P. Utkus; Takeshi Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    Important behavioral factors such as default and framing effects are increasingly being employed to optimize decision-making in a variety of settings, including individually-directed retirement plans. Yet such approaches may have unintended "spillover" effects, as we show with regard to the introduction of lifecycle funds in U.S. 401(k) plans. As anticipated, lifecycle funds do reshape individual portfolio choices through large default and framing effects. But unexpectedly, they also create a...

  16. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun Mi Kim,1 Sung Yong Park,1 Young In Kim,1 Young Don Son,2 Un-Sun Chung,3,4 Kyung Joon Min,1 Doug Hyun Han1 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 4School Mental Health Resources and Research Center, Kyungpook National University Children’s Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Aim: Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network and the default mode network (DMN have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors.Methods: Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions ­including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors.Results: The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively

  18. Acupuncture induce the different modulation patterns of the default mode network: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yi

    2009-02-01

    According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and certain clinical treatment reports, the sustained effects of acupuncture indeed exist, which may last several minutes or hours. Furthermore, increased attention has fallen on the sustained effects of acupuncture. Recently, it is reported that the sustained acupuncture effects may alter the default mode network (DMN). It raises interesting questions: whether the modulations of acupuncture effects to the DMN are still detected at other acupoints and whether the modulation patterns are different induced by different acupoints. In the present study, we wanted to investigate the questions. An experiment fMRI design was carried out on 36 subjects with the electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) at the three acupoints: Guangming (GB37), Kunlun (BL60) and Jiaoxin (KI8) on the left leg. The data sets were analyzed by a data driven method named independent component analysis (ICA). The results indicated that the three acupoints stimulations may modulate the DMN. Moreover, the modulation patterns were distinct. We suggest the different modulation patterns on the DMN may attribute to the distinct functional effects of acupoints.

  19. Dysfunctional Default Mode Network in Methadone Treated Patients Who Have a Higher Heroin Relapse Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Defeng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Zhu, Jia; Li, Yongbin; Yan, Xuejiao; Chen, Jiajie; Ye, Jianjun; Li, Zhe; Wang, Yarong; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether heroin relapse is associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of chronic heroin relapsers (HR) (12 males, 1 female, age: 36.1 ± 6.9 years) and abstainers (HA) (11males, 2 female; age: 42.1 ± 8.1 years) were investigated with an independent component analysis to address the functional connectivity of their DMN. Group comparison was then performed between the relapsers and abstainers. Our study found that the left inferior temporal gyrus and the right superior occipital gyrus associated with DMN showed decreased functional connectivity in HR when compared with HA, while the left precuneus and the right middle cingulum had increased functional connectivity. Mean intensity signal, extracted from left inferior temporal gyrus of HR patients, showed a significant negative correlation corresponding to the degree of heroin relapse. These findings suggest that altered functional connectivity of DMN may contribute to the potential neurobiological mechanism(s) of heroin relapse and have a predictive value concerning heroin relapse under MMT.

  20. Internal and external attention and the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, Hannah J; Bogler, Carsten; Gleich, Tobias; Haynes, John-Dylan; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing. Here, we employed a thought-probe paradigm to study the neural correlates of these different phases. Twenty healthy, meditation naïve participants were introduced to external (mindfulness of sound) and internal (mindfulness of breathing) attention meditation and then practiced the meditation at home for four consecutive days. They then performed the same focused attention meditations during fMRI scanning, in four runs alternating between internal and external attention. At pseudorandom intervals, participants were asked whether they had just been focused on the task (mindful attention) or had been distracted (mind-wandering). During mindful attention, brain regions typically associated with the DMN, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and left temporoparietal junction showed significantly less neural activation compared to mind-wandering phases. Reduced activity of the DMN was found during both external and internal attention, with stronger deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex during internal attention compared to external attention. Moreover, refocusing after mind-wandering was associated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Our results support the theory that mindful attention is associated with reduced DMN activity compared to mind

  1. Reentrant Information Flow in Electrophysiological Rat Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Zhang, Yunxiang; Guo, Fengru; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that the rodent brain shows a default mode network (DMN) activity similar to that in humans, offering a potential preclinical model both for physiological and pathophysiological studies. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying rodent DMN remains poorly understood. Here, we used electrophysiological data to analyze the power spectrum and estimate the directed phase transfer entropy (dPTE) within rat DMN across three vigilance states: wakeful rest (WR), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). We observed decreased gamma powers during SWS compared with WR in most of the DMN regions. Increased gamma powers were found in prelimbic cortex, cingulate cortex, and hippocampus during REMS compared with WR, whereas retrosplenial cortex showed a reverse trend. These changed gamma powers are in line with the local metabolic variation of homologous brain regions in humans. In the analysis of directional interactions, we observed well-organized anterior-to-posterior patterns of information flow in the delta band, while opposite patterns of posterior-to-anterior flow were found in the theta band. These frequency-specific opposite patterns were only observed in WR and REMS. Additionally, most of the information senders in the delta band were also the receivers in the theta band, and vice versa. Our results provide electrophysiological evidence that rat DMN is similar to its human counterpart, and there is a frequency-dependent reentry loop of anterior-posterior information flow within rat DMN, which may offer a mechanism for functional integration, supporting conscious awareness.

