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Sample records for anti-thymocyte globulin equine

  1. Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction in renal transplantation: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andress L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah Andress,1 Anjali Gupta,2 Nida Siddiqi,3 Kwaku Marfo2,3 1University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Buffalo, 2Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Department of Abdominal Organ Transplant Program, Bronx, 3Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG has proven benefit as induction therapy in renal transplant recipients, achieving reduced acute rejection rates and better short-term allograft function, with slightly higher rates of complications such as infections and malignancy. Compared with other agents, the most benefit from rATG induction has been observed in renal transplant recipients at high immunologic risk for rejection. However, in special populations, such as pediatrics, the elderly, and hepatitis C-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-positive renal transplant recipients, additional information is needed to delineate the absolute benefit of rATG induction compared with other induction agents. Selection of rATG as the choice of induction therapy in renal transplant recipients should be guided by a cost-effective approach in balancing efficacy, safety, and cost. This review summarizes the published literature on efficacy, safety, and cost of rATG induction in renal transplantation. Keywords: anti-thymocyte globulin, renal transplantation, induction therapy

  2. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide versus anti-thymocyte globulin as graft- versus-host disease prophylaxis in haploidentical transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Annalisa; Sun, Yuqian; Labopin, Myriam; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Lorentino, Francesca; Arcese, William; Santarone, Stella; Gülbas, Zafer; Blaise, Didier; Messina, Giuseppe; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshi; Malard, Florent; Bruno, Benedetto; Diez-Martin, Jose Luis; Koc, Yener; Ciceri, Fabio; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2017-01-01

    Severe graft-versus-host disease is a major barrier for non-T-cell-depleted haploidentical stem cell transplantation. There is no consensus on the optimal graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. This study compared the two most commonly used graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimens (post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based vs. the anti-thymocyte globulin-based) in adults with acute myeloid leukemia reported to the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation. A total of 308 patients were analyzed; 193 received post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen and 115 anti-thymocyte globulin-based regimen as anti-graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. The post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen was more likely to be associated to bone marrow as graft source (60% vs. 40%; P=0.01). Patients in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group had significantly less grade 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group (5% vs. 12%, respectively; P=0.01), comparable to chronic graft-versus-host disease. Multivariate analysis showed that non-relapse mortality was lower in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group [22% vs. 30%, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.77(95%CI: 1.09–2.86); P=0.02] with no difference in relapse incidence. Patients receiving post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen had better graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival [HR 1.45 (95%CI: 1.04–2.02); P=0.03] and leukemia-free survival [HR 1.48 (95%CI: 1.03–2.12); P=0.03] than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. In the multivariate analysis, there was also a trend for a higher overall survival [HR 1.43 (95%CI: 0.98–2.09); P=0.06] for post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen versus the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. Notably, center experience was also associated with non-relapse mortality and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival. Haplo-SCT using a post

  3. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose) and prepa......Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation...

  4. Opportunistic virus DNA levels after pediatric stem cell transplantation: serostatus matching, anti-thymocyte globulin, and total body irradiation are additive risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg-Lindh, C; Mellgren, K; Friman, V; Fasth, A; Ascher, H; Nilsson, S; Lindh, M

    2011-04-01

    Viral opportunistic infections remain a threat to survival after stem cell transplantation (SCT). We retrospectively investigated infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6), or adenovirus (AdV) during the first 6-12 months after pediatric SCT. Serum samples from 47 consecutive patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. DNAemia at any time point occurred for CMV in 47%, for EBV in 45%, for HHV6 in 28%, and for AdV in 28%. Three patients (6.3%) died of CMV-, EBV-, or AdV-related complications 4, 9, and 24 weeks after SCT, respectively, representing 21% of total mortality. These 3 cases were clearly distinguishable by DNAemia increasing to high levels. Serum positivity for CMV immunoglobulin G in either recipient or donor at the time of SCT, total body irradiation, and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning were independent risk factors for high CMV or EBV DNA levels. We conclude that DNAemia levels help to distinguish significant viral infections, and that surveillance and prophylactic measures should be focused on patients with risk factors in whom viral complications rapidly can become fatal.

  5. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM...... for measuring Gc-globulin in horses. Studies in rodents and humans have shown that Gc-globulin is a multifunctional acute phase plasma protein, which removes actin from the blood by binding it and facilitating its clearance from the circulation by the liver. As such, Gc-globulin prevents hyper coagulation......-globulin infusions. Reference List    1.   Vasconcellos CA and Lind SE. Coordinated inhibition of actin-induced platelet aggregation by plasma gelsolin and vitamin D-binding protein. Blood 1993;82:3648-3657....

  6. Transgenic rabbits that overexpress the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn generate higher quantities and improved qualities of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Baranyi

    Full Text Available Immune suppression with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG is a well-established therapeutic concept for preventing host rejection of transplanted organs and graft versus host disease. Increasing the efficiency of rATG production by reducing the number of animals would be highly beneficial to lower cost and to improve quality standards. We have developed transgenic (Tg mice and rabbits that overexpress the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn and have shown an augmented humoral immune response in these animals. To test whether our FcRn Tg rabbits produced rATG more efficiently, we immunized them and their New Zealand White controls with live Jurkat cells. By day 21 after immunization, Tg animals produced significantly, 1.5 times higher amount of total IgG compared to their wt littermates. Also, the binding efficiency of Tg sera to Jurkat cells and their complement-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly higher. The purified Tg IgG preparation contained 2.6 the amount of Jurkat specific IgG as the wt preparation analyzed by complement-mediated lysis, suggesting greater antigen-specific B cell activation in the Tg rabbits. To test this hypothesis, immunization with ovalbumin and human α1-antitrypsin was performed, resulting in significantly greater numbers of antigen-specific B-cells in the FcRn Tg rabbits as compared with wt controls. The shift towards significantly larger populations of antigen-specific B cells relative to the non-specific B cell pool is further corroborated by our previous findings in FcRn Tg mice. Consequently, our FcRn Tg rabbits have the potential to offer substantial qualitative and quantitative improvements for the production of rATG and other polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.

  7. Comparison between spousal donor transplantation treated with anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy and, living related donor transplantation treated with standard immunosuppression

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    Erkan Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide shortage of organs available for transplantation has led to the use of living-unrelated kidney donors. In this context, spouses represent an important source of organ donors. We compared the allograft outcomes of spousal donor transplantation (SDT with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG induction therapy and living related donor transplantation (LRDT with triple immonosuppression and basiliximab, in addition. Among the 335 living and deceased donor kidney transplantations performed between April 2001 and June 2010, there were 274 living donor kidney transplantations including 34 SDT and 240 LRDT. The minimum follow-up period was 36 months. All recipients of SDT received ATG (1.5 mg/kg induction therapy, which was stopped five to seven days after surgery. Maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus (TAC, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and prednisolone. LRDT recipients received triple immunosuppressive protocol consisting of cyclosporine or TAC, MMF and prednisolone, in addition to basiliximab. There was a significant difference between the two groups in recipient age, while pre-operative duration on dialysis, recipient sex and donor age and sex were not significantly different. There was also a significant difference between the two groups in the number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of SDT were 94.1%, 88.2% and 79.4%, respectively, and the frequency of acute rejection episodes was 5.8% (two cases. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of LRDT were 95.8%, 91.6% and 83.3%, respectively, with the frequency of acute rejection being 16.2%. The graft survival rates of SDT were as good as LRDT, while the acute rejection rates in SDT were lower than in LRDT, although the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.13.

  8. A Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Flexible-Design Randomized Multicenter Trial: Early Safety of Single- Versus Divided-Dose Rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Induction in Renal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R B; Wrenshall, L E; Miles, C D; Farney, A C; Jie, T; Sandoz, J P; Rigley, T H; Osama Gaber, A

    2016-06-01

    A previous nonblinded, randomized, single-center renal transplantation trial of single-dose rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction (SD-rATG) showed improved efficacy compared with conventional divided-dose (DD-rATG) administration. The present multicenter, double-blind/double-dummy STAT trial (Single dose vs. Traditional Administration of Thymoglobulin) evaluated SD-rATG versus DD-rATG induction for noninferiority in early (7-day) safety and tolerability. Ninety-five patients (randomized 1:1) received 6 mg/kg SD-rATG or 1.5 mg/kg/dose DD-rATG, with tacrolimus-mycophenolate maintenance immunosuppression. The primary end point was a composite of fever, hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac complications, and delayed graft function. Secondary end points included 12-month patient survival, graft survival, and rejection. Target enrollment was 165 patients with an interim analysis scheduled after 80 patients. Interim analysis showed primary end point noninferiority of SD-rATG induction (p = 0.6), and a conditional probability of <1.73% of continued enrollment producing a significant difference (futility analysis), leading to early trial termination. Final analysis (95 patients) showed no differences in occurrence of primary end point events (p = 0.58) or patients with no, one, or more than one event (p = 0.81), or rejection, graft, or patient survival (p = 0.78, 0.47, and 0.35, respectively). In this rigorously blinded trial in adult renal transplantation, we have shown SD-rATG induction to be noninferior to DD-rATG induction in early tolerability and equivalent in 12-month safety. (Clinical Trials.gov #NCT00906204.).

