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Sample records for anti-top bottom anti-bottom

  1. Measurements of bottom anti-bottom azimuthal production correlations in proton - anti-proton collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, D.; Affolder, Anthony A.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amidei, D.; Anikeev, K.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bachacou, H.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Baroiant, S.; Barone, M.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /INFN,

    2004-12-01

    The authors have measured the azimuthal angular correlation of b{bar b} production, using 86.5 pb{sup -1} of data collected by Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV during 1994-1995. In high-energy p{bar p} collisions, such as at the Tevatron, b{bar b} production can be schematically categorized into three mechanisms. The leading-order (LO) process is ''flavor creation'', where both b and {bar b} quarks substantially participate in the hard scattering and result in a distinct back-to-back signal in final state. The ''flavor excitation'' and the ''gluon splitting'' processes, which appear at next-leading-order (NLO), are known to make a comparable contribution to total b{bar b} cross section, while providing very different opening angle distributions from the LO process. An azimuthal opening angle between bottom and anti-bottom, {Delta}{phi}, has been used for the correlation measurement to probe the interaction creating b{bar b} pairs. The {Delta}{phi} distribution has been obtained from two different methods. one method measures the {Delta}{phi} between bottom hadrons using events with two reconstructed secondary vertex tags. The other method uses b{bar b} {yields} (J/{psi}X)({ell}X') events, where the charged lepton ({ell}) is an electron (e) or a muon ({mu}), to measure {Delta}{phi} between bottom quarks. The b{bar b} purity is determined as a function of {Delta}{phi} by fitting the decay length of the J/{psi} and the impact parameter of the {ell}. Both methods quantify the contribution from higher-order production mechanisms by the fraction of the b{bar b} pairs produced in the same azimuthal hemisphere, f{sub toward}. The measured f{sub toward} values are consistent with both parton shower Monte Carlo and NLO QCD predictions.

  2. Top-Anti-top Production at Hadron Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the status of the theoretical predictions for the top-anti top production in hadronic collisions, paying particular attention to the pair production at the LHC. We stress the need for a complete theoretical analysis that includes higher-order quantum corrections and we discuss recent theoretical calculations at the level of NNLO. (author)

  3. Search for the associate production of Higgs bosons with top anti-top pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, James Paul [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for the associated production of a Higgs boson with top anti-top pairs in proton anti-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data used were collected by the D0 detector during the RunII data taking period which ran from 2001 to 2011 at the Tevatron Collider located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (or Fermilab). Distributions of theHT variable separated into 3 jet, 5 b-tagging and 2 lepton categories were used as inputs to a modified frequentist limit setting procedure, which was in turn used to search for the t$\\bar{t}$H process with H→b$\\bar{b}$. Since this process was not observed, limits were set on the cross section times branching ratio σ(t$\\bar{t}$H) BR(H → b$\\bar{b}$) , with an expected (observed) limit of 24.7 (74.3) measured for a Higgs mass value of 125 GeV.

  4. Tevatron constraints on models of the Higgs boson with exotic spin and parity using decays to bottom-antibottom quark pairs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 15 (2015), "151802-1"-"151802-12". ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : kinematics * CDF * DZERO * experimental results * Higgs particle * bottom anti-bottom * 1960 GeV-cms Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  5. Measurement of top anti-top cross section in proton - anti-proton collider at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal, Prolay Kumar

    2005-04-01

    Discovery of the top quark in 1995 at the Fermilab Tevatron collider concluded a long search following the 1977 discovery of bottom (b) quark [1] and represents another triumph of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles. Top quark is one of the fundamental fermions in the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and is the weak-isospin partner of the bottom quark. A precise measurement of top pair production cross-section would be a test of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) prediction. Presently, Tevatron is the world's highest energy collider where protons (p) and anti-protons ({anti p}) collide at a centre of mass energy (ps) of 1.96 TeV. At Tevatron top (t) and anti-top ({anti t}) quarks are predominantly pair produced through strong interactions--quark annihilation ({approx_equal} 85%) and gluon fusion ({approx_equal} 15%). Due to the large mass of top quark, t or {anti t} decays ({approx} 10{sup -25} sec) before hadronization and in SM framework, it decays to a W boson and a b quark with {approx} 100% branching ratio (BR). The subsequent decay of W boson determines the major signatures of t{anti t} decay. If both W bosons (coming from t and {anti t} decays) decay into leptons (viz., ev{sub e}, {mu}{nu}{sub {mu}} or {tau}{nu}{sub {tau}}) the corresponding t{bar t} decay is called dileptonic decay. Of all dileptonic decay modes of t{bar t}, the t{bar t} {yields} WWb{anti b} {yields} ev{sub e}{mu}{nu}{sub {mu}}b{anti b} (e{mu} channel) decay mode has the smallest background contamination from Z{sup 0} production or Drell-Yan process; simultaneously, it has the highest BR ({approx} 3.16%) [2] amongst all dileptonic decay modes of t{bar t}. During Run I (1992-1996) of Tevatron, three e{mu} candidate events were detected by D0 experiment, out of 80 candidate events (inclusive of all decay modes of t{bar t}). Due to the rarity of the t{bar t} events, the measured cross-section has large uncertainty in its value (viz., 5.69 {+-} 1.21(stat) {+-} 1.04(sys) pb

  6. Top anti-top pairs at the LHC heavy ion collision: a new interesting probe of quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Lusaka; Huitu, Katri

    2012-01-01

    We investigate top anti-top quark pair production in lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 5.5 TeV. Due to the very high temperature and energy density created in heavy ion collision, a new state of QCD matter known as Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is expected to be produced. Top decay products loose energy inside the QGP medium. Therefore, we also study the medium modifications of different kinematic distributions. We observe significant modification in the dijets and trijets invariant mass distributions.We also found that the peak position and shape of the distributions could be used to characterize the nature of jet energy loss in the QGP.

  7. Signal background interference effects in heavy scalar production and decay to a top-anti-top pair

    CERN Document Server

    Hespel, B; Vryonidou, E

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the production of a top quark pair through a heavy scalar at the LHC. We first review the main features of the signal as well as the interference with the top-anti-top background at leading order in QCD. We then study higher order QCD effects. While the background and the signal can be obtained at NNLO and NLO in QCD respectively, that is not the case for their interference, which is currently known only at LO. In order to improve the accuracy of the prediction for the interference term, we consider the effects of extra QCD radiation, i.e. the $2 \\to 3$ (loop-induced) processes and obtain an estimate of the NLO corrections. As a result, we find that the contribution of the interference is important both at the total cross-section level and, most importantly, for the line-shape of the heavy scalar. In particular for resonances with widths larger than a couple of percent of the resonance mass, the interference term distorts the invariant mass distribution and generically leads to a non-trivial peak-d...

  8. Exclusive Higgs Boson Production with bottom quarks at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, S; Reina, L; Wackeroth, D; 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.074027

    2004-01-01

    We present the next-to-leading order QCD corrected rate for the production of a scalar Higgs boson with a pair of high p_T bottom and anti-bottom quarks at the Tevatron and at the Large Hadron Collider. Results are given for both the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The exclusive b-bbar-h production rate is small in the Standard Model, but it can be greatly enhanced in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model for large tan(beta), making b-bbar-h an important discovery mode. We find that the next-to-leading order QCD results are much less sensitive to the renormalization and factorization scales than the lowest order results, but have a significant dependence on the choice of the renormalization scheme for the bottom quark Yukawa coupling.

  9. Measurement of the mass difference between top and anti-top quarks in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the mass difference between top and anti-top quarks is presented. In a 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ data sample of proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, events consistent with ttbar production and decay into a single charged lepton final state are reconstructed. For each event, the mass difference between the top and anti-top quark candidate is calculated. A two b-tag requirement is used in order to reduce the background contribution. A maximum likelihood fit to these per-event mass differences yields $\\Delta m ≣ m_t - m_{\\bar{t}}$ = 0.67 ± 0.61(stat) ± 0.41(syst) GeV, consistent with CPT invariance.

  10. Measurement of the mass difference between top and anti-top quarks in pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the mass difference between top and anti-top quarks is presented. In a 4.7 fb−1 data sample of proton–proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, events consistent with tt¯ production and decay into a single charged lepton final state are reconstructed. For each event, the mass difference between the top and anti-top quark candidate is calculated. A two b-tag requirement is used in order to reduce the background contribution. A maximum likelihood fit to these per-event mass differences yields Δm≡mt−mt¯=0.67±0.61(stat)±0.41(syst) GeV, consistent with CPT invariance

  11. Measurement of the mass difference between top and anti-top quarks in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Dos Santos, D.R.; Růžička, P.; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Vrba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 728, Jan (2014), s. 363-379. ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : top pair production * lepton * final state * invariance CPT * p p scattering * mass difference * anti-top, quark * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll * background Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.131, year: 2014

  12. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  13. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  14. Next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order QCD prediction for the top anti-top S-wave pair production cross section near threshold in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Kiyo, Yuichiro [Juntendo Univ., Inzai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Penin, Alexander [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Piclum, Jan [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2015-06-15

    We present the third-order QCD prediction for the production of top-anti-top quark pairs in electron-positron collisions close to the threshold in the dominant S-wave state. We observe a significant reduction of the theoretical uncertainty and discuss the sensitivity to the top quark mass and width.

  15. Study of the electronic trigger system for HL-LHC project and search for new physics in top anti-top invariant mass spectrum with CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript describes my thesis work within the CMS experiment of the LHC collider. It presents both subjects on which I worked: a detector subject and a data analysis subject. The first subject, detector, is situated within the framework of the HL-LHC project which plans an increase by a factor five of the instantaneous luminosity. Such an increase and the preservation of the high level trigger (HLT) system, generate new constraints on the CMS detector. This is particularly true for the electronic trigger (L1) system. The CMS collaboration intends to implant this within tracker detector. Two methods are proposed: the stub modules method and the associative memory method. However, associative memory method requires a clever pre-selection of electric signals to be usable. The cluster width method is jointly proposed by Fabrizio Palla's team (Pisa) and by Didier Contardo's team (IPNL) to pre-select electric signals. The optimization of this method, in particular geometrical parameters of modules and thresholds applied for the electric signals pre-selection, is the result of my own work. It is detailed throughout the part III of this manuscript. The second subject concerns the analysis of data collected by CMS during 2011. This analysis has for objective to look for new particles in the spectre of anti-top top invariant mass. Due to its big mass, close to the electroweak symmetry breaking energy, the top quark plays an important role in numerous extensions of the Standard Model. The observation of narrow resonances in the spectre could be the sign of new particles. The analysis is subdivided into three parts, the selection of top anti-top events, the reconstruction of top anti-top invariant mass and a statistical study to quantify the presence of new physics. The results of this work are limits on the cross-section production of new particles. They are presented in the part IV of this manuscript. (author)

  16. Medida de la sección eficaz de producción de pares top anti-top en el canal dileptonico a √s = 8 TeV con el detector CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andrés

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN: Esta tesis presenta de forma conjunta un estudio del sistema link de alinemamiento de las cámaras de muones y la medición de la sección eficaz de producción de pares top anti-top a sqrt{s}= 8TeV. Las mediciones y calibraciones fueron llevadas a cabo con los datos tomados por el detector “Compact Muon Solenoid” (CMS) del acelerador de partículas “Large Hadron Collider” (LHC) del laboratorio CERN. Con el sistema link de alineamiento se realizó la reconstrucción de las posiciones y orie...

  17. Bottom dwelling animals: Benthos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    . At the bottom/sediment dwelling animal communities are collectively termed as 'BENTHOS'. This extremely valuable component of the marine environment consumes the sediment organic matter from the overlying water column and effectively converts into benthic...

  18. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were...

  19. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  20. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of...

  1. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  2. Laser bottom hole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  3. Measurement of the top anti-top quark pair production cross-section in the $ \\tau $ $ + $ jets channel at $ \\sqrt{s} $ = 7 TeV using ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Teeba; Skubic, Patrick

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a factory for top quarks, which are the heaviest elementary particle discovered so far. Due to its small life time a top quark decays before hadronization, and hence most of its properties are not washed out. Top quark events are often a large background in many beyond-the-Standard Model scenarios. For this reason, a deep knowledge of its properties and behaviour is of crucial importance in searches for new physics at the LHC. This dissertation describes a measurement of the top anti-top ($ t \\bar{t} $) pair production cross-section in the tau + jets channel. The measurement is obtained by using 4.7 $fb^{-1}$ data collected in year 2011 by the ATLAS detector from proton-proton (pp) collisions at the center of mass energy $ \\sqrt{s} $ = 7 TeV. Selected events are required to have one isolated tau with missing transverse energy and hadronic jets, at least one of which must be originated from a b quark. The measured cross section is 152 $\\pm$ 12 (stat.)$ \\; $ $ ^{+28}_{-30} ...

  4. Measurement of the top anti-top quark pair production cross-section in the [tau] + jets channel at [square root of s] = 7 TeV using ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Teeba

    Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a top quark factory, which is the heaviest elementary particle discovered so far. Due to its small life-time top quark decays before hadronization, and hence most of its properties are not washed out. Top quark events are often a large background in many beyond the Standard Model scenarios. For this reason, a deep knowledge of its properties and behavior is of crucial importance in searches for new physics at the LHC. This dissertation describes a measurement of the top anti-top pair production cross-section in tau + jets channel. The measurement is obtained by using 4.7 fb-1 data collected in year 2011 by ATLAS detector from proton proton (pp) collisions at the center of mass energy s = 7 TeV. Selected events are required to have one isolated tau with missing transverse energy and hadronic jets, at least one of which must be originated from a b quark. The measured cross section is 152 +/- 12 (stat.) +28-30 (syst.); +/- 3(lumi.) pb, which is in agreement with standard model predictions.

  5. Simple Mass-estimates for New LHC-Resonances F(750) and "1.8 TeV" as 6 Top plus 6 Anti top Bound states and Combinations thereof

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Holger Bech

    2016-01-01

    Recently there has been observed a couple of resonances or statistical fluctuations at LHC with masses 750GeV (seen at both ATLAS and CMS as a diphoton resonance) \\cite{1,2,3,4} and one with 1.8 TeV going to W's or Z's. Here we present a surprisingly simple "calculation" of these masses interpreting them as based on a very strong binding of the resonance S=F(750) with mass 750 GeV being composed of 6 top + 6 anti top quarks\\cite{1nbs,2nbs,3nbs,4nbs,5nbs, 6nbs,7nbs,8nbs,9nbs,10nbs,11nbs,12nbs, 13nbs,14nbs,LNvacuumstability}, while the 1.8 TeV state is a resonance caused by the interaction of a couple of such F(750)'s partly annihilated with each other. For the "calculation" of the masses it is crucial to assume that our since long speculated principle "Multiple Point Principle" is true. This principle says: {\\em there are several vacua all having almost zero energy density}. Further we make an approximation of the Higgs Yukawa potential essentially replacing the exponential in it by a step-function. The new re...

  6. Decommissioning Peach Bottom Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning activities are described for Peach Bottom Unit No. 1, a 40 mw(e) HTGR demonstration plant owned and operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. Radiological aspects of decommission are discussed. The application of advance planning and effective health physics techniques used during the Peach Bottom decommission program demonstrated the feasibility of decommissioning a nuclear facility economically at low personnel exposure levels and with a negligible environmental impact

  7. Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake was investigated with XRF and Mossbauer techniques. The lake of about 120 Km2, is a shallow one, medium deep of about 1.8m. In addition to its use for recreation, its basin has a wide area of influence and of economical significance. Bottom sediments play an important role in the overall distribution of trace elements in the aquatic system and act as a sink for metals. Bottom samples were taken from 5 different sampling stations, selected according to the morphology and population sites in the shore. The concentration of toxic metals was found to be low and no negative ecological impact should be expected. The main metallic ion component is iron (1.69%). Mossbauer studies showed this element appears as Fe+3 and no Fe+2 was detected. It is here suggested that Fe+3 acts as the limiting element which controls eutrophication process

  8. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  9. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  10. Development of Crashworthy Bottom and Side Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naar, H.; Kujala, P.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ludolphy, H.

    structures. The first structure is a conventional double bottom. In the second structure (presently protected through a patent) the bottom plating is stiffened with hat-profiles instead of bulb profiles. In the third structure the outer shell is an all-steel sandwich panel. In the fourth structure the bottom...

  11. Implementation Alternatives for Bottom-Up Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brass, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Bottom-up evaluation is a central part of query evaluation / program execution in deductive databases. It is used after a source code optimization like magic sets or SLDmagic that ensures that only facts relevant for the query can be derived. Then bottom-up evaluation simply performs the iteration of the standard TP -operator to compute the minimal model. However, there are different ways to implement bottom-up evaluation efficiently. Since this is most critical for the performance of a deduc...

  12. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  13. The oscillations of ship lock bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Kuzmin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dynamic characteristics of the ship lock. The accurate design relations intended to study the natural and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock are provided. The degree of filling of the lock, as well as the added mass of water is considered. The various coupling conditions of the bottom and walls of buildings are taken into account. A concrete example of the calculation is given.An exact, in the framework of the adopted design scheme, solution of the problem of the own and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock is found. The frequency of the first five tones of vibrations and the associated mass of liquid according to thickness of the structure and coupling conditions of the bottom and sides of the lock are analyzed. A significant effect of liquids on low-frequency part of the spectrum and the dynamic response of the bottom is determined.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  15. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  16. On bottom mixing with exotic quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a calculation of the effects of bottom mixing with new exotic quarks in the forward-backward and left-right asymmetries, bottom branching ratio and the QCD coupling constant. A global fit with the recent data on these quantities is done and stringent bounds are obtained. We discuss the effects of different isospin signatures for the new possible exotic quarks. The consequences for superstring-inspired E6 models are discussed. Constraints on the bottom mixing with the isosinglet quarks of the fundamental 27-plet are presented. (author)

  17. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of t...

  18. Time stability of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Corrêa Alegría, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have played a key role in permanent seismic activity monitoring at sea as well as allowing a better understating of the earth interior. Data collected by the instrument can provide information on the ocean bottom sub-layers down to a depth of 40 km beneath the ocean floor. The accuracy of the results directly depends on the temperature stability of the crystal used as the main time base of the equipment. This paper pre...

  19. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    OpenAIRE

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm), silver (10 ppm), stainless steel (0.1%) and minerals that can be converted into building products such as aggregates utilized for concrete, asphalt, etc. Since the composition of BA varies from cou...

  20. ATOMIZATION CAUSED BY BOTTOM FLOW ENERGY DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bottom flow energy dissipation is one of the common energydissipation methods for flood-releasing structures with high water head. Measures of this energy dissipation depend mainly on the turbulent action of hydraulic jump.In this paper, the physical process and the calculating methods of the atomization caused by bottom flow energy dissipation were studied, the computation models of atomization quantity for the self-aerated flow in overflow and hydraulic jump regions are presented, and the main results are of theoretical and practical significance for the hydraulic and electric engineering.

  1. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be...) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its...

  2. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  3. Bottom-up approach to silicon nanoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Mizumita, Hiroshi; Oda, S

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920) International audience This paper presents a brief review of our recent work investigating a novel bottom-up approach to realize silicon based nanoelectronics. We discuss fabrication technique, electronic properties and device applications of silicon nanodots as a building block for nanoscale silicon devices.

  4. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  5. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  6. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the possible $q\\bar{q}$ quark-model assignments of the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ can be identified as $B(2^1S_0)$ and $B(1^3D_3)$, respectively, and the $B(5970)$ reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as $B(2^3S_1)$ or $B(1^3D_3)$. Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the $B(5970)$ are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  7. Measurement of bottom-reflected sound in bottom-limited propagation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jooyoung; Park, Joungsoo

    2016-07-01

    To study the bottom reflection of underwater acoustic sound in a bottom-limited propagation environment, an experiment was conducted using four transmitting sounds in the form of a continuous wave from 1 to 6 kHz. The site of the experiment was a continental shelf region off the east coast of Korea where the bottom was composed of sandy mud. The mean water depth was 1100 m in the experiment area. Oceanographic data and acoustic data were collected simultaneously during the experiment. It was found that the sound pressure level decreased by 90 dB to 3.4 km and there is little frequency dependence because a strong direct path contributes more than a bottom-reflected path in sound pressure level. At a range between 6 and 7 km, there is a strong bottom-reflected ray path and frequency dependence exists because the bottom reflection loss varies with frequency at a given grazing angle. Sound pressure levels increase as the range increases between 6 and 7 km by 5.4, 1.9, 1.7, and 1.5 dB at frequencies of 1000, 2490, 3990, and 5490 Hz, respectively.

  8. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  9. Nondestructive examination of vessel bottom head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessel bottom Head penetration of French PWR units are made of Inconel 600 alloy which is known to be sensitive to stress corrosion cracking and so, need to be inspected. FRAMATOME has developed different complementary non destructive examination methods and a tooling to perform this inspection. These methods are able to detect, from the inside of the penetration, axially or circumferential oriented defects. For defects initiated in the inner surface, Eddy Current examination and TV inspection are used. If they are initiated in the outer surface, ultrasonic examination is used. In addition, ultrasonic examination enables the sensitive stress area of the penetration/vessel bottom head weld joint to be located to the detected defects. The use of fully numerical electronics allows extensive post-processing of ultrasonic and Eddy Current Data. In this paper, the nondestructive examination methods and associated tooling are presented. The accuracy of detection, location and sizing defects is also discussed

  10. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  11. Microfinance and the environmental bottom line

    OpenAIRE

    Allet, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance has strongly developed over the past decades on the promise of reaching a double bottom line of financial viability and social impact. Recently, some actors have started to advocate that microfinance, to be truly responsible, should include a third environmental objective as well. However, little scientific knowledge exists today on environmental management within microfinance institutions (MFIs). The objective of this PhD thesis is to shed light on how MFIs manage their environm...

  12. Bottom-up organic integrated circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Edsger C. P; Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; van Hal, Paul A.; Setayesh, Sepas; Geuns, Thomas C. T.; Mutsaers, Kees A. H. A.; Cantatore, Eugenio; Wondergem, Harry J.; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland; Kemerink, Martijn; Kirchmeyer, Stephan; Muzafarov, Aziz M.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.; de Boer, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Self- assembly - the autonomous organization of components into patterns and structures(1) - is a promising technology for the mass production of organic electronics. Making integrated circuits using a bottom- up approach involving self- assembling molecules was proposed(2) in the 1970s. The basic building block of such an integrated circuit is the self- assembled- monolayer field- effect transistor ( SAMFET), where the semiconductor is a monolayer spontaneously formed on the gate dielectric....

  13. Race-To-The-Bottom Tariff Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  14. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of their medium mass on baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. Certain aspects of these in-medium interactions are similar to those observed for the strange-charmed mesons in a preceding investigation, such as the lifting of mass-degeneracy of $B_S^0$ and ${\\bar B}_S^0$ mesons in hyperonic matter, while the same is respected in vacuum as well as in nuclear matter. In general, however, there is a remarkable distinction between the two species, even though the formalism predicts a completely analogous in-medium...

  15. Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman T. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.

  16. Improving radwaste processing efficiency at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 1100MWe BWRs are located at the Peach Bottom site. These units share a liquid radwaste processing system that consists of precoated filters followed by deep bed demineralizers. Radwaste is segregated and treated in two separate systems; one for floor drain wastes and one for equipment drain wastes (waste collector). The filters are of the precoat type, and were originally outfitted with wedgewire elements. The Pall Rigimesh Septa installed last year at Peach Bottom are constructed of a sintered stainless steel, computer-optimized, multi-layer wire mesh composite. Pall starts with a very fine woven wire mesh and adds non-flow-restricting drainage layers and sinters in a high temperature vacuum furnace which bonds all wires at their points of contact. The result is an extremely strong septum with a fixed pore structure of uniform shape and distribution. The pore structure is fixed and unchanging, even in the face of increasing forward flow differential pressure or in backwash. The new elements at Peach Bottom were direct replacements; no hardware modifications were necessary. The Rigimesh Septa have now been in service since November 1990 without any element failure or resin leakage. Eliminating the need to replace damaged septa and to dispose of and purchase resin is expected to save Philadelphia Electric $90 000 in the first year alone. Additional savings that have not been quantified include the maintenance costs associated with element changeout, and the associated reduction in radiation exposure. (author)

  17. Parameter estimation for estimation of bottom hole pressure during drilling.

    OpenAIRE

    Vea, Hans Kristian

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we examine four bottom hole pressure estimators based on adaptive estimation of the friction pressure for the drill string and the annulus. Knowledge about the bottom hole pressure is crucial to achieve security and commercial objectives. Bottom hole pressure measurements transmitted by mud pulse telemetry have limited bandwidth and it is common to use additional models to estimate the bottom hole pressure when measurements are unavailable. The motivation for an adaptive approa...

  18. Bottom quark mass from Υ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bottom quark pole mass Mb is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the Υ mesons to large n moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O(αs2,αsv,v2) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for Mb, and the strong M bar S coupling αs, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV ≤Mb≤4.87 GeV and 0.096≤αs(Mz)≤0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95% confidence level and if two-loop running for αs is employed. Mb and αs have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M bar S bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV ≤mb(MΥ(1S)/2)≤4.32 GeV. If αs is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV ≤Mb≤4.98 GeV[4.08 GeV ≤mb(MΥ(1S)/2)≤4.28 GeV] for 0.114≤αs(Mz)≤0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and Kuehn et al. are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark - antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 109 B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 109 B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs

  20. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of t...

  1. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  2. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate

  3. Development of debris resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debris-related fuel failures have been identified as one of the major causes of fuel failures. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. For this development, mechanical strength test and pressure drop test were performed, and the test results were analyzed. And the laser cutting, laser welding and electron beam welding technology, which were the core manufacturing technology of DRBEP, were developed. Final design were performed, and the final drawing and specifications were prepared. The prototype of DRBEP was manufactured according to the developed munufacturing procedure. (Author)

  4. Prediction Method of Bottom Water Coning Profile and Water Breakthrough Time in Bottom Water Reservoir without Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Yahui Li; Haitao Li; Ying Li

    2015-01-01

    During the exploitation of bottom water oil reservoir, bottom water coning influences the breakthrough of bottom water significantly. Because water cut rises quickly after the breakthrough of bottom water, measures should be taken before the breakthrough to postpone production period without water, thus improving oil recovery. So accurate prediction of water coning profile and breakthrough time is very essential. Through mathematical derivation, this paper proposed a prediction method of bott...

  5. Measurement of the bottom quark lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quark mixing matrix is constrained by the lifetime of the bottom quark, the off-diagonal elements involving the b quark being completely determined by the lifetime and the branching ratio between the decays b → u and b → c. If the binding of the b quark into hadrons has no effect on its decay rate, the inclusive lifetime measurement discussed here reflects precisely the quark total decay rate. Their experience with charmed hadrons serves to warn that the situation may not be so simple, and they are eager to find techniques for determining the lifetimes of individual hadron states, particularly the mesons B+, B/sub d/0 and B/sub s/0. The subject of this note, however, is a detailed evaluation of prospects for improving the inclusive measurement, as it has been performed at PEP and PETRA, based upon the impact parameter distribution of leptons from the b hadron semileptonic decays. This note supersedes intermediate reports from the Asilomar and Granlibakken meetings. The first two sections are based mainly upon studies with Monte Carlo generated quantities in which they explore the kinematics of bottom particle semileptonic decays to develop event selection criteria and measure sensitivity of the impact parameter to the lifetime and to the details of particle production. Detector effects are considered in section 3, data reduction in sections 4 and 5, and conclusions in section 6. 6 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  6. Nuclear fuel assembly debris resistant bottom nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A debris resistant bottom nozzle useful in a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor is described, the bottom nozzle comprising: (a) support means adapted to rest on a lower core plate of a nuclear reactor; and (b) a plate fixed on the support means and being of a substantial solid configuration with a plurality of spaced cut-out regions therein adapted to align directly above inlet holes in the lower core plate; and (c) a plurality of open separate criss-cross structures, each of the criss-cross structures fixed to the plate and extending across one of the cut-out regions therein, the criss-cross structures defining individual openings small enough in cross-sectional size to filter out debris of damage-inducing size larger than 0.190 inch in width otherwise collects in unoccupied spaces of a lowermost grid of the fuel assembly, but large enough in size to let pass debris of nondamage-inducing size which otherwise passes through the unoccupied spaced of the lowermost grid

  7. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S. S. [V. A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, 1 ul. Ulyanovskaya, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model.

  8. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model

  9. The petroleum industry improving the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and gas exploration and production business environment has presented many challenges over the last decade, notably price volatility and rising costs. Managing the margin and changing a company's cost structure to improve the bottom line is a major issue with company executives. The experiences of Oryx Energy Company since its spinoff from Sun Company in 1988 are used as an example of a company makeover. A generalized exploration and production income statement is employed to present industry cost/portfolio relationships and strategies for improving the bottom line. At Oryx, three major strategies were set in place to enhance shareholder value: an increased emphasis on applied technology, including horizontal drilling, advanced 3-dimensional seismic prospecting, and intensive use of interactive computer workstations; international expansion; and an emphasis on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, deemphasizing the onshore U.S. and the gas processing business. Specific strategies are outlined in the areas of increasing revenues, reducing production cost and exploration expense, and controlling general and administrative expenses. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Long Wave Dynamics along a Convex Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Didenkulova, Ira; Soomere, Tarmo

    2008-01-01

    Long linear wave transformation in the basin of varying depth is studied for a case of a convex bottom profile in the framework of one-dimensional shallow water equation. The existence of travelling wave solutions in this geometry and the uniqueness of this wave class is established through construction of a 1:1 transformation of the general 1D wave equation to the analogous wave equation with constant coefficients. The general solution of the Cauchy problem consists of two travelling waves propagating in opposite directions. It is found that generally a zone of a weak current is formed between these two waves. Waves are reflected from the coastline so that their profile is inverted with respect to the calm water surface. Long wave runup on a beach with this profile is studied for sine pulse, KdV soliton and N-wave. Shown is that in certain cases the runup height along the convex profile is considerably larger than for beaches with a linear slope. The analysis of wave reflection from the bottom containing a s...

  11. Heavy Exotic Molecules with Charm and Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the $(0^+, 1^+)$ multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the $(0^-,1^-)$ multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets $(0^\\pm, 1^\\pm)$ cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for $J\\leq 1$. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound isosinglet with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is suggested as a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ not yet reported.

  12. Multibaryons with strangeness, charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, V.B. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Zakrzewski, W.J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2000-12-01

    The spectra of baryonic systems with strangeness, charm and bottom are considered within a ''rigid oscillator'' version of the bound state soliton model. The static properties of multiskyrmions, of baryon number up to B=8, are calculated using the recently suggested rational map ansaetze as starting field configurations. The property of binding of flavoured mesons by an SU(2) skyrmion is proved rigorously within this model. Binding energy estimates are made of the states with largest isospin which can appear as negatively charged nuclear fragments and for states with zero isospin - fragments of ''flavoured'' nuclear matter. It is shown that for all types of flavour and for vertical stroke F vertical stroke {<=}2 the isoscalar baryonic systems have a better chance to be stable against strong and electromagnetic interactions than those with nonzero isospin. Baryonic systems with charm or bottom quantum numbers are found to be bound more than strange baryonic systems. (orig.)

  13. Designing the organisational chart from the bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea

    This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation and...... control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...... share any significant and final decisions with his employees, rather than merely imposing his own personal choice. After spending some time in the organisation, he put into action a bottom up method to redesign the structure of the HR department. He decided to temporarily suspend the existing internal...

  14. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  15. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements

  16. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... of the potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favor of the current strategy based on single loop theory is carried out and proves that the interactions in the system are not negligible and a subsequent controller design should take this into account. A design using dynamical...... decoupling showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant...

  17. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as...