  2. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Thatcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  3. Paying for Default: Change over Time in the Share of Federal Financial Aid Sent to Institutions with High Student Loan Default Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Both federal spending on financial aid and student loan default rates have increased over the past decade. These trends have intensified policymakers' concerns that some postsecondary institutions-- particularly in the for-profit sector--maximize revenue derived from federal financial aid without helping students to graduate or find employment.…

  4. Adequacy of the default values for skin surface area used for risk assessment and French anthropometric data by a probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Bernard, A; Roudot, A C

    2017-08-01

    The notes of guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is a document dedicated to ensuring the safety of European consumers. This contains useful data for risk assessment such as default values for Skin Surface Area (SSA). A more in-depth study of anthropometric data across Europe reveals considerable variations. The default SSA value was derived from a study on the Dutch population, which is known to be one of the tallest nations in the World. This value could be inadequate for shorter populations of Europe. Data were collected in a survey on cosmetic consumption in France. Probabilistic treatment of these data and analysis of the case of methylisothiazolinone, a sensitizer recently evaluated by a deterministic approach submitted to SCCS, suggest that the default value for SSA used in the quantitative risk assessment might not be relevant for a significant share of the French female population. Others female populations of Southern Europe may also be excluded. This is of importance given that some studies show an increasing risk of developping skin sensitization among women. The disparities in anthropometric data across Europe should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Default network activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: A selective meta-analytic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2016-01-08

    It remains unclear whether and to what extent the default network subregions involved in episodic memory (EM) and semantic memory (SM) processes overlap or are separated from one another. This study addresses this issue through a controlled meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies involving healthy participants. Various EM and SM task paradigms differ widely in the extent of default network involvement. Therefore, the issue at hand cannot be properly addressed without some control for this factor. In this regard, this study employs a two-stage analysis: a preliminary meta-analysis to select EM and SM task paradigms that recruit relatively extensive default network regions and a main analysis to compare the selected task paradigms. Based on a within-EM comparison, the default network contributed more to recollection/familiarity effects than to old/new effects, and based on a within-SM comparison, it contributed more to word/pseudoword effects than to semantic/phonological effects. According to a direct comparison of recollection/familiarity and word/pseudoword effects, each involving a range of default network regions, there were more overlaps than separations in default network subregions involved in these two effects. More specifically, overlaps included the bilateral posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, and left anteromedial prefrontal regions, whereas separations included only the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal cortex region, which was unique to recollection/familiarity effects. These results indicate that EM and SM retrieval processes involving strong memory signals recruit extensive and largely overlapping default network regions and differ mainly in distinct contributions of hippocampus and parahippocampal regions to EM retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CREDIT DEFAULT SWAPS IN THE MECHANISM OF REDISTRIBUTION OF CREDIT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Solodka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the economic nature and the functioning of CDS in terms of efficient redistribution of credit risk. The features of the dynamics of the nominal volume of the world market CDS, the gross market value and net market value of the CDS. Proved that more objective indicators of total credit risk shenerovanoho financial institutions are gross market value of the CDS and the net market value of CDS. We consider the variety and scope of CDS. Studied objectivity CDS valuation depending on the basis for valuation of CDS. In the mechanism of functioning CDS credit event as defined default “subject matter”, the features of conventional and technical default. Noted that a credit event for the use of CDS may also restructuring the company, bankruptcy or downgrade economic entity. In the article the types of CDS, including Basket Default Swap and First-of- Basket-to-Default Swap. We consider the application of CDS, namely hedge the credit risk of the underlying asset, which issued CDS; hedging credit risk of other assets by CDS; speculative trading in CDS. Depending on the particular basis for valuation of CDS, investigated objective valuation based on the value of CDS hedging; valuation CDS, based on the intensity of default; CDS valuation based on credit rating; valuation CDS, based on the value of the company. Proved that hedging through CDS will be effective only for the low correlation between the default of the underlying asset and counterparty default on swaps. It is proved that the accuracy and redutsyrovanyh structural models strongly depends on the “a long history of trading” underlying assets, asset must have a long history of trading, be the subject of in-depth analysis of a wide range of analysts and traders.

  7. Biotransformation enzymes for xenobiotics and personalization of treatment regimens for tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mozhokina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the literature on specific metabolism of anti-tuberculosis drugs depending on polymorphism of genes controlling synthesis and action of biotransformation enzymes, in particular cytochrome P-450 isozymes and enzymes of the IInd phase of biotransformation (N-acetyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase respective adverse reactions development, first of  all hepatotoxic ones. The  possibility of pharmacogenetic studies with the evaluation of genetic predisposition to developing adverse reactions to medications has been discussed in respect of personalized approach to effective and safe treatment of tuberculosis patients.