  9. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

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    CUPO Palmira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  10. Anti-thymocyte globulin induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema during renal transplantation

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    Beena K Parikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (NCPE is a clinical syndrome characterized by simultaneous presence of severe hypoxemia, bilateral alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph, without evidence of left atrial hypertension/congestive heart failure/fluid overload. The diagnosis of drugrelated NCPE relies upon documented exclusion of other causes of NCPE like gastric aspiration, sepsis, trauma, negative pressure pulmonary edema. We describe a 28year-old, 50 kg male with ASA risk III posted for laparoscopic renal transplantation, who developed NCPE after 4 hours of administration of rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (ATG. He was successfully treated with mechanical ventilatory support and adjuvant therapy. This report emphasizes that this fatal complication may occur with use of ATG.

  11. Anti-thymocyte globulin induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema during renal transplantation.

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    Parikh, Beena K; Bhosale, Guruprasad P; Shah, Veena R

    2011-10-01

    Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (NCPE) is a clinical syndrome characterized by simultaneous presence of severe hypoxemia, bilateral alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph, without evidence of left atrial hypertension/congestive heart failure/fluid overload. The diagnosis of drugrelated NCPE relies upon documented exclusion of other causes of NCPE like gastric aspiration, sepsis, trauma, negative pressure pulmonary edema. We describe a 28year-old, 50 kg male with ASA risk III posted for laparoscopic renal transplantation, who developed NCPE after 4 hours of administration of rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (ATG). He was successfully treated with mechanical ventilatory support and adjuvant therapy. This report emphasizes that this fatal complication may occur with use of ATG.

  12. Preparation and development of equine hyperimmune globulin F(ab')2 against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-hai LU; Bing L WONG; Nan-shan ZHONG; Zhong-min GUO; Wen-yu HAN; Guo-ling WANG; Ding-mei ZHANG; Yi-fei WANG; Sheng-yun SUN; Qin-he YANG; Huan-ying ZHENG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The resurgence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is still a threat because the causative agent remaining in animal reservoirs is not fully understood,and sporadic cases continue to be reported. Developing high titers of anti-SARS hyperimmune globulin to provide an alternative pathway for emergent future prevention and treatment of SARS. Methods: SARS coronavirus (CoV)F69 (AY313906)and Z2-Y3 (AY394989) were isolated and identified from 2 different Cantonese onset SARS patients. Immunogen was prepared from SARS-CoV F69 strain. Six health horses were immunized 4 times and serum was collected periodically to measure the profile of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a microneutralization test. Sera were collected in large amounts at the peak, where IgG was precipitated using ammonium sulphate and subsequently digested with pepsin. The product was then purified using anion-exchange chromatography to obtain F(ab')2 fragments. Results: The specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers peaked at approximately week 7 after the first immunization, with a maximum value of 1:14210. The sera collected at the peak were then purified. Fragment of approximately 15 g F(ab')2 was obtained from 1 litre antiserum and the purity was above 90% with the titer of 1:5120, which could neutralize the other strain (SARS-CoV Z2-Y3) as well. Conclusion: This research provides a viable strategy for the prevention and treatment of SARS coronavirus infection with equine hyperimmune globulin, with the purpose of combating any resurgence of SARS.

  13. Amelioration of renal damage by administration of anti-thymocyte globulin to potential donors in a brain death rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicora, F; Stringa, P; Guerrieri, D; Roberti, J; Ambrosi, N; Toniolo, F; Cicora, P; Palti, G; Vásquez, D; Raimondi, C

    2012-09-01

    Brain death (BD), a non-immunological factor of renal injury, triggers an inflammatory process causing pathological signs of cell death in the kidney, such as necrosis and apoptosis. Kidneys from brain dead donors show lower success rates than kidneys from living donors and one strategy to improve transplantation outcome is to precondition the donors. For the first time, anti-rat thymoglobulin (rATG) was administered in an experimental brain death animal model to evaluate if it could ameliorate histopathological damage and improve organ function. Animals were divided into three groups: V (n=5) ventilated for 2h; BD (n=5) brain death and ventilated for 2h; and BD+rATG (n=5) brain death, ventilated for 2h, rATG was administered during brain death (10mg/kg). We observed lower creatinine levels in treatment groups (means): V, 0·88±0·22 mg/dl; BD, 1·37±0·07 mg/dl; and BD+rATG, 0·64±0·02 mg/dl (BD versus BD+rATG, Pbrain death setting (V: 32±7·5 versus BD: 129±18). Findings suggest that rATG administered to potential donors may ameliorate renal damage caused by BD. These findings could contribute in the search for specific cytoprotective interventions to improve the quality and viability of transplanted organs.

  14. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  15. Equine Piroplasmosis

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    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  16. Equine Botulinum Antitoxin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E.; Fernandez, Rafael A.; Bianco, María I.; Sartori, Omar J.; Piovano, María L.; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I. T.

    2011-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases ...

  17. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

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    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  18. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  19. Equine dental advances.

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    Greene, S K

    2001-08-01

    The reintroduction and development of safe motorized instruments, the increased availability of continuing education, and the understanding and implementation of appropriate procedures allow practitioners to provide better dental care. Veterinarians realize that sedation, analgesia, a full-mouth speculum, and proper instrumentation are necessary to provide these services. Continued instrument design, future research, and new treatment and prophylactic protocols should have a positive impact on the future of equine dental health. New and rediscovered procedures for equilibrating equine occlusion are allowing horses to masticate more efficiently, carry a bit more comfortably, and experience improved performance. The horse, the horse owner, and the veterinary profession all benefit from providing complete equine dental care.

  20. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

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    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  1. Equine Infectious Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Karl H.

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet gives information on equine infectious anemia, a blood-borne infectious viral disease of horses, donkeys, and mules. It describes transmission, clinical disease, diagnosis and control.

  2. Profile of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio in bulls

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    Ida Zahidah Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum total protein concentration and main fractions (albumin and globulin can be used as an important diagnostic tool in clinical biochemistry. Several factors can affect the concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio (A/G. The aim of this study is to obtain serum protein profiles, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio based on breed, age and BCS (body condition score. Blood samples from 160 bulls were collected. Blood chemistry were analyzed by photometer principle using a commercial kit. There were significant (P<0.001 breed variation on total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio. Significant age differences were observed on total protein and albumin concentration (P<0.001, while globulin concentration and A/G ratio were also significant (P<0.05. Amongs groups of BCS, significant difference was verified only in the albumin concentration (P<0.05. The concentration of total proteins, albumins and globulins in the serum of the bulls are higher than standard values for cattle, while A/G ratio is lower.

  3. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc...

  4. Equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2014-12-01

    Equine myeloencephalopathy (EHM), an uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms, boarding stables, veterinary hospitals, and show and racing venues. An improved understanding of EHM has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks, horse shows, and veterinary hospitals throughout North America and Europe. These outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature of EHV-1 and have prompted a reevaluation of diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities, preventative measures, and biosecurity protocols for this disease. This article focuses on recent data related to the cause, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of EHV-1 infection with emphasis on EHM.

  5. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal....... Medical and surgical treatments are now directed towards elimination of fungal and bacterial infections, reduction and replacement of diseased corneal stroma, and suppression of iridocyclitis. If the abscess and anterior uveitis do not respond satisfactorily to medical therapy, full thickness or split...

  6. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  7. Equine influenza: An overview

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    S. P. Waghmare

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  8. Trial of Immune Globulin in Infant Botulism

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV in 122 infants in California with confirmed infant botulism (75 caused by type A Clostridium botulinum toxin, and 47 by type B toxin was conducted at the California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA; National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory, CDC and P, Atlanta; and Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley.

  9. [Heteroimmune hemolytic anemia associated with antilymphocyte globulin treatment in a patient with aplastic anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldztein, S; Carreras Vescio, L A; Salamone, H J; Calahonra, R; Kohan, A I; Sánchez Avalos, J C

    1990-01-01

    A 24-year-old male patient with a severe aplastic anemia (SAA) was treated with equine-antilymphocyte globulin (ALG). As complication of this treatment he developed a severe heteroimmune hemolytic anemia mediated by anti-species pan-agglutinin antibodies present in ALG. In spite of the fact that ALG is absorbed with red-cell stroma and platelets to remove anti-erythrocyte and anti-platelet contaminating antibodies, often only partial absorption is achieved, and the remaining antibodies are passively acquired by the recipient. Neutropenia and especially thrombocytopenia are usual complications of this treatment, but it is also possible to detect anti-erythrocyte antibodies in the serum and on the red cells of those patients. However, the unusual severity of the hemolysis suffered by our patient, with a striking decrease of the hemoglobin levels (Fig. 1) can be ascribed to the administration of ALG at a time at which the hematocrit was close to normal as a result of the previous administration of anabolics. It is likely that in severely anemic patients, with a high transfusional demand, such a hemolytic episode may remain undetected. The patient acquired reactivity to the direct antiglobulin test, as well as the positive results of investigation of unexpected antibodies and compatibility testing can be accounted for by the fact that commercial antihuman globulin serum (AGS) contains antibodies reacting with a globulin component shared by human and horse sera. Neutralization of AGS with ALG administered to the patient removed those cross-reacting antibodies, making it possible to perform reliable transfusion compatibility testing and to rule out the eventual presence of hidden alloantibodies or warm autoantibodies. Neutralized Coombs serum maintained its human antiglobulin properties unaltered (Table 1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Equine recurrent uveitis: Human and equine perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malalana, Fernando; Stylianides, Amira; McGowan, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a spontaneous disease characterised by repeated episodes of intraocular inflammation. The epidemiology of ERU has not been fully elucidated, but the condition appears to be much more common in horses than is recurrent uveitis in humans, especially in certain breeds and geographical regions. Both humans and horses show a similarly altered immune response and a marked autoimmune response as the primary disease pathophysiology. However, an inciting cause is not always clear. Potential inciting factors in horses include microbial agents such as Leptospira spp. Microbial factors and genetic predisposition to the disease may provide clues as to why the horse appears so susceptible to this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the immunology and genetics of ERU, compare the disease in horses with autoimmune anterior uveitis in humans, and discuss potential reasons for the increased prevalence in the horse.