  18. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary containment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design

  19. BC Hydro triple bottom line report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro) published this document which measures the environmental, social and economic performance of the company. It is a complement to BC Hydro's 2002 Annual Report. The report was prepared to better understand the company's business in terms of its commitment to being an environmentally, socially, and economically responsible company (the three bottom lines). BC Hydro proved its ability to integrate the three bottom lines in decision making processes by carefully examining the environmental, social and economical impacts of programs such as Power Smart, Green and Alternative Energy, and Water Use Planning. All indicators point to BC Hydro achieving its commitment of providing a minimum of 10 per cent of new demand through 2010 with new green energy sources. Water Use Plans were developed for hydroelectric generating stations, and they should all be in place by 2003. Efficiencies realised through the Power Smart program offset the increases in greenhouse gas associated with increased energy demand. Juvenile sturgeon raised in a hatchery were released into the Columbia River in May 2002. The completion of a 40-kilometre trail on the Sunshine Coast was helped by a financial contribution from BC Hydro in the amount of 23,000 dollars. Safety improvements were implemented at eight facilities, such as dam remediation, dam surveillance and instrumentation updates. Scholarships were awarded across the province, along with additional donations to non-profit organizations. Co-op positions were provided for 150 students. Internal energy efficiency programs were successful. Planning is under way for significant maintenance work and equipment replacement projects as the transmission and distribution infrastructure ages. The number of reported indicators was expanded this year. In turn, they were aligned with the revised Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. tabs

  20. Bottom grid mounted debris trap for a fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor including nuclear fuel rods, each fuel rod in the fuel assembly having a cladding tube and a lower end plug attached to the tube, at least a bottom grid supporting each and everyone of the fuel rods in an organized array and disposed in spaced relationship above the lower end plugs of the fuel rods. A bottom nozzle is disposed in spaced relationship below the bottom grid and is disposed below the lower end plugs of the fuel rods. A coolant flows upwardly through the bottom nozzle and to the bottom grid. A trap is included for catching debris carried by the flowing coolant to substantially prevent the same from reaching the bottom grid. The debris trap comprises: a fuel rod nonsupport structure disposed completely across the entire expanse of the fuel assembly and axially between the bottom nozzle and the bottom grid and generally aligned with the lower end plugs of the fuel rods. The structure forms hollow cells each being open at opposite ends and defining a central cavity which receives one of the fuel rod lower end plugs in nonsupporting and noncontacting relationship while providing for passage of coolant flow therethrough from the bottom nozzle to the bottom grid. Each of the fuel rod lower end plugs extends into a respective hollow cell of the structure

  1. Field trail of fiber optic ocean bottom cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Wang, Zhaogang; Luo, Yingbo; Li, Fang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the field test of the fiber optic ocean bottom cable (FOOBC). The FOOBC are several ocean bottom seismic stations connected by optical fiber cables. In the ocean bottom seismic station, there are three orthogonal fiber optic accelerometers and one fiber optic hydrophone. The design of the sensors and stations are introduced. The field demonstration of an ocean bottom seismic station is carried out in Yunnan Province, China. The test results show that the three accelerometers has similar response to the seismic signal with traditional MEMS accelerometers. We believe that the fiber optic seismic cable is promising in the field of oil and gas exploration and earthquake monitoring.

  2. Bottom-up assembly of metallic germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Yeoh, Lareine A.; Carter, Damien J.; Warschkow, Oliver; Marks, Nigel A.; Jaeger, David L.; Capellini, Giovanni; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hamilton, Alexander R.

    2015-08-01

    Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (1019 to 1020 cm-3) low-resistivity (10-4Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory.

  3. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Legrand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting considerable resources to research, the capture of best practices, and the measurement of progress and success. Given the physiognomy of the modern economy, it does not make sense for leaders in the Canadian public sector to devote all available innovation investment dollars to science and technology R&D. This article explores why service innovation is not yet a priority on the innovation agenda in Canada and why we should correct the dangerous misconception that there is just one “innovation gap” that needs to be addressed. It provides practical recommendations that public and private sector leaders can use to take advantage of this under-valued, high-potential innovation opportunity and calls for the creation of a national service innovation resource to support enterprises of all sizes as a means to improve Canadian productivity.

  4. To the Bottom of the Sbottom

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tao; Wu, Yongcheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Huanian

    2015-01-01

    In the search for bottom squark (sbottom) in SUSY at the LHC, the common practice has been to assume a $100\\%$ decay branching fraction for a given search channel. In realistic MSSM scenarios, there are often more than one significant decay modes to be present, which significantly weaken the current sbottom search limits at the LHC. On the other hand, the combination of the multiple decay modes offers alternative discovery channels for sbottom searches. In this paper, we present the sbottom decays in a few representative mass parameter scenarios. We then analyze the sbottom signal for the pair production in QCD with one sbottom decaying via $\\tilde{b}\\rightarrow b \\chi_1^0,\\ b \\chi_2^0$, and the other one decaying via $\\tilde{b} \\rightarrow t \\chi_1^\\pm$. With the gaugino subsequent decaying to gauge bosons or a Higgs boson $\\chi_2^0 \\rightarrow Z \\chi_1^0,\\ h \\chi_1^0$ and $\\chi_1^\\pm \\rightarrow W^\\pm \\chi_1^0$, we study the reach of those signals at the 14 TeV LHC with 300 ${\\rm fb^{-1}}$ integrated lumino...

  5. Tsunami observations using ocean bottom pressure gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some seismologists in Japan pointed out about fifteen years ago that a large earthquake may occur off the Tokai District, south of Honshu, in the near future and cause serious damage in the area near the origin. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has been improving the system processing, in real time, data on earthquakes, tsunami and other geophysical events. Under these circumstances the Permanent Ocean Bottom Seismograph System was developed and installed off Cape Omaezaki in 1978 by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). This OBS system has four seismographs and one pressure gauge, which may detect the crustal movement precursors of the large earthquake. JMA has been routinely operating this system for eleven years and observing seismic events and ocean tides. Another OBS system has four seismographs and three pressure gauges. The anchored buoy OBS or the pop-up OBS could be used to observe in the sea areas. However, we cannot use these instruments on a real time basis. The OBS system with signal transmission in real time over long cable lines, is much more expensive than the anchored buoy or pop-up OBS, but we risked adopting the telemetering system by submarine cable, for the purpose of earthquake prediction and tsunami warning. 7 figs, 1 tab

  6. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  7. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  8. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, A H

    2000-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  9. The bottom and charm content in an inclusive jet sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measure the bottom (b) and charm (c) content in an inclusive jet sample collected from the 1992-93 run at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in p bar p collisions at √s=1.8 TeV. They have used the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) with a 2-dimensional secondary-vertex finding algorithm to identify a sample of jets with displaced vertices. By fitting the observed lifetime distribution in data to the expected distributions from bottom, charm, and non-heavy flavor jets, they can measure a bottom and charm component per jet. The authors present preliminary numbers on the bottom and charm fraction per jet, and the bottom and charm cross-sections

  10. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  11. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = +0.39 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.08 (syst), and botton baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}) = + 0.03 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst) and A{sub CP} ({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}) = +0.37 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.03 (syst). In addition, they measure CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP} (B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = -0.086 {+-} 0.023 (stat) {+-} 0.009 (syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  12. On radioactivity of Lake Sevan bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major environmental issue in Armenia is Lake Sevan - one of the world's largest freshwater highland lakes. The lake's catchment basin comprises one-sixth of the country's total area (29,800 km2), constituting the primary water resource of the country, and giving it strategic importance, both geographically and politically. Present-day Lake Sevan comprises the Big Sevan (1032 km2 area) and the Small Sevan (384 km2 area) . Since 2002 the Laboratory of Radioecology of CENS and the Departments of Oceanography at the Florida State and Louisiana State Universities (USA) have been involved in a cooperative CRDF/NFSAT project 'Paleoecology and paleo-radioecology of Lake Sevan, Armenia'. The project task is to investigate the Sevan bottom sediments radioactivity and to better understand the regional land- use and ecological changes as they are recorded in the lake sedimentary record. Sediment gravity cores were collected from the R/V Hetazotogh on two cruises from total 7 sampling stations in September 2002 (the Small Sevan, stations 1,2,3) and August 2003 (the Big Sevan, stations 5,6,7,8). All cores were sectioned onboard ship immediately after collection and samples were stored until returned to the CENS laboratory the next day for processing. Bottom sediments were dried at 70 deg. C until a stable dry weight was achieved, subsequently homogenized and split for analyses. 226Ra, 137Cs, 40K, 234Th,210Pb concentrations were determined through γ-spectroscopic analysis applying a well-type HpGe detector; 210Pb dating of sediments was performed in environmental radioactivity laboratories at FSU and LSU. Chemical analyses (determining specific weight, drying loss, humus, opaline Si, CaCO3, organic-C) and some radiometric analyses (determining gross β- radioactivity, 40K, 226Ra, 137Cs concentrations through a low-background γ-spectrometer with a NaI detector) were performed at the CENS. The most important part of this project is determining each level ages in the cores

  13. Research on bottom detection in Intelligent Empty Bottle Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent empty bottle inspection system is an important inspection equipment of empty bottle before filling beer, and it is a blend of machine vision, precision machine and real-time control. They need to cooperate perfectly to achieve the desired effect. In the design of the empty bottle inspection system, one of the key technologies is the bottle bottom detection which affects the speed and accuracy of the system. It includes positioning and defect recognition of bottle bottom. For the problems such as the slow detection speed and low detection precision of bottle bottom detection, some new methods are proposed in this paper. The positioning algorithm of the bottle bottom in images is studied after preprocessing the obtained images, and the accurate positioning is achieved by improving the Randomized Hough transform. In the defect recognition of bottle bottom, a method of calculating optimum radius in Fourier spectrum is used to solve the problem of the detection accuracy being influenced by the antiskid veins of bottle bottom. It can improve the recognition accuracy effectively. Experiments show the methods proposed in this paper can effectively improve the precision and speed of the bottle bottom detection.

  14. Spectroscopy of singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Ke-Wei; Liu, Na; Wang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Xin-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many singly bottom baryons have been established experimentally, but no doubly or triply bottom baryon has been observed. Under the Regge phenomenology, the mass of a ground state unobserved doubly or triply bottom baryon is expressed as a function of masses of the well established light baryons and singly bottom baryons. (For example, we write the mass of $\\Omega_{bbb}$ as a function of the masses of well established light baryons ($\\Sigma^{*}$, $\\Xi^{*}$, $\\Omega$) and singly bottom baryons ($\\Sigma_b^{*}$, $\\Xi_b^{*}$), and give its value to be 14788$\\pm$80 MeV.) After that, we calculate the values of Regge slopes and Regge intercepts for singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons. (Regge intercepts and slopes, which are usually regarded as fundamental constants of hadron dynamics, are useful for many spectral and nonspectral purposes.) Then, masses of the orbitally excited singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons are estimated. The isospin splitting is also determined, $M_{\\Xi_{bb}^{-}}-M_{\\Xi_{...

  15. Measuring the Higgs-bottom coupling in weak boson fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Christoph; Mattelaer, Olivier; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We study Higgs production through weak boson fusion with subsequent decay to bottom quarks. By combining jet substructure techniques and matrix element methods in different limits we motivate this channel as a probe of the bottom-Yukawa interactions in the boosted regime. In particular we ameliorate the "no-go" results of cut-and-count analyses in this channel. After applying a data-driven reconstruction approach we find that the Higgs-bottom coupling can be limited to 0.82

  16. Measuring the Higgs-bottom coupling in weak boson fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, Christoph; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We study Higgs production through weak boson fusion with subsequent decay to bottom quarks. By combining jet substructure techniques and matrix element methods in different limits we motivate this channel as a probe of the bottom-Yukawa interactions in the boosted regime. In particular we ameliorate the "no-go" results of cut-and-count analyses in this channel. After applying a data-driven reconstruction approach we find that the Higgs-bottom coupling can be limited to $0.82 < y_b/y_b^{\\text{SM}} <1.14$ with $600~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$.

  17. Bottom-up Initiatives for Photovoltaic: Incentives and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reinsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When facing the challenge of restructuring the energy system, bottom-up initiatives can aid the diffusion of decentralized and clean energy technologies. We focused here on a bottom-up initiative of citizen-funded and citizen-operated photovoltaic power plants. The project follows a case study-based approach and examines two different community initiatives. The aim is to investigate the potential incentives and barriers relating to participation or non-participation in predefined community PV projects. Qualitative, as well as quantitative empirical research was used to examine the key factors in the further development of bottom-up initiatives as contributors to a general energy transition.

  18. Axial Force at the Vessel Bottom Induced by Axial Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; P. Hasal; A. Paglianti; F. Magelli

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the axial force affecting the flat bottom of a cylindrical stirred vessel. The vessel is equipped with four radial baffles and is stirred with a four 45° pitched blade impeller pumping downwards. The set of pressure transducers is located along the whole radius of the flat bottom between two radial baffles. The radial distribution of the dynamic pressures indicated by the transducers is measured in dependence on the impeller off-bottom clearance and impeller speed.It fol...

  19. Threshold Corrections to the Bottom Quark Mass Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Raby, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Threshold corrections to the bottom quark mass are often estimated under the approximation that tan$\\beta$ enhanced contributions are the most dominant. In this work we revisit this common approximation made to the estimation of the supersymmetric threshold corrections to the bottom quark mass. We calculate the full one-loop supersymmetric corrections to the bottom quark mass and survey a large part of the phenomenological MSSM parameter space to study the validity of considering only the tan$\\beta$ enhanced corrections. Our analysis demonstrates that this approximation severely breaks down in parts of the parameter space. The size of the threshold corrections has significant consequences for the estimation of fits to the bottom quark mass, couplings to Higgses, and flavor observables, and therefore the approximate expressions must be replaced with the full contributions for accurate estimations.

  20. NEFSC 2015 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1506, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. NEFSC 2004 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0409, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  2. Bottom Sediments -- Cape Ann to Casco Bay (FOLGER75 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The reconnaissance maps upon which this data set is based show the areal distribution of the major bottom sediment types covering the sea floor off eastern New...

  3. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  4. NMFS Bottom Longline Analytical Dataset Provided to NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories has conducted standardized bottom longline surveys in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic since...

  5. NEFSC 2007 Bottom Trawl Survey Calibration (HB0711, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  6. Nanoelectronics: Thermoelectric Phenomena in «Bottom-Up» Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Kruglyak; P.A. Kondratenko; Yu.М. Lopatkin

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric phenomena of Seebeck and Peltier, quality indicators and thermoelectric optimization, ballistic and diffusive phonon heat current are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  7. NEFSC 2015 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1501, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  8. NEFSC 2005 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0502, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  9. NEFSC 2003 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (DE0303, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  10. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0803, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  11. NEFSC 2012 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  12. NEFSC 2014 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  13. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0802, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. NEFSC 2003 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0305, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  15. NEFSC 2011 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1105, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0508, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0509, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 2002 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0204, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 2009 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0901, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. NEFSC 1999 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9911, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. sir-06-5129_depth_bottom_trinidad_con

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set consists of contours of lines of equal depth to the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone, the contact between the Trinidad Sandstone...

  2. NEFSC 2009 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0905, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  3. Gulf of Maine Cooperative Bottom Longline Survey Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is for a bottom longline (fixed gear) survey executed in the western and central Gulf of Maine targeting complex rocky habitats. The survey is...

  4. NEFSC 2014 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1401, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  5. Nanoelectronics: Thermoelectric Phenomena in «Bottom-Up» Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kruglyak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric phenomena of Seebeck and Peltier, quality indicators and thermoelectric optimization, ballistic and diffusive phonon heat current are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  6. Gear Selectivity of a Longfin Squid Bottom Trawl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loligo pealeii (longfin inshore squid) co-occurs with Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) throughout the year and discarding in the L. pealeii bottom trawl...

  7. Research on bottom detection in Intelligent Empty Bottle Inspection System

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Huang; Sile Ma; Yufeng Lv; Hualong Zhang; Chunming Liu; Huajie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent empty bottle inspection system is an important inspection equipment of empty bottle before filling beer, and it is a blend of machine vision, precision machine and real-time control. They need to cooperate perfectly to achieve the desired effect. In the design of the empty bottle inspection system, one of the key technologies is the bottle bottom detection which affects the speed and accuracy of the system. It includes positioning and defect recognition of bottle bottom. For the...

  8. Controlling near shore nonlinear surging waves through bottom boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Kundu, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Instead of taking the usual passive view for warning of near shore surging waves including extreme waves like tsunamis, we aim to study the possibility of intervening and controlling nonlinear surface waves through the feedback boundary effect at the bottom. It has been shown through analytic result that the controlled leakage at the bottom may regulate the surface solitary wave amplitude opposing the hazardous variable depth effect. The theoretical results are applied to a real coastal bathymetry in India.

  9. Marine plastic litter as an artificial hard bottom fouling ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.

    1990-09-01

    20 fouling organisms were observed on plastic litter dredged from the Elbe estuary during July 1990; 60% of the species were typical sessile hard bottom organisms. Most individuals found on this artificial hard bottom were barnacles ( Balanus crenatus, Elminius modestus), the mussel Mytilus edulis and the polychaete Lanice conchilega. All individuals were juveniles which had settled only recently on the plastics. The earliest settlers were not much older than 4 8 weeks.

  10. Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

  11. Method for treatment of oil well bottom zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent deals with a method for the inactivation of sulfate reducing bacteria in an oil well bottom zone. According to the invention the feeding of a bactericidal agent into the well bottom zone is combined with gamma radiation in the zone where the radiation dose is at least 150 krad. A pressure in the range from 2 to 50 MPa is maintained during irrradiation. 1 tab

  12. Mercury in the Bottom Sediments of the Water Retention Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnawski M.; Florencka N.; Baran A.

    2013-01-01

    In the environment, mercury undergoes constant changes and gets into soils or waters through atmospheric precipitation. It is quickly sorbed by mineral and organic colloids which occur in water and transported in the form of a suspension or accumulated in bottom sediment. Quality of sediments is an essential indicator of water pollution with this element. The aim of this paper was to an assessment of mercury content in bottom sediments of retention reservoirs in south-eastern Poland. The sedi...

  13. Time base stability of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Corrêa Alegría, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have played a key role in permanent seismic activity monitoring at sea as well as allowing a better understating of the earth interior. Data collected by the instrument can provide information on the ocean bottom sub-layers down to a depth of 40 km beneath the ocean floor. The accuracy of the results directly depends on the temperature stability of the crystal used as the main time base of the equipment. This paper pre...

  14. Formation of Humic Substances in Weathered MSWI Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37∘C and 50∘C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na4P2O7. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37∘C and at 18th week under 50∘C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50∘C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37∘C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported.

  15. BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS UNDER WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bing-chen; LI Hua-jun; LEE Dong-yong

    2008-01-01

    The present work adopts the COHERENS-SWAN model developed by the first author through coupling three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) and third-generation wave model (SWAN). Inside the COHERENS-SWAN, the SWAN is regarded as a subroutine and the time- and space-varying current velocity and surface elevation are obtained from the COHERENS. Wave-enhanced bottom shear stress, wave induced surface mixing length and wave dependent surface drag coefficient have been introduced into the COHERENS. Secondly, as wave-enhanced bottom shear stress ("bottom shear stress" described as BSS sometimes in this article) is concerned, a modified bottom shear stress Grant and Madsen model which introduces random wave field is given and introduced to COHERENS-SWAN. COHERENS-SWAN is also adopted to simulate three-dimensional flow in the Yellow River Delta with wave-current co-existing. Four numerical experiments were given to study the effects of wave-current interaction on enhancing bottom shear stress. The simulated current velocities, wave height and wave period match well with field measurement data. The simulated significant wave height and wave period for the case with considering the effects of current can give better agreement with measurement data than the case without involving the effects of current. The introduction of random wave generates lower the bottom shear stress than the case without introducing it. There are obvious differences between bottom shear stress of two way interaction and one way interaction. Velocity field obtained by the COHERENS-SWAN is reasonable according to previous studies and measurements.

  16. Analysis of Maisotsenko open gas turbine bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC) is a recently proposed humid air turbine cycle. An air saturator is employed for air heating and humidification purposes in MGTC. In this paper, MGTC is integrated as the bottoming cycle to a topping simple gas turbine as Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC). A thermodynamic optimization is performed to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of MBC as compared with air bottoming cycle (ABC). Furthermore, detailed sensitivity analysis is reported to present the effect of different operating parameters on the proposed configurations' performance. Efficiency enhancement of 3.7% is reported which results in more than 2600 tonne of natural gas fuel savings per year. - Highlights: • Developed an accurate air saturator model. • Introduced Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC) as a power generation cycle. • Performed Thermodynamic optimization for MBC and air bottoming cycle (ABC). • Performed detailed sensitivity analysis for MBC under different operating conditions. • MBC has higher efficiency and specific net work output as compared to ABC

  17. Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.

  18. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like many other models, Composite Higgs Models feature the existence of heavy vector-like quarks. Mixing effects between the Standard Model fields and the heavy states, which can be quite large in case of the top quark, imply deviations from the SM. In this work we investigate the possibility of heavy bottom partners. We show that they can have a significant impact on electroweak precision observables and the current Higgs results if there is a sizeable mixing with the bottom quark. We explicitly check that the constraints from the measurement of the CKM matrix element Vtb are fulfilled, and we test the compatibility with the electroweak precision observables. In particular we evaluate the constraint from the Z coupling to left-handed bottom quarks. General formulae have been derived which include the effects of new bottom partners in the loop corrections to this coupling and which can be applied to other models with similar particle content. Furthermore, the constraints from direct searches for heavy states at the LHC and from the Higgs search results have been included in our analysis. The best agreement with all the considered constraints is achieved for medium to large compositeness of the left-handed top and bottom quarks

  19. Bottom Mass from Nonrelativistic Sum Rules at NNLL

    CERN Document Server

    Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    We report on a recent determination of the bottom quark mass from nonrelativistic (large-n) Upsilon sum rules with renormalization group improvement (RGI) at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order. The comparison to previous fixed-order analyses shows that the RGI leads to a substantial stabilization of the theoretical sum rule moments with respect to scale variations. A single moment fit (n=10) to the available experimental data yields M_b^{1S}=4.755 +- 0.057(pert) +- 0.009(alpha_s) +- 0.003(exp) GeV for the bottom 1S mass and m_b(m_b)= 4.235 +- 0.055(pert) +- 0.003(exp) GeV for the bottom MSbar mass. The quoted uncertainties refer to the perturbative error and the uncertainties associated with the strong coupling and the experimental input.

  20. Carbon deposition at the bottom of gaps in TEXTOR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a new dedicated experiment addressing the problem of impurity deposition at the bottom in gaps are presented along with modelling. A test limiter with an isolated gap was exposed to the scrape-off layer plasma in TEXTOR. The exposure was accompanied by injection of 13C-marked methane in the vicinity of the gap. Deposition at the bottom of the gap was monitored in situ with Quartz-Microbalance diagnostics. The 13C deposition efficiency of about 2.6 × 10−5 was measured. Post mortem analysis of resulting deposited layers performed with SIMS and EPMA techniques yields about a factor 2 smaller value corresponding to approximately 10% contribution of the gap bottom to the total 13C deposition in the gap. This measured contribution is effectively much smaller than observed earlier in TEXTOR, taking the difference in geometry into account, and is in reasonable agreement with modelling performed with ERO and 3D-GAPS codes

  1. Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinmian; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter (DM) scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable region in parameter space (mb˜ -mχ ≲ O (100) GeV) in which the bottom contribution becomes important. We show that a relatively large contribution from the bottom quark is consistent with constraints from spin-independent DM searches, as well as some incidental model dependent constraints.

  2. Bottom Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Böhrer, A

    2001-01-01

    Results on inclusive and exclusive bottom production in gammagamma collisions are presented. The total cross section of inclusive bottom production is investigated through its leptonic decays at LEP II energies by the experiments L3 and OPAL. The average cross section, after correction for acceptances and efficiencies, is sigma_tot = 13.3 +- 1.5 +- 2.3 pb. The next-to-leading order calculations are lower than the data by a factor three, which corresponds to a difference of more than three standard deviations. ALEPH studied the exclusive bottom production. Searching for the eta_b one candidate is found. Limits on Gamma_gammagamma(eta_b)*BR for 4 and 6 charged particles are extracted. The candidate has a mass of 9.30 +- 0.04 GeV.

  3. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  4. Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter (DM scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM. We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable region in parameter space (mb˜−mχ≲O(100 GeV in which the bottom contribution becomes important. We show that a relatively large contribution from the bottom quark is consistent with constraints from spin-independent DM searches, as well as some incidental model dependent constraints.

  5. Fluid flow over arbitrary bottom topography in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Srikumar

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional free surface potential flow over an arbitrary bottom in a channel is considered to analyze the behavior of the free surface profile using linear theory. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible and flow is irrotational. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform technique is employed to determine the first order corrections of some important physical quantities such as free surface profile, velocity potential, etc. From the practical point of view, one arbitrary bottom topography is considered to determine the free surface profile since the free surface profile depends on the bottom topography. It is found that the free surface profile is oscillatory in nature, representing a wave propagating downstream and no wave upstream.

  6. The fast reactor with a cold bottom vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2 kinds of design have been proposed so far for pool-type fast reactors where the vessel contains the full primary circuit with pumps and heat exchangers. First, the vessel suspended to the concrete vault top, a rounded bottom supporting the core (Phenix, Superphenix or the European Fast Reactor Project), and secondly, the half resting vessel, the upper cylindrical wall resting on a ring supported by the basement (BN-600, BN-800 Russian reactors)). A new kind of design is developed in this paper: the cold resting bottom vessel where the flat vessel bottom cooled at less than 90 C. degrees rests on the concrete basement and supports the core dia-grid above a sodium in thermal gradient, by vertical shells and by the vessel wall. This space contains heavy and refractory materials, preventing bottom piercing by corium, hot mix flow of fuel and steel in case of core fusion accident. A concrete vault contains the reactor under ground level. Resting cylindrical vessel provides stability and robustness for core and internal components. A toric collector welded around the dia-grid receives vertical exchangers and pumps, homogenizing temperature. Cooling of structures is not needed. Sodium leaks through the bottom plate are prevented by sodium freezing. Exchangers and pumps are stable, maintained at roof and collector levels. Reduced thermal exchanges provide better efficiency. Arrest exchangers, located around pump columns above the collector, allow a reduced vessel diameter. Simplified structures provide lesser weight and cost. The cold resting bottom may be applied to loop reactors and to lead-cooled reactors

  7. Determination of lead-210 in bottom sediments via bismuth-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of lead-210 in bottom sediments is applied for evaluation of sedimentation rates and sediments ages by concentration profiles of disequilibrated lead-210 from atmospheric sources. Advances in low level liquid scintillation spectrometry (LS) fitted for natural radioactivity measurements, permit to combine the possibility of immediate bismuth-210 separation with its radioactivity registration using LS spectrometer Quantulus (LKS-1220, Wallak, Finland). The method was tested on bottom sediment samples from Baltic Sea shelf, collected during the 76th cruise of RV 'Academician S. Vavilov'. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Modeling of melt-coolant mixing by bottom injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the flow characteristics during the coolant injection, with submerged nozzles, at the bottom of a molten pool are studied. The flow pattern developed by the rising coolant is considered for the case of complete coolant vaporization, and the pool-coolant phase distributions are assessed by a modeling approach delivered from literature for a heterogeneous turbulent jet. To calculate the basic characteristics of such flow, integral relationships are proposed for the two-phase boundary layer. The results of numerical computations and approximate solution are compared with the experimental data obtained in the low temperature experiments, conducted in the DECOBI (debris coolability by bottom injection) facility. (authors)

  9. Process and performance optimization of bottom antireflective coatings: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuji; Sagan, John P.; Shan, Jianhui; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Dixit, Sunit S.; Liu, Ying; Khanna, Dinesh N.

    1999-06-01

    The newly developed AZ BARLi II coating material is a photoresist solvent-based bottom antireflective coating (BARC) for i-line lithographic application. The coating material has good compatibility with common edge bead removal solvents such as ethyl lactate, PGME, or PGMEA mixed with ethyl lactate or PGME. To evaluate the BARC material, its chemical compatibility with common EBR solvents has been tested by several analytical techniques including liquid particle counts and surface defect studies. Both top and bottom EBR dispense processes have been investigated and optimized. Improvements on edge roughness, visual cleanliness, and the BARC coating buildup at the edge will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Thickness optimization of the flow plate of bottom end piece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jeong Sik; Lee, Jae Kyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    High burnup fuel assembly has been the worldwide trends in nuclear fuel design. The burnup increase will result in more axial irradiation growth of fuel rod and consequently it requires more space between top and bottom nozzles to accommodate the increased axial growth of the fuel rod. In order to get more axial space between top and bottom nozzles, thickness optimization of the flow plate for the Korean fuel assembly (KOFA) as well as DRBEP-DG based on stress criterion was performed by way of finite element code `ANSYS`. 12 tabs., 92 figs., 9 refs. (Author) .new.

  11. Thickness optimization of the flow plate of bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High burnup fuel assembly has been the worldwide trends in nuclear fuel design. The burnup increase will result in more axial irradiation growth of fuel rod and consequently it requires more space between top and bottom nozzles to accommodate the increased axial growth of the fuel rod. In order to get more axial space between top and bottom nozzles, thickness optimization of the flow plate for the Korean fuel assembly (KOFA) as well as DRBEP-DG based on stress criterion was performed by way of finite element code 'ANSYS'. 12 tabs., 92 figs., 9 refs. (Author) .new

  12. 30 Gbps bottom-emitting 1060 nm VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Zheng, Y.; Rodes, G. A.; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Lin, Chin-Han; Barve, A. V.; Honore, R.; Larsen, N.; Coldren, L. A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude.......1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude....

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... connection to the valve shall be closed by a plug, cap, or approved quick coupling device. The bottom outlet... including a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug (see Fig. E17.1) or including an auxiliary valve with a threaded closure. (ii) A threaded cap closure arrangement including a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug (see Fig....

  14. Bottom Sediments of Georges Bank (WIGLEY61 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected as part of a survey of the bottom sediments of Georges Bank. The purpose of the survey was to provide basic data for use in studying the...

  15. An efficient and not polluting bottom ash extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that boiler waste water effluent must meet more and more tighter requirements to comply with environmental regulations; sluice water resulting from bottom ash handling is one of the main problems in this context, and many utilities are under effort to maximize the reuse of the sluice water, and, if possible, to meet the aim of zero water discharge from bottom ash handling system. At the same time ash reuse efforts gain strength in order to minimize waste production. One solution to these problems can be found in an innovative Bottom Ash Extraction System (MAC System), marked by the peculiarity to be a continuous dry ash removal; the system has been developed in the last four years by MAGALDI INDUSTRIE SRL in collaboration with ANSALDO Ricerche, the R and D department of ANSALDO, the main Italian Boiler Manufacturer, and is now installed in six ENEL Boilers. The elimination of the water as separation element between the bottom part of the furnace and the outside atmosphere gives advantages mainly from the environmental view point, but a certain improvement in the boiler efficiency has also been demonstrated by the application of the system

  16. Flowable Backfill Materials from Bottom Ash for Underground Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Joong Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between strength and strain in manufacturing controlled low strength materials to recycle incineration bottom ash. Laboratory tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. The optimum mixing ratios were 25%–45% of in-situ soil, 30% of bottom ash, 10%–20% of fly ash, 0%–3% of crumb rubber, 3% of cement, and 22% of water. Each mixture satisfied the standard specifications: a minimum 20 cm of flowability and 127 kPa of unconfined compressive strength. The average secant modulus (E50 was (0.07–0.08 qu. The ranges of the internal friction angle and cohesion for mixtures were 36.5°–46.6° and 49.1–180 kPa, respectively. The pH of all of the mixtures was over 12, which is strongly alkaline. Small-scale chamber tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. Vertical deflection of 0.88–2.41 mm and horizontal deflection of 0.83–3.72 mm were measured during backfilling. The vertical and horizontal deflections of controlled low strength materials were smaller than that of sand backfill.

  17. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indicated in § 179.101, tank may be equipped with a bottom washout of approved construction. If applied... of the center sill construction. (4) The closure plug and seat shall be readily accessible or... fabricated metal and shall be fusion-welded to the tank. It shall be of good weldable quality in...

  18. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, Leo

    2015-11-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and generalized wavenumber (Floquet exponent), and for the waveforms of free wave modes. The dispersion relation is the analogue of the classical Lamb's equation for a two-layer fluid over a flat bottom. For internal modes the interfacial wave shows rapid modulation at the scale of its own wavelength that is comparable to bottom wavelength, whereas for surface modes it becomes a long wave carrier for modulating short waves of bottom wavelength. The approximation using a rigid-lid is given. Sample calculations are shown, including the frequencies that are Bragg resonant. Supports to JY by US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0845957) and a visitor's grant of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) during the period of this work, are gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Two Dimensional Polymerization of Graphene Oxide: Bottom-up Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasov, Victor; Russev, Stoyan; Lyutov, Lyudmil; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Dimitrova, Iglika; Avdeev, Georgy; Avramova, Ivalina; Vulcheva, Evgenia; Kirilov, Kiril; Tzonev, Atanas; Abrashev, Miroslav; Tsutsumanova, Gichka

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a bottom-up synthesis of structures similar to graphene oxide via a two dimensional polymerization. Experimental evidence and discussion are conveyed as well as a general framework for this two dimensional polymerization. The proposed morphologies and lattice structures of these graphene oxides are derived from aldol condensation of alternating three nucleophilic and three electrophilic centers of benzenetriol.