  8. Default mode network links to visual hallucinations: A comparison between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciotti, Raffaella; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Perfetti, Bernardo; Tartaro, Armando; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Weis, Luca; Biundo, Roberta; Antonini, Angelo; Onofrj, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Studying default mode network activity or connectivity in different parkinsonisms, with or without visual hallucinations, could highlight its roles in clinical phenotypes' expression. Multiple system atrophy is the archetype of parkinsonism without visual hallucinations, variably appearing instead in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to evaluate default mode network functions in multiple system atrophy in comparison with PD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluated default mode network activity and connectivity in 15 multiple system atrophy patients, 15 healthy controls, 15 early PD patients matched for disease duration, 30 severe PD patients (15 with and 15 without visual hallucinations), matched with multiple system atrophy for disease severity. Cortical thickness and neuropsychological evaluations were also performed. Multiple system atrophy had reduced default mode network activity compared with controls and PD with hallucinations, and no differences with PD (early or severe) without hallucinations. In PD with visual hallucinations, activity and connectivity was preserved compared with controls and higher than in other groups. In early PD, connectivity was lower than in controls but higher than in multiple system atrophy and severe PD without hallucinations. Cortical thickness was reduced in severe PD, with and without hallucinations, and correlated only with disease duration. Higher anxiety scores were found in patients without hallucinations. Default mode network activity and connectivity was higher in PD with visual hallucinations and reduced in multiple system atrophy and PD without visual hallucinations. Cortical thickness comparisons suggest that functional, rather than structural, changes underlie the activity and connectivity differences. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Low-Empathy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Han, Kiwan; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Jae Jin; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Ji Woong

    2017-09-01

    Empathy is the ability to identify with or make a vicariously experience of another person's feelings or thoughts based on memory and/or self-referential mental simulation. The default mode network in particular is related to self-referential empathy. In order to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying empathy, we investigated the functional connectivity of the default mode network in subjects from a general population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 19 low-empathy subjects and 18 medium-empathy subjects. An independent component analysis was used to identify the default mode network, and differences in functional connectivity strength were compared between the two groups. The low-empathy group showed lower functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann areas 9 and 32) within the default mode network, compared to the medium-empathy group. The results of the present study suggest that empathy is related to functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network. Functional decreases in connectivity among low-empathy subjects may reflect an impairment of self-referential mental simulation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  11. Domestic violence is a leading risk factor in default from colposcopy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Rachael; Quinlivan, Julie A

    2014-06-01

    Domestic violence is common in women and is associated with poorer health-care outcomes. However, no causal pathway has been identified to explain this observation. We have followed a cohort of women to determine whether poorer outcomes can be explained by high rates of default and loss to follow-up. A prospective cohort study was performed. Institutional ethics approval was obtained. Participants were consecutive patients attending colposcopy clinics at a major metropolitan hospital in Australia. Following ascertainment of domestic violence status, appointment outcomes for colposcopy services were tracked for a 3-year period. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to determine demographic factors associated with default from care and loss to follow-up. Of 581 women approached, consent was obtained from 574 women (99%). Domestic violence status was obtained from 566 women, of whom 187 (33%) had a recent history of exposure. Women exposed to violence were more likely to default from colposcopy once (26.2% vs 7.4%; P default and loss to follow-up. Domestic violence is a risk factor for default from attendance and loss to follow-up at colposcopy services. This may explain the mechanism behind adverse health-care outcomes seen. Screening and targeted appointment intervention programs may improve clinical compliance. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Trust and self-control: The moderating role of the default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Evans

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent dual-process theories, interpersonal trust is influenced by both impulsive and deliberative processes. The present research explores the determinants of deliberative trust, investigating how trust decisions are affected by the availability of cognitive resources. We test the interaction of two relevant factors: self-control (the ability to exert mental control over one's behavior and the default response (a preselected option that requires minimal or no effort. Past research has shown that self-control has extensive effects on social behavior and decision making. Here, we report that the effect of self-control on trust depends on the default. Across two studies, we find no direct link between self-control and trust. Instead, self-control affects trust indirectly by influencing the level of effort in decision making. Poor self-control (due to experimental depletion or trait-based differences predicts adherence to the default---the response that requires the least effort.

  13. The Brain’s Default Network and its Adaptive Role in Internal Mentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    During the many idle moments that comprise daily life, the human brain increases its activity across a set of midline and lateral cortical brain regions known as the “default network.” Despite the robustness with which the brain defaults to this pattern of activity, surprisingly little is known about the network’s precise anatomical organization and adaptive functions. To provide insight into these questions, this article synthesizes recent literature from structural and functional imaging with a growing behavioral literature on mind wandering. Results characterize the default network as a set of interacting hubs and subsystems that play an important role in “internal mentation” – the introspective and adaptive mental activities in which humans spontaneously and deliberately engage in everyday. . PMID:21677128

  14. Risk Profile Indicators and Spanish Banks’ Probability of Default from a Regulatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Gómez-Fernández-Aguado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationships between the traditional bank risk profile indicators and a new measure of banks’ probability of default that considers the Basel regulatory framework. First, based on the SYstemic Model of Bank Originated Losses (SYMBOL, we calculated the individual probabilities of default (PD of a representative sample of Spanish credit institutions during the period of 2008–2016. Then, panel data regressions were estimated to explore the influence of the risk indicators on the PD. Our findings on the Spanish banking system could be important to regulatory and supervisory authorities. First, the PD based on the SYMBOL model could be used to analyse bank risk from a regulatory approach. Second, the results might be useful for designing new regulations focused on the key factors that affect the banks’ probability of default. Third, our findings reveal that the emphasis on regulation and supervision should differ by type of entity.