  11. Microdialysis in equine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M A; Jacobsen, S; Petersen, L J

    2013-01-01

    in the tissues has led to important discoveries in the detection of tissue changes within the areas of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pathology and pathophysiology. New technological solutions, such as transportable pumps, fluid collectors and bedside analysers, have made microdialysis an indispensable tool...... for the surveillance of critically ill human patients, such as after brain injuries and reconstructive surgeries. The use of microdialysis in equine medicine has been sparingly described with only 14 published studies within muscle, pulmonary and hoof lamellar tissue, nasal mucosa, intestinal wall, uterine, allantoic...... and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental...

  12. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    Group specific (Gc) globulin also known as vitamin D-binding protein is part of the extracellular actin-scavenging system that removes actin from the circulation. Actin is an intracellular structural protein, which is released to blood in patients with tissue injury and cell death. Circulating...... can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc...

  13. 21 CFR 640.100 - Immune Globulin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immune Globulin (Human). 640.100 Section 640.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.100...

  14. Immune Gamma Globulin Therapeutic Indications in Immune Deficiency and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luanna; Wu, Eveline Y; Tarrant, Teresa K

    2016-07-01

    Immune gamma globulin (IgG) has a long history in the treatment of both primary immune deficiency and autoimmune disorders. Disease indications continue to expand and new-generation products increase the versatility of delivery. This review encompasses a historical perspective as well as current and future implications of human immune globulin for the treatment of immune-mediated illness.

  15. The Equine PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sorensen, Mette A.

    2014-01-01

    data mining resource. The advantages of the Equine PeptideAtlas are demonstrated by examples of mining the contents for information on potential and well-known equine acute phase proteins, which have extensive general interest in the veterinary clinic. The extracted information will support further......Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first...... analyses, and emphasizes the value of the Equine PeptideAtlas as a resource for the design of targeted quantitative proteomic studies....

  16. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  17. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-01

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  18. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  19. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, C W; Fenner, W R

    1987-08-01

    The neurologic form of EHV-1 infection appears to be the result of central nervous system infarction caused by vasculitis, which is initiated in endothelial cells of small blood vessels. The etiologic agent is equine herpesvirus-1, subtype 1. There is some evidence to suggest that the neurologic form of the disease actually results from reactivation of a previous infection. Whether the vasculitis that causes the central nervous system injury is the direct result of the infection or an immune response to the infection has not been determined. The clinical signs are rapid in onset, nonprogressive, and many horses may improve. The diagnosis must often remain tentative, particularly in horses that recover, because there is no single reliable confirmatory test. The prognosis is generally good, although recovery may be slow and incomplete. Supportive therapy is essential, and administration of corticosteroids may be useful. There is no specific therapy for the virus or for the vasculitis. Currently no vaccine can be claimed to protect against the central nervous system form of the disease. Vaccination is recommended, however, to reduce the incidence of respiratory disease, abortion, and neonatal death on the farm. Repeated vaccination is necessary to maintain presumably protective antibody concentrations. Vaccination every 3 to 4 months may decrease the incidence of EHV-1 infection on the farm and therefore may indirectly prevent the occurrence of the neurologic form of the disease.

  20. Equine corneal surgery and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Heidi M

    2004-08-01

    Corneal disease is common in equine ophthalmology and requires vigilant monitoring and appropriate therapy to optimize the outcome. Many equine corneal diseases, particularly those that progress rapidly, may benefit from surgical intervention. These include descemetoceles, deep corneal lacerations and ulcers, corneal perforation/iris prolapse, ulcerative keratitis, corneal stromal abscesses, and corneoscleral neoplasia. Indications for corneal transplantation include optical, tectonic, therapeutic, and cosmetic purposes. Corneal transplantation is most often implemented in equine patients for tectonic and therapeutic reasons when a cornea is compromised by corneal stromal abscess, iris prolapse, or neoplasia. This article provides an outline of when to consider surgical intervention for corneal disease, the procedures available and expected outcomes, and how appropriate early surgical intervention can dramatically improve the end result.

  1. Anesthesia of the geriatric equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty TJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Reza Seddighi, Thomas J DohertyDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USAAbstract: Advancements in veterinary medicine have resulted in an increased number of geriatric horses being presented for medical or surgical procedures that require general anesthesia. Due to the physiological changes associated with aging and the likelihood of concurrent disease conditions, the geriatric equine is at an increased risk during anesthesia. The main physiological changes associated with aging, and their impact on anesthesia, are discussed in this review.Keywords: geriatric, equine, anesthesia

  2. Toxicology for the Equine Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dissi, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    A wide variety of toxins cause diseases in the horse and are investigated routinely by veterinarians and veterinary pathologists to identify the cause of illness and death. A complete investigation involves performing a thorough necropsy and requires macroscopic and microscopic examination of lesions and a variety of laboratory testing to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The identification of gross lesions by equine practitioners is often the first step in formulating a diagnostic plan. This article provides a description of selected common toxins producing detectable gross lesions in horses in North America. The article is useful to equine practitioners and veterinary pathologists investigating a toxicology-related death.

  3. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  4. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

    2014-01-15

    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, γ-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for γ-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that γ-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements.

  5. Ethmoid Hematoma of the Equine

    OpenAIRE

    Etherington, W G; Vasey, J. R.; Horney, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of ethmoid hematoma of the equine are reported. Clinically both horses had intermittent unilateral epistaxis unassociated with exercise. In one horse, diagnosis was based on the use of an endoscope for visualization and for biopsy of a mass associated with the ethmoid turbinates. In the other horse, exploratory trephination of the posterior maxillary sinus was necessary to obtain a diagnostic biopsy specimen. Radiography was helpful in the diagnosis of one case. Surgical removal of ...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5400 Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-globulin...

  7. Treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immune globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brocklehurst, Peter; Farrell, Barbara; King, Andrew;

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of death and complications despite antibiotic treatment. Effective adjunctive treatments are needed. Newborn infants are relatively deficient in endogenous immunoglobulin. Meta-analyses of trials of intravenous immune globulin for suspected or proven neonatal sepsis...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1330 - Globulin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Globulin test system. 862.1330 Section 862.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  9. 21 CFR 640.102 - Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of Immune Globulin (Human). 640.102 Section 640.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microorganisms. Preservatives to inhibit growth of microorganisms shall not be used during processing. (c)...

  10. The equine veterinarian : past, present and prospects of a profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The equine veterinarian has regained its position in the veterinary profession. Equine veterinarians work in equine practices as well as in mixed practices. In general, it can be said that the backbone of equine work is formed by a relatively small amount of activities for which only a limited numbe

  11. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  12. Adsorption of antibody and globulin onto glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, T

    1980-10-01

    The amount of globulin adsorbed onto surfaces (97 m2) of porous glass (1 g) in phospate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) was estimated to be 83 mg by frontal analysis. In the adsorption chromatography of rabbit antiserum (the immunoglobulin G class) to horse serum albumin on a porous glass column, immunoglobulin G was not eluted with saline but was eluted with 0.2 M glycine (pH 9) with a recovery of 12%. The yield of immunoglobulin M antibody to sheep red blood cells recovered by elution with saline was 12.3%, and the total yield of immunoglobulin M was 15.8%. Thus, antibody and globulin were well adsorbed onto glass surfaces in physiological saline; immunoglobulin G had a stronger affinity to glass surfaces than did immunglobulin M. These facts should be considered when glass containers are used for purified antiserum.

  13. Worsening Bradycardia Following Antithymocyte Globulin Treatment of Severe Aplastic Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppressive regimens, which include antithymocyte globulin (ATG), are widely used for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA). However, bradycardia has been reported only as a rare side effect of ATG therapy in the manufacturer's product information and, in rare cases, in the adult literature. We present an adolescent with SAA and preexisting bradycardia who underwent immunosuppression therapy with ATG, methylprednisolone, and tacrolimus and developed profound sinus bradycardia wi...

  14. Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Saulez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before therapy, the cost of hospitalisation, LOS and mortality rate. The WBC count, total CO2 (TCO2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher (P < 0.05 and anion gap lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A logistic regression model that included WBC count, hematocrit, albumin / globulin ratio, ALP, TCO2, potassium, sodium and lactate, was able to correctly predict mortality in 84 % of cases. Only anion gap proved to be an independent predictor of neonatal mortality in this study. In the study population, the overall mortality rate was 34 % with greatest mortality rates reported in the first 48 hours and again on day 6 of hospitalisation. Amongst the various clinical diagnoses, mortality was highest in foals after forced extraction during correction of dystocia. Median cost per day was higher for nonsurvivors while total cost was higher in survivors.