  20. Mercury in the Bottom Sediments of the Water Retention Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnawski M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, mercury undergoes constant changes and gets into soils or waters through atmospheric precipitation. It is quickly sorbed by mineral and organic colloids which occur in water and transported in the form of a suspension or accumulated in bottom sediment. Quality of sediments is an essential indicator of water pollution with this element. The aim of this paper was to an assessment of mercury content in bottom sediments of retention reservoirs in south-eastern Poland. The sediments were analyzed for mercury content. DMA-80 Mercury Analyzer was used for the analysis. The research results showed that average content of Hg in the majority of the studied bottom sediments did not exceed the geochemical background value, the sediments belonged to class 1 (unpolluted sediments. Evaluation of the state of sediments with the use of the geoaccumulation index and the pollution coefficient revealed moderate pollution of bottom sediments of the reservoirs in Rzeszów, Ożanna, Brzóza Stadnicka, Brzóza Królewska, Narożniki, Głuchów and considerable pollution of sediments from Rybnik and Bagna Rzeszowskie. Low mercury content in the studied sediments is generally related to lack of anthropogenic sources of this metal

  1. The Use of Coal Bottom Ash In Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Begyina Kodjo Nketsiah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a waste material from coal burnt to generate electric power. It is incombustible and non-biodegradable; hence, the best way to dispose it is by recycling rather than incineration and land filling. Past research on bottom ash in road building have focused mainly on embankment filling, sub-base and base courses; except boiler slag which has received much attention in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. Bottom ash from Tanjung Bin Power Station was thus investigated through laboratory testing to justify its use in HMA construction in Malaysia. This Paper analysed the data with regards to performance in HMA. In the Marshall Mix design, the material largely satisfied the Stability, Flow and Stiffness requirements which were comparable to that of conventional aggregates, although void contents were a bit higher. When blended with granite, all the parameters were met. Contrary to past suggestions that bottom ash in HMA consumes more bitumen, the 6.4% (51.20g Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC achieved in this study does not necessarily translate into high consumption, compared to OBC of 5.3% (59.63g in the case of granite. The HMA also proved to be highly resistant to moisture-induced damage and satisfied the minimum JKR specification for Static Uniaxial Load Strain.

  2. Rawlsian governments and the race to the bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Lozachmeur; Pierre Pestieau; Jon Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that there is no race to the bottom when the social planner adopts a Rawlsian criterion, only the poor are mobile and they do not work at the optimal tax outcome. This argument is developed within a two skill-model of optimal income taxation.

  3. Development of debris-resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debris-related fuel failures has been identified to be one of the major causes of fuel failures recently occured in nuclear power plants. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to prevent the debris from reaching to fuel rods. In this regard, it is important to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. (Author)

  4. Water Surface Wave in a Trough with Periodical Topographic Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; ZHANG Hua; MIAO Guo-Qing; WEI Rong-Jue

    2007-01-01

    @@ We present the theoretical and experimental results of water surface wave in a trough with periodical topographic bottom under parametric excitation. There are 19 steps of the same size periodically inserted into the trough. It is found that waveforms observed in the experiment are consistent with theoretical ones. Moreover, some complex and interesting phenomena arise in the experiment due to nonlinearity.

  5. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  6. MSWI Bottom Ash Characterization and Resource Recovery Potential Assessment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Krausová, Aneta; Zach, Boleslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 36 (2015), s. 79-84. ISSN 1640-4902 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : MSWI * bottom ash * metal recovery Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. ADC Module built for an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras, Normandino; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new data acquisition system designed for autonomous Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) to study the earth dynamics and internal structure. This part is the responsible to acquire the signals from two different sensors to be processed. The analog-to-digital converter module is based on input amplifiers, modulator and digital filter.

  8. Data acquisition system for a cabled ocean bottom seismometer (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski, Tomasz; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are highly used to monitor seismic activities at sea. They are also used to detect tsunamis and generate warning alarms. This paper presents a data acquisition system built for an OBS with capability to synchronize time through IEEE-1588 protocol. This acquisition system provides real time data through the Ethernet making it suitable for OBSs deployed at seafloor observatories.

  9. Bottom Raking Damage to High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the raking damage to high speed craft (HSC) and conventional ships. The analysis is based on a detailed theoretical model for the raking resistance of an assembled ship bottom structure and on the idea that the impact conditions for various ship types have...

  10. Evaluation of factors affecting resolution of shallow water bottom features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C. C.; Norris, D. R.; Browne, I. D.

    1972-01-01

    To ensure good aerial photography, the effects that factors such as submergence depth, sun angle, film and filter type, exposure, aircraft altitude, and polarization have on the photographic resolution of an underwater object must be determined. Various subjects were photographed, such as the deck of a small submersible, colored and gray scale panels, and natural bottom features. No underwater resolution target was used.

  11. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the base. (b) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a...

  12. Breaking of Waves over a Steep Bottom Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.

    The thesis deals with the wave breaking process of waves propagating over a steep submerged bottom slope. The amount of energy dissipated in the wave breaking process is focused upon. An extensive number of experimental tests (>400) using regular and irregular waves breaking over a simulated reef...

  13. GROUTING TECHNIQUES IN BOTTOM SEALING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom sealing of hazardous waste sites involves the injection or insertion of an inert impermeable and continuous horizontal barrier in soil below the source of contamination. This type of containment strategy could be used in conjunction with other technology such as slurry wal...

  14. Recovery Potential of Bottom Ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameníková, Petra; Šyc, Michal; Krausová, A.; Pohořelý, Michael; Zach, Boleslav; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    Prague: Czech Technical University, 2015, s. 1-6. ISBN N. [International Conference for Young Researchers and PhD Students /9./. Monínec (CZ), 04.05.2015-06.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : MSWI * bottom ash * material recovery Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light-water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants. The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station has two boiling water reactor (BWR) units, each with a capacity of 1150 MW(e). The reactors are each housed in a Mark I containment. Peach Bottom Unit 2 analyzed here, was studied before as part of WASH-1400. A number of plant features tend to be important in determining the nature and frequency of the core melt scenarios for Peach Bottom. These features include the recent above-average diesel generator performance history, the single emergency service water system for both units, the numerous emergency core cooling systems, recent procedure modifications and the low volume containment

  16. Bottom Slamming on Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Griet; Vantorre, Marc; Frigaard, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating point absorber buoys may rise out of the water and be subjected to bottom slamming upon re-entering the water. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the power absorption, the impact velocities and the corresponding slamming forces for various slamming constraints. Three buoy...

  17. Analytic Results for Higgs Production in Bottom Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Ozeren, Kemal J

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate analytically the cross section for Higgs production plus one jet through bottom quark fusion. By considering the small pT limit we derive expressions for the resummation coefficients governing the structure of large logarithms, and compare these expressions with those available in the literature.

  18. Bottom temperature and salinity distribution and its variability around Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal variability, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in temperature and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both temperature and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for temperature and +0.03/decade for salinity).

  19. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  20. Importance of Non-Perturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, A

    2015-01-01

    The importance of non-perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two non perturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in JP=(1/2)+ doublet in strange as well as non-strange sector are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass and hyperfine splitting has also been analyzed for both strange and non-strange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.

  1. Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=(1/2)+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries

  2. Bottom-up effects on attention capture and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    information available to form a decision. Does changing one visual cue in the stimulus set affect attention towards this cue and what does that mean for the choice outcome? To address this, we conducted a combined eye tracking and choice experiment in a consumer choice setting with visual shelf simulations of......Attention processes and decision making are accepted to be closely linked together because only information that is attended to can be incorporated in the decision process. Little is known however, to which extent bottom-up processes of attention affect stimulus selection and therefore the...... different product categories. Surface size and visual saliency of a product label were manipulated to determine bottom-up effects on attention and choice. Results show a strong and significant increase in attention in terms of fixation likelihood towards product labels which are larger and more visually...

  3. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillioz, M.; Grober, R.; Kapuvari, A.;

    2014-01-01

    Like many other models, Composite Higgs Models feature the existence of heavy vector-like quarks. Mixing effects between the Standard Model fields and the heavy states, which can be quite large in case of the top quark, imply deviations from the SM. In this work we investigate the possibility...... of heavy bottom partners. We show that they can have a significant impact on electroweak precision observables and the current Higgs results if there is a sizeable mixing with the bottom quark. We explicitly check that the constraints from the measurement of the CKM matrix element V-tb are fulfilled...... be applied to other models with similar particle content. Furthermore, the constraints from direct searches for heavy states at the LHC and from the Higgs search results have been included in our analysis. The best agreement with all the considered constraints is achieved for medium to large compositeness...

  4. Masses and decay widths of radially excited Bottom mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Inspired from the experimental information coming from LHC [2,3] and Babar [4] for radially higher excited charmed mesons, we predict the masses and decays of the n=2 S-wave and P- wave bottom mesons using the effective lagrangian approach. Using heavy quark effective theory approach, non-perturbative parameters (?, ?1 and ?2) are fitted using the available experimental and theoretical informations on charm masses. Using heavy quark symmetry and the values of these fitted parameters, the masses of radially excited even and odd parity bottom mesons with and without strangness are predicted. These predicted masses led in constraining the decay widths of these 12 states, and also shed light on the unknown values of the higher hadronic coupling constants eeg 2 SH and eeg 2 TH. Studying the properties like masses, decays of 2S and 2P states and some hadronic couplings would help forthcoming experiments to look into these states in future.

  5. Enhanced E-bed bottoms upgrading using latest catalytic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshima, H.; Mayo, S.; Sedlacek, Z.; Hughes, T.; De Wind, M. [Albermarle Corp., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The profitability of refineries depends on heavy oil upgrading in terms of price, conversion, yields and quality of the product. The Ebullated-bed process represents a solution for the effective primary upgrading of heavy oils. Since the 1970s, Albemarle has commercialized several E-bed catalysts to upgrade the bottoms in low sediment and high hydrogenation operations. Although an E-bed is used to maximize the conversion of vacuum residuum (VR), it is often limited by fouling caused by sediment in the product. In order to reduce sedimentation in the product, Albemarle developed an improved E-bed catalytic technology by characterizing the asphaltenes and sediments in order to better understand the oil chemistry and compatibility. The most recent development involves the patented catalyst-staging technology and the improved single catalyst application. Both achieve very low sediment or higher hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and Conradson carbon (CCR) removal for improved bottom upgrading. tabs., figs.

  6. Inverse problem of bottom slope design for aerator devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 樊博; 许唯临

    2013-01-01

    Air entrainment is an effective approach to protect release works from cavitation damage. The traditional method of aera-tor device designs is that, for given flow conditions, the geometries of the aerator device are designed and then the effects are experi-mentally tested for cavitation damage control. The present paper proposes an inverse problem method of determining the bottom slopes in front of and behind an aerator if the requirements of air entrainment, flow conditions and some of aerator geometric para-meters are given. An RBF neural network model is developed and the relevant bottom slopes are calculated in different conditions of flow and geometry on the basis of the data of 19 aerator devices from different discharge tunnels with safe operation. The case study shows that the methodology provides an effective way to design aerator devices under given target conditions.

  7. Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=1/2+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.

  8. Drag reduction of a miniature boat with superhydrophobic grille bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Jiang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water strider can slide on water surface with a very small drag force using its long superhydrophobic legs. Inspired by the water strider legs, we report here a novel design of superhydrophobic grille structure for drag reduction. A miniature boat covered with a superhydrophobic grille at the bottom is fabricated and compared with a normal boat with flat bottom in the same size, and a significant drag reduction is obtained by the former. Experiments also reveal that the grille structure exhibits a remarkable loading capacity supplied by the water surface tension. It is found that the optimal design of such a miniature boat with a considerable loading capacity and a small drag can be realized through controlling the length and the spacing of the grilles. This study shows a new idea to reduce the fluid drag in microfluidics, micro electromechanical system and other engineering areas.

  9. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom

  10. PWR fuel assembly bottom nozzle with a particle retention filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bottom nozzle has a thin fitted plate, supporting feet and a filtering plate ensuring the retention of coolant particles. The filtering plate is fixed to the lower part of the supporting feet that in use rests on the lower plate of the reactor core. Zones of the filtering plate have filtering grids that are positioned across the coolant passages in the lower plate of the core

  11. Chaotic Vibration Analysis of the Bottom Rotating Drill String

    OpenAIRE

    Qilong Xue; Ruihe Wang; Feng Sun; Zhiyuan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Drill string vibration is a widely studied topic. This paper developed a real-time measurement system near the drilling bit and extracted the lateral vibration, longitudinal vibration time series of bottom rotating drill string. In order to reconstruct the phase space, we estimated the delay time with mutual information and calculated the embedding dimension through Cao’s method. Finally, the chaotic characterization of the system is analyzed by calculating the correlation dimension and the l...

  12. Microfinance and the Environmental Bottom Line/Microfinance & Environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Allet, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance has strongly developed over the past decades on the promise of reaching a double bottom line of financial viability and social impact. Recently, some actors have started to advocate that microfinance, to be truly responsible, should include a third environmental objective as well. However, little scientific knowledge exists today on environmental management within microfinance institutions (MFIs). The objective of this PhD thesis is to shed light on how MFIs manage their environm...

  13. Deghosting of Ocean Bottom Cable Data:Two approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jagmeet; Subramanyam, K.

    2005-01-01

    Two filter based approaches for deghosting of Ocean Bottom Cable data are presented. One of them is phase shifting of geophone followed by least square matching of cross ghosted geophone and hydrophone data.In the second approach,phase shifting of geophone is followed by direct matching of geophone's amplitude spectrum with that of the hydrophone within the seismic bandwidth.Results obtained from both approaches were found to be at par with one of the proprietary softwares available with ONGC.

  14. Energy of tsunami waves generated by bottom motion

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    20 pages, 12 figures. Accepted to Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Other authors papers and supporting material can be downloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh International audience In the vast literature on tsunami research, few articles have been devoted to energy issues. A theoretical investigation on the energy of waves generated by bottom motion is performed here. We start with the full incompressible Euler equations in the presence of a free surface and derive both...

  15. Electrostatic separation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    The recovery of copper and precious metals from fine (0-2 mm) non-ferrous fraction of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash with a two-roll corona electrostatic separator was investigated. Corona electrostatic separator is typically used for separation of fine granular mixture with large differences in electrical conductivities of particles, f.e. mixture of plastic and metal. However, in this work the main objective was to find out if the selectivity of the corona electrostatic...

  16. Effect of bottom cell properties on micromorph tandem device performance

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Veneri, Paola; Mercaldo, Lucia Vittoria; PRIVATO Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Micromorph tandem solar cells represent an elegant way of overcoming the efficiency limits of single-junction solar cells and reducing the light-induced degradation of amorphous silicon films. Micromorph devices have been realized on Asahi U-type TCO-covered glass substrates by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (VHF-PECVD) at 100 MHz at low substrate temperature (150 ?C). For the bottom cell different growth regimes have been explored by changi...

  17. Kinetic analysis of crystal violet adsorption on to bottom ash

    OpenAIRE

    NIDHEESH, Puthiya Veetil; Gandhimathi, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution onto bottom ash was investigated under various experimental conditions. The parameters studied included contact time, initial CV concentration, particle size, and ionic strength. The kinetic experimental data were analyzed by different models. The experimental adsorption data showed good correlation with the kinetic models and suggested a multimechanism sorption process. The adsorption mechanisms follow pseudo-sec...

  18. Bottom-up approaches for defining future climate mitigation commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Berk, M.M.

    2004-07-01

    This report analyses a number of alternative, bottom-up approaches, i.e. technology and performance standards; technology Research and Development agreements, sectoral targets (national /transnational), sector based Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and sustainable development policies and measures (SD-PAMs). Included are technology and performance standards; technology, research and development agreements, sectoral targets (national /transnational), and sector-based (CDM), and sustainable development policies and measures (SD-PAMs). A more bottom-up approach for defining national emission targets, the so-called Triptych approach is also explored and compared with more top-down types of approaches (Multi-Stage and Contraction and Convergence) based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis. While bottom-up approaches are concluded as being valuable components of a future climate regime, they, in themselves, do not seem to offer a real alternative to emission reduction and limitation targets, as they provide little certainty about the overall environmental effectiveness of climate policies. In comparison with Multi-stage and the C and C approaches, the global Triptych approach offers the opportunity of early participation by developing countries' without the risk of creating large amounts of surplus emissions as in C and C; in using the approach we also avoid the need for dividing up the non-Annex I countries as in Multi-Stage. However, there will be substantial implementation problems related to the institutional and technical capabilities required. Thus it would seem better to exclude the least developing countries and have them first participate in some of the alternative bottom-up approaches.

  19. Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jinmian Li; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter(DM) scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model(MSSM). We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable reg...

  20. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Vlček; Jan Skočilas; Tomáš Jirout

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baf...

  1. Propagation of bottom-trapped waves over variable topography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    , with the shorter (longer) of the two having an eastward (westward) group velocity. When the short wave propagates to the region of constant depth, a reflected wave is generated. There is no transmitted wave, but a 'fringe' which decays away from the interface... between the slope and the region of fiat topography is produced. Over the fiat topography the fringe consists of baroclinic and barotropic motions which lead to bottom-intensification in the immediate vicinity of the slope and to increasingly barotropic...

  2. Magic for Filter Optimization in Dynamic Bottom-up Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Minnen, G

    1996-01-01

    Off-line compilation of logic grammars using Magic allows an incorporation of filtering into the logic underlying the grammar. The explicit definite clause characterization of filtering resulting from Magic compilation allows processor independent and logically clean optimizations of dynamic bottom-up processing with respect to goal-directedness. Two filter optimizations based on the program transformation technique of Unfolding are discussed which are of practical and theoretical interest.

  3. Underwater-cable power-transmission system: bottom segment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    After a survey of the state of the art for bottom cables, some possible configurations are considered for candidate OTEC sites. General considerations on laying and embedding are discussed, and solutions are considered. Optimization of cable dimensions and the problem of flexible joints are covered. The state of the art of cable installation and repair is reviewed and discussed with reference to the representative OTEC sites. Costs for shore terminal stations are evaluated. (LEW)

  4. Bottom-up Budgeting FY 2015 Assessment: Camarines Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Maramot, Joyce Anne; Yasay, Donald B.; de Guzman, Reinier

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is an adaptation of the participatory budgeting model in identifying and providing solutions to poverty at the municipal/city level. Leaders of civil society organizations engage with LGU officials in formulating a poverty alleviation plan to be considered in preparing the budget of national agencies the following fiscal year. This paper reports on how the guideline was implemented in three municipalities in Camarines Sur. The study then presents suggestions and reco...

  5. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  6. The Galactic Center Excess from the Bottom Up

    CERN Document Server

    Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been shown that dark-matter annihilation to bottom quarks provides a good fit to the galactic-center gamma-ray excess identified in the Fermi-LAT data. In the favored dark matter mass range $m\\sim 30-40$ GeV, achieving the best-fit annihilation rate $\\sigma v \\sim 5\\times 10^{-26}$ cm$^{3}$ s$^{-1}$ with perturbative couplings requires a sub-TeV mediator particle that interacts with both dark matter and bottom quarks. In this paper, we consider the minimal viable scenarios in which a Standard Model singlet mediates s-channel interactions {\\it only} between dark matter and bottom quarks, focusing on axial-vector, vector, and pseudoscalar couplings. Using simulations that include on-shell mediator production, we show that existing sbottom searches currently offer the strongest sensitivity over a large region of the favored parameter space explaining the gamma-ray excess, particularly for axial-vector interactions. The 13 TeV LHC will be even more sensitive; however, it may not be sufficient to f...

  7. Open bottom mesons in hot asymmetric hadronic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium masses and optical potentials of $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons are studied in an isospin asymmetric, strange, hot and dense hadronic environment using a chiral effective model. The chiral $SU(3)$ model originally designed for the light quark sector, is generalized to include the heavy quark sector ($c$ and $b$) to derive the interactions of the $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons with the light hadrons. Due to large mass of bottom quark, we use only the empirical form of these interactions for the desired purpose, while treating the bottom degrees of freedom to be frozen in the medium. Hence, all medium effects are due to the in-medium interaction of the light quark content of these open-bottom mesons. Both $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons are found to experience net attractive interactions in the medium, leading to lowering of their masses in the medium. The mass degeneracy of particles and antiparticles, ($B^+$, $B^-$) as well as ($B^0$, ${\\bar B}^0$), is observed to be broken in the medium, due to equal and opposite ...

  8. Measuring device for water quality at reactor bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns measurement for water quality at the bottom of a reactor of a BWR type plant, in which reactor water is sampled and analyzed in a state approximate to conditions in a pressure vessel. Based on the result, hydrogen injection amount is controlled during hydrogen injection operation. Namely, a monitor for water quality is disposed to a sampling line in communication with the bottom of a pressure vessel. A water quality monitor is disposed to a drain sampling line in communication with the bottom of the pressure vessel. A corrosion potentiometer is disposed to the pressure sampling line or the drain sampling line. A dissolved oxygen measuring device is disposed to the pressure vessel sampling line or the drain sampling line. With such a constitution, the reactor water can be sampled and analyzed in a state approximate to the conditions in the pressure vessel. In addition, signals from the water quality monitor are inputted to a hydrogen injection amount control device. As a result, the amount of hydrogen injected to primary coolants can be controlled in a state approximate to the conditions in the pressure vessel. (I.S.)

  9. Bottom mass from nonrelativistic sum rules at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2013-01-15

    We report on a recent determination of the bottom quark mass from nonrelativistic (large-n) {Upsilon} sum rules with renormalization group improvement (RGI) at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order. The comparison to previous fixed-order analyses shows that the RGI computed in the vNRQCD framework leads to a substantial stabilization of the theoretical sum rule moments with respect to scale variations. A single moment fit (n=10) to the available experimental data yields M{sub b}{sup 1S}=4.755{+-}0.057{sub pert}{+-}0.009{sub {alpha}{sub s}}{+-}0.003{sub exp} GeV for the bottom 1S mass and anti m{sub b}(anti m{sub b})=4.235{+-}0.055{sub pert}{+-}0.003{sub exp} GeV for the bottom MS mass. The quoted uncertainties refer to the perturbative error and the uncertainties associated with the strong coupling and the experimental input.

  10. Bottom Baryon Decays to Pseudoscalar Meson and Pentaquark

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hai-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Based on SU(3) flavor symmetry, we decompose the decay amplitudes of bottom baryon decays to a pseudoscalar meson and an octet or a decuplet pentaquark in terms of three invariant amplitudes $T_1$ and $T_{2,3}$ corresponding to external $W$-emission and internal $W$-emission diagrams, respectively. For antitriplet bottom baryons $\\Lambda_b^0,\\Xi_b^0$ and $\\Xi_b^-$, their decays to a decuplet pentaquark proceed only through the internal $W$-emission diagram. Assuming the dominance from the external $W$-emission amplitudes, we present an estimate of the decay rates relative to $\\Lambda_b^0\\to P_p^+K^-$, where $P_p^+$ is the hidden-charm pentaquark with the same light quark content as the proton. Hence, our numerical results will provide a very useful guideline to the experimental search for pentaquarks in bottom baryon decays. For example, $\\Xi_b^0\\to P_{\\Sigma^+}K^-$, $\\Xi_b^-\\to P_{\\Sigma^-}\\bar K^0$, $\\Omega_b^-\\to P_{\\Xi^-}\\bar K^0$ and $\\Omega_b^-\\to P_{\\Xi^0}K^-$ may have rates comparable to that of $\\Lam...

  11. Sensitivity of Peach Bottom turbine trip test calculations using RETRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast acting power increase transients are required to test the one-dimensional reactor kinetics used in RETRAN. In addition, methods used to model the steam separator, down comer, steam lines and feedback from turbine control valves, feedwater and recirculation flow control can be tested using the Peach Bottom benchmarks. Gulf States Utilities (GSU) performed simulations of the three Peach Bottom turbine trip tests. These calculations were performed using RETRAN02/MOD4, with kinetics data generated by the GSU's CASMO1/SIMULATE-E/SIMTRAN models. The Peach Bottom tests were held at low power conditions for which reactor vessel pressure and enthalpy distribution data was unavailable. During the computer program benchmark process, it was found that the results showed a large sensitivity to the reactor conditions used to initialize RETRAN. Many other sensitivities were observed such as turbine trip induced pressure wave impact on overall results. Timing and magnitude of the pressure waves were found to be affected by the use of equilibrium or non-equilibrium models, by distribution of separator inertia and by distribution of pressure losses through core and separators. The timing and magnitude of these pressure waves has a significant effect on the peak power and heat flux

  12. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The products of bottom current circulation around the Iberian continental margin are characterised by large erosional and depositional features formed under a variety of geological and oceanographic contexts. The Iberian margins are influenced by several water masses that mainly interact along the upper and middle con- tinental slopes, as well as along the lower slope with the abyssal plains being influenced to a lesser extent. The main depositional features occur along the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (CDS) within the SW Alboran Sea, in the Gulf of Cadiz (the most studied so far), the western margins of the Portugal/Galician mar- gin, the Ortegal Spur and the Le Danois Bank or Cachucho. Moreover, erosional contourite features have also been recently indentified, most notably terraces, abraded surfaces, channels, furrows and moats. The majority of these features are formed under the influence of the Mediterranean water masses, especially by the interaction of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the seafloor. The MOW is characterized as relatively warm (13 degree centigrade) and with a high salinity (∼36.5), giving it a high density relative to the surrounding water masses, hence constituting an important contribution to the global thermohaline circulation, making it one of the most studied water masses surrounding Iberia. The development of both depositional and ero- sional contourite features does not only depend on the bottom-current velocity but also on several other important controlling factors, including: 1) local margin morphology affected by recent tectonic activity; 2) multiple sources of sediment supply; 3) water-mass interphases interacting with the seafloor; and 4) glacioeustatic changes, especially during the Quaternary, when the increasing influence of the bottom cur- rent has been observed during the cold stages. The main objective of this special volume contribution is to provide a review and description of the regional along

  13. Evaluation of aseismic integrity in HTTR core-bottom structure. Pt. 1. Aseismic test for core-bottom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aseismic tests were carried out using (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale models of the core-bottom structure of the HTTR to quantitatively evaluate the response of acceleration, strain, impact load etc. The following conclusions are obtained. (i) The frequency response of the keyway strain is correlative with that of the impact acceleration on the hot plenum block. (ii) It was confirmed through (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale model tests that the applied similarity law is valid to evaluate the seismic response characteristics of the core-bottom structure. (ii) The stress of graphite components estimated from the scale model test using S2-earthquake excitation was sufficiently lower than the allowable stress used as the design criterion. ((orig.))

  14. Impact of bottom trawling on sediment characteristics - A study along inshore waters off Veraval coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhagirathan, U.; Meenakumari, B.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Panda, S.K.; Madhu, V.R.; Vaghela, D.T.

    The present communication is a study on the impact of bottom trawling on the sediment characteristics along Veraval coast, which is the largest trawler port of India. Experimental bottom trawling was conducted from MFV Sagarkripa at five transects...

  15. Production and Decay of 750 Gev state of 6 top and 6 anti top quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Froggatt, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    Crude estimates are made of the branching ratios and pair production cross-section for our previously proposed bound state S of six top and six antitop quarks identified with the diphoton excess recently observed in ATLAS and CMS. We estimate the pair production cross section to be approximately 12 times that for fourth family quarks. Hence we predict $\\sigma(pp \\rightarrow SS + anything) \\approx 2$ pb at 13 TeV and an increase by a factor 10 over the cross section at 8 TeV. Crude estimates of the main branching ratios relative to the diphoton decay give $\\Gamma(S\\rightarrow \\gamma+\\gamma) \\propto 1$, $\\Gamma(S\\rightarrow t + \\bar{t})\\propto 378$, $\\Gamma(S \\rightarrow gluon+gluon)\\propto 117$, $\\Gamma(S\\rightarrow Higgs+Higgs)\\propto 15$, $\\Gamma(S\\rightarrow W+W)\\propto 30$ and $\\Gamma(S\\rightarrow Z+Z) = 15$. These estimates are consistent with the LHC bounds at 8 TeV within a factor 1.25. We expect the $S \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ events to be produced together with another S resonance decaying typically ...

  16. Higgs effects in top anti-top production near threshold in e+e− annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beneke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the third-order QCD corrections to the inclusive top-pair production cross section near threshold demonstrates that the strong dynamics is under control at the few percent level. In this paper we consider the effects of the Higgs boson on the cross section and, for the first time, combine the third-order QCD result with the third-order P-wave, the leading QED and the leading non-resonant contributions. We study the size of the different effects and investigate the sensitivity of the cross section to variations of the top-quark Yukawa coupling due to possible new physics effects.

  17. The effect of bottom sediment supplement on heavy metals content in plants (Zea mays) and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baran A.; Jasiewicz C.; Tarnawski M.

    2013-01-01

    Important aspect of bottom sediments is the problem of their management or disposal after their extraction from the bottom of rivers, dam reservoirs, ports, channels or ponds. The research aimed at an assessment of potential environmental management of bottom sediment used as an admixture to light soil basing on its effect on contents of heavy metals in plants and soil. The research was conducted on light soil with granulometric structure of weakly loamy sand. The bottom sediment was added to...

  18. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Wenbin; Chen Jianghai; Wang Zhenxiong; Wang Zhihua; Liu Jianqing; Lu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater ...

  19. Bottom hadrons from lattice QCD with domain wall and NRQCD fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Meinel, William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Matthew Wingate

    2009-07-01

    Dynamical 2+1 flavor lattice QCD is used to calculate the masses of bottom hadrons, including B mesons, singly and doubly bottom baryons, and for the first time also the triply-bottom baryon Omega{sub bbb}. The domain wall action is used for the up-, down-, and strange quarks (both valence and sea), while the bottom quark is implemented with non-relativistic QCD. A calculation of the bottomonium spectrum is also presented.

  20. Ocean bottom pressure changes lead to a decreasing length-of-day in a warming climate

    OpenAIRE

    F. Landerer; Jungclaus, J.; Marotzke, J.

    2007-01-01

    We use a coupled climate model to evaluate ocean bottom pressure changes in the IPCC-A1B climate scenario. Ocean warming in the 21st and 22nd centuries causes secular oceanic bottom pressure anomalies. The essential feature is a net mass transfer onto shallow shelf areas from the deeper ocean areas, which exhibit negative bottom pressure anomalies. We develop a simple mass redistribution model that explains this mechanism. Regionally, however, distinct patterns of bottom pressure anomalies em...

  1. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  2. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  3. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  4. Measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks is presented. The b hadrons are produced in e+e- annihilation at 29 GeV, and the lifetime is determined from the impact parameters of high-transverse-momentum electrons produced in the decay of the b hadrons. A b lifetime of tau/sub b/ = 1.17/sup +0.27//sub -0.22/(stat)/sup +0.17//sub 0.16/(sys) psec is determined from a maximum-likelihood fit to the impact parameters. Particular care has been taken to describe the experimental resolution correctly in the fit

  5. A Bottom-Up Approach to SUSY Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Claus; /SLAC

    2011-11-11

    This paper proposes a new way to do event generation and analysis in searches for new physics at the LHC. An abstract notation is used to describe the new particles on a level which better corresponds to detector resolution of LHC experiments. In this way the SUSY discovery space can be decomposed into a small number of eigenmodes each with only a few parameters, which allows to investigate the SUSY parameter space in a model-independent way. By focusing on the experimental observables for each process investigated the Bottom-Up Approach allows to systematically study the boarders of the experimental efficiencies and thus to extend the sensitivity for new physics.

  6. Solid phase speciation of radiocaesium in bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive laboratory study is presented on the solid-phase speciation of ionic radiocaesium in bottom sediments (riverine, lacustrine, estuarine) covering some 75 samples of widely differing textural properties and originating from various locations in Europe. Sediments are characterised in terms of cation exchange capacities, exchangeable potassium and ammonium and specific radiocaesium sorption properties. It is shown that radiocaesium is quantitatively retained in the specific sorption sites associated with the micaceous clay minerals in the sediments. The practical consequences of this finding are discussed in terms of a predictive equation allowing forecasting of radiocaesium levels in the watercolumn or in the interstitial fluid of the sediment

  7. Higgs Searches with Bottom Quarks and Invisible Particles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2077110

    An essential search to answer the question of whether the newly discovered boson of mass 125 GeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the standard model Higgs boson ($H$) is the search for decay of the boson into a pair of bottom quarks ($b {\\overline{b}}$), as this is theoretically the dominant decay channel of a low-mass Higgs boson. For best signal-to-background sensitivity, the associated production of the Higgs boson with a vector boson ($V$ = $W$ or $Z$) is used. The search is carried out in six channels based on the decay of the vector boson: $W(\\mu\

  8. Recent progress in backreacted bottom-up holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvinen, Matti [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-22

    Recent progress in constructing holographic models for QCD is discussed, concentrating on the bottom-up models which implement holographically the renormalization group flow of QCD. The dynamics of gluons can be modeled by using a string-inspired model termed improved holographic QCD, and flavor can be added by introducing space filling branes in this model. The flavor fully backreacts to the glue in the Veneziano limit, giving rise to a class of models which are called V-QCD. The phase diagrams and spectra of V-QCD are in good agreement with results for QCD obtained by other methods.