  15. How Does Distress Acquisition Incentivized by Government Purchases of Distressed Loans Affect Bank Default Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jiuan Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of bank default risk in connection with government bailouts has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question of how a bank’s default risk is affected by a distress acquisition is investigated. Specifically, the government provides a bailout program of distressed loan purchases for a strong bank to acquire a bank in distress. The acquirer bank may likely refuse the acquisition with a bailout when the amount of distressed loan purchases is large or the knock-out value of the acquired bank is high. When the acquirer bank realizes acquisition gains, the default risk in the consolidated bank’s equity return is negatively related to loan purchases, but positively to the knock-out value of the acquired bank. The government bailout, as such, in large part contributes to banking stability.

  16. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  17. Connectivity trajectory across lifespan differentiates the precuneus from the default network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Chang, Catie; Xu, Ting; Jiang, Lili; Handwerker, Daniel A; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P; Bandettini, Peter A; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-04-01

    The default network of the human brain has drawn much attention due to its relevance to various brain disorders, cognition, and behavior. However, its functional components and boundaries have not been precisely defined. There is no consensus as to whether the precuneus, a hub in the functional connectome, acts as part of the default network. This discrepancy is more critical for brain development and aging studies: it is not clear whether age has a stronger impact on the default network or precuneus, or both. We used Generalized Ranking and Averaging Independent Component Analysis by Reproducibility (gRAICAR) to investigate the lifespan trajectories of intrinsic functional networks. By estimating individual-specific spatial components and aligning them across subjects, gRAICAR measures the spatial variation of component maps across a population without constraining the same components to appear in every subject. In a cross-lifespan fMRI dataset (N=126, 7-85years old), we observed stronger age dependence in the spatial pattern of a precuneus-dorsal posterior cingulate cortex network compared to the default network, despite the fact that the two networks exhibit considerable spatial overlap and temporal correlation. These results remained even when analyses were restricted to a subpopulation with very similar head motion across age. Our analyses further showed that the two networks tend to merge with increasing age. Post-hoc analyses of functional connectivity confirmed the distinguishable cross-lifespan trajectories between the two networks. Based on these observations, we proposed a dynamic model of cross-lifespan functional segregation and integration between the two networks, suggesting that the precuneus network may have a different functional role than the default network, which declines with age. These findings have implications for understanding the functional roles of the default network, gaining insight into its dynamics throughout life, and guiding

  18. Salience and Default Mode Network Coupling Predicts Cognition in Aging and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Deepti; Ross, Robert S; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Janes, Amy C; Stern, Chantal E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Three neurocognitive networks support efficient cognition: the salience network, the default mode network, and the central executive network. The salience network is thought to switch between activating and deactivating the default mode and central executive networks. Anti-correlated interactions between the salience and default mode networks in particular are necessary for efficient cognition. Our previous work demonstrated altered functional coupling between the neurocognitive networks in non-demented individuals with PD compared to age-matched control participants. Here, we aim to identify associations between cognition and functional coupling between these neurocognitive networks in the same group of participants. We investigated the extent to which intrinsic functional coupling among these neurocognitive networks is related to cognitive performance across three neuropsychological domains: executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and verbal memory. Twenty-four non-demented individuals with mild to moderate PD and 20 control participants were scanned at rest and evaluated on three neuropsychological domains. PD participants were impaired on tests from all three domains compared to control participants. Our imaging results demonstrated that successful cognition across healthy aging and Parkinson's disease participants was related to anti-correlated coupling between the salience and default mode networks. Individuals with poorer performance scores across groups demonstrated more positive salience network/default-mode network coupling. Successful cognition relies on healthy coupling between the salience and default mode networks, which may become dysfunctional in PD. These results can help inform non-pharmacological interventions (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) targeting these specific networks before they become vulnerable in early stages of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Redundant mechanisms are involved in suppression of default cell fates during embryonic mesenchyme and notochord induction in ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hitoshi; Miyata, Yoshimasa; Kuwajima, Mami; Izuchi, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Gyoja, Fuki; Onuma, Takeshi A; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    During embryonic induction, the responding cells invoke an induced developmental program, whereas in the absence of an inducing signal, they assume a default uninduced cell fate. Suppression of the default fate during the inductive event is crucial for choice of the binary cell fate. In contrast to the mechanisms that promote an induced cell fate, those that suppress the default fate have been overlooked. Upon induction, intracellular signal transduction results in activation of genes encoding key transcription factors for induced tissue differentiation. It is elusive whether an induced key transcription factor has dual functions involving suppression of the default fates and promotion of the induced fate, or whether suppression of the default fate is independently regulated by other factors that are also downstream of the signaling cascade. We show that during ascidian embryonic induction, default fates were suppressed by multifold redundant mechanisms. The key transcription factor, Twist-related.a, which is required for mesenchyme differentiation, and another independent transcription factor, Lhx3, which is dispensable for mesenchyme differentiation, sequentially and redundantly suppress the default muscle fate in induced mesenchyme cells. Similarly in notochord induction, Brachyury, which is required for notochord differentiation, and other factors, Lhx3 and Mnx, are likely to suppress the default nerve cord fate redundantly. Lhx3 commonly suppresses the default fates in two kinds of induction. Mis-activation of the autonomously executed default program in induced cells is detrimental to choice of the binary cell fate. Multifold redundant mechanisms would be required for suppression of the default fate to be secure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal resting state effective connectivity within the default mode network in major depressive disorder: A spectral dynamic causal modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Liu, Wenlei; Wang, Huaning; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Tian, Ping; Zhang, Linchuan; Guo, Fan; Cui, Long-Biao; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing; Tan, Qingrong