  15. The effect of free and carrier-bound cortisol on equine neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Melanie A; Hart, Kelsey A; Norton, Natalie A; Barton, Michelle H; Giguère, Steeve; Hurley, David J

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol is a key anti-inflammatory hormone that increases in bacterial sepsis and circulates predominantly bound to cortisol binding globulin (CBG). Only unbound cortisol was believed to be biologically active, but recent evidence suggests that CBG-bound cortisol also regulates inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of free and CBG-bound cortisol on equine neutrophil function ex vivo. We hypothesized that CBG would enhance cortisol-mediated suppression of neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses. Neutrophils isolated from 8 foals and 6 adult horses were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus antigen (SAA) alone and with hydrocortisone (HC), CBG, or both (CBG+HC). Inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-8) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured and compared among stimulants and between ages with linear mixed-effects models. CBG and CBG+HC inhibited ROS production induced by SAA in both foal and horse neutrophils, maintaining it at levels comparable to baseline production (P≤0.060-0.907). TNF-α production was not significantly different among stimulants (P=0.284). CBG+HC significantly (P≤0.016) increased IL-8 production by neutrophils in response to SAA in both foals and adults, although the response of foals was significantly greater than that of adults (P<0.001). These findings suggest that CBG directly modulates equine neutrophil responses, but the effects are cytokine- and age-specific.

  16. Equine uveitis: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, R C

    2010-03-01

    Uveitis in the equine population of the UK does not appear to be as prevalent or disastrous as seen across regions of Europe and the USA. Some cases perceived to be recurrent uveitis may be poorly resolved single episodes of uveitis and care should be taken not to make the diagnosis of recurrence without ensuring effective control of the initial episode. Leptospira spp. appear to play only a minor role ERU in the UK which is probably the main reason for the prevalence of the disease being much lower compared to the USA and mainland Europe. Actual data are relatively few on the ground as far as disease surveillance in concerned. This has 2 implications. Firstly unless we are able to effectively monitor the levels of uveitic disease, it will be difficult to pick up early changes in the trend which may allow quicker intervention. Secondly, it is difficult to secure funding for further research if the prevalence of the problem is poorly defined. This may leave the UK equine population at risk should the disease profile suddenly alter for the worse.

  17. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced m...... and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross...

  18. Current developments in equine cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, R J; Utter, M E

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of equine cataract surgery over the past 50 years to its current stage. Equine cataract surgery is performed similarly compared with the techniques used in human ophthalmology and in other veterinary species. However, enough differences exist to make surgical lens removal and intraocular lens implantation in the horse an intrinsically unique endeavour. Due to the size of the adult equine globe, the introduction of species-specific instrumentation has provided the cornerstone to many of the changes made regarding surgical technique over the last 15-20 years. The continuing development of an equine specific, foldable intraocular lens implant (IOL) has provided much needed data supporting the use of such lenses in the horse to improve upon the post operative visual outcome. Finally, the methods utilised to assess visual capacity and the effects of intraocular lens implantation on the globe (e.g. ocular ultrasonography, electroretinography and streak retinoscopy) are gradually becoming more important in preoperative patient assessment and IOL development in the horse. It is the hope of the authors that a broader group of equine veterinarians will become aware of the many changes that have taken place in equine cataract surgery over the last half-century. Although aspiration was implemented nearly 40 years ago in foals for the treatment of congenital cataracts, phacofragmentation (phacoemulsification) techniques have only recently become routine in mature horses undergoing lens extraction.

  19. Equine botulinum antitoxin for the treatment of infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E; Fernandez, Rafael A; Bianco, María I; Sartori, Omar J; Piovano, María L; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T

    2011-11-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available.

  20. Equine Botulinum Antitoxin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E.; Fernandez, Rafael A.; Bianco, María I.; Sartori, Omar J.; Piovano, María L.; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I. T.

    2011-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available. PMID:21918119

  1. Optimal management of equine keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks DE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paula D Galera1, Dennis E Brooks21College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Departments of Large and Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Keratomycosis in the horse exists in several unique clinical forms. This paper discusses the diagnosis and clinical management of keratomycosis in the horse associated with tear film instability, epithelial keratopathy, subepithelial infiltrates, superficial and deep ulcers, plaques, melting ulcers, descemetoceles, iris prolapse, and stromal abscesses. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment of equine keratomycosis can make a major difference in the maintenance of a cosmetic and visual eye.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, horse, cornea, melting, keratoplasty

  2. Effect of antithymocyte globulin source on outcomes of bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekre, Natasha; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Carreras, Jeanette; Ahmed, Parvez; Anderlini, Paolo; Atta, Elias Hallack; Ayas, Mouhab; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Bonfim, Carmem; Deeg, H Joachim; Kapoor, Neena; Lee, Jong-Wook; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Pulsipher, Michael A; Eapen, Mary; Antin, Joseph H

    2017-03-24

    For treatment of severe aplastic anemia, immunosuppressive therapy with horse antithymocyte globulin results in superior response and survival compared with rabbit antithymocyte globulin. This relative benefit may be different in the setting of transplantation as rabbit antithymocyte globulin results in more profound immunosuppression. We analyzed 833 severe aplastic anemia transplants between 2008 and 2013 using HLA-matched siblings (n=546) or unrelated donors (n=287) who received antithymocyte globulin as part of their conditioning regimen and bone marrow graft. There were no differences in hematopoietic recovery by type of antithymocyte globulin. Among recipients of HLA-matched sibling transplants, day 100 incidence of acute (17% versus 6%, p<0.001) and chronic (20% versus 9%, p<0.001) graft-versus-host disease were higher with horse compared to rabbit antithymocyte globulin. There were no differences in 3 year overall survival, 87% and 92%, p=0.76. Among recipients of unrelated donor transplants acute graft-versus-host disease was also higher with horse compared to rabbit antithymocyte globulin (42% versus 23%, p<0.001) but not chronic graft-versus-host disease (38% versus 32%, p=0.35). Survival was lower with horse antithymocyte globulin after unrelated donor transplantation, 75% versus 83%, p=0.02. These data support the use of rabbit antithymocyte globulin for bone marrow transplant conditioning for severe aplastic anemia.

  3. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  4. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.;

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced...

  5. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  6. A study of a polymorphic globulin in the serum of Silurus glanis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Kouril, J; Hamácková, J

    1984-01-01

    A polymorphism of S-globulin was detected in serum of Silurus glanis L. by starch gel electrophoresis. Three phenotypes were observed which are apparently controlled by two codominant alleles, SgA and SgB, of an autosomal locus, Sg. Although on electrophoresis S-globulin and transferrin have similar mobilities, the properties of the two proteins differ.

  7. Strain-specific renal toxicity of heterologous antilymphocyte [gamma]-globulin in mice7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, B.J.; Vries, M.J. de; Noord, M.J. van; Lubbe, F.H.

    1970-01-01

    Severe glomerulonephritis followed one to five weekly i.p. injections in TLFM mice of rabbit antimouse lymphocyte [gamma]-globulin (ALG). Glomerulonephritis did not occur in C57BL mice subjected to the same regimen. Administration of normal rabbit [gamma]-globulin (NRG) to RFM mice also caused renal

  8. Benzimidazoles Pharmacodynamics in Equine Strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to assess the effectiveness of four benzimidazoles: albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole against equine strongyles. The tests were performed between March 2015 and May 2016, on samples collected from 20 horses and 8 donkeys living in Harghita County. In vivo, Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was used to evaluate fenbendazole pharmacodynamics. In vitro, Egg hatch assay (EHA and Larval development assay (LDA were used to evaluate the effectiveness of albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole. The predominance of small strongyle species was observed, mostly Cyathostomum type A. In the horse group, before treatment, the average intensity was 1595.5 EPG, the maximum value being 4000, and extensivity 55%. Tested again at 14 days after treatment, all samples were negative. In the donkey group, before treatment, the total number was 6550 EPG, intensity of 935.7 and extensivity of 87.5%. 14 days after treatment, the average intensity was 150 and the extensivity 50%. In the horse group, EHA proved the efficacy of fenbendazole (0.0192%, albendazole (0.3740% and thiabendazole (11.62% and a major risk of inducing adaptive phenomena for mebendazole (Y parameter 1009.92. In the donkey group, all benzimidazoles had limited effectiveness: thiabendazole (73.93%, mebendazole (87.51%, fenbendazole (94.05%, albendazole (111.67%. All benzimidazoles inhibited larval development. For all tested benzimidazoles, the resistance induction predictive comparative risk analysis highlighted the benefit of their use, provided that the treatment protocol allows sufficient contact time.

  9. Pathophysiology of Equine Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ospina Chirivi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in horses in their first seven days of life and within their pathophysiology. It is important to consider the extrinsic and intrinsic predisposing factors which make foals susceptible to agents of primarily bacterial etiology. However, other types of infectious etiology (viruses and fungi should be considered too, as well as noninfectious etiologies. The paper mentions a wide variety of mechanisms that produce different injuries that must be addressed with measures of critical neonatal care, so it is imperative for the veterinarian to know the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, its clinical presentation and anatomo-pathological lesions. Thus, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, and peripheral circulatory collapse or shock are some of the elements defined as the pillars of the pathophysiology of neonatal septicemia, extensively studied in equine medicine. This paper presents a short review of the triggering mechanisms of neonatal septicemia highlighting the importance of epidemiological investigations in Colombia. It shows the need for retrospective and prospective studies and for divulgation of some of the preventive measures of the disease in horses.

  10. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L

    2007-08-01

    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance.