  9. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  10. Postirradiation examination of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the irradiation results and their evaluation for Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4. It describes in detail the efforts by General Atomic Company over the last two years to establish a system for extracting meaningful performance information from a fuel test element. This has been done with the goal of making direct comparisons between as-measured data and core design code predictions. Special emphasis has been placed on determining the 95% confidence limits on most of the preirradiation and postirradiation measurements in order to allow a better comparison with GAUGE, FEVER, and TREVER code calculations which are used in HTGR core thermal and mechanical design

  11. Spintronics in the «Bottom-up» Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kruglyak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Basic topics of spintronics such as spin valve, interface resistance due to the mismatch of conduction modes, spin potentials, non-local spin voltage, spin moment and its transport, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, and explanation on its basis why a magnet has an “easy axis”, nanomagnet dynamics by spin current, polarizers and analyzers of spin current, diffusion equation for ballistic transport and current in terms of non-equilibrium potentials are discussed in the frame of the “bottom-up” approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  12. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of storage tank bottom plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafaat, Taufik A.; Ismail, Mokhtar Che

    2015-07-01

    Aboveground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) receive crude oil from offshore for storage and further processing. Integrity issue of AST storing crude oil is not only affected by external corrosion but also internal corrosion from crude oil that supports the growth of the microorganisms originating from the reservoir. The objective of this research is to study the effect of sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) on the corrosion of AST. The results indicates that SRB has significant effect on the corrosion rate of storage tank bottom plate.

  13. Wikipedia: organisation from a bottom-up approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spek, Sander; Postma, Eric; Herik, H. Jaap van den

    2006-01-01

    Wikipedia can be considered as an extreme form of a self-managing team, as a means of labour division. One could expect that this bottom-up approach, with the absense of top-down organisational control, would lead to a chaos, but our analysis shows that this is not the case. In the Dutch Wikipedia, an integrated and coherent data structure is created, while at the same time users succeed in distributing roles by self-selection. Some users focus on an area of expertise, while others edit over ...

  14. The Interplay of Top-Down and Bottom-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till; Brown, Carol V.; Ozturk, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of patient health information across different organizations involved in healthcare delivery has potential benefits for a wide range of stakeholders. However, many governments in Europe and in the U.S. have, despite both top-down and bottom-up initiatives, experienced major barriers in...... achieving sustainable models for implementing health information exchange (HIE) throughout their healthcare systems. In the case of the U.S., three years after stimulus funding allocated as part of the 2009 HITECH Act, the extent to which government funding will be needed to sustain health information...

  15. The seismic test of HTTR core bottom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic tests were carried out using scale models of the core bottom structure (CBS) in the HTTR to quantitatively evaluate the responses of acceleration, strain, impact load and so on. The following conclusions are obtained. (1) The frequency response of the keyway strain could be correlated experimentally with that of the impact acceleration on the hot plenum blocks (HPB). (2) It was confirmed through the comparison of the 1/5-scale and 1/3-scale model tests that the applied similarity laws is valid to evaluate the seismic response characteristics of the CBS. (3) It was demonstrated that the structural integrity of the CBS will be kept against earthquakes. (author)

  16. Distinguishing Top-Down From Bottom-Up Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between top-down and bottom-up effects is widely relied on in experimental psychology. However, there is an important problem with the way it is normally defined. Top-down effects are effects of previously-stored information on processing the current input. But on the face of it that includes the information that is implicit in the operation of any psychological process – in its dispositions to transition from some types of representational state to others. This paper suggests...

  17. Bottom-Fill Method for Stopping Leaking Oil Wells

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    Hardware failure at the top of a deep underwater oil well can result in a catastrophic oil leak. The enormous pressure lifting the column of oil in that well makes it nearly impossible to stop from the top with seals or pressurization. We propose to fill the bottom of the well with dense and possibly streamlined objects that can descend through the rising oil. As they accumulate, those objects couple to the oil via viscous and drag forces and increase the oil's effective density. When its effective density exceeds that of the earth's crust, the oil will have essentially stopped flowing.

  18. Open bottom mesons in hot asymmetric hadronic medium

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium masses and optical potentials of $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons are studied in an isospin asymmetric, strange, hot and dense hadronic environment using a chiral effective model. The chiral $SU(3)$ model originally designed for the light quark sector, is generalized to include the heavy quark sector ($c$ and $b$) to derive the interactions of the $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons with the light hadrons. Due to large mass of bottom quark, we use only the empirical form of these interactions fo...

  19. Bottom-up graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Patrick B. [Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Pedramrazi, Zahra [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Madani, Ali [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Yen-Chia; Crommie, Michael F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Oteyza, Dimas G. de [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC/UPV-EHU-Materials Physics Center, San Sebastián E-20018 (Spain); Chen, Chen [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fischer, Felix R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bokor, Jeffrey, E-mail: jbokor@eecs.berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    Recently developed processes have enabled bottom-up chemical synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with precise atomic structure. These GNRs are ideal candidates for electronic devices because of their uniformity, extremely narrow width below 1 nm, atomically perfect edge structure, and desirable electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate nano-scale chemically synthesized GNR field-effect transistors, made possible by development of a reliable layer transfer process. We observe strong environmental sensitivity and unique transport behavior characteristic of sub-1 nm width GNRs.

  20. Measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports a measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks. It is based on data taken with the DELCO detector at the PEP e+e- storage ring at a center of mass energy of 29 GeV. The decays of hadrons containing bottom quarks are tagged in hadronic events by the presence of electrons with a large component of momentum transverse to the event axis. Such electrons are identified in the DELCO detector by an atmospheric pressure Cherenkov counter assisted by a lead/scintillator electromagnetic shower counter. The lifetime measured is 1.17 psec, consistent with previous measurements. This measurement, in conjunction with a limit on the non-charm branching ratio in b-decay obtained by other experiments, can be used to constrain the magnitude of the V/sub cb/ element of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix to the range 0.042 (+0.005 or -0.004 (stat.), +0.004 or -0.002 (sys.)), where the errors reflect the uncertainty on tau/sub b/ only and not the uncertainties in the calculations which relate the b-lifetime and the element of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

  1. Simulation of Bottom Measurement with the STAR HFT Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2008-10-01

    STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC) is a working experiment at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) to study properties of Quark-Gluon Matter under extreme energy density and temperature. Bottom quark production and propagation is a unique probe of the dense matter created at RHIC. The HFT (Heavy Flavor Tracker) is a proposed detector upgrade of STAR, capable of reconstructing open charm/bottom hadrons at midrapidity. We present a study of B meson reconstruction via the semi-electronic channel using GEANT simulations of HFT performance. We carried out two approaches to separate B from D mesons: the impact parameter method and the displaced vertex method. First, B mesons have mean proper decay lengths of 500 microns, so their decay electrons have large impact parameters with respect to the interaction vertex. Second, the secondary vertex (daughter D decay) displacement is in the direction of the B meson, and close to the direction of the decay electron, so the flight distance (the scalar product of the secondary vertex displacement and the daughter electron momentum) provides a good measure for the B meson reconstruction. Preliminary results on STAR HFT B measurement performance will be discussed.

  2. Hunting for exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Steele, T G; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We extend a moment QCD sum rule method to study the existence of exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states made of four heavy quarks. Using the compact diquark-antidiquark configuration, we calculate the mass spectra of these tetraquark states. There are 18 hidden-charm $cc\\bar c\\bar c$ tetraquark currents with $J^{PC} = 0^{++}$, $0^{-+}$, $0^{--}$, $1^{++}$, $1^{+-}$, $1^{-+}$, $1^{--}$, and $2^{++}$. We use them to perform QCD sum rule analyses, and the obtained masses are all higher than the spontaneous dissociation thresholds of two charmonium mesons, which are thus their dominant decay modes. The masses of the corresponding hidden-bottom $bb\\bar b\\bar b$ tetraquarks are all below or very close to the thresholds of the $\\Upsilon(1S)\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\eta_b(1S)\\eta_b(1S)$, except one current of $J^{PC}=0^{++}$. Hence, we suggest to search for the doubly hidden-charm states in the $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $\\eta_c(1S)\\eta_c(1S)$ channels.

  3. Fuel assembly bottom nozzle with integral debris trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly is described for a nuclear reactor including nuclear fuel rods, at least one grid supporting the fuel rods in an organized array, and at least one guide thimble supporting the grid, an improved bottom nozzle disposed adjacent and below the grid, supporting the guide thimble and adapted to allow flow of liquid coolant into the fuel assembly, the improved bottom nozzle comprising: (a) means spaced below the grid and a lower end of the fuel rods and supporting the guide thimble and allowing flow of coolant into the fuel assembly; (b) means mounted about the supporting means and extending toward but spaced from the grid and lower end of the fuel rods so as to define an open region between the supporting means and the grid and lower end of the fuel rods; and (c) a trap disposed within the open region and on the supporting means, the trap being adapted for passage of the guide thimble through to the supporting means and flow of the coolant for capturing and retaining debris carried by the flowing coolant within the trap to substantially prevent entry of debris into the fuel assembly

  4. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. (Geological Inst., Moscow (USSR)); Fernandez, R. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. (Polytechnical Inst., Kuybyshev (USSR))

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Conceptual Design of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The arrangement of the BMCRDMs and irradiation holes in the core is therefore easier than that of the top-mounted CRDM. Hence, many foreign research reactors, such as JRR-3M, JMTR, OPAL, and CARR, have adopted the BMCRDM concept. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic design concept on the BMCRDM. The major differences of the CRDMs between HANARO and KJRR are compared, and the design features and individual system of the BMCRDM for the KJRR are described. The Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is a device to regulate the reactor power by changing the position of a Control Absorber Rod (CAR) and to shut down the reactor by fully inserting the CAR into the core within a specified time. The Bottom-Mounted CRDM (BMCRDM) for the KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is a quite different design concept compared to the top-mounted CRDM such as HANARO and JRTR. The main drive mechanism of the BMCRDM is located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room under the reactor pool bottom, which makes the interference with equipment in the reactor pool reduced.

  6. Conceptual Design of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement of the BMCRDMs and irradiation holes in the core is therefore easier than that of the top-mounted CRDM. Hence, many foreign research reactors, such as JRR-3M, JMTR, OPAL, and CARR, have adopted the BMCRDM concept. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic design concept on the BMCRDM. The major differences of the CRDMs between HANARO and KJRR are compared, and the design features and individual system of the BMCRDM for the KJRR are described. The Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is a device to regulate the reactor power by changing the position of a Control Absorber Rod (CAR) and to shut down the reactor by fully inserting the CAR into the core within a specified time. The Bottom-Mounted CRDM (BMCRDM) for the KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is a quite different design concept compared to the top-mounted CRDM such as HANARO and JRTR. The main drive mechanism of the BMCRDM is located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room under the reactor pool bottom, which makes the interference with equipment in the reactor pool reduced

  7. Inverse Magnetic Catalysis in Bottom-Up Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nick; Scott, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effect of magnetic field on chiral condensation in QCD via a simple bottom up holographic model which inputs QCD dynamics through the running of the anomalous dimension of the quark bilinear. Bottom up holography is a form of effective field theory and we use it to explore the dependence on the coefficients of the two lowest order terms linking the magnetic field and the quark condensate. In the massless theory, we identify a region of parameter space where magnetic catalysis occurs at zero temperature but inverse magnetic catalysis at temperatures of order the thermal phase transition. The model shows similar non-monotonic behaviour in the condensate with B at intermediate T as the lattice data. This behaviour is due to the separation of the meson melting and chiral transitions in the holographic framework. The introduction of quark mass raises the scale of B where inverse catalysis takes over from catalysis until the inverse catalysis lies outside the regime of validity of the effective descr...

  8. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-tsao Shao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw, FishBase and GBIF (website see below. This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  9. Evaluation of RETRAN-02 options with Peach Bottom data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RETRAN-01 system thermal-hydraulics analysis code has been used to simulate the Peach Bottom Unit 2 boiling water reactor (BWR) turbine trip tests. Since these studies have been performed, a second version of the code, RETRAN-02, has been developed and released. The RETRAN-02 code has a number of physical models that did not exist in RETRAN-01. These include slip between phases, subcooled voiding, special steam separator, one-dimensional kinetics, and iterative numerics models. The new models that exist in RETRAN-02 allow a more realistic modeling of the physical phenomena that occur, in particular, in a BWR. The effect of these new models is studied through the analysis of one of the Peach Bottom turbine trip tests. Each model's effect is easily observed since the models are applied one at a time. It was demonstrated that if the same options are used in both RETRAN-01 and RETRAN-02, essentially the same results are obtained. This is important because of the large amount of validation that has been performed with RETRAN-01. The results using the new models demonstrate that they are capable of more realistically describing the physical phenomena that occur during a turbine trip in a BWR

  10. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k. louhab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result show that the temperature and the length of incineration influence on the structure of the bottom ash and on the chromium in the bottom ash.

  11. Growth and energetics in Spisula subtruncata (Da Costa) and the effect of suspended bottom material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, F.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    suspended bottom material. Algal ingestion rate was proportional to algal concentration and independent of the concentration of suspended bottom material. Growth rate increased with algal concentration and was further increased by 10-110% by adding suspended bottom material. The positive effect of suspended...... bottom material on growth is due to a higher efficiency of assimilation of the ingested algae and/or the utilization of organic matter in the suspended bottom material. The efficiency of algal assimilation decreased from 76% at a low (150 .mu.g dry org wt/l) to 33% at a high (500 .mu.g) algal...

  12. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. PMID:26330401

  13. Caesium sorption-desorption behaviour in bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to focus on the sorption and desorption behavior of Cs in the complex heterogeneous system of bottom sediments in order to better understand the cesium behavior during the Baltic Sea water flooding events to the Curronian Lagoon and transport of suspended particles from the Curronian Lagoon to the Baltic Sea. Three sorption and desorption experiments were carried out. A sample of bottom sediments collected in the Curronian Lagoon was used for sorption experiments. Total carbon (TC) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined using a LECO CS-125 analyser. The stable Cs concentration was determined using ICP-MS, and clay minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction. Filtered sea water of 7.0 salinity labelled with 134Cs was used for the sorption experiment. The total concentration of Cs in solution was 0.04ppb. The solids were separated by centrifugation at 4000 rpm after different contact time between solution and sediments. Details of the experiment are described in publication. The modified Tesser sequential extraction method was used to study association of Cs in sediments. 137Cs and 134Cs activities were measured using an intrinsic germanium detector (resolution 1.9keV/1.33MeV and efficiency - 42%). The precision of 134Cs measurements by gamma spectrometry was 134Cs in sediments after different contact time indicated that more than 70% of 134Cs tracer was sorbed during the first three days. Similar results were obtained during the second experiment. The decrease in the caesium amount in the exchangeable fraction desorbed by NH4+ possibly corresponds to the decrease in the number of frayed edge sites available for Cs sorption. The decrease in the sorption rate accompanied by an increase in association of 134Cs with carbonate fraction can be attributed to the effect of coatings that are usually present in natural heterogeneous sediments. In the sediment sample used for the sorption experiment, a high content of carbonate was

  14. Masses of constituent quarks confined in open bottom hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanović, V Borka; Jovanović, P; Milošević, J; Ignjatović, S R

    2014-01-01

    We apply color-spin and flavor-spin quark-quark interactions to the meson and baryon constituent quarks, and calculate constituent quark masses, as well as the coupling constants of these interactions. The main goal of this manuscript was to determine constituent quark masses from light and open bottom hadron masses, using the fitting method we have developed and clustering of hadron groups. We use color-spin Fermi-Breit (FB) and flavor-spin Glozman-Riska (GR) hyperfine interaction (HFI) to determine constituent quark masses (especially $b$ quark mass). Our improved fitting procedure of constituent quark masses showed that both interactions we studied represent satisfactory approximations in the case of heavy mesons and baryons with $b$ quark, but on average color-spin (Fermi-Breit) hyperfine interaction yields better fits. Our method also shows the way how the constituent quark masses and the strength of the interaction constants appear in different hadron environments.

  15. Top-bottom splitting in technicolor with composite scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the splitting between the top and bottom quark masses arises naturally. The W and Z masses are produced by a minimal technicolor sector, the top quark mass is given by the exchange of a weak-doublet technicolored scalar, and the other quark and lepton masses are induced by the exchange of a weak-doublet technicolor-singlet scalar. We show that, in the presence of the latter scalar, the vacuum alignment is correct even in the case of SU(2) technicolor. The fit of this model to the electroweak data gives an acceptable agreement (χ2=28, for 20 degrees of freedom). The mass hierarchy between the standard fermions other than top can also be explained in terms of the hierarchy of squared-masses of some additional scalars. We discuss various possibilities for the compositeness of the scalars introduced here. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Fallout Radioactivity in Some Egyptian Lakes Bottom Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Egyptian environmental radioactivity monitoring program, the fallout radioactivity levels in Qarun, Bardawill and Ed ku lakes bottom sediments have been measured. The specific activities of 137Cs were measured using gamma ray spectrometer based on Hyper pure germanium detector. The specific activities of plutonium isotopes(238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Pu) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface battier detectors and liquid scintillation spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The activity ratios 239+240Pu/137Cs, 239+240Pu/241Pu, and 238Pu/ 239+240Pu were calculated. The results seemed to confirm that fallout radioactivity is mainly due to nuclear weapons testing fallout

  17. Chaotic Vibration Analysis of the Bottom Rotating Drill String

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drill string vibration is a widely studied topic. This paper developed a real-time measurement system near the drilling bit and extracted the lateral vibration, longitudinal vibration time series of bottom rotating drill string. In order to reconstruct the phase space, we estimated the delay time with mutual information and calculated the embedding dimension through Cao’s method. Finally, the chaotic characterization of the system is analyzed by calculating the correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent. The results show that such system can exhibit positive finite-time Lyapunov exponents and a clear convergence toward the correlation dimension, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system. It is expected that the new dynamics found in this paper could be of potential implication to the control methods of the drill string vibration.

  18. Succeeding at the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Olsen, Mette

    Hybrid organizational forms often rely on the initiative or collaboration of corporate actors, yet the role of these actors is rarely examined in detail. This paper examines corporate social entrepreneurship, which refers to the initiative of corporate actors to establish new, independent social...... ventures in the double pursuit of financial objectives and wider societal objectives. Through an empirical study, we investigate the strategies and practices that corporate social entrepreneurs employ to build radically new social ventures outside their firm. More specifically, we examine a successful...... initiative to build a social impact venture at the interface of a multi-national corporation and a hybrid organization that is operating on the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid market. Our study identifies how corporate social entrepreneurs dynamically use framing and organizational anchoring strategies to build...

  19. New results on CLEO's heavy quarks - bottom and charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the top quark is confined to virtual reality for CLEO, the increased luminosity of the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) and the improved photon detection capabilities of the CLEO's open-quotes heavyclose quotes quarks - bottom and charm. I will describe new results in the B meson sector including the first observation of exclusive b → ulv decays, upper limits on gluonic penguin decay rates, and precise measurements of semileptonic and hadronic b → c branching fractions. The charmed hadron results that are discussed include the observation of isospin violation in Ds*+ decays, an update on measurements of the Ds+ decay constant, and the observation of a new excited Ξc charmed baryon. These measurements have had a large impact on our understanding of heavy quark physics

  20. Modified Shallow Water Equations for significantly varying bottoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we propose an modified version of the nonlinear shallow water (Saint-Venant) equations for the case when the bottom undergoes some significant variations in space and time. The model is derived from a variational principle by choosing the appropriate shallow water ansatz and imposing some constraints. Our derivation procedure does not explicitly involve any small parameter and is straightforward. The novel system is a non-dispersive, and non-hydrostatic extension of the classical Saint-Venant equations. We also propose a finite volume discretization of the obtained hyperbolic system. Several test-cases are presented to highlight the added value of the new model. Some implications to tsunami wave modelling are also discussed.

  1. Doubly bottom strong-interaction stable tetraquarks from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Anthony; Lewis, Randy; Maltman, Kim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of $qq^\\prime \\bar Q \\bar Q$ tetraquark bound states using $n_f=2+1$ lattice QCD ensembles with pion masses $\\simeq 164$, $299$ and $415$ MeV. Motivated by observations from heavy baryon phenomenology, we consider two lattice interpolating operators both of which are expected to couple efficiently to tetraquark states: one with diquark-antidiquark and one with meson-meson structure. Using NRQCD to simulate the bottom quarks we study the $ud\\bar b \\bar b$, $\\ell s\\bar b \\bar b$ channels with $\\ell=u,d$, and find unambiguous signals for strong-interaction-stable $J^P=1^+$ tetraquarks. These states are found to lie $189(10)$ and $98(7)$ MeV below the corresponding free two-meson thresholds.

  2. Experimental Analysis of Pressure Fluctuations behind a Bottom Aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Experimental observations show that the random process of two-phase flow beh ind an aerator is an ergodic process and its amplitude distribution is similar t o a normal distribution. The maximum pressure fluctuation is at the re-attachme n t point where the jet-trajectory flow over the aerator re-attaches to bottom o f the channel, and its amplitude is 2-3 times larger than when there is no aerato r. There is a dominant frequency of 1.24 Hz in the model, but the coherence in th e frequency domain is not obvious for other frequencies beside the dominant frequ ency. There is a large vortex at the re-attachment point behind the aerator but correlation among the measurement points is not obvious in the time domain.

  3. Distribution and transport of tritium in the Peach Bottom HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report completes the first phase of a two-phase effort to describe and understand tritium production and movement in an operating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) system. The principal objective of phase 1 is to report the findings on tritium concentrations in core components acquired during the Peach Bottom Surveillance Program, which dealt with fission product migration in general, and a follow-on task devoted specifically to tritium. Administrative procedures are being developed for the second phase of the work to be performed in the Federal Republic of Germany under the auspices of the international umbrella agreement on gas-cooled reactor (GCR) development. In this effort, computer model predictions of tritium transport in the reactor system will be compared with observed concentration levels

  4. Exotic nuclei with charm and bottom flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility of existence of exotic nuclei containing charm and bottom mesons. We study the interaction between $ar{D}$ (B mesons and nucleons from view of heavy quark symmetry, and derive the one pion exchange potentials. We apply these potentials to the two body system of $ar{D}$ (B meson and nucleon N , and find there are possible stable bound states with spin JP = 1/2− and isospin I = 0. We find that the tensor interaction mixing $ar{D}$N and $ar{D}$*N (BN and B*N plays an important role. We also qualitatively discuss the possible bound states of $ar{D}$ (B meson and two nucleons.

  5. On extracting weak quark couplings from bottom and top decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We list and discuss the various types of systematic uncertainties one faces when extracting quark mixing angles from the decays of bottom and top hadrons. Evaluating various suggested methods we conclude that a study of the lepton energy spectrum in B and T decays provides a reasonable way of obtaining the ratio of mixing angles; yet analysis of just the endpoint region will not lead to a reliable determination. Such results should be backed up by other studies based on very energetic kaons and on the mode B-->tau-anti #betta#sub(tau). A dedicated effort should be made to search for flavour changing neutral currents in channels like B, T->tau+tau-X. (orig.)

  6. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  7. Analysis of Peach Bottom station blackout with MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstration analysis of station blackout at Peach Bottom has been performed using MELCOR and the results have been compared with those from MARCON 2.1B and the Source Term Code Package (STCP). MELCOR predicts greater in-vessel hydrogen production, earlier melting and core collapse, but later debris discharge than MARCON 2.1B. The drywell fails at vessel breach in MELCOR, but failure is delayed about an hour in MARCON 2.1B. These differences are mainly due to the MELCOR models for candling during melting, in-core axial conduction, and continued oxidation and heat transfer from core debris following lower head dryout. Three sensitivity calculations have been performed with MELCOR to address uncertainties regarding modeling of the core-concrete interactions. The timing of events and the gas and radionuclide release rates are somewhat different in the base case and the three sensitivity cases, but the final conditions and total releases are similar

  8. Risk-based selection of SSCs at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of identifying risk significant systems, structures, and components (SSCS) that are within the scope of the maintenance rule is to bring a higher level of attention to a subset of those SSCS. These risk-significant SSCs will have specific performance criteria established for them, and failure to meet this performance criteria will result in establishing goals to ensure the necessary improvement in performance. The Peach Bottom individual plant examination (IPE) results were used to provide insights for the verification of proposed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods set forth in the Industry Maintenance Guidelines for Implementation of the Maintenance Rule. The objective of reviewing the methods for selection of SSCs that are considered risk significant was to ensure the methods used are logical, reproducible, and can be consistently applied

  9. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life

  10. Bottom-Up Discrete Symmetries for Cabibbo Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; Talbert, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We perform a bottom-up search for discrete non-Abelian symmetries capable of quantizing the Cabibbo angle that parameterizes CKM mixing. Given a particular Abelian symmetry structure in the up and down sectors, we construct representations of the associated residual generators which explicitly depend on the degrees of freedom present in our effective mixing matrix. We then discretize those degrees of freedom and utilize the Groups, Algorithms, Programming (GAP) package to close the associated finite groups. This short study is performed in the context of recent results indicating that, without resorting to special model-dependent corrections, no small-order finite group can simultaneously predict all four parameters of the three-generation CKM matrix and that only groups of $\\mathcal{O}(10^{2})$ can predict the analogous parameters of the leptonic PMNS matrix, regardless of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles. Therefore a natural model of flavour might instead incorporate small(er) finite groups...

  11. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  12. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W+-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t→ b+W+(→e++νe)). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W+-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  13. Impacts of offshore wind energy turbines on marine bottom fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar- and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The foundations of offshore wind energy farms will cause alterations to the natural marine habitat of the North and Baltic Seas. The seabed in the proposed areas for offshore windfarms is mainly characterised by soft sediments ranging from medium sands to silt. The underwater structures themselves not only provide empty space for the settlement of hardbottom epifauna, which do not naturally occur in these areas, but they also alter the surrounding natural habitat. In the absence of actual wind farms in German waters, the research platform FINO 1 was used in the project BeoFINO to study biologic processes around the underwater structure leading to alterations of the natural bottom fauna. Shortly after installation, the surface was colonised by an epifauna consisting of few species, but reaching a high biomass. Mytilus edulis dominated in the upper depth zone, while lower reaches were dominated by the Amphipod Jassa spp. and Anthozoans (mainly Metridium senile). Changed current conditions around the structure lead to erosion and altered sediment composition with thick layers of empty shells on the surface. Natural soft bottom fauna is strongly reduced in the vicinity of the platform, while predators and scavengers profit from the additional food source provided by material falling from the platform. The export of lighter material like faeces is predicted to spread over larger areas. Dense aggregations of pelagic fish were observed around the platform, while some demersal species also live in niches of the structure. All results are combined in mathematical models in order to compare different locations and to calculate scenarios for wind farm effects in various habitats. (orig.)

  14. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-06-15

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t{yields} b+W{sup +}({yields}e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  15. Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance during the Cascadia Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Evers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provides instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigates geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marks the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments feature trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Stations include differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments will be freely available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date and demonstrates an effective structure for community experiments through collaborative efforts from the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), OBSIP (institutional instrument contributors [LDEO, SIO, WHOI] and Management Office [IRIS]), and the IRIS DMC. The successes and lessons from Cascadia are a vital resource for the development of a Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). To guide future efforts, we investigate the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and

  16. Analisis Kecepatan Bottom Block Terhadap Struktur Mikro Produk Direct Chill Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soejono Tjitro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct chill casting process is used to produce to ingot. To produce to ingot is influenced such as bottom block speed. The objective of this research is to examine to ingot's microstructures. To use to bottom block speed is 57 mm/min and 67 mm/min. The pouring temperature of melt aluminum alloys is 750oC. Water flow rate is constant. Testing specimen is round shape which diameter and length each 70 mm and 400 mm. Microstructures on longitudinal and transversal round is investigated. Generally, microstructures of product of Direct Casting Process is non-uniform dendritic. Grain shape of 67 mm/minute bottom block rate is larger than 57 mm/minute bottom block rate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Proses Direct Chill Casting digunakan untuk menghasilkan ingot. Proses pembuatan ingot ini dipengaruhi antara lain kecepatan bottom block. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh kecepatan bottom block terhadap struktur mikro ingot. Kecepatan bottom block yang digunakan 57 mm/menit dan 67 mm/menit. Temperatur tuang paduan aluminium 750oC. Debit air konstan. Spesimen uji berbentuk round dengan diameter 70 mm dan panjang 400 mm. Struktur mikro yang diamati pada ke arah longitudinal dan transversal round. Struktur mikro yang dihasilkan proses direct chill casting secara umum adalah dendritik yang tidak seragam. Bentuk butir kecepatan bottom block 67 mm/menit lebih besar daripada kecepatan bottom block 57 mm/menit. Kata kunci: direct chill casting, struktur mikro, kecepatan bottom block.

  17. The impact of bottom brightness on spectral reflectance of suspended sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolk, Brian L.; Han, L.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted outdoors to investigate how bottom brightness impacts the spectral response of a water column under varied suspended sediment concentrations. A white aluminum panel placed at the bottom of the tank was used as the bright bottom, and a flat-black tank liner served as the dark bottom. Sixteen levels of suspended sediment from 25 to 400 mg litre -1 were used in each experiment. Spectral data were collected using a Spectron SE-590 spectroradiometer. The major findings include the following: the bright bottom had the greatest impact at visible wavelengths; when suspended sediment concentrations exceeded 100 mg litre -1, the bright bottom response was found to be negligible; and, substrate brightness has minimal impact between 740 and 900 nm, suggesting that these wavelengths are best for measuring suspended sediment concentrations by means of remote sensing.

  18. Impact of improved bottom hypoxia on zooplankton community in shallow eutrophic lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We followed changes in the abundance of meso- and microzooplankton after an existing bottom hypoxia improved by the introduction of water with high oxygen content into the bottom. Mesozooplankton, calanoid copepod Acartia hudsonica showed ten times higher abundance under high oxygen condition at the bottom than under control where there was less oxygen at the bottom. On the other hand, during summer when microzooplankton such as rotifers and small cyclopoid species Oithona spp. were dominant, no difference in their distribution pattern and abundance was observed. Results have suggested that oxygen concentration at the bottom is one important factor determining the abundance and distribution of mesozooplankton even in local-scale probably by providing bottom refuge, but not for microzoooplankton. Since spring season is important for recruitment of many commercial fish juveniles, the distribution of oxygen in the lake seems very important for the fish stock in the lake.

  19. Preliminary Hard and Soft Bottom Seafloor Substrate Map Derived from an Unsupervised Classification of Gridded Backscatter and Bathymetry Derivatives at Selected U.S. Locations in the Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Substrate, Hard bottom vs. Soft bottom: This is a preliminary product. Cell values reflect whether the seafloor is hard bottom or soft bottom based on an...

  20. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico;

    2013-01-01

    in the study of the final equilibrium conditions of sea bottoms in the presence of water flows. Results obtained by processing data acquired in hydraulic laboratory confirm the effectiveness of the system which makes simple and fast the understanding of the sandy bottom dynamics and the related equilibrium......In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis...

  1. A General Linear Wave Theory for Water Waves Propagating over Uneven Porous Bottoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锁要红; 黄虎

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green's second identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations currently in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.

  2. Furnace bottom rise mechanism in preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experiments of preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process were carried out respectively in 20 kW, 100 kW and 1 800 kW DC arc furnaces. The mechanism of furnace bottom rise was studied.It was found that the bottom rise can be divided into three types, including the low bottom temperature, abnormal reducing reaction and carbide deposition. The furnace bottom rise is related to the carbon ratio of the briquet, the heating speed of the briquet and the parameters and operation of furnace.

  3. Enlargement of the band gaps of water waves over one-dimensional combination bottom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomena of band gaps and propagation of water waves over one-dimensional periodic bottoms and combination bottoms is investigated by the transfer matrix method. For the periodic bottoms (PBs), the effect of the steps' numbers, their height and width on the band gaps are discussed, respectively. For two kinds of combination periodic-bottoms (CPBs), namely height-CPBs and width-CPBs, both corresponding whole band gaps are gained, respectively. Each of whole band gaps is the juxtaposition of the gaps of two kind of PBs, without covering. The numerical results show that the band gaps could be enlarged effectively by choosing the steps' height or width properly

  4. SIMULATION STUDY OF IMAGING OF UNDERWATER BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY BY SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interaction between current and underwater bottom topography modulates roughness of the sea surface, which in turn yields variation of the radar scattering echo. By using the mechanism, this paper presents a simulation model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging of underwater bottom topography. The numerical simulations experiments were made using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and analytical expression theory of SAR Image in Mischief sea area. It is concluded that the SAR image is better visual when water depth of underwater bottom topography is shallow or gradient of underwater bottom topography is high.