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the neural basis underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. Aberrant activation and functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been consistently found in patients with MDD. It is not known whether effective connectivity within the DMN is altered in MDD. The primary object of this study is to investigate the effective connectivity within the DMN during resting state in MDD patients before and after eight weeks of antidepressant treatment. We defined four regions of the DMN (medial frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, left parietal cortex, and right parietal cortex) for each participant using a group independent component analysis. The coupling parameters reflecting the causal interactions among the DMN regions were estimated using spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Twenty-seven MDD patients and 27 healthy controls were included in the statistical analysis. Our results showed declined influences from the left parietal cortex to other DMN regions in the pre-treatment patients as compared with healthy controls. After eight weeks of treatment, the influence from the right parietal cortex to the posterior cingulate cortex significantly decreased. These findings suggest that the reduced excitatory causal influence of the left parietal cortex is the key alteration of the DMN in patients with MDD, and the disrupted causal influences that parietal cortex exerts on the posterior cingulate cortex is responsive to antidepressant treatment.

  1. Pricing of the Policy Life in Absence of Default Risk and Asset Liability Management

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model, by using the option theory, determines the fair value of the life insurance policies in absence of default risk and shows that the fair fixed guaranteed interest-rate is less than the risk free interest rate due to the exchange of options between policyholders and shareholders. Furthermore, it shows that the effective liabilities duration is different from the duration of a default free zero coupon bond with the same time of maturity such that the equity value is immunized by using...

  2. The economy and loss given default: evidence from two UK retail lending data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mindy Leow; Christophe Mues; Lyn Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Loss given default (LGD) models predict losses as a proportion of the outstanding loan, in the event a debtor goes into default. The literature on corporate sector LGD models suggests LGD is correlated to the economy and so changes in the economy could translate into different predictions of losses. In this work, the role of macroeconomic variables in loan-level retail LGD models is examined by testing the inclusion of macroeconomic variables in two different retail LGD models: a two-stage mo...

  3. HIERtalker: A default hierarchy of high order neural networks that learns to read English aloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Z.G.; Mniszewski, S.M.; Lee, Y.C.; Papcun, G.; Doolen, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    A new learning algorithm based on a default hierarchy of high order neural networks has been developed that is able to generalize as well as handle exceptions. It learns the ''building blocks'' or clusters of symbols in a stream that appear repeatedly and convey certain messages. The default hierarchy prevents a combinatoric explosion of rules. A simulator of such a hierarchy, HIERtalker, has been applied to the conversion of English words to phonemes. Achieved accuracy is 99% for trained words and ranges from 76% to 96% for sets of new words. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. An Empirical Analysis of the Default Rate of Informal Lending—Evidence from Yiwu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yu, Xiaobo; Du, Juan; Ji, Feng

    This study empirically analyzes the underlying factors contributing to the default rate of informal lending. This paper adopts snowball sampling interview to collect data and uses the logistic regression model to explore the specific factors. The results of these analyses validate the explanation of how the informal lending differs from the commercial loan. Factors that contribute to the default rate have particular attributes, while sharing some similarities with commercial bank or FICO credit scoring Index. Finally, our concluding remarks draw some inferences from empirical analysis and speculate as to what this may imply for the role of formal and informal financial sectors.

  5. Why has Greece not defaulted, yet? - A macroeconomic and historical institutionalist perspective on why Greece has not followed in Argentine footsteps and defaulted.

    OpenAIRE

    Afranie, Lenny Matthew; Rauff Hansen, Tina; Dalgaard Steffensen, Ida

    2012-01-01

    This projects sets out to explore the reasons why Greece, in the light of the current sovereign debt crisis, has not done as Argentina did in 2001 and defaulted. It uses a historical institutionalist framework, drawing on path dependency and critical junctures in the analysis of 1. how the European Union (EU) imposes restrictions on Greece, and 2. how Greece's and Argentina's situations correspond and differ. The project concludes that the main difference lies in the restrictions imposed on G...