  11. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  12. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  13. Equine clinical cytogenetics: the past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, T L; Bailey, E

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic analyses of horses have benefited the horse industry by identifying chromosomal aberrations causing congenital abnormalities, embryonic loss and infertility. Technical advances in cytogenetics enabled the identification of chromosome specific aberrations. More recently, advances in genomic tools have been used to more precisely define chromosome abnormalities. In this report we review the history of equine clinical cytogenetics, identify historical landmarks for equine clinical cytogenetics, discuss how the current use of genomic tools has benefited this area, and how future genomics tools may enhance clinical cytogenetic studies in the horse.

  14. Acute Lung Injury during Antithymocyte Globulin Therapy for Aplastic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Christopher Goligher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 33-year-old man with aplastic anemia who experienced recurrent episodes of hypoxemia and pulmonary infiltrates during infusions of antithymocyte globulin (ATG is described. With the use of high-dose corticosteroids, the patient’s original episodes resolved, and were subsequently prevented before additional administrations of ATG. Rare reports of an association between ATG and acute lung injury are found in the literature, but this is the first report of successful steroid-supported re-exposure. Although the mechanism of ATG-related acute lung injury remains uncertain, it may be parallel to the mechanism of transfusion-related acute lung injury because the pathogenesis of the latter relies, in part, on antileukocyte antibodies. ATG-related toxicity should be included in the differential diagnosis of new, infusion-associated pulmonary infiltrates, and corticosteroids may be a useful therapeutic consideration in the management.

  15. STUDIES ON THE BLOOD PROTEINS : I. THE SERUM GLOBULINS IN BACTERIAL INFECTION AND IMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S H; Meyer, K F

    1916-11-01

    The progress of an infection is usually associated with marked changes in the serum proteins. There may be an increase in the percentage of the total protein during some stage of the infection, and there is usually a change in the albumin-globulin ratio with an increase in the total globulins. This rise may antedate the development of any resistance by a considerable period of time. The non-protein constituents of the blood show fluctuations with a tendency to rise as the infection progresses. The process of immunization is in almost all instances associated with a definite increase in the globulins of the blood, and in some cases with a complete inversion of the normal albumin-globulin ratio. This may be produced both by living and dead organisms and by bacterial endotoxins. Massive doses usually result in an upset which shows no tendency to right itself during the period of observation. A rise in the globulins has been shown to occur long before the animal develops immune bodies in any appreciable concentration; and where the globulin curve and antibody curve appear to parallel one another, it can be shown by a careful analysis of both curves that there is a definite lack of correspondence at various periods of the experiment. Animals possessing a basic immunity show a more rapid rise in the globulin curve following inoculation. There is no parallelism between the leukocytic reaction and the globulin reaction. During periods of leukopenia the globulins may be as high as during the period of a leukocytosis. Bacterial endotoxins produce as striking an increase in the serum globulins as do living and killed bacteria. This would seem to indicate that a bacterial invasion of the organism is not absolutely essential for the globulin changes, and that the toxogenic factor in infection and immunity must play a part in the production of the changes noted. Inflammatory irritants injected intraperitoneally also result in a globulin increase. In this case the changes

  16. In vitro cytotoxic activity of equine lymphocytes on equine herpesvirus-1 infected allogenic fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Edens, Lucy Marie

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a technique to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes from adult horses against equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) infected allogenic equine dermal fibroblasts (EDF); 2) evaluate the ability of a 72 hour in vitro incubation with interleukin-2 (I L-2) to enhance the lymphocytic cytolytic activity against EHV-1 infected EDF; 3) compare the cytotoxic activity among lymphocytes isolated from pregnant mares and non-pregnant...

  17. Long-term outcome of 25 children and adolescents with severe aplastic anemia treated with antithymocyte globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Medeiros C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe aplastic anemia (SAA is probably an immune-mediated disorder, and immunosuppressive therapy is recommended for patients with no available donor for bone marrow transplant. Between October 1984 and November 1987, 25 consecutive children and adolescents with SAA with no HLA-compatible marrow donor received equine antithymocyte globulin (ATG (15 mg kg-1 day-1 for 10 days. The patients were evaluated 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after starting ATG treatment. Thereafter, patients were evaluated yearly until July 1998. Median age was 10 years (range, 1.5-20 years, granulocyte counts on referral ranged from 0.032 to 1.4 x 10(9/l (median 0.256 x 10(9/l, and 12 patients had granulocyte counts <0.2 x 10(9/l. At a median follow-up of 9.6 years (range, 8.6-11.8 years, 10 patients (40% remained alive with good marrow function. No morphologic evidence of hematological clonal disorders has been observed, although two patients probably have acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities (trisomy 8 and del(6q21, respectively. Responses to ATG were observed between 6 weeks and 6 months from the start of treatment in 60% of evaluable patients. The response rate was not different in patients whose granulocyte count at diagnosis was <0.2 x 10(9/l, or in those who were <10 years of age. This study supports the view that, when compared with supportive measures, ATG is an effective treatment for children or adolescents with SAA. Although these results are inferior to those reported for marrow transplantation or more intensive immunosuppressive regimens, these patients who responded to ATG are long-term survivors with stable peripheral blood counts and a low rate of relapse.

  18. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonea, I M; Wilson, D V; Bowker, R M; Robinson, N E

    1997-07-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype.

  19. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Prasad, A

    2016-03-15

    Benzimidazole resistance is a major hindrance to the control of equine cyathostominosis throughout the world. There is a paucity of knowledge on the level of benzimidazole resistance in small strongyles of horses in India. In the present study, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) that detects F200Y mutation of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used for detecting benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomin populations in different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the FECRT revealed prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomins in an intensively managed equine farm in the mid-western plain (FECR=27.5%, LCI=0) and in working horses (extensively managed) at three locations in central plains of Uttar Pradesh (FECR=75.7-83.6%, LCI=29-57%). Post-treatment larval cultures revealed the presence of exclusively cyathostomin larvae. Genotyping of cyathostomin larvae by AS-PCR revealed that the frequency of homozygous resistant (rr) individuals and the resistant allele frequency was significantly higher (pIndia, necessitates immediate replacement of the drugs of benzimidazole group with other unrelated effective anthelmintics for management and control of equine cyathostomins.

  20. Medical records in equine veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Susan H

    2009-12-01

    Quality medical records are the cornerstone of successful equine veterinary practice. The scope and integrity of the information contained in a practice's medical records influence the quality of patient care and client service and affect liability risk, practice productivity, and overall practice value.

  1. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, C. T.;

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy inc...

  2. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  3. Effects of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on androgen bioactivity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Michael R.; Helsen, Christine; Antonio, Leen; Schollaert, Dieter; Joniau, Steven; Vos, Michel J.; Decallonne, Brigitte; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical assessments of androgen status (hyper- or hypoandrogenism) are usually based on serum testosterone concentrations. According to the free hormone hypothesis, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) determines free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations. Previous studies have suggested t

  4. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PRODUK INTERAKSI FRAKSI GLOBULIN 7S KOMAK (Dolichos lablab DAN GUM XANTAN [Functional Properties of the Interaction Product Between Globulin of 7S Fraction of Lablab Bean (Dolichos lablab with Xantan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab seeds is a potential source of protein globulin.The bean’s protein content is 20.86 %, and the amount of globulin was more than 60% from the total protein, having major fractions of 7S and 11S. The objectives of this research were to explore the 7S globulin fractions, to study interaction between 7S globulin fractions with xanthan gum, and to observe the functional properties of the product of the interaction. The research was conducted in 2 steps. The first step was to fractionate the 7S fractions from globulin. The second steps was to interact 7S globulin fraction with xanthan gum. The yield of these interaction were examined for its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that the 7S globulin fractions could be interacted by xanthan gum at pH 7. The interacted product of globulin 7S fraction 10 % with xanthan gum 0,75 % had good functional properties than globulin 7S fraction, such as oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, and emulsion activity. Water holding capacity could not be detected because the yield became soluble. However,the foaming and emulsifying stability were still lower than those of soybean protein isolates. The research concluded that xanthan gum could be used to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of globulin 7S fraction.

  5. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke;

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  6. Treatment of Severe Aplastic Anemia by Immunosuppressor Anti-lymphocyte Globulin/Anti-thymus Globulin as the Chief Medicine in Combination with Chinese Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兵荣; 沈建平; 庄海峰; 林圣云; 沈一平; 周郁鸿

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effect of combined therapy with Chinese drugs and immunosuppressors, mainly anti-lymphocyte globulin/anti-thymus globulin(ALG/ATG),for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia(SAA),the efficacy associated factors and adverse effects as well.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted on 65 patients with SAA treated by combined therapy which was supplemented with cyclosporin A,androgen,hematopoietic growth factor,etc.Results:Of the 57 patients followed-up,26 (45.6%) we...

  7. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears.

  8. Study of the influence of homologous serum globulin preparations on the intestinal automicroflora in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinegin, B.V.; Klemparskaya, N.N.; Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, G.A.; Shal' nova, G.A.; Kuz' mina, T.D.

    1984-09-01

    In spite of considerable experience of practical use of serum globulin preparations, their effect on automicroflora wasn't studied. The favorable effect of therapeutic injection of homologous serum globulin preparations on automicroflora of small and large intestine of mices was established for the model of acute radiation sickness caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation with 700 R dose. The effect of injecting two types of globulin preparations was studied: ones prepared of blood of intact and hemostimulated mices (to increase the content of normal antitissue antibodies in the serum). Besides the general globulin fraction isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation a study was made on the effect of purified IgG and IgM preparations. Threefold subcutaneous or intraperitoneal globulin in ection of 1 ..mu..g dose in a mice prevented after 2, 24, 48 h after irradiation the development of bacteriosis, typical for radiation injury - decreased accumulation of putrefactive bacteria and reduced the suppression of lactobacilli content. Globulin preparations and fractions of hemostimulated mice serum, enriched by normal antitissue antibodies are the most effective ones.