  5. Organizing a Global Labor Movement from Top and Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nash Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the prospects for a global labor movement are ripe, working people and their supporters may fail to take full advantage of this historical opening. A potential barrier is the existence of a strategic myopia when it comes to the role of preexisting labor organizations at the national and international levels. Specifically, these higher-tier institutions are often viewed by labor activists and the rank-and-file as inherently autocratic and imperialistic, and are thus deemed to have little value for efforts at fostering global labor solidarity. A consequence is that many in the labor movement concentrate their energies solely at a local or community level, with the idea that it is only here that true progressive change can result. In terms of broader solidarity and resistance, it is felt that cross-regional and cross-national linkages will eventually develop to expand the struggle to a truly global level. In effect, it is presumed by many that a global labor movement will, and in fact must, be built strictly from the "bottom-up" ( e.g. Brecher and Costello, 1994.

  6. BB interactions with static bottom quarks from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Peters, Antje; Wagner, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The isospin, spin and parity dependent potential of a pair of $B$ mesons is computed using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with two flavours of degenerate dynamical quarks. The $B$ meson is addressed in the static-light approximation, i.e.\\ the $b$ quarks are infinitely heavy. From the results of the $B\\,B$ meson-meson potentials, a simple rule can be deduced stating which isospin, spin and parity combinations correspond to attractive and which to repulsive forces. We provide fits to the ground state potentials in the attractive channels and discuss the potentials in the repulsive and excited channels. The attractive channels are most important since they can possibly lead to a bound four-quark state, i.e.\\ a $\\bar{b}\\bar{b}ud$ tetraquark. Using these attractive potentials in the Schr\\"odinger equation, we find indication for such a tetraquark state of two static bottom antiquarks and two light $u/d$ quarks with mass extrapolated down to the physical value.

  7. Peach Bottom analysis using various RETRAN-02 options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 is a BWR/4 with a rated thermal power output of 3293 MW, a rated core flow of 102.5 x 106 lb/h, and a rated steam flow of 13.37 x 106 lb/h at a turbie inlet pressure of 965 psia. The three turbine trip tests were performed at the end of cycle tow during April, 1977. In this study only Turbine Trip (TT2) will be used to explore the effects of the new capabilities in RETRAN-02. In addition, a calculation has been made using the experimental five-equation version of RETRAN. As the first step in this analysis, a RETRAN-01 calculation was performed to compare with a RETRAN-02 calculation using only options available in RETRAN-01. A comparison of these two calculations will give an indication of the effects of the new water property functional fits and calculational strategies in RETRAN-02. The new RETRAN-02 models explored in this study will be dynamic slip, algebraic slip, subcooled void profile fit, single and double region special steam separators, one-dimensional kinetics, and iterative numerics. The use of the nonequilibrium pressurizer model for the upper downcomer region will also be studied

  8. B B interactions with static bottom quarks from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicudo, Pedro; Cichy, Krzysztof; Peters, Antje; Wagner, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The isospin, spin and parity dependent potential of a pair of B mesons is computed using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with two flavors of degenerate dynamical quarks. The B meson is addressed in the static-light approximation, i.e. the b quarks are infinitely heavy. From the results of the B B meson-meson potentials, a simple rule can be deduced stating which isospin, spin and parity combinations correspond to attractive and which to repulsive forces. We provide fits to the ground state potentials in the attractive channels and discuss the potentials in the repulsive and excited channels. The attractive channels are the most important since they can possibly lead to a bound four-quark state, i.e. a b ¯b ¯u d tetraquark. Using these attractive potentials in the Schrödinger equation, we find an indication for such a tetraquark state of two static bottom antiquarks and two light u /d quarks with mass extrapolated down to the physical value.

  9. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar-Ruso, Yoana del [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: yoana.delpilar@ua.es; Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio de la; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sanchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family. - The Polychaete assemblage is affected by the brine discharge of the Alicante desalination plant and we detect different sensitivity levels in polychaete families to brine impact.

  10. Method for Determining Leakage Velocities through the Bottom of Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method based on an idea of converting a slow flow through a chosen area of reservoir bottom to a fast flow in a pipe of a small diameter is presented. If the chosen area is tightly covered by a bottomless cylinder with an outlet through a pipe then the product of leakage velocity and the area covered is equal to the product of flow velocity in the pipe and the pipe cross-section. Even extremely low leakage velocities render measurable velocities in the pipe if its cross-section is very small in comparison with the covered area. This idea can be used for leakage velocity measurements if the measuring device does not disturb natural flow lines. Conditions under which this requirement is satisfied are considered in detail. A measuring device constructed according to these conditions and described in the paper can measure leakage velocities from 5 x 10-7 to 3 x 10-3 cm/sec. The flow velocity in the measuring pipe is known from the transit time measurement of an injected pulse of a radioisotope. (author)

  11. A top-bottom price approach to understanding financial fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Castro, Miguel A.; Miranda, José G. V.; Borges, Ernesto P.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of sequences of top and bottom (TB) events in financial series is investigated for the purpose of characterizing such switching points. They clearly mark a change in the trend of rising or falling prices of assets to the opposite tendency, are of crucial importance for the players' decision and also for the market stability. Previous attempts to characterize switching points have been based on the behavior of the volatility and on the definition of microtrends. The approach used herein is based on the smoothing of the original data with a Gaussian kernel. The events are identified by the magnitude of the difference of the extreme prices, by the time lag between the corresponding events (waiting time), and by the time interval between events with a minimal magnitude (return time). Results from the analysis of the inter day Dow Jones Industrial Average index (DJIA) from 1928 to 2011 are discussed. q-Gaussian functions with power law tails are found to provide a very accurate description of a class of measures obtained from the series statistics.

  12. Utilization of Meat and Bone Meal Bottom Ash in Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija VALANČIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During utilization of animal waste meat and bone meal (MBM is received, realization and use of which has been stopped due to risk for the transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection. The MBM must be safely stored or treated. Most often meat and bone meal undergoes thermal treatment. During combustion large quantities of residues (ashes are received, the recycled use of which has been given a lot of attention lately. In this work it was investigated the impact of the additive of the bottom ash (BA formed during combustion of the MBM on the properties of forming mass and ceramic body of hydromica clay, and also it was evaluated a possibility to use the MBM BA in manufacturing of building ceramics. After replacing the sand in porous ceramics by this additive the plasticity of the forming mass, drying and firing shrinkage as well as density of ceramic body changed insignificantly whereas the compressive strength increased by 8 % - 22 %. So the MBM BA can be utilized in production of porous ceramics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.256

  13. BUEES:a bottom-up event extraction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao DING; Bing QIN; Ting LIU

    2015-01-01

    Traditional event extraction systems focus mainly on event type identifi cation and event participant extraction based on pre-specifi ed event type paradigms and manually annotated corpora. However, different domains have different event type paradigms. When transferring to a new domain, we have to build a new event type paradigm and annotate a new corpus from scratch. This kind of conventional event extraction system requires massive human effort, and hence prevents event extraction from being widely applicable. In this paper, we present BUEES, a bottom-up event extraction system, which extracts events from the web in a completely unsupervised way. The system automatically builds an event type paradigm in the input corpus, and then proceeds to extract a large number of instance patterns of these events. Subsequently, the system extracts event arguments according to these patterns. By conducting a series of experiments, we demonstrate the good performance of BUEES and compare it to a state-of-the-art Chinese event extraction system, i.e., a supervised event extraction system. Experimental results show that BUEES performs comparably (5% higher F-measure in event type identifi cation and 3% higher F-measure in event argument extraction), but without any human effort.

  14. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ''so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. This document provides Appendices A through E which include the following topics respectively: accident progression event tree; supporting information for the source term analysis; supporting information for the consequence analysis; risk results; and sampling information. 6 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Nonplanar conductive surfaces via "bottom-up" nanostructured gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, T P; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-03-12

    Development of technologies for the construction of bent, curved, and flexible conductive surfaces is among the most important albeit challenging goals in the promising field of "flexible electronics". We present a generic solution-based "bottom-up" approach for assembling conductive gold nanostructured layers on nonplanar polymer surfaces. The simple two-step experimental scheme is based upon incubation of an amine-displaying polymer [the abundantly used poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), selected here as a proof of concept] with Au(SCN)4(-), followed by a brief treatment with a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)] solution. Importantly, no reducing agent is co-added to the gold complex solution. The resultant surfaces are conductive and exhibit a unique "nanoribbon" gold morphology. The scheme yields conductive layers upon PDMS in varied configurations: planar, "wrinkled", and mechanically bent surfaces. The technology is simple, inexpensive, and easy to implement for varied polymer surfaces (and other substances), opening the way for practical applications in flexible electronics and related fields. PMID:24548243

  16. Probing Compressed Bottom Squarks with Boosted Jets and Shape Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Johns, Will; Kamon, Teruki; Sheldon, Paul; Sinha, Kuver; Wu, Sean; Wu, Zhenbin

    2015-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented for the search of the lightest bottom squark (sbottom) in a compressed scenario, where its mass difference from the lightest neutralino is 5 GeV. Two separate studies are performed: $(1)$ final state containing two VBF-like tagging jets, missing transverse energy, and zero or one $b$-tagged jet; and $(2)$ final state consisting of initial state radiation (ISR) jet, missing transverse energy, and at least one $b$-tagged jet. An analysis of the shape of the missing transverse energy distribution for signal and background is performed in each case, leading to significant improvement over a cut and count analysis, especially after incorporating the consideration of systematics and pileup. The shape analysis in the VBF-like tagging jet study leads to a $3\\sigma$ exclusion potential of sbottoms with mass up to $530 \\, (380)$ GeV for an integrated luminosity of $300$ fb$^{-1}$ at 14 TeV, with $5\\%$ systematics and PU $= 0 \\, (140)$.

  17. Bypass transition of the bottom boundary layer under solitary wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Mahmoud; Diamessis, Peter; Parras, Luis; Liu, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) flow driven by a soliton-like pressure gradient in an oscillating water tunnel (an approximation for the BBL under solitary waves) is investigated using hydrodynamic linear stability theory and DNS. As observed in the laboratory experiment by Sumer et al. (2010), two possible transition scenarios exist. The first scenario is associated with the classical transition resulting from the breakdown of the exponentially growing 2-D Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The alternative scenario; i.e., bypass transition; takes place through formation of localized turbulent spots. The investigation of the latter transition scenario is performed in two steps. The first step consists of reformulating the linear stability analysis in the non-modal framework for the purpose of finding the optimum disturbance characteristics which lead to the formation of those turbulent spots. In the second step, the computed optimum noise structure is inserted in the 3D DNS in order to induce the formation of the turbulent spots and effectively simulate the bypass transition observed experimentally.

  18. The "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are back at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The highly coveted "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are given to the winners of the “Bike to CERN” competition. There is only one way to secure your place in history: commute to work on your bike, no matter what the weather conditions are and how busy you may feel.   The president of the CERN cycling club, Henrik Nissen (left), with Tim Smith, one of the three winners of the “Bike to CERN” Challenge. At CERN, bikers have a dedicated club and can take part in two popular events designed to challenge them: Bike2Work, which has been going for 10 years and which, every June, mobilises some 50,000 employees from more than 1100 companies and organisations across Switzerland, and the “unofficial Bike to CERN” challenge, which runs throughout the year. In 2013, 125 people took part in this local competition, but many CERN personnel ride to work every day without registering their kilometres. The three winners, all correspond...

  19. Thin film type 248-nm bottom antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Tomoyuki; Nakayama, Keisuke; Mizusawa, Kenichi; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yoon, Sangwoong; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Ho; Chung, Hoesik; Chon, Sang Mun

    2003-06-01

    A frequent problem encountered by photoresists during the manufacturing of semiconductor device is that activating radiation is reflected back into the photoresist by the substrate. So, it is necessary that the light reflection is reduced from the substrate. One approach to reduce the light reflection is the use of bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) applied to the substrate beneath the photoresist layer. The BARC technology has been utilized for a few years to minimize the reflectivity. As the chip size is reduced to sub 0.13-micron, the photoresist thickness has to decrease with the aspect ratio being less than 3.0. Therefore, new Organic BARC is strongly required which has the minimum reflectivity with thinner BARC thickness and higher etch selectivity towards resist. SAMSUNG Electronics has developed the advanced Organic BARC with Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd. and Brewer Science, Inc. for achieving the above purpose. As a result, the suitable high performance SNAC2002 series KrF Organic BARCs were developed. Using CF4 gas as etchant, the plasma etch rate of SNAC2002 series is about 1.4 times higher than that of conventional KrF resists and 1.25 times higher than the existing product. The SNAC2002 series can minimize the substrate reflectivity at below 40nm BARC thickness, shows excellent litho performance and coating properties.

  20. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baffled vessel.The vessel is filled with water and the impeller speed            is 100 min−1. Three turbulent models were used for the solution: k-ε, k-ω and RSM. The results were compared with experimental data or data from the literature. The k-ε model had the smallest demands on processor time, and the results compared satisfactorily with the experimental data. The model provides comprehensive information about the characteristics of the system.

  1. Bottom-Up Synthesis and Sensor Applications of Biomimetic Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of nanotechnology, biology, and bioengineering greatly improved the developments of nanomaterials with unique functions and properties. Biomolecules as the nanoscale building blocks play very important roles for the final formation of functional nanostructures. Many kinds of novel nanostructures have been created by using the bioinspired self-assembly and subsequent binding with various nanoparticles. In this review, we summarized the studies on the fabrications and sensor applications of biomimetic nanostructures. The strategies for creating different bottom-up nanostructures by using biomolecules like DNA, protein, peptide, and virus, as well as microorganisms like bacteria and plant leaf are introduced. In addition, the potential applications of the synthesized biomimetic nanostructures for colorimetry, fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrical resistance, electrochemistry, and quartz crystal microbalance sensors are presented. This review will promote the understanding of relationships between biomolecules/microorganisms and functional nanomaterials in one way, and in another way it will guide the design and synthesis of biomimetic nanomaterials with unique properties in the future.

  2. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bottoming with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Three different working fluids are considered to represent the main classes of fluids, with reference to the shape of the vapour lines in the T-s diagram: overhanging, nearly isoentropic and bell shaped. First a parametric analysis is conducted in order to determine optimal evaporating pressures for each fluid. After which three different cycles setups are considered: a simple cycle with the use of only engine exhaust gases as a thermal source, a simple cycle with the use of exhaust gases and engine cooling water and a regenerated cycle. A second law analysis of the cycles is performed, with reference to the available heat sources. This is done in order to determine the best fluid and cycle configuration to be employed, the main parameters of the thermodynamic cycles and the overall efficiency of the combined power system. The analysis demonstrates that a 12% increase in the overall efficiency can be achieved with respect to the engine with no bottoming; nevertheless it has been observed that the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) can recover only a small fraction of the heat released by the engine through the cooling water.

  3. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. PMID:25331599

  4. Integrating health impact assessment into the triple bottom line concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This theoretical study explores the links between the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept and the principles of HIA and considers the potential role of HIA to provide a mechanism for integrating health concerns within a broader agenda of government and business. TBL is a framework linked to the broader sustainability agenda that underpins and reviews environmental, economic and social performance of organizations. In its simplest form, TBL acts as a tool for reporting to stakeholders/shareholders organizational performance and the nature of the impacts on the community. The links to HIA are clear as both seek to determine the impact (potential and actual) on the health and well-being of the population. The study found that TBL can operate at four levels within organizations ranging from reporting through to full integration with the organization's goals and practices. Health is narrowly defined and there are tensions about how to undertake the social accountability functions. The study shows the potential role for HIA within the broader policy and accountability agenda. As health is one of the main outcomes of an organization's activities it needs to be taken into account at all levels of activity

  5. [Bottoming out in augmentation mammaplasty--correction and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Stahlenbrecher, A

    2006-08-01

    Displacement of a breast implant beneath the original submammary fold is known as a rare but, in most cases, difficult to correct complication after augmentation mammaplasty. Suggestions for re-centering the mammary implant range from simple percutaneous sutures to the additional application of expensive alloplastic dermal grafts. Based on the latest findings concerning plastination histology of the fascial system of the breast and in the light of our own clinical experience regarding correction of implant ptosis we have developed a special treatment concept. When placing the implant, the vertical fibers of the submammary fold are saved as a precautionary measure. In cases where there is a risk of possible inferior displacement of the mammary implant, an individually manufactured belt-like bandage is applied for approximately eight weeks postoperatively. In cases requiring the correction of a severe "bottoming out" deformity, we either lift the capsular shell of the implant or, if the fibrous capsule is thin and vulnerable, we use a special capsular flap technique resulting in a hammock that catches the implant at the height of the new submammary fold. Postoperative application of our belt-like bandage is again indispensable. PMID:16991043

  6. τ-mass effects in exclusive semileptonic bottom meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that experimentally, the semileptonic (s.1.) branching ratios of bottom meson decays are approximately 10 percent fro the two light lepton modes e and μ each. These modes appear to be dominated (∼ 90 percent) by the two exclusive s.1. modes B → D and B → D*. Correspondingly, one can expect the τ-lepton mode to be dominated by the same two exclusive channels. It is therefore worthwhile and important to theoretically analyze these two exclusive s.1. decay modes also in the τ-sector. First the decay into τ-leptons may be an important background source in the search for rare decay modes involving missing particles, and second, the subsequent decays τ → vte bar ve(μ bar vμ) act as sources of secondary leptons that constitute a background to the spectrum of primary electrons and muons emitted in B decays. Two different aspects have to be considered when lepton mass effects are included in an analysis of s.1. decays. One is simply kinematical in that the kinematics of the decay processes changes. The second aspect is of dynamical nature: When the lepton acquires mass one probes the scalar (or time-component hadronic current form factor that is not accessible in the zero-lepton mass case that contributes in addition to the 3-vector (or space-component) current form factors also measurable in the lepton mass zero case

  7. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project

  8. SENTINEL trademark technical basis report for Peach Bottom. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECO Energy in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) installed the SENTINEL trademark software at its Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems which are used to display the defense in depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of the plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During the past nine months, PECO Energy personnel have used this display to evaluate the safety of proposed on-line maintenance schedules. The report describes the motivation for and the development of the SENTINEL software. It describes the generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and the susceptibility of the plant to critical transient events. Their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green, through yellow and orange, to red to show increasingly hazardous conditions. The report describes the use of the PBAPS Probabilistic Safety Assessment within the SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator

  9. Peach bottom cycle 2 stability analysis using RELAP5/PARCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiling channels and systems may oscillate owing to the behaviour of the liquid-steam mixture used for removing the thermal power. A thermal-hydraulic system may be unstable under particular operating conditions. Two kinds of power oscillation have been observed in BWR cores. One is an in-phase (core-wide) and the other is an out-of-phase (regional) oscillation. Since the above feature can make detection more difficult, the latter oscillation is potentially more severe. The problem is well known since the design of the first BWR system. However, to improve the safety systems of these reactors, it is necessary to be able to detect in a reliable way these oscillations from the neutronic signals. The purpose of this work is to characterize the unstable behaviour of a BWR. Within this study, it has been performed a number of perturbation analysis. The coupled codes RELAP5-Mod3.3/PARCS have used for the simulation of the transients. Validation has been performed against Peach Bottom-2 Low-Flow Stability Test PT3. Three dimensional time domain BWR stability analysis were performed on test point 3 for the core wide oscillation mode. In this transient dynamically complex events take place, i.e., neutron kinetics is coupled with thermal-hydraulics and an in-phase oscillation has been developed. The calculated results are compared against the available experimental data. (author)

  10. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Data report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    The Ministry of Environment and Energy requested ELSAM and ELTRA to establish an offshore wind farm with an output of 150 MW in the waters of Horns Rev, approximately 15 km off Blaevandshuk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm have started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities take place, a baseline description of the benthos has been conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines for offshore wind farms prepared by the Danish Energy Agency. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna was performed in spring 2001. In addition to a proposed fish investigation programme concerning the stomach contents of fish a comparative programme on benthos was established as part of the monitoring programme. The benthos sampling in connection with the fish programme was conducted in autumn 2001. This benthic survey includes sampling in a proposed reference area for the fish surveys north east of the wind farm. This report presents the data of the baseline environmental survey of the seabed in the wind farm site and in the proposed reference site and a brief description of the weather conditions at the time of sampling. (au)

  11. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Data report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Environment and Energy requested ELSAM and ELTRA to establish an offshore wind farm with an output of 150 MW in the waters of Horns Rev, approximately 15 km off Blaevandshuk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm have started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities take place, a baseline description of the benthos has been conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines for offshore wind farms prepared by the Danish Energy Agency. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna was performed in spring 2001. In addition to a proposed fish investigation programme concerning the stomach contents of fish a comparative programme on benthos was established as part of the monitoring programme. The benthos sampling in connection with the fish programme was conducted in autumn 2001. This benthic survey includes sampling in a proposed reference area for the fish surveys north east of the wind farm. This report presents the data of the baseline environmental survey of the seabed in the wind farm site and in the proposed reference site and a brief description of the weather conditions at the time of sampling. (au)

  12. Exergy analysis of gas turbine with air bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the exergy analysis of a conventional gas turbine and a gas turbine with air bottoming cycle (ABC) is presented in order to study the important parameters involved in improving the performance characteristics of the ABC based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. In this study, work output, specific fuel consumption (SFC) and the exergy destruction of the components are investigated using a computer model. The variations of the ABC cycle exergy parameters are comprehensively discussed and compared with those of the simple gas turbine. The results indicate that the amount of the exhaust exergy recovery in different operating conditions varies between 8.6 and 14.1% of the fuel exergy, while the exergy destruction due to the extra components in the ABC makes up only 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. This is the reason why the SFC of the ABC is averagely 13.3% less and the specific work 15.4% more than those of the simple gas turbine. The results also reveal that in the ABC cycle, at a small value of pressure ratio, a higher specific work with lower SFC can be achieved in comparison with those of the simple gas turbine. - Highlights: • Exhaust exergy recovery in ABC gas turbine varies with 8.6–14.1% of the fuel exergy. • Irreversibility of the extra devices in ABC makes up 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. • SFC in ABC is poor due to exergy recovery more than extra devices irreversibility. • At the same TIT and Rc, specific work in the ABC is more than simple gas turbine. • The recuperator has the largest contribution in the irreversibility of the ABC

  13. Condensation and deposition of seed in the MHD bottoming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer models of slag vapor nucleation and particle deposition have been extended to predict the growth and deposition of seed particles in the steam and air heater sections of the MHD bottoming plant. The model represents a hot combustion gas stream, which contains vaporized seed and entrained slag particles of a selected initial size distribution, flowing through a bank of cooled tubes. The energy balance includes convective and radiant heat transfer to the cool surfaces. The material balance for the condensible species considers convective mass transport of seed vapor to cool surfaces, and the deposition of particles on cooled surfaces by thermophoresis. The analyses provide the bases for design trade-off studies of steam tube size and spacing, gas velocity, and system configuration to optimize the effectiveness and cost of the steam plant. In the absence of entrained slag particles, sample calculations indicated that, as the gas is cooled in passing through a tube bank, the bulk of the seed vapor condenses in the gas stream to form particles with diameters in the range of 0.02 to 0.2 μm. In the presence of the submicron slag particles formed upstream in the MHD diffuser, the largest fraction of the seed vapor condenses on the existing entrained particles, causing them to grow to a size in the range of approximately one micron. In both cases, these particles are deposited on heat exchange surfaces throughout the heat recovery system and a large fraction is present in the cool combustion gas entering the exhaust gas clean-up system

  14. Evaluation of MELCOR improvements: Peach Bottom station blackout analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term station blackout analyses in Peach Bottom were first carried out using MELCOR 1.8BC, and later with 1.8DN, as part of an overall program between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), to provide independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident/source term analysis tool. In addition to the reference MELCOR calculation, several sensitivity calculations were also performed to explore the impact of varying user-input modeling and timestep control parameters on the accident progression and radionuclide releases to the environment calculated by MELCOR. An area of concern that emerged from these studies was the impact of the selection of maximum allowable timestep (Δtmax) on the calculational behavior of MELCOR, where the results showed significant differences in timing of key events, and a lack of convergence of the solution with reduction of Δtmax. These findings were reported to the NRC, SNL, and the MELCOR Peer Review Committee. As a consequence, a significant effort was undertaken to eliminate or mitigate these sensitivities. The latest released version of MELCOR, Version 1.8.2, released in April 1993, contains several new or improved models, and has corrections to mitigate numerical sensitivities. This paper presents the results of updating the earlier sensitivity studies on maximum timestep, to more properly represent the abilities of the improved MELCOR version 1.8.2. Results are presenter in terms of timing of key events, thermal-hydraulic response of the system, and environmental release of radionuclides. The impact of some of the newer models, such as falling debris quench model, and ORNL's new BH model, is also evaluated

  15. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  16. Bottom-Up Colloidal Crystal Assembly with a Twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Likos, Christos N; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2016-05-24

    Globally ordered colloidal crystal lattices have broad utility in a wide range of optical and catalytic devices, for example, as photonic band gap materials. However, the self-assembly of stereospecific structures is often confounded by polymorphism. Small free-energy differences often characterize ensembles of different structures, making it difficult to produce a single morphology at will. Current techniques to handle this problem adopt one of two approaches: that of the "top-down" or "bottom-up" methodology, whereby structures are engineered starting from the largest or smallest relevant length scales, respectively. However, recently, a third approach for directing high fidelity assembly of colloidal crystals has been suggested which relies on the introduction of polymer cosolutes into the crystal phase [Mahynski, N.; Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.; Meng, D.; Kumar, S. K. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4472]. By tuning the polymer's morphology to interact uniquely with the void symmetry of a single desired crystal, the entropy loss associated with polymer confinement has been shown to strongly bias the formation of that phase. However, previously, this approach has only been demonstrated in the limiting case of close-packed crystals. Here, we show how this approach may be generalized and extended to complex open crystals, illustrating the utility of this "structure-directing agent" paradigm in engineering the nanoscale structure of ordered colloidal materials. The high degree of transferability of this paradigm's basic principles between relatively simple crystals and more complex ones suggests that this represents a valuable addition to presently known self-assembly techniques. PMID:27124487

  17. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O ampersand M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of open-quotes insuranceclose quotes plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life

  18. A bottom fixing device for radioactive materials transport and/or storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fixing device for the container bottom is composed of a hoop and a thick metallic irremovable bottom, having respectively an inner wall and a circular cylindrical lateral wall that are adjusted and fixed together by shrink fitting. This fixing technique yields a more safety structure, without any brittle point, and is easier and less costly than previous fixing techniques. 3 fig

  19. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr- 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  20. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... (76 FR 37842). Based upon the environmental assessment, the Commission has determined that issuance of... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit 1, located in York County, PA. PBAPS Unit 1...

  1. Numerical study of swirling flow in a cylinder with rotating top and bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Michelsen, Jess

    2006-01-01

    A numerical investigation of oscillatory instability is presented for axisymmetric swirling flow in a closed cylinder with rotating top and bottom. The critical Reynolds number and frequency of the oscillations are evaluated as function of the ratio of angular velocities of the bottom and the top...

  2. Oscillatory instability in a closed cylinder with rotating top and bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    A numerical investigation of oscillatory instability is presented for axisymmetric swirling flow in a closed cylinder with rotating top and bottom. The critical Reynolds number and frequency of the oscillations are evaluated as function of the ratio of angular velocities of the bottom and the top...

  3. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section. (b) Local pressures. For the design of the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to... extended in the appropriate position and with no slipstream effect; and β=angle of dead rise at appropriate... Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main...

  4. AT6104DM gamma spectrometer for radiation monitoring of water and bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AT6101DM multifunctional gamma-spectrometer was established and built by ATOMTEKh for 'in situ' contamination control of radionuclides in water and bottom sediments. Detector response function was determined by Monte Carlo model of spectrometer water and bottom sediments. The results of theoretical studies have been proved experimentally on irrigation ponds in Fukushima prefecture affected by radioactive contamination. (authors)

  5. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  6. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Weiling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: sunweiling@iee.pku.edu.cn; Qu Yanzhi; Yu Qing; Ni Jinren [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm{sup -1} is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption.

  7. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm-1 is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption

  8. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vismann, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels, and...

  9. Bottom excitation contribution to dilepton production in ν, anti ν reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom production in ν and anti ν deep inelastic reactions is discussed within the framework of the standard model for quarks and leptons. Using the Kobayashi-Maskawa model it is found that dilepton events available at present can have a bottom contribution which can be as high as 10% (upper bound)

  10. Numerical Study on the Influence of Different Waving Bottom Form on the Fluid Surface Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of waving bottom on the surface wave is studied. Basing on the fundamental equations of potential flow theory and boundary conditions, using the multiple scales perturbation method to derive the first-order and the second-order approximate equation which the fluid surface waves satisfied in the presence of waving bottom. Under the second-order approximation, the fluid surface waveform in first-order approximate equation is numerically simulated with MATLAB in the presence of different waving bottom form. The results show that: the fluid surface waveform is composed of a harmonic wave which has the same frequency with waving bottom and a pair of KdV solitary waves that spread to both the right and the left side when the waving bottom wave is a harmonic wave; and when the waving bottom is a solitary wave packet, it consists of a solitary wave which is closely related to the specific form of waving bottom and a couple of KdV solitary waves. With the development of time, three waves in fluid surface do not affect each other and they propagate independently. Thus it can be seen the waving bottom is effective for maintaining surface wave energy balance income and expenditure in the spreading process.