  6. SU-E-J-36: Comparison of CBCT Image Quality for Manufacturer Default Imaging Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CBCT is being increasingly used in patient setup for radiotherapy. Often the manufacturer default scan modes are used for performing these CBCT scans with the assumption that they are the best options. To quantitatively assess the image quality of these scan modes, all of the scan modes were tested as well as options with the reconstruction algorithm. Methods A CatPhan 504 phantom was scanned on a TrueBeam Linear Accelerator using the manufacturer scan modes (FSRT Head, Head, Image Gently, Pelvis, Pelvis Obese, Spotlight, & Thorax). The Head mode scan was then reconstructed multiple times with all filter options (Smooth, Standard, Sharp, & Ultra Sharp) and all Ring Suppression options (Disabled, Weak, Medium, & Strong). An open source ImageJ tool was created for analyzing the CatPhan 504 images. Results The MTF curve was primarily dictated by the voxel size and the filter used in the reconstruction algorithm. The filters also impact the image noise. The CNR was worst for the Image Gently mode, followed by FSRT Head and Head. The sharper the filter, the worse the CNR. HU varied significantly between scan modes. Pelvis Obese had lower than expected HU values than most while the Image Gently mode had higher than expected HU values. If a therapist tried to use preset window and level settings, they would not show the desired tissue for some scan modes. Conclusion Knowing the image quality of the set scan modes, will enable users to better optimize their setup CBCT. Evaluation of the scan mode image quality could improve setup efficiency and lead to better treatment outcomes

  7. Dynamic Factor Models With Macro, Frailty and Industry Effects for U.S. Default Counts: The Credit Crisis of 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.; Schwaab, B.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a high-dimensional, nonlinear, and non-Gaussian dynamic factor model for the decomposition of systematic default risk conditions into latent components for (1) macroeconomic/financial risk, (2) autonomous default dynamics (frailty), and (3) industry-specific effects. We analyze discrete

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Large Appliances Pt. 63, Subpt. NNNN, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart NNNN of Part 63—Default Organic HAP... type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1% Xylene...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction.... If a solvent blend matches both the name and CAS number for an entry, that entry's organic HAP mass...

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typicalorganic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1% Xylene, 1% toluene, and...

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Solvents and Solvent Blends As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Furniture Pt. 63, Subpt. RRRR, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1. Toluene 108-88...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass...

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1. Toluene 108-88-3...

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data: Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Large Appliances Pt. 63, Subpt. NNNN, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart NNNN of Part 63—Default Organic HAP.../solvent blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1. Toluene...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Furniture Pt. 63, Subpt. RRRR, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic percent HAP, by mass Aliphatic 2 0.03 1% Xylene, 1...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  19. A failure of suppression within the default mode network in depressed adolescents with compulsive internet game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Bae, Sujin; Renshaw, Perry F; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    Individuals who are chronic, compulsive video game players experience an elevated incidence of major depression. Excessive or problematic game play can interact with depression clinically, and may magnify impulsive behavior associated with video gaming. Functional brain imaging was performed during a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) task in 42 healthy control and 95 volunteers seeking treatment for compulsive video game playing, including 60 participants without major depression (pure internet gaming disorder, pure IGD) and 35 participants comorbid with major depression (IGD+MDD). In response to the WCST in contrast to fixation, activation was observed in canonical brain attentional networks including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and middle temporal cortical regions as well as dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior parietal and anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex in all participants. For WCST>Fixation contrasts, the IGD+MDD group exhibited greater relative activation within the left hippocampus, compared to healthy control participants. For WCST>Fixation contrasts, the IGD+MDD group exhibited greater relative activation within the left hippocampus and the right parahippocampal gyrus immediately posterior to the hippocampus, compared to the pure IGD group. In cohorts of individuals with a history of compulsive internet game play, individuals with depression showed failure to suppress default mode network activity during an attentionally demanding task, compared to individuals without depression, including comparison groups with and without a history of compulsive video gaming. This reduced suppression of the brain regions within the default mode network may be a consequence of depressive neurophysiology or represent a predisposition for depression within compulsive game players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. General Education Default and Student Benefit in Inclusive Learning Environments: An Analysis for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2011-01-01

    A contextual analysis of the general education default and student benefit is presented from the perspective of school-based compliance with federal mandates from IDEIA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act] of 2004. A goal was to inform school administrators striving to develop and maintain effective, inclusive learning…

  1. Derivative pricing with liquidity risk: Theory and evidence from the credit default swap market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; de Jong, F.; Driessen, J.