  9. Ocular immunology in equine recurrent uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, Cornelia A

    2008-09-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a disease with high prevalence and relevance for the equine population, since it results in blindness. Over the last decade, important advancements have been made in our understanding of the underlying immune responses in this disease. ERU is mediated by an autoaggressive Th1 response directed against several retinal proteins. Interphotoreceptor-retinoid binding protein (IRBP) and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) are capable to induce ERU-like disease in experimental horses, with the unique possibility to activate relapses in a well-defined manner. Further, proteomic evidence now suggests that retinal Mueller glial cells (RMG) may play a fatal role in uveitic disease progression by directly triggering inflammation processes through the expression and secretion of interferon-gamma. Ongoing relapses in blind eyes can be associated with stable expression of the major autoantigens in ERU retinas. This review briefly summarizes the most significant developments in uveitis immune response research.

  10. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  11. Equine Septic Arthritis and Serum Amyloid A

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Elsa Karen

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection within a joint, septic arthritis, is a serious condition in horses that can lead to long-term joint disease if the infection is not resolved quickly. Equine septic arthritis is diagnosed primarily based on clinical signs and synovial fluid cytology. Septic synovial fluid is characterized by significant elevations in total protein (TP) and total nucleated cell count (TNCC). However, in some cases it can be difficult to distinguish between septic arthritis and non-septic joi...

  12. Equine recurrent uveitis: new methods of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Brian C; Michau, Tammy Miller

    2004-08-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is one of the most common causes of blindness in horses. Until recently, treatment of this condition consisted only of symptomatic therapy, typically with steroidal and nonsteroidal medications. A better understanding of the disease process(es) has permitted new medical and surgical therapies that have recently been described. This article highlights clinical features of ERU, the causes of ERU, and new management and treatment options for horses with ERU.

  13. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  14. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  15. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

  16. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  17. Equine cellular therapy--from stall to bench to bedside?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Janina; Badylak, Stephen F; Kelly, Jeremy; Brehm, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Pioneering clinical stem cell research is being performed in the horse, a recipient of cutting edge veterinary medicine as well as a unique animal model, paving the way for human medical applications. Although demonstrable progress has been made on the clinical front, in vitro characterization of equine stem cells is still in comparatively early stages. To translate the promising results of clinical stem cell therapy in the horse, advances must be made in the characterization of equine stem cells. Aiming to improve communication between veterinarians and other natural scientists, this review gives an overview of veterinary "bedside" achievements, focusing on stem cell therapies in equine orthopedics as well as the current state of in vitro characterization of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

  18. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low......, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal...

  19. Late Pregnancy Thyroid-Binding Globulin Predicts Perinatal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Garcia, Nacire; Stansbury, Melissa; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Johnson, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Previously we found that late pregnancy total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) concentrations were negatively related to greater pre and/or postpartum depressive symptoms. In a much larger cohort, the current study examined whether these thyroid indices measured earlier in the third trimester (31-33 weeks) predict subsequent perinatal depression and anxiety ratings as well as syndromal depression. Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations increase markedly during pregnancy and may be an index of sensitivity to elevated estrogen levels. TBG was examined in this study because prior findings suggest that postpartum depression is related to sensitivity to mood destabilization by elevated sex hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Our cohort was 199 euthyroid women recruited from a public health obstetrics clinic (63.8% Hispanic, 21.6% Black). After screening and blood draws for hormone measures at pregnancy weeks 31-33, subjects were evaluated during home visits at pregnancy weeks 35-36 as well as postpartum weeks 6 and 12. Evaluations included psychiatric interviews for current and life-time DSM-IV psychiatric history (M.I.N.I.-Plus), subject self-ratings and interviewer ratings for depression and anxiety (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale; Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory), as well as a standardized interview to obtain life-time trauma history. Numerous covariates were included in all regression analyses. Trauma and major depression history were robustly significant predictors of depression and anxiety ratings over the study period when these variables were analyzed individually or in a combined model including FT4 or TBG (pdepression and anxiety ratings (pdepression history, were significant individual predictors of syndromal depression during the study period (pdepression history, FT4 and TBG generally were not significantly predictive of depression or anxiety ratings, and FT4

  20. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids.

  1. Vaccine failure caused an outbreak of equine influenza in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, Ljubo; Madic, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Daly, Janet

    2009-01-01

    In April 2004 an outbreak of equine influenza occurred at the Zagreb hippodrome, Croatia. Clinical respiratory disease of the same intensity was recorded in vaccinated and non-vaccinated horses. The equine influenza vaccine used in Croatia at the time of the outbreak contained the strains A/equine/Miami/63 (H3N8), A/equine/Fontainebleau/79 (H3N8) and A/equine/Prague/56 (H7N7). At the same time, the usual strains in vaccines used in Europe were, in accordance with the recommendation of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Expert Surveillance Panel on equine influenza, A/equine/Newmarket/1/93 (H3N8) and A/equine/Newmarket/2/93 (H3N8). At the same time, some current vaccines in the USA contained A/equine/Kentucky/97 (H3N8). Genetic characterization of the HA1 portion of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of virus isolated from the outbreak indicated that the isolate (A/equine/Zagreb/04) was an H3N8 strain closely related to recent representative viruses of the American lineage Florida sub-lineage. In comparison with both H3N8 vaccine strains used in horses at the Zagreb hippodrome, A/equine/Zagreb/04 displayed amino acids changes localised to 4 of the 5 described antigenic sites (A-D) of subunit protein HA1. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the HA1 subunit protein of the outbreak strain with that of A/equine/Newmarket/1/93 displayed three amino acids changes localised in antigenic sites B and C, while antigenic sites A, D and E were unchanged. The Zagreb 2004 outbreak strain had the same amino acids at antigenic sites of the HA1 subunit protein as the strain A/equine/Kentucky/97. Amino acid changes in antigenic sites between HA1 subunit of the outbreak strain and the strains used in the vaccines likely accounted for the vaccine failure and the same clinical signs in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses. Use of a recent strain in vaccines should limit future outbreaks.

  2. ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Sultana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin and highly significant decrease in Albumin after 15 and 30 days of dosing of Aloe vera in comparison to control animals group. It is concluded that the long-term use of Aloe vera may cause hypoglobinemia and hypoalbuminemia at 30 days of dosing and it could be due to the liver diseases, evidence of hepatotoxicity induced Aloe vera also reported in previous studies.

  3. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dziuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Material and methods. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. Results. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins. Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of -4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of -50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of -20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of -13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Conclusions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for

  4. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports.

  5. Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Teresa A

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly.

  6. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports.

  7. Low level of serum sex hormone binding globulin is associated with the occurrence of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese young population.Methods A total of 797 patients were enrolled and subdivided into MS group (n=377) and non-MS group (n=420) .Body height and weight were measured for body

  8. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor;

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of ...

  9. Increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels in children and adolescents with thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1685 - Thyroxine-binding globulin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protein which binds thyroxine, in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroxine-binding globulin test system. 862.1685 Section 862.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. Modification of solubility and heat-induced gelation of amaranth 11S globulin by protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazco-Peña, Laura; Osuna-Castro, Juan A; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F; Morales-Rueda, Juan A; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2013-04-10

    The primary structure of amaranth 11S globulin (Ah11S) was engineered with the aim to improve its functional properties. Four continuous methionines were inserted in variable region V, obtaining the Ah11Sr+4M construction. Changes on protein structure and surface characteristics were analyzed in silico. Solubility and heat-induced gelation of recombinant amaranth 11S proglobulin (Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4M) were compared with the native protein (Ah11Sn) purified from amaranth seed flour. The Ah11Sr+4 M showed the highest surface hydrophobicity, but as consequence the solubility was reduced. At low ionic strength (μ = 0.2) and acidic pH (proteins Ah11Sr and Ah11Sr+4 M had the highest and lowest solubility values, respectively. All globulins samples formed gels at 90 °C and low ionic strength, but Ah11Sn produced the weakest and Ah11Sr the strongest gels. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis under gel forming conditions revealed only exothermic transitions for all amaranth 11S globulins analyzed. In conclusion, the 3D structure analysis has revealed interesting molecular features that could explain the thermal resistance and gel forming ability of amaranth 11S globulins. The incorporation of four continuous methionines in amaranth increased the hydrophobicity, and self-supporting gels formed had intermediate hardness between Ah11Sn and Ah11Sr. These functional properties could be used in the food industry for the development of new products based on amaranth proteins.

  12. The potential and limitations of quantitative electromyography in equine medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Franssen, Hessel

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the scope of using (quantitative) electromyography (EMG) in diagnosing myopathies and neuropathies in equine patients. In human medicine, many EMG methods are available for the diagnosis, pathophysiological description and evaluation, monitoring, or rehabilitation of patients,

  13. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen Preben D; Heerkens Tammy; Koch Thomas G; Betts Dean H

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is lo...

  14. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

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    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71 and 97.2% (70 of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72 also responded with protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8 viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.