  11. Water purification with sintered porous materials fabricated at 400℃ from sea bottom sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A sintering technology for preparing porous materials from sea bottom sediments was developed for use in water purification. The purpose of the present study was to develop methods for converting the sea bottom sediments dredged from Ago Bay into value-added recycled products. The sintered products fabricated at 400℃ were found to be very effective adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  12. Flooding countermeasures in Peach Bottom NPP and decommissioning of Zion unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JSME delegation visited Peach Bottom NPS and Zion NPS in February, 2013. The Peach Bottom unit 1 was constructed almost the same time Fukushima Daiichi unit 2. Zion unit 1 and 2 were under decommissioning, when we visited the NPSs. Both the NPSs were good practice for in Japan. (author)

  13. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xu Du

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  14. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Status report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A baseline description of the benthos was carried out in spring and autumn 2001 prior to the construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, situated approximately 15 km off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. The surveys have been conducted as part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines set up by the Danish Energy Agency for offshore wind farms. Because no environmental criteria existed for benthic communities in connection with the construction activities, no power analysis was made prior to the design of the monitoring programme. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna is thus somewhat limited and only major changes in the community structure are expected to be detectable. The baseline description for the benthic infauna can also be used for comparison of the stomach contents of fish in a comparative programme. A newly defined reference area may be introduced for the fish programme why sampling in this area was carried out in the autumn 2001. Samples were recovered at a total of 18 stations at 6 wind turbine locations in the wind farm area in June 2001 and at a total of 9 stations at 3 wind turbine locations in September 2001. In September additional sampling was carried out at 5 stations in a designated reference area. At the wind turbine locations sampling was carried out at 3 stations located 5, 25 and 100 m from the edge of the planned scour protection. Samples were analysed for sediment characteristics and for benthic infauna. Only the benthos relating to the macrofauna was investigated during the surveys. (au)

  15. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Status report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    A baseline description of the benthos was carried out in spring and autumn 2001 prior to the construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, situated approximately 15 km off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. The surveys have been conducted as part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines set up by the Danish Energy Agency for offshore wind farms. Because no environmental criteria existed for benthic communities in connection with the construction activities, no power analysis was made prior to the design of the monitoring programme. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna is thus somewhat limited and only major changes in the community structure are expected to be detectable. The baseline description for the benthic infauna can also be used for comparison of the stomach contents of fish in a comparative programme. A newly defined reference area may be introduced for the fish programme why sampling in this area was carried out in the autumn 2001. Samples were recovered at a total of 18 stations at 6 wind turbine locations in the wind farm area in June 2001 and at a total of 9 stations at 3 wind turbine locations in September 2001. In September additional sampling was carried out at 5 stations in a designated reference area. At the wind turbine locations sampling was carried out at 3 stations located 5, 25 and 100 m from the edge of the planned scour protection. Samples were analysed for sediment characteristics and for benthic infauna. Only the benthos relating to the macrofauna was investigated during the surveys. (au)

  16. Mercury in water and bottom sediments from a mexican reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lerma-Santiago river's source is located in the State of Mexico. Its drainage basin occupies an area of 129,632 km2. The river receives urban wastewater discharges from 29 municipalities, as well as industrial water discharges, both treated and untreated, mainly from the industrial zones of Toluca, Lerma, Ocoyoacac, Santiago Tianguistengo, Pasteje and Atlacomulco. It is estimated that during a year, the stream receives 536 x 106 m3 of waste waters, which carries 350,946 ton of organic load; 33% of these waste waters come from urban discharges, and 67% originate from industrial discharges. The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico and both are considered the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. Mercury concentrations in water and bottom sediments in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir were determined in 6 different sampling zones over a 1-year period. Mercury was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 9 x 1012 n. cm-2 s-1 for a period of 26 hours. High variations of mercury concentrations in water in both, soluble and suspended forms, were observed to depend on the sampling season. During the rainy season, rain events contribute with a substantial water volume to modify physicochemical parameters like pH, which dilute chemical species in the Alzate Reservoir. There are evidence that in the Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir, sedimentation and adsorption act as a natural cleaning process, decreasing the dissolved concentrations and increasing the metallic content of the sediments. A negative gradient was identified for mercury concentrations, from the Lerma river inlet to Alzate Reservoir dam, which demonstrates the considerable influence of the Lerma river inlet. This gradient also proves the existence of a metal recycling process between water and sediment, while the

  17. Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash forming acid-resistant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To recycle municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash, synthesis of hydrothermal minerals from bottom ash was performed to stabilize heavy metals. MSWI bottom ash was mixed with SiO2, Al(OH)3, and Mg(OH)2 so its chemical composition was similar to that of hydrothermal clay minerals. These solid specimens were mixed with water at a liquid/solid ratio of 5. The reaction temperature was 200 deg. C, and reactions were performed for 24-240 h. Generation of kaolinite/smectite mixed-layer clay mineral was found in the samples after the reaction of the mixture of bottom ash, SiO2, and Mg(OH)2. Calcium silicate hydrate minerals such as tobermorite and xonotlite were also generated. X-ray powder diffraction suggested the presence of amorphous materials. Leaching tests at various pHs revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leachates from MSWI bottom ash hydrothermally treated with SiO2 and Mg(OH)2 was lower than that in leachates from non-treated bottom ash, especially under acid conditions. Hydrothermal treatment with modification of chemical composition may have potential for the recycling of MSWI bottom ash

  18. Optimization for the structure of BF hearth bottom and the arrangement of thermal couples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo Zhao; Shusen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The hearth of "heat transfer method" and the ceramic cup synthetic hearth bottom of "heart isolation method" are two most popular designs for blast furnace (BF). Although there are successful real examples, some disadvantages, for instance large heat loss and high cost, still exist for these designs. According to the theory of heat transfer, based on the calculation of temperature distribution of the hearth bottom, it is elucidated that all brick layers at the hearth bottom may not be considered as the only reason why different structures exhibited different temperature distributions although total heat resistance is the same, and then based on the effect of hot metal and cold water on different temperature distribution ranges, the concepts of "heat resistance" and "cooling enhancement" are put forth. Based on this, the disadvantages and the factors affecting temperature distribution, of the two types of hearth bottoms were illustrated. On the basis of these analyses, a novel structure for BF hearth bottom designing that can easily form "self-protecting" slag layer stably, called "the method of gradient brick layout that has an optimum combination of cooling enhancement and heat resistance"was proposed; it can not only prolong the hearth bottom longevity but also reduce the cost and heat loss. Also, the optimum arrangement of thermal couples in hearth bottom was suggested based on the previous studies on erosion prediction carried out by the author.

  19. Compatibility test of the capsule with cone shape bottom guide structures to the HANARO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design modification of bottom guide structures of the instrumented capsule, which is used for the irradiation test in the HANARO reactor, was required because of the trouble of the bottom guide arm's pin during irradiation. The previous structure with 3-pin arms was changed into the cone shape of one body. The specimens of the bottom end cap ring with three different sizes (Φ68/70/72mm) were designed and manufactured. The out-pile tests for the capsule with previous and new three bottom guide structures were performed in the one-channel flow test facilities. In order to evaluate the compatibility with HANARO and the structural integrity of the capsule, a loading/unloading, a pressure drop, a thermal performance, a vibration, and an endurance test were conducted. From out-pile test results, the capsule with the cone shape bottom guide structures was found to be more stable than the previous structure and the optimized size of the bottom guide structure selected was 70 mm in diameter. It is expected that the new bottom guide structures will be applicable to all material and special capsules which will be designed and manufactured for the irradiation tests in the future

  20. A simple model to understand physics of melt coolability under bottom flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Postulation of melt coolability under bottom flooding is made. • Mathematical model has been developed based on postulations. • The model has been validated with experimental data. • Coolability with top flooding vis-à-vis bottom flooding is presented. -- Abstract: Following a severe accident in a nuclear reactor, stabilization and termination of molten pool/debris is necessary to ensure safety of the reactor. In this regard, ex-vessel corium coolability still remains an unresolved issue in spite of several efforts being taken towards its understanding. Extensive research has been carried out in the field of corium coolability phenomenon, but the outcome is far from establishing a certainty of complete coolability of melt under all possible scenarios. Major thrust so far was on top flooding condition, which often results in uncoolable condition due to inability of water ingression deep into the solid crust. The research on coolability under bottom flooding condition started long back, but has gained lot of momentum recently. However, mainly the focus is on development of engineering system to enhance the coolability using bottom flooding. The understanding of the phenomenon is not yet totally brought out. In this paper, we have postulated the mechanism of melt coolability under bottom flooding. We have developed a simplified mechanistic model for prediction of coolability of molten corium under bottom flooding condition based on the postulations. The model has been validated with the experimental data from literature. Comparison of top flooding vis-à-vis bottom flooding has also been presented

  1. Computer Simulation Usage For Verification Of Deepened Shaft Artificial Bottom Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarczyk, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the design verification methodology for so called artificial bottom of the mining shaft using computer simulation. Artificial bottom serves as the protection of the lower part of the shaft, in which works related to shaft deepening are carried out, against falling to the bottom of the shaft elements transported in its upper, active part. Model describing the phenomenon of artificial bottom stress is complex. In presented case it is a process of collision between object with a mass of 18 Mg model, falling into the shaft from a height of 800 m, and artificial bottom construction and inducted phenomenon of stress and strain wave propagation in various elements of construction. In this case load receiving elements are heavily deformed and many of them has to be destroyed. Therefore for construction verification computer simulation method has been chosen, conducted on the basis of subsequent crash tests, using the LS-DYNA program. The object of the research was an innovative solution of artificial bottom, developed by Central Mining Institute. A series of falling mass impact tests were performed, which had to prove the usefulness of applied solutions, as well as determine the influence of selected construction geometric parameters to effectiveness of transferring the impact load. This way, using the successive approximations method, the assumptions about the number of artificial bottom platforms and plate thickness used for additional coverage of one of the platforms were verified.

  2. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceika, Evaldas; Filistovic, Vitold; Luksiene, Bena; Tarasiuk, Nikolay; Buivydas, Sarunas; Konstantinova, Marina; Puzas, Andrius [State research institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-2300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of {sup 137}Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  3. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of 137Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  4. Modeling the formation of the quench product in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkaew, Kanawut; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials. The dominant mineral phases produced by quenching process and detected by XRD were calcite, Friedel's salt, hydrocalumite and portlandite. The formation of quench product was controlled by the fine fraction of the bottom ash (particle size <0.425mm). From the observations, a conceptual model of the ash-water reactions and formation of the quench product in the bottom ash was proposed. PMID:27079853

  5. Eco-friendly porous concrete using bottom ash aggregate for marine ranch application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jae; Prabhu, G Ganesh; Lee, Bong Chun; Kim, Yun Yong

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the test results of an investigation carried out on the reuse of coal bottom ash aggregate as a substitute material for coarse aggregate in porous concrete production for marine ranch applications. The experimental parameters were the rate of bottom ash aggregate substitution (30%, 50% and 100%) and the target void ratio (15%, 20% and 25%). The cement-coated granular fertiliser was substituted into a bottom ash aggregate concrete mixture to improve marine ranch applications. The results of leaching tests revealed that the bottom ash aggregate has only a negligible amount of the ten deleterious substances specified in the Ministry of Environment - Enforcement Regulation of the Waste Management Act of Republic Korea. The large amount of bubbles/air gaps in the bottom ash aggregate increased the voids of the concrete mixtures in all target void ratios, and decreased the compressive strength of the porous concrete mixture; however, the mixture substituted with 30% and 10% of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser, respectively, showed an equal strength to the control mixture. The sea water resistibility of the bottom ash aggregate substituted mixture was relatively equal to that of the control mixture, and also showed a great deal of improvement in the degree of marine organism adhesion compared with the control mixture. No fatality of fish was observed in the fish toxicity test, which suggested that bottom ash aggregate was a harmless material and that the combination of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser with substitution rates of 30% and 10%, respectively, can be effectively used in porous concrete production for marine ranch application. PMID:26687102

  6. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Patricia L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2008-10-01

    Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the "effective" forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics

  7. Construction for holding together a cylindrical high pressure reactor vessel with hemispherical bottom and lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction shall prevent that in case of ruptures of the vessel rupture pieces may damage the secondary shielding system. The construction consists of two yokes fitting to the bottom and the lid of the vessel and held together by means of pull rods. The yokes are designed as truncated conshaped shells. The smaller end of the cone shells supports the hemispherical bottom and the lid of the vessel. The larger cone shell ends are tied together by the pull rods. As further improvements there may be arranged hemispherical protective shields between the hemispherical bottom and the lid of the vessel and the smaller end of the cone shells. (P.K.)

  8. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed and...... promising strategy for visualizing and analysing different accounts of project management practices....... compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in the bottom-up account but absent from the top-down. Finally, the study shows that network mapping is a...

  9. Study of top and bottom contact resistance in one organic field-effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ge; Liu Ming; Wang Hong; Shang Li-Wei; Ji Zhuo-Yu; Liu Xing-Hua; Liu Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the organic field-effect transistors with hybrid contact geometry were fabricated,in whic hthe top electrodes and the bottom electrodes were combined in parallel resistances within one transistor.With the facility of the novel structure,the difference of contact resistance between the top contact geometry and the bottom contact geometry was studied.The hybrid contact devices showed similar characteristics with the top contact configuration devices,which provide helpful evidence on the lower contact resistance of the top contact configuration device.The origin of the different contact resistance between the top contact device and the bottom contact device was discussed.

  10. Deep-Water Near-Bottom Turbulence in Lake Michigan: An Underwater Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, David J; Troy, Cary

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by a need to characterize near-bottom deep-water turbulence for an understanding of the filtration capabilities of invasive quagga mussels, an instrument tripod was deployed in Lake Michigan for six months in 60m of water to measure current velocities, with specific interest being paid to near-bottom (0.10 to 0.95 meters above bottom) velocities during the deployment. The deployment period (September 2012-April 2013) was characterized by very little stratification and a median tempe...

  11. Can Tax Competition Lead to a Race to the Bottom in Europe? A Skeptical View

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Warin; André Fourçans

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the likelihood of a race to the bottom in a monetary union, like the Euro-zone, that could result from tax competition between countries. This fear of a race to the bottom is used both in the economic literature and the political arena to promote tax harmonization. Using a game theoretical approach with the costs of changing tax policies to analyze the conditions of a race to the bottom, this paper shows that countries may not choose such an extreme strate...

  12. On the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects in Higgs boson production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Romain; Öztürk, Deniz Gizem

    2016-08-01

    We present analytic results for the partonic cross-sections contributing to the top-bottom interference in Higgs production via gluon fusion at hadron colliders at NLO accuracy in QCD. We develop a method of expansion in small bottom-mass for master integrals and combine it with the usual infinite top-mass effective theory. Our method of expansion admits a simple algorithmic description and can be easily generalized to any small parameter. These results for the integrated cross-sections will be needed in the computation of the renormalization counter-terms entering the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects at NNLO.

  13. Cooperation between Top-Down and Bottom-Up Theorem Provers by Subgoal Clause Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    Top-down and bottom-up theorem proving approaches have each specific ad-vantages and disadvantages. Bottom-up provers profit from strong redundancycontrol and suffer from the lack of goal-orientation, whereas top-down provers aregoal-oriented but have weak calculi when their proof lengths are considered. Inorder to integrate both approaches our method is to achieve cooperation betweena top-down and a bottom-up prover: The top-down prover generates subgoalclauses, then they are processed by a ...

  14. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells

    OpenAIRE

    Bedau M.A.; Parke E.C.; Tangen U.; Hantsche-Tangen B.

    2009-01-01

    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional “top-down” approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the “bottom up” by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called “protocells.” In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology....

  15. Ecological Dynamics of Wetlands at Lisbon Bottom, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study documented the interaction between hydrology and the biological dynamics within a single spring season at Lisbon Bottom in 1999. The study goal was to...

  16. Food plants utilized by migratory waterfowl at Cheyenne Bottoms Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this problem was to gather information on food habits of migratory waterfowl using Cheyenne Bottoms Waterfowl Refuge, and to determine the most...

  17. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A; Parke, Emily C; Tangen, Uwe; Hantsche-Tangen, Brigitte

    2009-12-01

    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional "top-down" approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the "bottom up" by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called "protocells." In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology. Protocells have not yet been developed, but many expect this to happen within the next five to ten years. Accordingly, we identify six key checkpoints in protocell development at which particular attention should be given to specific ethical, social and regulatory issues concerning bottom-up synthetic biology, and make ten recommendations for responsible protocell science that are tied to the achievement of these checkpoints. PMID:19816801

  18. The updated bottom up solution applied to atmospheric pressure photoionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) was recently applied to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) of triacylglycerols (TAGs). This report demonstrates that the UBUS applies equally well to atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS and to electrospray ionizatio...

  19. Field measurements of bottom boundary layer processes and sediment resuspension in the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青; 李九发; 李炎; 金惜三; 车越

    2001-01-01

    A field observation of the hydrodynamics and the sediment resuspension in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in the Changjiang Estuary, during July-August 1997. Using bottom field research facilities, detailed measurements of near-bottom currents and suspended sediment concentration distribution within 1.0 m above bed have been obtained in the Changjiang Estuary——a high concentration estuary. An Acoustic Suspended Sediment Monitor (ASSM) wasused to observe near bed sediment resuspension processes. In addition, the log-profile method was applied to estimating hydraulic roughness Z0 and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u). Further understanding of sediment suspension mechanics and hydrodynamic characteristics will require the long-term measurements of near bed processes.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Wave Slamming of Flat Bottom Body during Water Entry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical wave load model based on two-phase (water-air Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS type equations is used to evaluate hydrodynamic forces exerted on flat bottom body while entering ocean waves of deploying process. The discretization of the RANS equations is achieved by a finite volume (FV approach. The volume of fluid (VOF method is employed to track the complicated free surface. A numerical wave tank is built to generate the ocean waves which are suitable for deploying offshore structures. A typical deploying condition is employed to reflect the process of flat bottom body impacting waves, and the pressure distribution of bottom is also presented. Four different lowering velocities are applied to obtain the relationship between slamming force and wave parameters. The numerical results clearly demonstrated the characteristics of flat bottom body impacting ocean waves.

  1. Altitude of the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of structure contours that show lines of equal altitude of the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone, the contact between the Trinidad Sandstone...

  2. Generation of surface waves by an underwater moving bottom: Experiments and application to tsunami modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Timothée; Ruiz-Chavarría, Gerardo; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We report laboratory experiments on surface waves generated in a uniform fluid layer whose bottom undergoes a sudden upward motion. Simultaneous measurements of the free-surface deformation and the fluid velocity field are focused on the role of the bottom kinematics in wave generation. We observe that the fluid layer transfers bottom motion to the free surface as a temporal high-pass filter coupled with a spatial low-pass filter. Both filter effects are usually neglected in tsunami warning systems. Our results display good agreement with a prevailing linear theory without fitting parameter. Based on our experimental data, we provide a new theoretical approach for the rapid kinematics limit that is applicable even for non-flat bottoms: a key step since most approaches assume a uniform depth. This approach can be easily appended to tsunami simulations under arbitrary topography.

  3. BOEM Seismic Water Bottom Anomalies - Gulf of Mexico - Gulf of Mexico NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, geoscientists at the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) have identified and mapped over 31,000 water bottom (seafloor) acoustic amplitude...

  4. Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Maps From SEAMAP Summer Groundfish/Shrimp Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) data was extracted from environmental profiles acquired during the Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories summer...

  5. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  6. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. They notice that the leaching of salts and metals to ground water constitutes the largest risk for the environment during use of bottom ash. Therefore, a quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash (at first hand leaching properties) earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by Sysav. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables. the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and longterm leaching properties. how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements. how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish

  7. A Bottom up Initiative: Meditation & Mindfulness 'Eastern' Practices in the "Western" Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    case of bottom up initiative, where the students themselves have demanded inclusion of non- conventional psychosocial interventions illustrated by meditation and mindfulness as Eastern psychological practices, thus filling the gap related to the existential, spiritual approaches. The western...

  8. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  9. Analysis and treatment of bottom dross descending from hot dip galvanizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of hot dip galvanizing a certain amount of solid waste originated. One of them is bottom dross, so called the hard zinc. The hard zinc, which has a higher specific gravity than the zinc melt settled and accumulated at the bottom of the zinc bath. Hard zinc containing minimum 92 % zinc and 1 - 6 % of iron. Because of the high zinc content becomes a valuable raw material. Refining of bottom dross is realized in order to iron removing. The present work is aimed to characterize of the bottom dross using particular identification methods and to investigate of its refinement by aluminium addition in order to iron removing at select processing parameters. (authors)

  10. Testing the possibility for reusing mswi bottom ash in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Villumsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    smaller fractions (< 0.5 mm). The bearing capacity showed a CBR-value of 21.4%, which is acceptable for the intended use. The heavy metal content and leachable amount of heavy metals in the bottom ash were under the Danish guideline levels for reuse of contaminated waste for geotechnical purposes as......, which can influence the quality of MWSI residues. About 15,000 tons MSWI bottom ash is produced annually in Greenland and is disposed of at the open disposal sites without leachate collection or encapsulation. The MSWI bottom ash could have value as a secondary resource in construction work in Greenland....... This would contribute to solve the problem of disposal and possible related environmental problems in the vulnerable Greenlandic environment. In this study, MSWI bottom ash was collected from the disposal site in the town of Sisimiut in Western Greenland and characterized and tested for technical...

  11. Characterisation of MSWI bottom ash for potential use as subbase in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The waste management situation in Greenland needs to be improved. Most waste in towns is incinerated with only limited separation prior to incineration and the bottom ash residue is disposed of at uncontrolled disposal sites. The bottom ash could be a valuable resource within the expansion of...... infrastructure due to increased oil and mineral exploitation. Thus, in this study MSWI bottom ash from a Greenlandic incinerator was tested for possible reuse as subbase in road construction. The mechanical properties (grain size distribution, wear resistance and bearing capacity) showed that the bottom ash was...... acceptable for reuse after some small adjustments in the grain size distribution to prevent frost sensitivity. Results obtained from heavy metal content and heavy metal leaching complied with the Danish guideline values for reuse of waste materials in construction. Leaching of Cu and Cr was high from small...

  12. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  13. Peach Bottom 2 and 3 regenerative heat exchangers: chemical decontamination and solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977, Dow Nuclear Services, under contract to Philadelphia Electric Company, chemically decontaminated the regenerative heat exchangers at the Peach Bottom 2 and 3 Atomic Power Station. The purpose of the decontamination was to reduce the radiation levels associated with the subsequent heat exchanger repairs to be performed by PECO maintenance. Samples of piping from the regenerative heat exchangers were analyzed at Dow Chemical, Midland, Michigan, and solvent testing and selection was performed. Nuclear Solvent-1 was selected. Temporary equipment, piping and radiation shielding was installed to perform all necessary functions safely. All designs and procedures were approved by the Peach Bottom Plant Operations Review Committee. The chemical decontamination removed 10.6 curies of radioactive material in the case of Peach Bottom 3 and similarly at Peach Bottom 2, 6.3 curies of material was removed. Radioactive waste generated by decontamination that could not be treated by existing facilities was successfully solidified by the Dow Solidification process

  14. Charm and bottom production in two-photon collisions with OPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Csilling, Akos

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary update of the previous OPAL measurement of the inclusive production of D* mesons in anti-tagged photon-photon collisions is presented together with the first preliminary OPAL measurement of bottom production in photon-photon collisions.

  15. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... Generation Company, LLC (Exelon, the licensee) for operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units...-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from Limerick Generating Station (LGS) in the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  16. Impressions of the turbulence variability in a weakly stratified, flat-bottom deep-sea ‘boundary layer’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the

  17. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  18. The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom Up Approach to Disaster Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Emily C. Skarbek

    2014-01-01

    Can bottom-up relief efforts lead to recovery after disasters? Conventional wisdom and contemporary public policy suggest that major crises require centralized authority to provide disaster relief goods. Using a novel set of comprehensive donation and expenditure data collected from archival records, this paper examines a bottom-up relief effort following one of the most devastating natural disasters of the nineteenth century: the Chicago Fire of 1871. Findings show that while there was no ce...

  19. A Critique of 'Bottom-up' Peacebuilding: Do Peaceful Individuals Make Peaceful Societies?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefranc, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with dialogue-based post-conflict practices currently being promoted vigorously by certain international organizations. On the one hand, there is "transitional justice" with its cornerstone forums, deemed truth and reconciliation commissions. On the other hand, there are various "bottom-up" peacebuilding techniques (local dialogues, coexistence programs, conflict resolution training, and so on). Generally speaking, these "bottom-up" approaches work to transform indiv...

  20. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    OpenAIRE

    F. Miesner; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.(Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 , Bamberg, Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented ...

  1. Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Zeolites from Coal Fly and Bottom Ashes

    OpenAIRE

    Tharcila Colachite Rodrigues Bertolini; Juliana C. Izidoro; Carina P. Magdalena; Denise A. Fungaro

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of the cationic dye Crystal Violet (CV) over zeolites from coal fly ash (ZFA) and bottom ash (ZBA) was evaluated. The coal fly ash (CFA) and the coal bottom ash (CBA) used in the synthesis of the zeolites by alkaline hydrothermal treatment were collected in Jorge Lacerda coal-fired power plant located at Capivari de Baixo County, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The zeolitic materials were characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite and X. The dye adsorption equilibrium was...

  2. Posture of Iridina spekei (Bivalvia: Mutelidae) on the Flat Sandy Bottom of Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, Takaki

    1986-01-01

    Length, height and angle of the exposed part of mussel, Iridina spekei, above the bottom were examined on the sandy flat of Lake Tanganyika. The larger mussel protruded higher above the bottom, which seemed to be advantageous to scatter sperm or larvae father in order to increase chances of the fertilization or parasitism of larvae on fish. Immature mussels seemed to lie hidden to avoid predation by fish.

  3. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in t...

  4. A dynamical mechanism to explain the top-bottom quark mass hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Natale, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the mass splitting between the the top and bottom quarks in a technicolor scenario. The model proposed here contains a left-right electroweak gauge group. An extended technicolor group and mirror fermions are introduced. The top-bottom quark mass splitting turns out to be intimately connected to the breaking of the left-right gauge symmetry. Weak isospin violation occurs within the experimental limits.

  5. Water Breakthrough Shape Description of Horizontal Wells in Bottom-Water Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Shijun Huang; Baoquan Zeng; Fenglan Zhao; Linsong Cheng; Baojian Du

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal wells have been applied in bottom-water reservoir since their advantages were found on distribution of linear dropdown near wellbore, higher critical production, and more OOIP (original oil in place) controlled. In the paper, one 3D visible physical model of horizontal physical model is designed and built to simulate the water cresting process during the horizontal well producing and find water breakthrough point in homogenous and heterogeneous reservoir with bottom water. Water cr...

  6. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per

    2012-01-01

    The conflict between blue mussel, Mytlius edulis (Linnaeus, 1758), exploitation and other interest groups due to ecological effects of the fishery, was described ten years ago, and still exists today. To reduce the ecological effects and the conflicts between conservation and exploitation it is therefore necessary to focus on area-intensive production methods for mussel exploitation. For that purpose bottom culture production of blue mussels is relevant. Despite a long tradition for bottom cu...

  7. Expression of Bottom Component RNA of Cowpea Mosaic Virus in Cowpea Protoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Rezelman, Geertje; Goldbach, Rob; van Kammen, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Upon inoculation of cowpea protoplasts with the bottom component of cowpea mosaic virus, at least six virus-induced proteins (with sizes of 170, 110, 87, 84, 60, and 32 kilodaltons) are synthesized, but not the capsid proteins (37 and 23 kilodaltons). These bottom-component-induced proteins were studied with respect to their genetic origin and mode of synthesis. The analyses were based on their electrophoretic peptide patterns resulting from partial digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protea...

  8. First Observation of Bottom Baryon Σb States at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the latest results on the search for bottom baryon states Σb using ∼ 1 fb-1 of CDF data. The study is performed with the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed Λ0b decays collected by CDF II detector at √s = 1.96 TeV in the hadronic trigger path. We observe 4 new states consistent with Σb(*)± bottom baryons

  9. First Observation of Bottom Baryon Sigma(b) States at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the latest results on the search for bottom baryon states Σb using ∼ 1 fb-1 of CDF data. The study is performed with the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed Λb0 decays collected by CDF II detector at √s = 1.96TeV in the hadronic trigger path. We observe 4 new states consistent with Σb(*)± bottom baryons

  10. Changes in discharge and solute dynamics between hillslope and valley-bottom intermittent streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To gain understanding on how alluvial zones modify water and nutrient export from semiarid catchments, we compared monthly discharge as well as stream chloride, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics between a hillslope catchment and a valley-bottom catchment with a well-developed alluvium. Stream water and solute fluxes from the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments showed contrasting patterns between hydrological transitions and wet periods, especially for bio-reactive solutes. During transition periods, stream water export decreased >40% between the hillslope and the valley bottom coinciding with the prevalence of stream-to-aquifer fluxes at the alluvial zone. In contrast, stream water export increased by 20–70% between the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments during wet periods. During transition periods, stream solute export decreased by 34–97% between the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments for chloride, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon. In annual terms, stream nitrate export from the valley-bottom catchment (0.32 ± 0.12 kg N ha−1 yr−1 [average ± standard deviation] was 30–50% lower than from the hillslope catchment (0.56 ± 0.32 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The annual export of dissolved organic carbon was similar between the two catchments (1.8 ± 1 kg C ha−1 yr−1. Our results suggest that hydrological retention in the alluvial zone contributed to reduce stream water and solute export from the valley-bottom catchment during hydrological transition periods when hydrological connectivity between the hillslope and the valley bottom was low.

  11. Methane and ethane from global oil and gas production: bottom-up simulations over three decades

    OpenAIRE

    Höglund-Isaksson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Existing bottom-up emission inventories of historical methane and ethane emissions from global oil and gas systems do not well explain year-on-year variations estimated by top-down models from atmospheric measurements. This paper develops a bottom-up methodology which allows for country- and year specific source attribution of methane and ethane emissions from global oil and natural gas production for the period 1980 to 2012. The analysis rests on country-specific simulations of associated ga...

  12. The Levels and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Contamination in Bottom Sediments in Manila Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Evangeline Santiago

    1997-01-01

    The concentration levels of 18 PAH compounds extracted from 19 bottom sediments from the Limay Coast and 16 bottom sediments from the coast along Metro Manila and Cavitc Province of Manila Bay were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.The PAH contamination, the levels of other non-PAH petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. and total organic content in the sediments were assessed in relation to the location and depth of the sampling sites. The PAH concentrations and the levels of other...

  13. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  14. Deep water bottom current deposition in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Lei; LI XueJie; GENG JianHua; PANG Xiong; LEI YongChang; QIAO PeiJun; WANG LiaoLiang; WANG HongBin

    2007-01-01

    There are some active bottom currents on the northern continental slope of the South China Sea (SCS). Reflection seismic profiles show that the bottom current channels occur in the water depth range of 1000 to 2700 m, extending from the NE to the SW, leading to accumulation of discontinuous drifts with higher sedimentation rates on the eastern side of the channel. The stacking pattern of the layers suggests that these drifts propagated southwestward, following the direction of the bottom currents. One sedimentary drift to the southeast of the Dongsha Islands has the highest sedimentation rate of 97cm/ka in the last 12 ka. The sedimentary characteristics of the sediment layers indicate that these bottom currents are most likley caused by the water movement of a branch of the West Pacific Ocean Current, which enters the northern SCS via the Bashi Strait. Once formed, the bottom currents transport sediments along the northern slope of SCS southwestward and finally disappear into the central basin of the SCS. Due to the bottom current activity, the deep-sea sedimentary process in the northern SCS is complex.

  15. Understanding the chemical and mineralogical properties of the inorganic portion of MSWI bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuseno, A P; Schmahl, W W

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the changes of mineralogical composition of bottom ash in the environment. The chemical and mineralogical bulk composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) Rietveld method. Single bottom ash particles were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). SEM/EDX and EPMA are valuable complement to bulk analysis and provide means for rapid and sensitive multi-elemental analysis of ash particles. The fresh bottom ash consists of amorphous (>30 wt.%) and major crystalline phases (>1 wt.%) such as silicates, oxides and carbonates. The mineral assemblage of the fresh bottom ash is clearly unstable and an aging process occurs by reaction towards an equilibrium mineral phase composition in the environmental conditions. The significant decrease of anhydrite and amorphous contents was observed in the aged bottom ash, leading to the formation of ettringite, hydrocalumite and rosenhahnite under atmospheric conditions. In the water-treated sample, the calcite contents increased significantly, but ettringite was altered by the dissolution and precipitation processes in part, to produce gypsum, while the remaining part reacted with chloride to form hydrocalumite. Gypsum and other Ca based minerals may take up substantial amounts of heavy metals and subsequently control leaching behaviour of bottom ash. PMID:20381330

  16. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm (HG) presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. A quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by the Sysav company. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate: pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables; the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and long term leaching properties; how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements; how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish incineration plants indicates that the availability of elements such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash usually is below Sysav's target values. Extreme values

  17. Three-dimensional mapping of red stingray ( Dasyatis akajei) movement with reference to bottom topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Takayoshi; Hamana, Masahiro; Tanoe, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Shibuno, Takuro; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    Most demersal fishes maintain strong relations with bottom substrates and bottom depths and/or topography during their lives. It is important to know these relations to for understand their lives. In Tokyo Bay, red stingray, Dasyatis akajei, classified as near-threatened species by IUCN, has increased since the 1980s. It is a top predator and engages in ecosystem engineer by mixing the sand bed surface through burring behavior, and greatly influences a coastal ecosystem. It is reported that this species invades in plage and tidal flats and has sometimes injured beachgoers and people gathering clams in Tokyo bay. Thus, it is necessary to know its behavior and habitat use to avoid accidents and to better conserve the biodiversity of ecosystems. However, previous studies have not examined its relationship with the bottom environment. This study aims to describe its behavior in relation to the bottom environment. We sounded three dimensional bottom topography of their habitat off Kaneda Cove in Tokyo Bay with interferometric sidescan sonar system and traced the movement of red stingrays by attaching a data logger system to survey their migration. The results revealed that red stingray repeated vertical movement between the surface and bottom, and used not only sand beds but also rocky beds.

  18. Physical Experiments to Investigate the Effects of Street Bottom Heating and Inflow Turbulence on Urban Street-Canyon Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Jin KIM; Jong-Jin BAIK

    2005-01-01

    The effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow are experimentally investigated using a circulating water channel. Three experiments are carried out for a street canyon with a street aspect ratio of 1. Results from each experiment with bottom heating or inflow turbulence are compared with those without bottom heating and appreciable inflow turbulence. It is demonstrated that street bottom heating or inflow turbulence increases the intensity of the canyon vortex. A possible explanation on how street bottom heating or inflow turbulence intensifies the canyon vortex is given from a fluid dynamical viewpoint.

  19. Changes in discharge and solute dynamics between a hillslope and a valley-bottom intermittent streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, S.; Sabater, F.

    2011-10-01

    We investigated differences on stream water flux as well as on chloride, carbon and nitrogen dynamics between two semiarid nested catchments, one at the hillslope and the other one at the valley-bottom. The two streams were intermittent, yet only the valley-bottom stream was embraced by a riparian forest and a well-developed alluvium with highly conductive coarse sediments. We found that stream water flux decreased by more than 40% from the hillslope to the valley-bottom during hydrological transition periods (from dry-to-wet and from wet-to-dry conditions), coinciding with periods when stream-to-aquifer fluxes prevailed. During the hydrological transition period, stream export of chloride, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon decreased 34-97% between the hillslope and the valley-bottom catchments. There was a strong correlation between monthly differences in stream discharge and in stream Cl- export between the two catchments. In contrast, monthly differences in stream export for bio-reactive solutes were only partially explained by stream discharge. In annual terms, stream nitrate export from the valley-bottom catchment (0.32 ± 0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1 - average ± standard deviation) was 30-50% lower than from the hillslope catchment (0.56 ± 0.32 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Although the riparian forest could be an extra source of organic matter to the valley-bottom stream, the annual export of dissolved organic carbon was similar between the two catchments (1.8 ± 1 kg C ha-1 yr-1). Our results suggested that stream hydrology was a strong driver of stream solute export during the hydrological transition period, and that hydrological retention in the alluvial zone could contribute to reduce stream water and solute export under semiarid conditions in the valley-bottom stream.