    2008-01-01

    We derive a theoretical asset-pricing model for derivative contracts that allows for expected liquidity and liquidity risk, and estimate this model for the market of credit default swaps (CDS). Our model extends the LCAPM of Acharya and Pedersen (2005) to a setting with derivative instruments and

  2. Aberrant functional connectivity of default-mode network in type 2 diabetes patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ying; Jiao, Yun; Chen, Hua-Jun; Ding, Jie; Luo, Bing; Peng, Cheng-Yu; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun [Medical School of Southeast University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk for dementia. Patients with impaired cognition often show default-mode network disruption. We aimed to investigate the integrity of a default-mode network in diabetic patients by using independent component analysis, and to explore the relationship between network abnormalities, neurocognitive performance and diabetic variables. Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 42 well-matched healthy controls were included and underwent resting-state functional MRI in a 3 Tesla unit. Independent component analysis was adopted to extract the default-mode network, including its anterior and posterior components. Z-maps of both sub-networks were compared between the two groups and correlated with each clinical variable. Patients showed increased connectivity around the medial prefrontal cortex in the anterior sub-network, but decreased connectivity around the posterior cingulate cortex in the posterior sub-network. The decreased connectivity in the posterior part was significantly correlated with the score on Complex Figure Test-delay recall test (r = 0.359, p = 0.020), the time spent on Trail-Making Test-part B (r = -0.346, p = 0.025) and the insulin resistance level (r = -0.404, p = 0.024). Dissociation pattern in the default-mode network was found in diabetic patients, which might provide powerful new insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie the diabetes-related cognitive decline. (orig.)

  3. Default Risk and Firm Value of Shipping & Logistics Firms in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Nam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As shipping and logistics industry is one of the core industries in Korea, the volume was ranked in the fifth highest in the world. However, shipping and logistics industry of Korea has suffered from default risk since Global Financial Crisis in 2008. This study examines the relationship between the default risk, as measured by the Altman K-Score, and firm value, as measured by the Return on Assets (ROA, of shipping and logistics firms in Korea and compares the impact of default risk on firm value between good financial health firms and poor financial health firms. As the trends of KScores over a ten-year periods, shipping and logistics firms in Korea register weak-to-moderate financial healthy rage. We find that Altman K-Score is significantly linked with firm value and also higher performing firms as measured by the ROA exhibit higher financial health as measured by KScore. Although nine years have been passed since Global Financial Crisis 2008, Korean shipping and logistics industry is still under the financial depression. This study proposes that systematic financial alert system of Korean shipping and logistics industry should be required to decrease default risk reflecting significance of Korean economy.

  4. 27 CFR 24.276 - Prepayment of tax; proprietor in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 1512-0467 and 1512-0492) [T.D. ATF... default will be in cash, or will be in the form of a certified, cashier's, or treasurer's check drawn on...

  5. Default-mode network and deep gray-matter analysis in neuromyelitis optica patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Lopes, Fernanda C; Pessôa, Fernanda M C; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Malfetano, Fabíola Rachid; Scherpenhuijzen, Simone Batista; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Gasparetto, Emerson L

    2018-02-20

    The aim of our study was to detect functional changes in default-mode network of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance images and the evaluation of subcortical gray-matter structures volumes. NMO patients (n=28) and controls patients (n=19) were enrolled. We used the integrated registration and segmentation tool, part of FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) to segment subcortical structures including the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus and amygdalae. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were post-processed using the Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components, also part of FSL. Average Z-values extracted from the default-mode network were compared between patients and controls using t-tests (P values default-mode network of patients compared to controls, notably in the precuneus and right hippocampus (corrected Pdefault-mode network. The hyperactivity of certain default-mode network areas may reflect cortical compensation for subtle structural damage in NMO patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sovereign defaults, business cycles and economic growth in Latin America, 1870-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, Tjeerd M.

    2013-01-01

    Sovereign debt crises have regained attention since the recent crises in several European countries. This paper focuses on a particular aspect of the debt crisis literature: the impact of sovereign default on economic growth. Previous research agrees on the negative impact, but not on size and

  7. Aberrant functional connectivity of default-mode network in type 2 diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ying; Jiao, Yun; Chen, Hua-Jun; Ding, Jie; Luo, Bing; Peng, Cheng-Yu; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk for dementia. Patients with impaired cognition often show default-mode network disruption. We aimed to investigate the integrity of a default-mode network in diabetic patients by using independent component analysis, and to explore the relationship between network abnormalities, neurocognitive performance and diabetic variables. Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 42 well-matched healthy controls were included and underwent resting-state functional MRI in a 3 Tesla unit. Independent component analysis was adopted to extract the default-mode network, including its anterior and posterior components. Z-maps of both sub-networks were compared between the two groups and correlated with each clinical variable. Patients showed increased connectivity around the medial prefrontal cortex in the anterior sub-network, but decreased connectivity around the posterior cingulate cortex in the posterior sub-network. The decreased connectivity in the posterior part was significantly correlated with the score on Complex Figure Test-delay recall test (r = 0.359, p = 0.020), the time spent on Trail-Making Test-part B (r = -0.346, p = 0.025) and the insulin resistance level (r = -0.404, p = 0.024). Dissociation pattern in the default-mode network was found in diabetic patients, which might provide powerful new insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie the diabetes-related cognitive decline. (orig.)