  15. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  16. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  17. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  18. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  19. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  20. Equine recurrent uveitis: the European viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, B M

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has always been and still is an important disease with a significant impact on the horse industry in Europe, with a prevalence of 8-10%. The need to understand and manage the disease has spurred the development of veterinary ophthalmology in general, although the aetiology of the disease remains the subject of intense discussion. It is most probably an autoimmune disease triggered, at least in Europe, in the majority of cases by Leptospira spp. The therapy of ERU has evolved over the centuries from various methods of bloodletting to rational medical therapy using mydriatics and steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to surgical therapies, such as vitrectomy or implantation of cyclosporin-releasing devices. In Europe, pars plana vitrectomy in horses testing positive for Leptospira spp. appears to be the most successful form of therapy at the present time.

  1. Equine and human mutual welfare: a whole subject? Critical aspects and possible strategies in equine-assisted activities and therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Li Destri Nicosia, Dora

    2011-01-01

    General aim of the study is equine welfare, particularly concerning different husbandry methodic and inter-specific relational factors. Specific aim is the evaluation of possible mutual (to humans and to equines) benefits and the analysis of critical factors/strength points, of human-horse relationship within Therapeutic Riding context (TR). The peculiarities of human-horse relationship (compared to the bond with “Pet”) are analyzed, concerning their socio-anthropological, psychological, p...

  2. Immunohistochemical studies in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeike, A; Brügmann, M; Drommer, W

    1998-11-01

    Despite extensive clinical research, the etiology of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still unknown. After an immunologic pathogenesis was established in recurrent uveitis in humans, a similar pathogenic mechanism was assumed to exist in ERU. To investigate whether immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in ERU, 20 eyes of 15 horses with ERU were examined immunohistochemically with a T cell marker, B cell marker, and anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antibodies. Twenty-six eyes of 20 horses were used for investigation of MHC class II antigen expression in normal equine eyes. In 18 eyes of 14 horses, the number of T cells in the inflammatory cell population within the uvea was assessed. In 16/18 eyes (89%), the T lymphocyte fraction was > 70%. This cell population was distributed mostly in a diffuse manner throughout the uvea and also within the mantle zone of follicular lymphocytic aggregates. Foci of B lymphocytes could be found within the center of follicular aggregates in three eyes. The expression of MHC class II antigen on resident ocular cells was evaluated in 10 eyes of six horses with ERU. An increase of MHC class II antigen expression in the trabecular meshwork and on the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium was noted as was a deviant expression on proliferating Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The predominance of T cells in the inflammatory infiltrates supports the central role of a cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, the observation of a deviant MHC class II expression on resident ocular cells suggests that aberrant immune regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ERU.

  3. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Amanda J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

  4. Differences in alpha 2u-globulins increased in male rat kidneys following treatment with several alpha 2u-globulin accumulating agents: cystein protease(s) play(s) an important role in production of kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K; Kaneko, H; Isobe, N; Nakatsuka, I; Yoshitake, A; Yamada, H

    1992-11-30

    Effects of alpha 2u-globulin accumulating agents on alpha 2u-globulins in rat kidneys were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting analysis. Treatment of male animals with decalin (150 mg/kg), 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (50 mg/kg), isophorone (150 mg/kg), d-limonene (150 mg/kg) or 1,4-dichlorobenzene (150 mg/kg) by gavage for 14 consecutive days in each case resulted in a marked intensification of a protein band corresponding to kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin, with a molecular mass calculated to be approximately 16 kDa. However, intraperitoneal treatment with leupeptin and E-64 (two times 0.07 mmol/kg, for each), well known cystein protease inhibitors, while only slightly increasing this kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin band, caused the intensification of a approximately 19-kDa molecular mass protein band which was revealed to be a native-type-alpha 2u-globulin by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. These results indicated that at least two types of alpha 2u-globulin can be increased in male rat kidney by chemical treatment. Moreover, cystein protease(s) appear(s) to play an important role in the degradation of alpha 2u-globulin and particularly in the conversion of native-type-alpha 2u-globulin to kidney-type-alpha 2u-globulin in rat kidneys.

  5. A new understanding of oral and dental pathology of the equine cheek teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Miriam

    2013-08-01

    Equine dental disease has a high prevalence. Because of developmental, functional, and anatomic differences, limited inference can be made from brachydont dental pathology to that of equine cheek teeth. This article reviews the pathology of equine cheek teeth and their associated oral tissues, with specific information on periodontitis, pulpitis, maxillary infundibular changes, dental fractures, dental overgrowths, mucosal ulceration, and the regenerative capacity of equine teeth.

  6. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  7. Drug: D09190 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 6399 ATC code: L04AA04 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents ag...-human thymocyte immunoglobulin, rabbit (JAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Immunological Agent...s Immunizing Agents, Passive Anti-thymocyte globulin D09190 Anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin, rabbit (JAN) PubChem: 96025870 ...

  8. Airway cellular response to two different immunosuppressive regimens in lung transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, DJ; Kauffman, HF; Koeter, GH; Verschuuren, EAM; van der Bij, W; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    A number of new immunosuppressive drugs have become available in transplant medicine. We investigated the effects of two different immunosuppressive protocols on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellular characteristics in 34 lung transplant recipients who were treated with anti-thymocyte globulin induc

  9. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  10. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; Vos-de Jong, de Clazien; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks

  11. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in

  12. Soy 11S Globulin Acid Subunits as the Novel Food Polymer Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins were conjugated with soy 11S globulins acid subunits and the hapten-specific monoclonal antibodies (McAbs cross-reactive with four major aflatoxins were achieved using indirect competitive ELISA screening procedure. The two antibodies (clones 1B2 and 2D3 had similar reaction efficiency with aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 but showed a weak cross-reaction to G2. The clone 4C5 exhibited the highest sensitivity for all four aflatoxins. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 at 50% inhibition for 4C5 were 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, and 17.6 pg mL−1. The results indicated that soy 11S globulin acid subunits were suitable novel carriers for aflatoxin antigen in immunization experiments and clone 4C5 could be used for simultaneous analysis of total aflatoxins.

  13. Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants.

  14. Sex hormone binding globulin concentration as a prepubertal marker for hyperinsulinaemia in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, P; Donaldson, M.; WALLACE, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Overweight children become obese adults who are prone to develop the "metabolic syndrome" and premature coronary arterial disease (CAD).
AIMS—To assess whether sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential marker for hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children.
METHODS—Twenty five obese children (body mass index (BMI) >2SD) who warranted investigation on clinical grounds were enrolled. Their insulin response to an oral glucose tolera...

  15. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC IONS DURING THEIR BINDING WITH HUMAN SERUM γ-GLOBULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cheknev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Conformational changes of human serum γ-globulin were studied during and after its binding with copper and zinc ions, using molecular ultrafiltration and differential spectrophotometry. The contents of nonbound metals in the filtrate were evaluated, resp., with sodium diethyl thyocarbamate and o-phenanthroline. It has been shown that copper and zinc exhibited common biological properties during their interactions with protein, but the binding differed sufficiently under similar experimental conditions. E.g., it was confirmed that copper was more active at the external sites of γ-globulin molecule, whereas zinc demonstrated tropicity for the areas of protein intraglobular compartments. The metal-binding sites have been described that differ in their parameters of interactions with cations and their spatial location within globular domains. Approaches are suggested for dynamic analysis of saturation for these differently located sites by the metal ions. We discuss the issues of altered conformational state of the γ-globulin molecule during the binding of cations, as well as potential usage of these data in clinical immunology.

  17. Characterization and cloning of an 11S globulin with hemagglutination activity from Murraya paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Saraswat, Akhilesh; Tomar, Prabhat P S; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2015-01-01

    A ~56 kDa protein having hemagglutination activity was purified and characterized from the Murraya paniculata seeds. The gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that protein is primarily of two different subunits, molecular weight ~ 35 and 21 kDa held together by disulfide-linkages and predominantly by secondary forces. The cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the protein exhibited a substantial sequence identity to seed storage 11S globulin family proteins. The sequence analysis of Murraya paniculata globulin (MPG) demonstrated higher and lower molecular weight polypeptides to be acidic (α) and basic (β) respectively. The sequence analysis further showed that it possesses a characteristic bi-cupin motif and a putative metal binding pocket. CD analysis revealed that the MPG was a β/α protein with a slightly higher content of the former. Conformational changes in protein have been studied by fluorescence spectrometry by using various chemical treatments. The results demonstrated that MPG belongs to 11S globulin family and exhibit's hemagglutination activity, which implicates it to be possessing lectin-like property.

  18. Equine herpesvirus-1 suppresses type-I interferon induction in equine endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M

    2015-10-15

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is one of the most common and important respiratory viral pathogens of horses. EHV-1 in horses replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systematically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord, and highly pathogenic virus strains can produce aborted fetuses or myeloencephalopathy. Like other herpes viruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion. Some herpes viruses down-regulate the type-I interferon (IFN) response to infection, but such activity has not been described for EHV-1. Here, in an in vitro system utilizing an established equine endothelial cell line, we studied the temporal effect on IFN-β responses following infection with the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1. Results show that after an early induction of IFN-β, the virus actively shut down further production of IFN-β and this was correlated with expression of the viral late genes. Expression of the IFN response factor viperin, a marker of host cell type-I IFN responses, was also suppressed by T953 virus infection. EHV-1-mediated suppression of host type-I IFN responses may play an important role in EHV-1 pathogenesis and the mechanism of this, presumably involving a viral late gene product, warrants investigation.