  20. Polymethylmethacrylate-based luminescent solar concentrators with bottom-mounted solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped plates were studied. • The mechanism of transport process was proposed. • The fabricated luminescent solar concentrator achieved a gain of 1.38. • Power conversion efficiency of 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. • The lowest cost per watt of $1.89 was optimized with cell area coverage of 18%. - Abstract: Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to concentrate sunlight economically without tracking, but the narrow absorption band of luminescent materials hinders their further development. This paper describes bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plates that absorb not only the waveguided light but also the transmitted sunlight and partial fluorescent light in the escape cone. A series of bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators with size of 78 mm × 78 mm × 7 mm were fabricated and their gain and power conversion efficiency were investigated. The transport process of the waveguided light and the relationship between the bottom-mounted cells were studied to optimize the performance of the device. The bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator with cell area coverage of 9% displayed a cell gain of 1.38, to our best knowledge, which is the highest value for dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plate luminescent solar concentrators. Power conversion efficiency as high as 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. Furthermore, the bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator was found to have a lowest cost per watt of $1.89 with cell area coverage of 18%. These results suggested that the fabricated bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator may have a potential in low-cost building integrated photovoltaic application

  1. Comparative analysis of a bottoming transcritical ORC and a Kalina cycle for engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal performance comparison of two eligible bottoming cycles is investigated. • Thermal match between the temperature profiles of working fluid and exhaust is considered. • Influences of the various-temperature heat source on the two WHR cycles are studied. • Bottoming transcritical ORC shows advantages at a certain ICE load. • Suitable working conditions for both of the bottoming cycles are given. - Abstract: A performance comparison of two types of bottoming cycles, including a Kalina cycle and a transcritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using working fluids with sliding-temperature boiling characteristics, is conducted in order to analyze energy saving of the sensible exhaust waste heat recovery (WHR) under various internal combustion engine (ICE) working conditions. Through quantitatively analyzing the relation between exhaust waste-heat behaviors and the ICE load of a commercial ICE, two bottoming subsystems models, including a transcritical ORC using some several Alkanes and a Kalina cycle using NH3–H2O as working fluids, are build under the same ICE various-temperature exhaust heat-source and air heat-sink conditions. Compared to Kalina cycle, the transcritical ORC shows prominent advantages on the overall thermal efficiency, low operation pressure and simple components configuration at the ICE load with exhaust temperature over 491 K. The optimal thermal performance of the transcritical ORC appears at the ICE load with the certain exhaust temperature of 569–618 K. However, thermodynamic performance of the bottoming transcritical ORC is worsened considerably at the ICE load with the exhaust temperature over or under the certain value. Moreover, the extremely high turbine expansion ratio requires a complex multi-stage turbine design and big turbine dimensions for the bottoming transcritical ORC using Alkanes-based working fluid

  2. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  3. Aluminium recovery from waste incineration bottom ash, and its oxidation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The recovery of aluminium (Al) scraps from waste incineration bottom ash is becoming a common practice in waste management. However, during the incineration process, Al in the waste undergoes oxidation processes that reduce its recycling potential. This article investigates the behaviour of Al scraps in the furnace of two selected grate-fired waste-to-energy plants and the amount recoverable from the bottom ash. About 21-23% of the Al fed to the furnace with the residual waste was recovered and potentially recycled from the bottom ash. Out of this amount, 76-87% was found in the bottom ash fraction above 5 mm and thus can be recovered with standard eddy current separation technology. These values depend on the characteristics and the mechanical strength of the Al items in the residual waste. Considering Al packaging materials, about 81% of the Al in cans can be recovered from the bottom ash as an ingot, but this amount decreases to 51% for trays, 27% for a mix of aluminium and poly-laminated foils and 47% for paper-laminated foils. This shows that the recovery of Al from the incineration residues increases proportionally to the thickness of the packaging. PMID:23831779

  4. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  5. Numerical study of different bottom boundary conditions on water flow in lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Jannis; Vanderborght, Jan; Pütz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    The separation of the bottom of the lysimeter from its surroundings in the field introduces an artificial boundary that may impact the water balance of lysimeters. The use of tension controlled lysimeter (TCL) prevents an artificial boundary at the end of the lysimeter. Water flow across the lysimeter bottom can be controlled by the adjustment of matric potentials at the lower end of the lysimeter to measured field conditions in the close vicinity of the facility. However lysimeters are often transferred from the place where the soil monoliths were sampled to another location for practical reasons or to study the effect of climate change (e.g. SOILCan). The water flux across the bottom boundary of translocated TCL can be affected if climatic conditions, soil properties and the hydrogeological setting in the field differ from the place where the lysimeter was taken from. To assess the potential impact of different bottom boundary conditions on the water balance of translocated TCL a numerical study in virtual soils was conducted. We present a comparison of different approaches using water balance simulations. Results shows that water balance components of translocated TCL are sensitive towards the soil hydraulic parameters and hydrogeological setting in the field. The change in field conditions can impact the water flux dynamic across the lysimeter bottom, change the evaporation and the plant water uptake and release. A shift in the climate regime (translocation) will modify the depth and dynamics of the water table and impact the water balance of lysimeters.

  6. Searches for supersymmetric partners of the bottom and top quarks with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dafinca, Alexandru

    "Supersymmetry is a promising candidate theory that could solve the hierarchy problem and explain the dark matter density in the Universe. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is sensitive to a variety of such supersymmetric models. This thesis reports on a search for pair production of the supersymmetric scalar partners of bottom and top quarks in 20.1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV using the ATLAS experiment. The study focuses on final states with large missing transverse momentum, no electrons or muons and two jets identified as originating from a $b$-quark. This final state can be produced in a $R$-parity conserving minimal supersymmetric scenario, assuming that the scalar bottom decays exclusively to a bottom quark and a neutralino and the scalar top decays to a bottom quark and a chargino, with a small mass difference with the neutralino. As no signal is observed above the Standard Model expectation, competitive exclusion limits are set on scalar bottom and...

  7. Inspection and repair of storage tank bottoms and foundations using airbag lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that within the past five years the environmental impact on the operation of petro-chemical product storage tanks, constructed to standards such as API 650, has taken on critical implications for refineries and distribution centers. Pollution of the supporting foundation and possible widespread effects on ground water has resulted in moves to require the installation of double integrity bottoms. That is not to say, necessarily, a tank with two steel bottoms, but alternative means of reducing the failure probability to an acceptable public or statutory level. Clearly increased inspection of the tank bottom has merit and visual examination of the bottom from inside the tank can be supplemented by ultrasonic methods, acoustic leak detection and magnetic flux scanning. Tank lifting now offers a very cost effective method for underfloor inspection, combined with the opportunity to undertake repairs to the bottom and underside painting, together with improvements and repairs to the Bitsand surface of the tank pad. if necessary, an impervious membrane can also be installed with a leak detection trough formed around the tank edge

  8. The effect of bottom sediment supplement on heavy metals content in plants (Zea mays and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Important aspect of bottom sediments is the problem of their management or disposal after their extraction from the bottom of rivers, dam reservoirs, ports, channels or ponds. The research aimed at an assessment of potential environmental management of bottom sediment used as an admixture to light soil basing on its effect on contents of heavy metals in plants and soil. The research was conducted on light soil with granulometric structure of weakly loamy sand. The bottom sediment was added to light soil in the amount of 0 (control 5, 10, 30 i 50%. The test plant was maize (Zea mays, “Bora” c.v. The sediment applied in the presented research revealed high share of silt and clay fractions, alkaline pH and low contents of heavy metals, therefore it may be used as an admixture to the above mentioned soils to improve their productivity. The applied bottom sediment to the soil affected a decreased in Zn, Cd and Pb content in maize in comparison with the treatment without the deposit whereas increased content of Cu, Cr and Ni. No exceeded permissible content of heavy metals concerning plant assessment in view of their forage usability were registered in maize biomass.

  9. ZINC AND LEAD IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND AQUATIC PLANTS IN RIVER NAREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are a valuable part of natural environment. The increasing level of pollution in waters transforming biocoenoses and other adverse effects of the impact of toxic substances have contributed to the development of biological monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in contents of zinc and lead in bottom sediments and roots of aquatic plants: Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus in the river Narew. There were 14 points on the river, from where samples of bottom sediments and plant material were collected. The contents of lead and zinc were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Varian device. It was proven that bottom sediments were characterized by low contents of zinc and lead except from two sampling points: in Bondary and Narew. Achieved results of analyzes of plant material showed a slight exceeding in the case of lead. Spatial distribution of zinc and lead contents in examined roots of plants coincided with their contents in bottom sediments, which was also confirmed by statistical analysis. It was proven that aquatic plants had greater tendency for accumulation of metals than bottom sediments.

  10. Effects of substrate induced respiration on the stability of bottom ash in landfill cover environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, A; Lovat, E; Persson, K M

    2014-12-01

    The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being increasingly used to construct landfill covers in Sweden. In post-closure, owing to increased cover infiltration, the percolating water can add external organic matter to bottom ash. The addition and subsequent degradation of this external organic matter can affect metal mobility through complexation and change in redox conditions. However, the impacts of such external organic matter addition on bottom ash stability have not been fully evaluated yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external organic matter on bottom ash respiration and metal leaching. The samples of weathered bottom ash were mixed with oven dried and digested wastewater sludge (1%-5% by weight). The aerobic respiration activity (AT4), as well as the leaching of metals, was tested with the help of respiration and batch leaching tests. The respiration and heavy metal leaching increased linearly with the external organic matter addition. Based on the results, it was concluded that the external organic matter addition would negatively affect the quality of landfill cover drainage. PMID:25395160

  11. Submarine Slope Failure Primed and Triggered by Bottom Water Warming in Oceanic Hydrate-Bearing Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyuk Kwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many submarine slope failures in hydrate-bearing sedimentary deposits might be directly triggered, or at least primed, by gas hydrate dissociation. It has been reported that during the past 55 years (1955–2010 the 0–2000 m layer of oceans worldwide has been warmed by 0.09 °C because of global warming. This raises the following scientific concern: if warming of the bottom water of deep oceans continues, it would dissociate natural gas hydrates and could eventually trigger massive slope failures. The present study explored the submarine slope instability of oceanic gas hydrate-bearing deposits subjected to bottom water warming. One-dimensional coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (T-H-M finite difference analyses were performed to capture the underlying physical processes initiated by bottom water warming, which includes thermal conduction through sediments, thermal dissociation of gas hydrates, excess pore pressure generation, pressure diffusion, and hydrate dissociation against depressurization. The temperature rise at the seafloor due to bottom water warming is found to create an excess pore pressure that is sufficiently large to reduce the stability of a slope in some cases. Parametric study results suggest that a slope becomes more susceptible to failure with increases in thermal diffusivity and hydrate saturation and decreases in pressure diffusivity, gas saturation, and water depth. Bottom water warming can be further explored to gain a better understanding of the past methane hydrate destabilization events on Earth, assuming that more reliable geological data is available.

  12. Transient analysis of dissolution of a reactor bottom head into a melt pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of the bottom head of a heavy-water reactor into a pool of molten fuel under severe accident conditions is investigated using a distributed-parameter model. The main objectives are to determine the rate of dissolution-front propagation and to estimate the extent to which the bottom head is thinned owing to dissolution. The model consists mainly of partitioning the bottom head into a number of rings and analyzing the transient dissolution of each ring with a localized lumped-parameter model. For each of the rings, the dissolution is modeled using a mass transfer coefficient, the temperature distribution is considered to be one dimensional and quasisteady and the heat flux across the melt-bottom head interface is modeled using a heat transfer coefficient. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficients is considered to be quasi-steady and is based on the heat transfer calculation results obtained using the ACCORD code. The model thus takes into account both the variation of heat fluxes over the melt pool-bottom head interface and the variations of interface mass transfer with time and with position along the interface. The basic equations and their solution method for the distributed-parameter model are described. Comparisons of calculation results with those obtained previously using the overall lumped-parameter model are presented

  13. Gas engine bottoming cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, M.; Thorin, E.; Svedberg, G.

    1999-07-01

    Gas engines and diesel engines can be used for power generation in small-scale industrial and utility power plants. A bottoming cycle recovering heat from the exhaust gas, charge air, jacket water and lubrication oil can increase the power output of a gas or diesel engine power plant. The current study investigates ammonia-water power cycles as bottoming cycles to natural gas fired gas engines. The engines used in the calculations are 16V25SG and 18V34SG from Wartsila NSD. The configurations of the bottoming processes have been changed in order to achieve better temperature matching in the heat exchangers. The ammonia-water cycles have been compared to a simple Rankine steam cycle. All cycles have been optimized to give maximum power output. The ammonia-water bottoming cycles generate 18--54% more power than a simple Rankine steam cycle. An economic estimation of the bottoming cycles shows that the extra equipment needed for an ammonia-water cycle may be justified by the extra amount of power generated.

  14. Z decay into a bottom quark, a light sbottom, and a light gluino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrepancy between the measured and theoretical production cross section of b quarks at the Fermilab Tevatron can probably be explained by the recently proposed scenario of light gluinos of mass 12-16 GeV and light sbottoms of mass 2-5.5 GeV. In this scenario, we study a related process at the Z pole, Z→bb-tilde1*g-tilde+b-barb-tilde1g-tilde followed by g-tilde→bb-tilde1*/b-barb-tilde1. The hadronic branching ratio for this channel is (1-3)x10-3, which is of the order of the size of the uncertainty in Rb. We find that a typical event consists of an energetic prompt bottom jet back to back with a 'fat' bottom jet, which consists of a bottom quark and two bottom squarks. Such events with a 10-3 branching ratio may affect the measurement of Rb; they are even more interesting if the fat bottom jet can be identified

  15. An analytical evaluation for the pressure drop characteristics of bottom nozzle flow holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation for the bottom nozzle flow holes was performed to find a best design concept in terms of pressure drop. For this analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), FLUENT 5.5, code was selected as an analytical evaluation tool. The applicability of CFD code was verified by benchmarking study with Vibration Investigation of Small-scale Test Assemblies (VISTA) test data in several flow conditions and typical flow hole shape. From this verification, the analytical data were benchmarked roughly within 17% to the VISTA test data. And, overall trend under various flow conditions looked very similar between both cases. Based on the evaluated results using CFD code, it is concluded that the deburring and multiple chamfer hole features at leading edge are the excellent design concept to decrease pressure drop across bottom nozzle plate. The deburring and multiple chamfer hole features at leading edge on the bottom nozzle plate have 12% and 17% pressure drop benefit against a single chamfer hole feature on the bottom nozzle plate, respectively. These design features are meaningful and applicable as a low pressure drop design concept of bottom nozzle for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly

  16. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  17. Single and Tertiary System Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Bottom Ash: Kinetic and Isotherm Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gandhimathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ability of Bottom ash to adsorb three cationic dyes from aqueous solution in single and tertiary systems. Crystal Violet (CV, Methylene Blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG were used as cationic dye models. The surface characteristics of Bottom ash were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. Pseudo second order model was fitted better than Pseudo First order model for all system of MG, MB and CV. From the isotherm study, the adsorption capacity increased in the order of MB< MGBottom ash decreases in tertiary system as compared to single system. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were fitted for all system of dyes. Freundlich isotherm model found to be the best fit for all systems.

  18. How To Design A Triple Bottom Line Organization: A Start-Up Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, where success for a start-up company is measured by early revenue and profit, it can be quite challenging to design a triple bottom line organization (people/planet/profit from the very beginning. We present a case study of a U.S.-based start-up firm and discuss its early challenges, developmental processes, and current success as a triple bottom line firm. The company’s founder and CEO, with no initial product, distribution, or revenue strategy, sought to develop a company that could provide the marketplace with a valuable product while also staying true to a corporate vision of positively affecting less fortunate people. Our analysis of the case suggests that the founder’s vision, passion, transparent communication, and leveraging of partners’ resources were key elements in building the firm. We draw implications of our case study for the designers of future triple bottom line organizations.

  19. Mechanism of Off—Bottom Suspension of Solid Particles in a Mechanical Stirred Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAOYuyun; HUANGXiongbin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The minimum fluid velocity to maintain particles just suspended was deduced,and the theoretical analysis shows that the minimum velocity is influenced by the properties of the solid and liquid,not by the operational conditions. For justification,the local minimum velocity at the bottom of the tank was measured by a bi-electrode conductivity probe,in a square-sectioned stirred tank (0.75m×0.75m×1.0m) with the glass beads-water system. The experiments showed that the fluid velocities for the same suspension state were identical despite that the power dissipated per unit mass was not the same under different configuration and operation.Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the off-bottom suspension is controlled by the local fluid flow over the bottom of the stirred tank.

  20. SHALLOW SEAWATER DEPTH RETRIEVAL BASED ON BOTTOM CLASSIFICATION FROM REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Lei; ZHANG Ming-bo; ZHANG Ji-xian; ZHENG Zhao-qing; LIN Zong-jian

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing technique,replacing conventional sonar bathymetry technique,has become an effective complementary method of mapping submarine terrain where special conditions make the sonar technique difficult to be carried out.At the same time,as one kind of data set,multispectral remote sensing data has the disadvantage of being influenced by the variable bottom types in shallow seawater,when it is applied in bathymetry.This paper puts forward a new method to extract water depth information from multispectral data,considering the bottom classification and the true water depth accuracy.That is the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique based on the bottom classification.By the least square regression with significance,the experiment near Qingdao City has obtained more satisfactory bathymetry accuracy than that of the traditional single-band method,with the mean absolute error about 2.57m.

  1. Strain Response of Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays for Bottom-Up Reflective Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Ghauch, Ziad G

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the strain response of typical HMA overlays above jointed PCC slabs prone to bottom-up reflective cracking. The occurrence of reflective cracking under the combined effect of traffic and environmental loading significantly reduces the design life of the HMA overlays and can lead to its premature failure. In this context, viscoelastic material properties combined with cyclic vehicle loadings and pavement temperature distribution were implemented in a series of FE models in order to study the evolution of horizontal tensile and shear strains at the bottom of the HMA overlay. The effect of several design parameters, such as subbase and subgrade moduli, vehicle speed, overlay thickness, and temperature condition, on the horizontal and shear strain response was investigated. Results obtained show that the rate of horizontal and shear strain increase at the bottom of the HMA overlay drop with higher vehicle speed, higher subgrade modulus, and higher subbase modulus. Moreover, the rate of horizon...

  2. Co-financing of bottom-up approaches towards Broadband Infrastructure Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    Bottom – up Broadband infrastructure development facilitated by the civil societies and social enterprises are on the increase. However, the problem plaguing the development of these bottom-up approaches in developing countries is the financial capacity to expand their small networks into larger...... networks –leading to the demise of some of these initiatives. This paper proposes co-financing of these networks as a means of sustaining the bottom-up Broadband network. The argument of this paper is anchored on two of developing country cases. One in India and the other in Ghana. One survived with...... financial injection and the other did not due to low revenue. This paper, based on these cases, proposes the utilization and the reintroduction of Universal Service funds in developing countries to aid these small networks. This is a qualitative study, the Grounded Theory approach was used adopted gather...

  3. A model to understand physics of melt coolability under bottom flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents scenarios are prime research areas in the nuclear safety regime after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. During a core melt scenario, melt cooled by flooding it with water from top, which is not very efficient technique. The bottom flooding approach has proven significant reduction in quenching time and came up as efficient method melt coolability. On the basis of earlier experimental results, a model is being developed to understand the complexity of the phenomenon. According to this model, the failure of crust depends on the cumulative effect of various forces viz. steam pressure, forces due to thermal gradients and the forces due to coolant momentum. The physics depicted by this model is in accordance with the experimental results of bottom flooding experiment. This model will be validated with the available experimental data for the bottom flooding experiments. (author)

  4. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfeldt, B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Vehlow, J.;

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution control residues stabilised by means of the Ferrox process can be sager disposed of due to lower contents of soluble salts and lesssoluble heavy metals stabilised in iron oxides. Co-combustion tests in the Karlsruhe test incinerator TAMARA were carried out in order to investigate the...... influence of co-sintering of Ferrox products with bottom ashes on the quality of the residues and the effects on the combustion process. Only few elements showed higher concentrations in the bottom ashes of these co-combustion tests compared to reference tests. No significant effect on the leaching...... behaviour of the bottom ashes could be found. During the co-combustion process an increase in SO2 concentrations in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed....

  5. Intrinsic bottom and its impact on heavy new physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not involve any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. On the other hand, non- perturbative, intrinsic heavy quark parton distributions have been predicted in the literature. We demonstrate that to a very good approximation the scale-evolution of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon is governed by non-singlet evolution equations. This allows to analyze the intrinsic heavy quark distributions without having to resort to a full-fledged global analysis of parton distribution functions. We exploit this freedom to model intrinsic bottom distributions which are so far missing in the literature. We estimate the impact of the non-perturbative contribution to the charm and bottom-quark PDFs and on several important parton-parton luminosities at the LHC.

  6. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    therefore necessary to focus on area-intensive production methods for mussel exploitation. For that purpose bottom culture production of blue mussels is relevant. Despite a long tradition for bottom culturing in Europe the method is still de-pendent on natural conditions, such as recruitment, food...... transplantation tracks. Production of blue mussels in bottom culture beds may impact a smaller area compared to fishery on full-grown mussels from natural mussel beds, and can support an area-intensive production if the bio- mass/production ratio is higher than 0.5...... availability and predation. The major constrains for development of the production method is lack of recruitment to sustain the seed mussel source, and conflicts with nature conservation interests due to negative effects of dredging. The aim of the present PhD project was, therefore, to study how thorough...

  7. Bottom-up learning of hierarchical models in a class of deterministic POMDP environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Hideaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs is a useful tool for developing various intelligent agents, and learning hierarchical POMDP models is one of the key approaches for building such agents when the environments of the agents are unknown and large. To learn hierarchical models, bottom-up learning methods in which learning takes place in a layer-by-layer manner from the lowest to the highest layer are already extensively used in some research fields such as hidden Markov models and neural networks. However, little attention has been paid to bottom-up approaches for learning POMDP models. In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up learning algorithm for hierarchical POMDP models and prove that, by using this algorithm, a perfect model (i.e., a model that can perfectly predict future observations can be learned at least in a class of deterministic POMDP environments

  8. Satellite-based quantification of the bottom trawling induced sediment resuspension over an entire shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, F. J.; Cheriton, O. M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of bottom trawling activities on continental shelves has been a topic of interest for both fishery resource studies and ecological impact studies for a while. However, the impact of demersal fishing gear was almost exclusively studied from a perspective of its effects on benthic fauna, but recently it has also attracted attention due to its profound impact on sediments. Here we present the first study to quantify the trawling-induced sediment resuspension effect by combining satellite-based spatial patterns of bottom trawling with quantitative measurements of induced sediment plumes. This study examined high-resolution GPS vessel monitoring data from one year (2011-2012) to quantify the sedimentary budget caused by bottom trawling activity for the entire NW Iberian shelf, an area that is widely affected by chronic (continuous and intensive) commercial bottom trawling and is exemplary for many other narrow shelves worldwide. By filtering the GPS data by vessel type, vessel speed, and geometry of the trawl path, we resolved geographically detailed bottom trawling activities with varying local trawling intensities depending both on legal restrictions and bedrock geomorphology. Initial results show that trawling-induced resuspended sediments mark a significant if not dominant factor for a source to sink sedimentary budget, as they are calculated to be approximately two times as large as fluvial sedimentary input to the shelf. Ultimately, these results not only allow for a trawling affected sediment budget but also significantly help with marine management decisions by allowing to predict the mobilization and transport of sediment caused by bottom trawling gear at the level of a specific fishing fleet or ecosystem.

  9. Factors affecting bottom trawl catches: Implications for monitoring the fishes of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Adams, J.V.; Stockwell, J.D.; Gorman, O.T.

    2008-01-01

    An annual daytime bottom trawl survey of the Lake Superior fish community designed in 1978 does not adequately assess the entire community. Whereas recent studies have recommended that pelagic species be surveyed with a combination of acoustic and midwater trawling methods (AC-MT), we used bottom trawling to study the effects of depth, diel period, and season on biomass estimates and the sizes of bottom-oriented species. Day and night bottom trawl samples were collected within 48 h at three depths (30, 60, and 120 m) at a Lake Superior site during eight sampling periods that included two seasons each year (early summer and late summer to early fall) for 2 years (2004 and 2005). Depth significantly affected the biomass of seven of the eight species analyzed, while diel period affected the biomass of six species. For most species, average biomass levels were higher at night. The effect of season on biomass was comparatively low (three species were significantly affected). Depth significantly affected the sizes of six bottom-oriented species, as the average length of most species increased with depth. The effects of diel period (three species) and season (one species) on average length were comparatively small. By adding night bottom trawl samples to night AC-MT collections, the entire fish community of Lake Superior can be monitored with a single lakewide survey employing multiple gears. The establishment of offshore sampling (i.e., where depths exceed 80 m) will provide estimates of deepwater species that have been largely undersampled by the 1978-designed survey. We recommend that the present fish community survey be maintained, albeit at a reduced level, until a nighttime survey time series is well established (in 3-5 years).

  10. Constraints on the gluon density from bottom quark and prompt photon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics, gluon-gluon interactions dominate the production of bottom quarks at hadron collider energies, and gluon-quark interactions control inclusive prompt photon production at large transverse momentum in pp collisions at fixed-target energies. Using such data, in conjunction with data from deep inelastic lepton scattering, we determine a new gluon density whose shape differs substantially from that derived from previous fits of data. The new set of parton densities provides a good fit to bottom quark, prompt photon, and deep inelastic data, including the most recent NMC and CCFR results

  11. Nucleon-nucleon interaction with a flat bottom linear confinement potential in the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleon-nucleon interaction is studied in the non-relativistic quark model with a flat bottom linear confinement potential. The results are consistent with the calculated ones from the lattice quantum chromodynamics. The quark-quark interaction also consists of those caused by the one gluon exchange and the one pion exchange. The phenomenological sigma meson exchange between two nucleons is also included to fit the S-wave N-N scattering data. The calculated NN channel S-wave phase shifts show that the flat bottom linear confinement potential can provide part of the medium range attraction

  12. Integrated Assessment of Energy Policies: A Decomposition of Top-Down and Bottom-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph (Univ. of Oldenburg (Germany)); Rutherford, Thomas F. (ETH Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2008-01-15

    The formulation of market equilibrium problems as mixed complementarity problems (MCP) permits integration of bottom-up programming models of the energy system into top-down general equilibrium models of the overall economy. Yet, in practise the MCP approach loses analytical tractability of income effects, when the energy system includes upper and lowrbounds on many decision variables . We therefore advocate the use of complementarity methods to solve only the top-down economic equilibrium model and employ quadratic programming to solve the underlying bottom-up energy supply model. A simple iterative procedure reconciles the equilibrium prices and quantities between both models.

  13. Phosphorus availability from bottom sediments of lakes using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of phosphorus from the bottom sediments of a lake plays an import role in the development of aquatic biota and in the enhancement of eutrophication process. In this work the 31P↔32P isotopic exchange (E values) technique was applied to assess the potential influence of this phosphorus reservoir on the water quality of Acaray and Yguazu Dams, at the Eastern Region of Paraguay. Samples analyzed were taken from the bottom sediments of the water bodies at different sites as well as from the shores. The method is reliable and yields information of ecological significance

  14. Phosphorus availability from bottom sediments of lakes using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of phosphorus from the bottom sediments of a lake plays an import role in the development of aquatic biota and in the enhancement of the eutrophication process. In this work, the 31P-32P isotopic exchange (E values) technique was applied to assess the potential influence of this phosphorus 'reservoir' on the water quality of the Acaray and Yguazu Dams in the Easter Region of Paraguay. Samples analyzed were taken from the bottom sediments of the water body at different sites as well as from the shores. The method is reliable and yields information of potential ecological significance. (author) 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. Interim structural evaluation of pool swell loads on suppression chamber of Peach Bottom Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interim structural evaluation has been conducted to establish the effects of pool swell loads on the suppression chamber system of a typical Mark I plant. The plant selected for the analyses was the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3. In order to provide results in a timely manner, the geometry was adopted from an existing finite element model of a suppression chamber such that the model closely represented, though not identically, the Peach Bottom Plant. A brief summary of the results obtained from the various analyses is presented for the three main structural components of the suppression chamber, i.e., the support columns, the reinforcing ring, and the cylindrical shell

  16. Interim structural evaluation of pool swell loads on suppression chamber of Peach Bottom Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoudakis, J.; Higginbotham, A.B.

    1976-04-01

    An interim structural evaluation has been conducted to establish the effects of pool swell loads on the suppression chamber system of a typical Mark I plant. The plant selected for the analyses was the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3. In order to provide results in a timely manner, the geometry was adopted from an existing finite element model of a suppression chamber such that the model closely represented, though not identically, the Peach Bottom Plant. A brief summary of the results obtained from the various analyses is presented for the three main structural components of the suppression chamber, i.e., the support columns, the reinforcing ring, and the cylindrical shell.

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Bottom Quark Fragmentation in Top Quark Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Gennaro CorcellaEnrico Fermi Ctr., Rome & SNS, Pisa & INFN, Pisa; Federico Mescia(Barcelona U.)

    2015-01-01

    Top-quark physics is one of the main fields of investigation at the Tevatron accelerator and, ultimately, at the LHC. We perform a phenomenological analysis of ttbar events at hadron colliders, with a focus on observables relying on bottom-quark fragmentation in top-quark decay. In particular, we investigate the B-lepton invariant-mass distribution in the dilepton channel and give an estimate of the contribution of bottom fragmentation to the Monte Carlo uncertainty on the top-quark mass reco...

  18. Intense laser beam propagating in a plasma channel with flat-bottom leaky density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation characteristics of an intense laser beam in a preformed plasma channel with the flat-bottom leaky density profile are investigated in detail. The evolution equation of the laser spot size is derived by employing variational technique. Seven propagation modes of the laser spot size are identified and some numerical results are presented. By comparison, we find that the results in this Letter may be more realistic since the flat-bottom leaky plasma channel comes closer to the practical plasma channel.

  19. Degassing of the Black Sea bottom: significance for geological exploration, ecology and navigation

    OpenAIRE

    ШНЮКОВ Е.Ф.; Янко, В. В.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a review of modern ideas about degassing (mainly methane) from the bottom of the Black Sea. The main goal is to describe methane emissions on the sea bottom, to delineate their spatial distribution, and to provide insight into their possible origin as well as their influence on ecosystems and navigation. It is shown that the Black Sea is the largest meromictic basin, waters of which are enriched with methane. As such, the basin holds great promise for new energy sourc...

  20. Copper speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachates; Kopparformer i lakvatten fraan energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna; Gustafsson, Jon Petter [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Schaik, Joris van; Berggren Kleja, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Hees, Patrick van [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The formation of copper (Cu) complexes with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may increase the total amount of Cu released but at the same time reduce its toxicity. In this study, DOC in a MSWI bottom ash leachate was characterized and the Cu-binding properties of different DOC fractions in the ash leachate and in a soil solution were studied. This knowledge may be used for improved environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash in engineering applications. The Cu{sup 2+} activity at different pH values was measured potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode (Cu-ISE). Experimental copper complexation results were compared to speciation calculations made in Visual MINTEQ with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM). The MSWI bottom ash leachate contained a larger proportion of hydrophilic organic carbon than the investigated soil solution and other natural waters. The hydrophilic fraction of both samples showed Cu{sup 2+} binding properties similar to that of the bulk, cation-exchanged, leachate. For the ash leachate, the pH dependence of the Cu activity was not correctly captured by neither the SHM nor the NICA-Donnan model, but for the soil solution the model predictions of Cu speciation were in good agreement with the obtained results. The complex formation properties of the ash DOC appears to be less pH-dependent than what is assumed for DOC in natural waters. Hence, models calibrated for natural DOC may give inconsistent simulations of Cu-DOC complexation in MSWI bottom ash leachate. A Biotic Ligand Model for Daphnia Magna was used to provide an estimate of the copper concentrations at LC50 for a simulated bottom ash leachate. It was concluded that the Cu concentrations in certain bottom ash leachates are high enough to pose an ecotoxicological risk; however, after dilution and soil sorption, the risks for neighboring water bodies are most likely negligible. Three processes were

  1. Nanominerals and nanoparticles in feed coal and bottom ash: implications for human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis F O; da Boit, Kátia M

    2011-03-01

    Environmental and human health risk assessments of nanoparticle effects from coal and bottom ash require thorough characterisation of nanoparticles and their aggregates. In this manuscript, we expand the study of human exposure to nanosized particles from coal combustion sources (typically pyrrhotite formation. The presence of iron oxide nanocrystals mixed with silicate glass particles emphasises the complexity of coal and bottom ash micromineralogy. Given the potentially bioreactive nature of such transition metal-bearing materials, there is likely to be an increased health risk associated with their inhalation. PMID:20422282

  2. A phenomenological study of bottom-quark fragmentation in top-quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcella, Gennaro [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Rome (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Mescia, Federico [Universitat de Barcelona, Departamento d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia (ECM) and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Top-quark physics is one of the main fields of investigation at the Tevatron accelerator and, ultimately, at the LHC. We perform a phenomenological analysis of t anti t events at hadron colliders, with a focus on observables relying on bottom-quark fragmentation in top-quark decay. In particular, we investigate the B-lepton invariant-mass distribution in the dilepton channel and give an estimate of the contribution of bottom fragmentation to the Monte Carlo uncertainty on the top-quark mass reconstruction. (orig.)