  8. Altered default mode network activity in patient with anxiety disorders: An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Li Chunbo; Hu Zhenghui; Xi Qian; Wu Wenyuan; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety disorder, a common mental disorder in our clinical practice, is characterized by unprovoked anxiety. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which closely involved in emotional processing, are critical regions in the default mode network. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether default mode network activity is altered in patients with anxiety disorder. Ten anxiety patients and 10 healthy controls underwent fMRI while listening to emotionally neutral words alternating with rest (Experiment 1) and threat-related words alternating with emotionally neutral words (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, regions of deactivation were observed in patients and controls. In Experiment 2, regions of deactivation were observed only in patients. The observed deactivation patterns in the two experiments, which included MPFC, PCC, and inferior parietal cortex, were similar and consistent with the default model network. Less deactivation in MPFC and greater deactivation in PCC were observed for patients group comparing to controls in Experiment 1. Our observations suggest that the default model network is altered in anxiety patients and dysfunction in MPFC and PCC may play an important role in anxiety psychopathology

  9. Managing Student Loan Default Risk: Evidence from a Privately Guaranteed Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Application of the statistical techniques of survival analysis and credit scoring to private education loans extended to law students found a pronounced seasoning effect for such loans and the robust predictive power of credit bureau scoring of borrowers. Other predictors of default included school-of-attendance, school's geographic location, and…

  10. Automatic for the Borrower: How Repayment Based on Income Can Reduce Loan Defaults and Manage Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Carew, Diana; Fraire, Jacob; Jacks, Kay; James, Kevin; Madzelan, Daniel; Miller, Scott E.; Simmons, Barry; Thompson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    When borrowers default on a federal student loan, it can have catastrophic consequences. Their credit scores drop dramatically, severely curtailing their ability to afford a home or a car, and even limiting their ability to sign up for utilities. The cost of their loan rises as late fees pile up. Moreover, the federal government can garnish…

  11. Close-Form Pricing of Benchmark Equity Default Swaps Under the CEV Assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campi, L.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Equity Default Swaps are new equity derivatives designed as a product for credit investors.Equipped with a novel pricing result, we provide closedform values that give an analytic contribution to the viability of cross-asset trading related to credit risk.

  12. The Influence of Homebuyer Education on Default and Foreclosure Risk: A Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    The recent housing crisis has generated debate over the benefits and risks of policies and programs promoting homeownership for low and moderate income households. One important facet of this conversation is whether prepurchase homebuyer education (HBE) is effective in reducing default or foreclosure risk. Studies to date have primarily focused on…

  13. Default risk, bankruptcy procedures and the market value of life insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Suchanecki, M.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of insolvency risk in connection with life insurance companies has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question is investigated of how the values of the equity and of the liability of a life insurance company are affected by the default risk and the choice of

  14. Low default credit scoring using two-class non-parametric kernel density estimation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rademeyer, E

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of two-class classification credit scoring data sets with low default ratios. The standard two-class parametric Gaussian and non-parametric Parzen classifiers are extended, using Bayes’ rule, to include either...

  15. 19 CFR 210.17 - Failures to act other than the statutory forms of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failures to act other than the statutory forms of default. 210.17 Section 210.17 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.17 Failures to act...

  16. Credit Default and Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation of Brazilian Retail Loans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo da Silva Correa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use microdata from the Credit Information System (SCR of the Central Bank of Brazil to study the relationship between credit default and business cycles. In particular, we study the first part of the argument underlying the discussion about procyclicality related to the Basel II Accord: that recessions might increase credit defaults and have adverse impacts on the losses in portfolios of lender institutions. We explore both time series and cross-sectional variation in the data. Our data on the individual level are composed of retail loan transactions in two modalities-Consumer Credit and Vehicle Financing-from 2003 to 2008. Our results support the idea of a negative relationship between business cycles and credit default, but less strong than suggested in previous studies that use corporate data. We also find low and dispersed default correlations, and smaller losses in Value at Risk (VaR experiments than those found in the literature. These results may be possibly explained by the fact that, in the retail sector, loans are given to a large number of individuals, which may help to diversify risks.

  17. Episodic memory and the role of the brain’s default-mode network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, W.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis provides a number of new insights into episodic memory and the role of the default-mode network. First, it provides the first direct evidence for the contrasting role of DMN during encoding and retrieval. Secondly, the experimental findings eliminate several possible explanations for the

  18. 48 CFR 1652.249-72 - FEHBP termination for default-negotiated benefits contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... negligence of the Carrier. Examples of such causes include (1) acts of God or of the public enemy, (2) acts... negligence of the Carrier. (d) If the failure to perform is caused by the default of a subcontractor at any... without the fault or negligence of either, the Carrier shall not be liable for any excess costs for...

  19. Default probabilities, CDS premiums and downgrades : A probit-MIDAS analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitag, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between sovereign credit default swaps (CDS) and sovereign rating changes of European countries. To this aim, a new estimator is introduced which merges mixed data sampling (MIDAS) with probit regression. Simulations show that the estimator has good properties in

  20. Logic, Beliefs, and Instruction: A Test of the Default Interventionist Account of Belief Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Simon J.; Newstead, Stephen E.; Trippas, Dries

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process accounts of thinking, belief-based responses on reasoning tasks are generated as default but can be intervened upon in favor of logical responding, given sufficient time, effort, or cognitive resource. In this article, we present the results of 5 experiments in which participants were instructed to evaluate the…