  3. Higgs boson production with one bottom quark including higher-order soft-gluon corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Field, B.; Jackson, C.B.(Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA); Reina, L.

    2007-01-01

    A Higgs boson produced in association with one or more bottom quarks is of great theoretical and experimental interest to the high-energy community. A precise prediction of its total and differential cross-section can have a great impact on the discovery of a Higgs boson with large bottom-quark Yukawa coupling, like the scalar (h^0 and H^0) and pseudoscalar (A^0) Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) in the region of large \\tan\\beta. In this paper we apply the thres...

  4. Characterization of MSWI Bottom Ash and Assessment of Resource Recovery Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Šyc, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration contains valuable components that can be recycled as secondary materials, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metals, rare earth elements, glass etc. Metal-free mineral fraction is reusable in construction industry. The composition of bottom ash is highly dependent on the composition of incinerated waste but in average can be around 5–13 % ferrous metals, 2–5 % non-ferrous metals, 15–30 % glass and ceramics, 1–5 % unburned organics and 50–70 % mi...

  5. Non-perturbative bottom PDF and its possible impact on new physics searches

    CERN Document Server

    Kusina, A

    2016-01-01

    Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most PDF analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not include any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. However, a non-perturbative, intrinsic heavy quark PDFs have been predicted in the literature. We demonstrate that to a very good approximation the scale-evolution of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon is governed by non-singlet evolution equations, and use this approximation to model the intrinsic bottom distribution and its impact on parton-parton luminosities at the LHC.

  6. Increased performance in a bottom-up designed robot by experimentally guided redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Using a bottom-up, model-free approach when building robots is often seen as a less scientific way, compared to a top-down model-based approach, because the results are not easily generalizable to other systems. The authors, however, hypothesize that this problem may be addressed by using...... solid experimental methods. The purpose of this paper is to show how well-known experimental methods from bio-mechanics are used to measure and locate weaknesses in a bottom-up, model-free implementation of a quadruped walker and come up with a better solution. Design/methodology/approach – To study the...

  7. Fast and bottom-up object detection, segmentation, and evaluation using gestalt principles

    OpenAIRE

    Kootstra G.; Kragic D.

    2011-01-01

    In many scenarios, domestic robot will regularly encounter unknown objects. In such cases, top-down knowledge about the object for detection, recognition, and classification cannot be used. To learn about the object, or to be able to grasp it, bottom-up object segmentation is an important competence for the robot. Also when there is top-down knowledge, prior segmentation of the object can improve recognition and classification. In this paper, we focus on the problem of bottom-up detection and...

  8. Observations of near-bottom currents in Bornholm Basin, Slupsk Furrow and Gdansk Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulczak, A. I.; Rak, D.; Schmidt, B.; Beldowski, J.

    2016-06-01

    Dense bottom currents are responsible for transport of the salty inflow waters from the North Sea driving ventilation and renewal of Baltic deep waters. This study characterises dense currents in three deep locations of the Baltic Proper: Bornholm Basin (BB), Gdansk Basin (GB) and Slupsk Furrow (SF). These locations are of fundamental importance for the transport and pollution associated with chemical munitions deposited in BB and GB after 2nd World War. Of further importance the sub-basins are situated along the pathway of dense inflowing water.Current velocities were measured in the majority of the water column during regular cruises of r/v Oceania and r/v Baltica in 2001-2012 (38 cruises) by 307 kHz vessel mounted (VM), downlooking ADCP. Additionally, the high-resolution CTD and oxygen profiles were collected. Three moorings measured current velocity profiles in SF and GB over the summer 2012. In addition, temperature, salinity, oxygen and turbidity were measured at about 1 m above the bottom in GB. The results showed that mean current speed across the Baltic Proper was around 12 cm s-1 and the stronger flow was characteristic to the regions located above the sills, in the Bornholm and Slupsk Channels, reaching on average about 20 cm s-1. The results suggest that these regions are important for the inflow of saline waters into the eastern Baltic and are the areas of intense vertical mixing. The VM ADCP observations indicate that the average near-bottom flow across the basin can reach 35±6 cm s-1. The mooring observations also showed similar near-bottom flow velocities. However, they showed that the increased speed of the near-bottom layer occurred frequently in SF and GB during short time periods lasting for about few to several days or 10-20% of time. The observations showed that the bottom mixed layer occupies at least 10% of the water column and the turbulent mixing induced by near-bottom currents is likely to produce sediment resuspension and transport

  9. Mechanical performance test of GFRP dewar with spherical bottom for SQUID-MEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GFRP vessel for a multichannel SQUID-MEG has been constructed and its mechanical properties have been studied. The tail of the GFRP vessel consists of a spherically indented bottom plate, 120 mm radius of curvature, 170 mm inner diameter, and 3 mm in thickness. The deformation behaviour of the spherical part of the bottom plate has been modelled using a finite element method. It has also been measured experimentally at room temperature. The analytical and experimental results are in agreement. It appears that the vessel is fractured by interlaminar shear stresses generated in the materials

  10. TMS-induced theta phase synchrony reveals a bottom-up network in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Eri; Kitajo, Keiichi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2016-05-27

    Global theta phase synchronization between the frontal and sensory areas has been suggested to connect the relevant areas for executive processes of working memory (WM). However, little is known regarding network directionality (i.e. top-down or bottom-up) of this interaction. To address the issue, the present study conducted transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-electroencephalography (EEG) experiment during WM tasks. Results showed that TMS-induced increases in theta phase synchronization were observed only when TMS was delivered to the sensory areas but not the frontal area. These findings suggest that network directionality represented in WM is bottom-up rather than top-down. PMID:27063284

  11. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA AS INDICATORS OF PALEOECOLOGICAL BOTTOM CONDITIONS IN THE SERRAVALLIAN TREMITI SECTIONS (EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA RUSSO

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of  benthic foraminifera from the Serravallian S. Nicola composite section (Tremiti Islands, Adriatic Sea and about 37 m thick, pointed out changes of bottom paleoecological conditions in this eastern Mediterranean area during the analyzed time interval. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are typical of bathyal environment and indicate a constant paleobathymetry of about 1,000 m. Changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblages allowed us to identify five intervals,  which were calibrated on the astrochronological scale to reconstruct paleoecological evolution of bottom conditions. In particular starting from the base of the section the following different bottom conditions have been identified: 1 between about 12.62  to about 12.29 Ma high surface productivity, active bottom water circulation and, consequently, moderate bottom food supply; this paleoenvironment slightly changed  between about 12.49 and 12.29 Ma, where benthic assemblages testify unstable bottom conditions with periods of active circulation (relative abundance of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, alternated with periods of sluggish circulation  (peaks of Bulimina subulata group; 2 relatively oxygenated paleoenvironment together with low food supply between about  12.29 - 12.08 Ma; 3 increase of organic matter content (abundance of  U. peregrina-pygmaea, due to higher surface productivity and/or greater preservation of organic matter at bottom from 12.08 to 11.81 Ma; 4 relatively oxygenated conditions with low food supply from 11.81 to about 11.45 Ma; 5 similar conditions to those of the basal part (about 12.62  - 12.29 Ma of the section from about 11.45 to 11.10 Ma, but with an increase of organic matter content. Finally, the comparison between the paleoecological reconstruction of the S. Nicola composite section and Ras il-Pellegrin (Malta composite section (reported in this volume in  the interval between about 12.6 and 12.2 Ma, pointed out very different

  12. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    OpenAIRE

    Etiénne Groot; Luis M. Albisu

    2015-01-01

    Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function p...

  13. MELCOR code analysis of a severe accident LOCA at Peach Bottom Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design-basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) has been analyzed for the Peach Bottom atomic station unit 2 using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.1. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate best-estimate times for the important events of this accident sequence and best-estimate source terms. Calculated pressures and temperatures at the beginning of the transient have been compared to results from the Peach Bottom final safety analysis report (FSAR). MELCOR-calculated source terms have been compared to source terms reported in the NUREG-1465 draft

  14. Researches on the distribution law of vector sound field in elastic wedge bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haigang; PIAO Shengchun; YANG Shi'e; AN Xudong

    2011-01-01

    The method based on elastic parabolic equation method for calculating the sound vector field has been studied. The vector field in water and corresponding seismic wave field had been calculated for infra-sound in oceanic environment with elastic wedge bottom. The effects on sound field distribution for different frequency and depth of sound source had been researched, result shows that there is sound energy leakage into the bottom, the position where leakage occurred can be determined by the ratio of the ocean depth to the wavelength, as compared with normal mode theory.

  15. Modelling and Measurements of Bunch Profiles at the LHC Flat Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Stefania; Muller, Juan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Trad, Georges

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC flat bottom the interplay between a series of effects (i.e. intrabeam scattering, longitudinal beam manipulations, non-linearities of the machine, etc) can lead to a population of the tails of the beam distributions, which may become non-Gaussian. This paper presents observations of the evolution of particle distributions in the LHC flat bottom. Novel distribution functions are employed to represent the beam profiles, and used as a guideline for generalising emittance growth rate estimations due to IBS. Finally, an attempt is made to benchmark an IBS Monte-Carlo simulation code, able to track 3D particle distributions, with the measured beam profile evolutions.

  16. Phytotoxic effects of bottom sediments from Ignalina NPP wastewater canals and cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper impact of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) waste upon phytotoxicity of sediments from Lake Drukshiai was recognized. Samples of bottom sediments were collected from various wastewater canals of INPP, from the canal of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), small lake and rivulet, which are on the route of that wastes into Drukshiai. In 1995, 132 sites of Drukshiai were observed in order to assess the phytotoxicity of its bottom sediments. The research was carried out in July of 1993-2000. Number of somatic mutations (pink, colourless and morphological) and nonviable stamen hairs (the quantity of whose indicates lethality, when hair contains less than 12 cells) in Tradescantia (clone 02) stamen hair (SH) system was counted. Genotoxic effect of bottom sediments on Tradescantia was estimated according to Sparrow et al. (1972) and Marciulioniene et al. (1996). Genotoxic effects were considered weak if amount of somatic mutations not exceeded 1%, there were no non-viable stamen hairs, and medium effect was when the number of somatic mutations was between 1.0-4.0% and non-viable stamen hairs did not reach 40,0%. As well as strong effect was when numbers of somatic mutations and non-viable stamen hairs exceeding 4.0% and 40.0%, respectively. L. sativum is a rather sensitive, widely applied biotest because of its simplicity, cheapness and short duration. This test based on Magone (1989) method and lasted for 48 hours, after which time the seeds germination and root length of seedlings was measured. Tested bottom sediments causing percent inhibitions of 100-60%, 61-40%, 41-20%, and 20-0% were classified as highly toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic and non-toxic, respectively. Estimations in both cases were run in triplicates. The data were estimated using the analysis of variance with significance defined at α = 0,05. It was established that in accordance with the phytotoxic impact, the wastes discharged by INPP into Drukshiai in 1993-2000 are attributed

  17. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. They notice that the leaching of salts and metals to ground water constitutes the largest risk for the environment during use of bottom ash. Therefore, a quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash (at first hand leaching properties) earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by Sysav. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables. the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and longterm leaching properties. how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements. how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish

  18. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm (HG) presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. A quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by the Sysav company. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate: pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables; the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and long term leaching properties; how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements; how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish incineration plants indicates that the availability of elements such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash usually is below Sysav's target values. Extreme values

  19. Measurement of the top quark properties in the production and decays of top anti-top pair events at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Poyraz, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of several top-quark properties obtained from CMS data collected at various centre-of-mass energies are presented. The results include measurements of the top pair charge asymmetry, $\\textrm{t}\\bar{\\textrm{t}}$ spin correlation, CP violation and the cross section of $\\textrm{t}\\bar{\\textrm{t}}$ events produced in association with a W or a Z boson. The results are compared with predictions from the standard model as well as new physics models.

  20. Inclusive and differential top anti-top cross-section measurements with the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera Urban, Susana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A review of selected top physics results obtained with LHC Run 1 data from the ATLAS and CMS experiments is presented. This parallel contribution will focus on results related inclusive and differential cross section measurements in the Top quark pair production.

  1. Search for Scalar Bottom Quark Pair Production with the ATLAS Detector in pp Collisions at s=7TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.

    2012-05-01

    The results of a search for pair production of the scalar partners of bottom quarks in 2.05fb-1 of pp collisions at s=7TeV using the ATLAS experiment are reported. Scalar bottom quarks are searched for in events with large missing transverse momentum and two jets in the final state, where both jets are identified as originating from a bottom quark. In an R-parity conserving minimal supersymmetric scenario, assuming that the scalar bottom quark decays exclusively into a bottom quark and a neutralino, 95% confidence-level upper limits are obtained in the b˜1-χ˜10 mass plane such that for neutralino masses below 60 GeV scalar bottom masses up to 390 GeV are excluded.

  2. The life cycle of bottom-up ideas : case studies of the companies where the simulation game method was applied

    OpenAIRE

    Forssén, Minna

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to study the life cycle of the incremental "bottom-up" ideas, which concern process and organizational matters. According to earlier studies, bottom-up ideas are not always successfully used and managed and as well there exists need for more study on organizational and process innovations. It is therefore useful to study this phenomenon more and gain more information about how organizations manage the development and implementation of these bottom-up ideas. ...

  3. An integrated top-down and bottom-up strategy for characterization protein isoforms and modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Si; Tolic, Nikola; Tian, Zhixin; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2011-04-15

    Bottom-up and top-down strategies are two commonly used methods for mass spectrometry (MS) based protein identification; each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this chapter, we describe an integrated top-down and bottom-up approach facilitated by concurrent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis and fraction collection for comprehensive high-throughput intact protein profiling. The approach employs a high resolution reversed phase (RP) LC separation coupled with LC eluent fraction collection and concurrent on-line MS with a high field (12 Tesla) Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Protein elusion profiles and tentative modified protein identification are made using detected intact protein mass in conjunction with bottom-up protein identifications from the enzymatic digestion and analysis of corresponding LC fractions. Specific proteins of biological interest are incorporated into a target ion list for subsequent off-line gas-phase fragmentation that uses an aliquot of the original collected LC fraction, an aliquot of which was also used for bottom-up analysis.

  4. Questioning the effectiveness of technical measures implemented by the Basque bottom otter trawl fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alzorriz, N.; Arregi, L.; Herrmann, B.; Sistiaga, M.; Casey, J.; Poos, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The selective properties of a bottom trawl fitted with a 70 mm diamond mesh codend and a 100 mm top square mesh panel (SMP) for hake (Merluccius merluccius), pouting (Trisopterus luscus and Trisopterus minutus) and red mullet (Mullus surmuletus) were investigated over the period 2011-2013. The ex

  5. Direct fired reciprocating engine and bottoming high temperature fuel cell hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Holcombe, Norman T.

    2006-02-07

    A system of a fuel cell bottoming an internal combustion engine. The engine exhaust gas may be combined in varying degrees with air and fed as input to a fuel cell. Reformer and oxidizers may be combined with heat exchangers to accommodate rich and lean burn conditions in the engine in peaking and base load conditions without producing high concentrations of harmful emissions.

  6. Diagnosing the Bottom of the Vertical Tank, a Device Based on the Phased Acoustic Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezborodov, Yu; Selsky, A.; Lysyannikova, N.; Kravtsova, Ye; Lysyannikov, A.; Shram, V.; Kaiser, Yu; Merko, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a decision on the creation of a specialized low-frequency flaw detector operating on acoustic phased arrays. A defectoscope will solve the problem of oil leakage through diagnostics of installation or operational defects of the bottom base metal sheets that are difficult to detect by conventional methods of testing due to a large area of the object.

  7. Operating history report for the Peach Bottom HTGR. Volume I. Reactor operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating history for the Peach Bottom-1 Reactor is presented for the years 1966 through 1975. Information concerning general chemistry data, general physics data, location of sensing elements in the primary helium circuit, and postirradiation examination and testing of reactor components is presented

  8. Open bottom states and the anti-B meson propagation in hadronic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Rincon, Juan M; Romanets, Olena

    2014-01-01

    The interaction and propagation of anti-B mesons with light mesons, N and Delta baryons is studied within a unitarized approach based on effective models that are compatible with chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We find several heavy-quark spin doublets in the open-bottom sectors, where anti-B and anti-B* mesons are present. In the meson sector we find several resonant states, among them, a B0 and a B1 with masses 5530 MeV and 5579 MeV as well as Bs0* and Bs1* narrow states at 5748 MeV and 5799 MeV, respectively. They form two doublets with no experimental identification yet, the first one being the bottom counterpart of the D0(2400) and D1(2430) states, and the second bottom doublet associated to the ubiquitous Ds0* (2317) and the Ds1 (2460). In the baryon sector, several Lambda_b and Sigma_b doublets are identified, among them the one given by the experimental Lambda_b(5910) and Lambda*_b(5921). Moreover, one of our states, the Sigma_b*(5904), turns out to be the bottom counterpart of the Sigma*(1670) and...

  9. Distribution of Some Rare Elements in the Bottom Sediments in the Water Rese

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spanilá, Tamara; Šťastný, Martin; Šrein, Vladimír; Sýkorová, Ivana; Daněk, Vilém

    Tallaahassee: Florida State University, 2001, s. -. [International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe/5./. Praha (CZ), 12.09.2000-14.09.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : bottom sediments * contaminant * deposition processes Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  10. Experimental and numerical modelling of flow around the obstacles placed on a channel bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Hoření, Bohumír

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with an application of integral equations on a wake flow. Two square cylinders oriented perpendicularly to flow direction are placed on the bottom of an open channel. The results of integral method are compared with LDA measurements and with Fluent k-? simulation. Besides the averaged results that offers Fluent simulation, the integral method can also simultae dynamical properties of the flow

  11. Accumulation and potential dissolution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in river bottom sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Yukihisa E-mail: sanada@tokai.jnc.go.jp; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Nagao, Seiya; Amano, Hikaru; Takada, Hideshige; Tkachenko, Yuri

    2002-05-01

    Areas contaminated with radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident have been identified in Pripyat River near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The river bottom sediment cores contained {sup 137}Cs (10{sup 5}- 10{sup 6} Bq/m{sup 2}) within 0-30 cm depth, whose concentration is comparable to that in the ground soil in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant (the Exclusion Zone). The sediment cores also accumulated {sup 90}Sr (10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 2}), {sup 239,240}Pu (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) and {sup 241}Am (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) derived from the accident. Several nuclear fuel particles have been preserved at 20-25 cm depth that is the peak area of the concentrations of the radionuclides. Th ese inventories in the bottom sediments were compared with those of the released radionuclides during the accident. An analysis using a selective sequential extraction technique was applied for the radionuclides in the sediments. Results suggest that the possibility of release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from the bottom sediment was low compared with {sup 90}Sr. The potential dissolution and subsequent transport of {sup 90}Sr from the river bottom sediment should be taken into account with respect to the long-term radiological influence on the aquatic environment.

  12. Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai

    2016-04-01

    Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9–14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the southern SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography.

  13. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of crystal violet in bottom ash column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiya Veetil Nidheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described adsorption of Crystal Violet (CV by bottom ash in fixed-bed column mode. Equilibrium of adsorption was studied in batch mode for finding adsorption capacity of bottom ash. In fixed bed column adsorption, the effects of bed height, feed flow rate, and initial concentration were studied by assessing breakthrough curve. The slope of the breakthrough curve decreased with increasing bed height. The breakthrough time and exhaustion time were decreased with increasing influent CV concentration and flow rates. The effect of bed depth, flow rate and CV concentration on the adsorption column design parameters were analyzed. Bed depth service time (BDST model was applied for analysis of crystal violet adsorption in the column. The adsorption capacity of bottom ash was calculated at 10% breakthrough point for different flow rates and concentrations. Desorption studies reveals that recovery of CV from bottom ash was effective by using CH3COOH than H2SO4, NaOH, HCl and NaCl solutions.

  14. Bottom-Up Molecular Tunneling Junctions Formed by Self-Assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanxi; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Fracasso, Davide; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    This Minireview focuses on bottom-up molecular tunneling junctions - a fundamental component of molecular electronics - that are formed by self-assembly. These junctions are part of devices that, in part, fabricate themselves, and therefore, are particularly dependent on the chemistry of the molecul

  15. Crop domestication relaxes both top-down and bottom-up effects on a specialist herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop domestication can lead to a wide array of differences in plant traits when compared with those of wild progenitors. These modifications often increase the susceptibility of domestic plants to herbivores and at the same time reduce the efficiency of natural enemies, thereby relaxing both bottom-...

  16. Ways toward a European Vocational Education and Training Space: A "Bottom-Up" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blings, Jessica; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to concentrate on bottom-up approaches in order to promote a European vocational education and training (VET) concept. The overall aim of this article is to demonstrate that sophisticated approaches still have a chance of becoming common practice in European countries. Design/methodology/approach: The centre of the…

  17. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., stringers, and bottom plating, must be designed under this section. (b) Local pressures. For the design of... position and with no slipstream effect; and V S 0=seaplane stalling speed with landing flaps extended in the appropriate position and with no slipstream effect; and β=angle of dead rise at...

  18. 76 FR 52313 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico: Postponement of Preliminary Determinations of Antidumping Duty Investigations AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  19. Generalized Mean-Flow Theory of Wave-Current-Bottom Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between waves, currents and bottoms in estuarine and coastal regions is ubiquitious, in particular the dynamic mechanism of waves on large-scale slowly varying currents. The wave action concept may be extended and applicated to the study of the mechanism. Considering the effects of moving bottoms and starting from the Navier-Stokes equation of motion of a viscous fluid including the Coriolis force, a generalized mean-flow model theory for the nearshore region, that is, a set of mean-flow equations and their generalized wave action equation involving the three new kinds of actions termed respectively as the current wave action, the bottom wave action and the dissipative wave action which can be applied to arbitrary depth over moving bottoms and ambient currents with a typical vertical structure, is developed by vertical integration and time-averaging over a wave period, thus extending the classical concept, wave action, from the ideal averaged flow conservative system to the real averaged flow dissipative dynamical system, and having a large range of application.

  20. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, W.M.; Ribberink, J.S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under pr

  1. Calculations of the gas-dynamic parameters in the bottom part of a tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prof. Sergej P. Bautin proposed and justified a new scheme of the origin and functioning of natural upward flows such as swirling tornadoes and tropical cyclones. All gasdynamic parameters in the bottom parts of tornadoes with various intensities have been calculated in this work on the basis of this scheme using data from the Fujita scale

  2. Search for neutral Higgs bosons in events with multiple bottom quarks at the Tevatron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 9 (2012), "091101-1"-"091101-10". ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : D0 * Fermilab Higgs particle * associated production * minimal supersymmetric standard model * parameter space * bottom * multiple product Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.691, year: 2012

  3. Carbon speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in relation to facilitated metal leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    The release of inorganic and organic contaminants from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is controlled to a large extent by the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and in particular by the reactive humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) subfractions of DOC. The properties of organ

  4. A Visual Inspection System Development for the Reactor Vessel Bottom-mounted Instrument Penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2003, South Texas Project Unit 1 made a surprising discovery of boron acid leakage from two nozzles from a bare-metal examination of the reactor vessel bottom-mounted instrument penetrations during a routine refueling outage. A small powdery substance about 150mg was found on the outside of two instrument guide penetration nozzles on the bottom of the reactor. The primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors has caused cracking in penetrations with Alloy 600 through a process called primary water stress corrosion cracking. In South Korea, it is scheduled to conduct visual inspection of the outside of instrument guide penetration nozzles on the bottom of PWRs to confirm the integrity of reactor vessel. Inside the bottom head of KSNP, 45 penetration nozzles with the radius of about 7.5cm are mounted. The height of the nozzle located on the center is about 6 and the minimum distance between the nozzles is about 20 cm. In order to inspect the possible leakage of boron acid, two mobile robots are developed and described in this paper

  5. Top-Down or Bottom-Up? Coping with Territorial Fragmentation in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Illner, Michal

    Houndmills, Basingstoke: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN, 2010 - (Baldersheim, H.; Lawrence, E.), s. 214-233 ISBN 978-0-230-23333-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech Republic * municipalities * bottom-up consolidation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  6. Conciliating TOP-DOWN and BOTTOM-UP approaches in Websites quality evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Biscoglio, Isabella; Trentanni, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    Websites are the most important media of our times. Consequently a method which allows us to better evaluate websites quality is priceless. In this paper two websites evaluation opposite approaches, namely "bottom-up" and "top-down", are compared and an hypothesis of their meeting in the middle is shown.

  7. Leaching kinetics of bottom ash waste as a source of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koech, Lawrence; Everson, Ray; Neomagus, Hein; Rutto, Hilary

    2015-02-01

    Bottom ash is a waste material from coal-fired power plants, and it is known to contain elements that are potentially toxic at high concentration levels when disposed in landfills. This study investigates the use of bottom ash as a partial substitute sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes by focusing on its leaching kinetics in adipic acid. This was studied basing on the shrinking core model that was applied to the experimental data obtained by the authors presented at the International Conference on Industrial, Manufacturing, Automation and Mechanical Engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 27-28, 2013) on dissolution of bottom ash. The leaching rate constant was obtained from different reaction variables, namely, temperature, pH, acid concentration, and solid-to-liquid ratio, that could affect the leaching process. The solid sample of bottom ash was characterized at different leaching periods using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that solid-to-liquid ratio had a significant effect on the leaching rate constant when compared with other variables. The leaching kinetics showed that diffusion through the product layer was the rate-controlling step during leaching, and the activation energy for the process was found to be 18.92 kJ/mol. PMID:25947048

  8. Bottom-up control of water hyacinth weevil populations: Do the plants regulate the insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key measure of dietary sufficiency relates to an insect’s reproductive ability so oögenesis, a nutrient-limited process, can be subject to bottom-up regulation. We hypothesized that aquatic nutrient flux seasonally affects ovarian development thereby controlling population growth of two specialis...

  9. Nanoelectronics: the Hall Effect and Measurement of Electrochemical Potentials by «Bottom-Up» Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Kruglyak; P.A. Kondratenko; Yu.М. Lopatkin

    2015-01-01

    Classical and quantum Hall effects, measurement of electrochemical potentials, the Landauer formulas and Buttiker formula, measurement of Hall potential, an account of magnetic field in the NEGF method, quantum Hall effect, Landau method, and edge states in graphene are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  10. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (zero water absorption. The research demonstrates the potential to beneficially up-cycle the fine incinerator bottom ash dust from dry discharge technology into a raw material suitable for the production of ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications. PMID:26060195

  11. Oriented bottom-up growth of armchair graphene nanoribbons on germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2016-03-15

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a scalable, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of the germanium is used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals along the [110] directions of the germanium.

  12. Transport of Antarctic bottom water through the Kane Gap, tropical NE Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morozov, E.G.; Tarakanov, R.Y.; van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study low-frequency properties of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents on a mooring using th

  13. "Race to the Bottom" or "Race to Brussels"? : Environmental Competition in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Holzinger, Katharina; Sommerer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The theory of regulatory competition in environmental policy predicts a 'race to the bottom' of standards. The article tests the theory for the first time directly using environmental out-put data for 24 countries over a period of 35 years. It finds a clear 'race to the top' which be partly explained by the search for international harmonisation when competition is imminent.

  14. Outcast labour in Asia: circulation and informalization of the workforce at the bottom of the economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Breman

    2010-01-01

    Written over the last ten years, these essays focus on labor at the bottom of the rural economy, lacking social, economic, and political wherewithal, and their struggles to find a foothold in the urban economy. The author draws on his fieldwork from India, Indonesia, and China. The volume demonstrat

  15. PIV measurements of the bottom boundary layer under nonlinear surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A. J H M; Ruessink, B. G.; Stive, M. J F

    2014-01-01

    Sediment in the nearshore is largely mobilized in the wave bottom boundary layer (wbbl) hereby emphasizing the importance of this relatively thin layer to nearshore morphology. This paper presents a laboratory experiment where hydrodynamic properties of the wbbl were quantified by measuring flow vel

  16. Flow measurement in a Joule-heating cavity with sloping bottom by using ultrasonic velocity profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow behavior in a sloping bottom cavity is observed to study the effect of cavity shape on flow behavior. In the post study, a simple cubic cavity is applied to study the chaotic flow behavior of Joule-heating convection due to simplification. In this study, a sloping bottom cavity of the dimension one-fifth of the actual melter is applied to study the detail flow behavior. Carbon electrodes and top cooling surface are placed to make Joule-heating and the chaotic flow behavior. The working fluid is 80%wt Glycerol-water solution with LiCl as electrolyte. To observe the chaotic flow behavior spatio-temporally, Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) is applied in this experiment to obtain the one-dimensional continuous velocity profiles in the center line of cavity. Particle Image Velocity (PIV) method is also applied to observe the two-dimensional flow behavior and to examine the cross-check between UVP and PIV for the chaotic flow behavior with temperature distribution. The flow profile between past cubic cavity and sloping bottom cavity when voltage magnitude or the temperature of cooling side are changed is compared to analyze the effect of cavity shape in Joule-heating cavity. The flow behavior in the sloping bottom cavity is similar to that in the cubic cavity in the experiment in whole cavity, but just observe the top of the sloping cavity, the range down-flow achieved is larger than the cubic cavity. (author)

  17. Depth to crustal magnetic bottom. Examples using aeromagnetic data across north Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A detailed study to estimate magnetic bottom depths under north Queensland has been made using the continent-wide high-resolution airborne total magnetic intensity (TMI) data of Australia (a source dataset for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, WDMAM). Magnetisation of the lithosphere is generally assumed not significant below the Moho crust/mantle boundary due to compositional changes. However, in regions of high temperatures in the lower crust, this bottom-depth of magnetisation may be significantly above the Moho depths due to temperatures in excess of the Curie-point isotherm of the dominant magnetic mineralogy. This study uses modelling of the azimuthally averaged log of the power spectrum of TMI data to determine bottom depths. Two methods are considered and compared: slope-fitting and automated fitting of full spectral data. Several issues in successfully using these methods have been addressed, such as magnetisation type, size of data window, location of spectral peak, sensitivities of the spectral parameters and the choice of optimisation algorithm. The TMI data have an initial grid resolution of 80 m, with an appropriate IGRF removed. These data are reduced to the pole, upward continued 1 km, sub-sampled to a 1 km grid spacing and a first order polynominal trend removed prior to the spectral analysis. Calculated magnetic bottom depths are compared both with published data on the depth to Moho and with other model interpretations of the area including heat flow modelling.

  18. Nanoelectronics: the Hall Effect and Measurement of Electrochemical Potentials by «Bottom-Up» Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kruglyak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical and quantum Hall effects, measurement of electrochemical potentials, the Landauer formulas and Buttiker formula, measurement of Hall potential, an account of magnetic field in the NEGF method, quantum Hall effect, Landau method, and edge states in graphene are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  19. How Adolescents Comprehend Unfamiliar Proverbs: The Role of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between word knowledge and proverb comprehension was examined in 150 typically achieving adolescents (ages 12, 15, and 18). Word knowledge was associated with proverb comprehension in all groups, particularly in the case of abstract proverbs. Results support a model of proverb comprehension in adolescents that includes bottom-up in…

  20. Biomixing generated by benthic filterfeeders: A diffusion model for near-bottom phytoplankton depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel Larsen, Poul; Riisgård, H.U.

    1997-01-01

    polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, respectively. The model is based on sinks located at inhalant openings and Fick's law with an effective diffusivity that decreases with distance above the bottom due to the biomixing generated by exhalant and inhalant feeding currents. For N...