  19. The characterization of equine herpes virus-1-infected cell polypeptides recognized by equine lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C G; Ledger, N; Edington, N

    1988-02-01

    Ponies, without evidence of previous exposure to Equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1), were experimentally infected with EHV-1 subtype 2 and investigated for lymphocyte transformation to virus-infected cell polypeptides, as shown by separation with gel electrophoresis. Animals made significant responses to Western blot fractions that corresponded to molecular weights of approximately 30,000, 40,000-45,000, 60,000-65,000, 80,000-95,000 and 100,000-140,000 MW. These molecular weight ranges correlated with the positions of major EHV-1 subtype 2 glycoproteins that were found at migration distances approximating to 137,000, 111,000, 90,000, 65,000 and 47,000 MW. Responses were also made to a subset of similar points on the subtype 1 profile. Hyperimmune equine serum precipitated numerous infected-cell proteins of both subtypes; in particular the recognition of polypeptides with MW of 142,000, 132,000, 114,000, and 46,000 was in agreement with the mitogenic responses. Labelling with 125I indicated that immunoprecipitated greater than 250,000, 182,000, 142,000, 132,000, 75,000, 46,000 and 32,000/34,000 MW products were exposed on the surface of infected cells.

  20. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  1. [The surgical therapy of equine recurrent uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werry, H; Gerhards, H

    1992-04-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequently encountered cause of eye problems and blindness in horses. Classic treatment of ERU includes mydriatics, corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite vigorous topical and systemic treatment, however, in many cases, the prognosis for preserving vision remains poor. Experiences with surgical treatment of chronic endogenous uveitis in human patients have shown that vision-impairing axial opacities in the vitreous body can be removed by pars plana vitrectomy, and that a considerable decrease in the frequency and severity of uveitic relapses results. So far, 11 eyes of 10 horses were subjected to vitrectomy. All horses had suffered from 3 or more uveitic attacks and had a hazy vitreous. In all cases, at discharge from the clinic, the vitreous chamber was less hazy compared to preoperative findings. At follow-up examinations, 8 eyes (8/10) had normal i.o. pressure, and 2 (2/10) had subnormal i.o. pressure and the vitreous chambers were clear or contained only small floaters. Uveitic attacks had not been observed in the operated eyes. Postoperative complications included fibrinous, or fibrinous-haemorrhagic exudate in the anterior chamber of all eyes, and in one eye, a minor haemorrhage in the vitreous chamber. Our preliminary results indicate that pars plana vitrectomy assuring proper case selection and accurate surgical technique, may contribute to improvement of vision and may delay the progression of uveitic complications in horses.

  2. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  3. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  4. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (egus: diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mot, T.,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is especially reported in racing horses, with a prevalence of 60-90% in adults and 25-50% in foals. The ethiology of equine gastric ulcer is polifactorial, represented by nutritional factors, stress generated by training and captivity, drugs (corticosteroids-prednisolone, dexametasone, nesteroidicanti-inflammatory drugs: flumixin-meglumine, fenilbutazone, duodenal refluence. The diagnosis is established on clinical signs and therapeutic response and it is confirmed by endoscopic exam. Therapeutically it is recommended to administer: antiacide (aluminiu hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, inhibitors of H2 receptors(cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, inhibitors of protons pump (Omeprazol, Sucralphate. Diagnosis and therapeutic aspects in equine gastric ulcer syndrome are presented in this study.

  5. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  6. Ingestive behavior and thermoregulatory responses of equine in grazing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wéverton José Lima Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to evaluate the main physiological responses, as well as the main patterns of ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of equines in activities grazing. Animal behavior is influenced by several factors, such as, climate, temperature, power supply, etc., thus becoming indispensable good management practices, for the animal can play to their best possible performance. The loss of heat in equines that give several ways (conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation, this occurs so that the animal can enter in their zone of thermal comfort (37.5ºC to 38.5ºC.

  7. Tools for the diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-France; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Respiratory disorders are among the most common problems leading horse owners to seek veterinary attention. Accurate diagnosis of these conditions allows for proper treatment to be instituted, much to the benefit of the patient and satisfaction of the client. As an introduction to this issue on equine respiratory disorders, we review some of the tools that are available to equine veterinarians for the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination, radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, techniques for sampling the respiratory tract, hematology, blood gas analysis, respiratory mechanics, and some modern diagnostic tools are briefly covered.

  8. Potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebia, I; Fiéni, F; Duchamp, G; Destrumelle, S; Pellerin, J-L; Zientara, S; Vautherot, J-F; Bruyas, J-F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in vitro. Donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by PCR detection of EHV-1 DNA in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. Twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned to one of two groups: 10 embryos were exposed for 24h to infectious EHV-1 at 10(6)TCID(50)/ml, and 10 embryos were used as negative controls. Exposed embryos were washed in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being incubated for 24 h with semiconfluent rabbit kidney (RK13) cells to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE), and finally tested for the presence of EHV-1 viral DNA by PCR. The embryo washing media were also assayed for the virus on RK 13 cells and by PCR. Control embryos were neither exposed to the virus nor washed. EHV-1 was not found in the control embryos, or in the last five washes of the exposed embryos. However, the virus was detected in 7/10 of the embryos exposed to EHV-1 for 24h, as well as in the first five washes of the embryos. The gradual disappearance of EHV-1 from the 10 successive wash solutions from the exposed embryos and the detection of viral DNA in 7/10 washed embryos by PCR, demonstrated that the washing procedure was unable to remove EHV-1 and suggested that EHV-1 could be attached to the acellular layer surrounding embryos (zona pellucida or capsule) or had penetrated the embryo.

  9. Equine Welfare in England and Wales: Exploration of Stakeholders' Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Knowles, Toby G; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior. Thirdly, the word welfare had negative connotations, and for some, good welfare was achieved through avoidance of negative states. Finally, interviewees discussed incidents that occurred in their own familiar contexts but suggested that these were not welfare problems. Evidence indicated that the ways in which equine stakeholders understood the concept of welfare might have been acting as a barrier to the alleviation of some equine welfare problems. There is a need for strategies aimed at improving equine welfare to consider stakeholder constructs of welfare and the ways in which these constructs are generated and acted upon.

  10. Complement-induced equine neutrophil adhesiveness and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slauson, D O; Skrabalak, D S; Neilsen, N R; Zwahlen, R D

    1987-05-01

    Equine neutrophils (PMN) were isolated from citrated normal blood by density gradient separation on Ficoll-Hypaque to greater than 96% purity and 98% viability and an average of 3.78 x 10(7) PMN/ml. The agonist C5a des Arg was used in serial dilutions of whole zymosan-activated equine plasma (ZAP) or was partially purified from ZAP by column chromatography. Purified equine PMN exhibited rapid aggregation following incubation with C5a des Arg which was further dependent on the availability of divalent cations, especially Mg++. The microfilament disruptive agent cytochalasin B (5 micrograms/50 microliters) greatly augmented aggregation responses to C5a des Arg. Subaggregating doses of C5a des Arg promoted PMN adhesiveness as assayed on 0.5 x 10 cm borosilicate glass columns containing a 2.0 cm bed of Sephadex G-25. This C5a des Arg-induced increased adhesiveness was inhibitable by prior incubation of the PMN with either non-steroidal (0.065 M phenylbutazone) or steroidal (0.005 M dexamethasone) anti-inflammatory agents. Ultrastructural studies correlated well with functional assays and revealed marked organelle-free lamellipodia formation without PMN-PMN contact at subaggregating doses of the agonist and progressive PMN-PMN contact at aggregating doses. Equine PMN are responsive to C5a des Arg, and induced adhesiveness responses can be manipulated by anti-inflammatory agents.

  11. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  12. Synovial fluid as a mirror of equine joint (patho) physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R. van den

    2004-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a serious problem in the equine industry and an important cause of the (early) retirement of sport horses. Currently the diagnosis is usually based on X-rays, but by the time changes become radiographically visible, extensive (often irreversible) joint damage is present. This

  13. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... designated as slaughter animals on the bill of sale. We have never used the presence or absence of.... Because equines cannot stand in a normal position with their heads raised, they cannot maintain balance as... conveyance is capable, under normal circumstances, of traversing most U.S. highways while carrying...

  14. Clinical sentinel surveillance of equine West Nile fever, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saegerman, C.; Alba-Casals, A.; García-Bocanegra, I.;

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...

  15. Case of cytomegalovirus-associated direct anti-globulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Saeko; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Goro; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Tsutomu; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old boy developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia after a negative direct anti-globulin test. The concentration of erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulin G, determined using an immunoradiometric assay, correlated with disease activity. He was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) both serologically and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating that his autoimmune hemolytic anemia was directly caused by CMV infection. Since anti-CMV immunoglobulin G was not absorbed by the patient's erythrocytes, cross-reaction between erythrocyte antigens and CMV was not likely a causative factor for hemolysis.

  16. [The use of immunomodulating therapy as part of complex treatment of secondary peritonitis induces reduction of inflammation in patients of different age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanova, N Iu; Koniaev, I G; Epifanov, Iu A; Golubeva, V L; Serova, L D

    2011-01-01

    We present experience of using anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) in complex therapy of patients with extensive secondary peritonitis at the age of 29-83 years. The research was based on 60 patient cases: 29 (48%) of whom were given anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) Antilymfolin in post operative period and 31 patient of the control group who did not receive immunomodulating therapy within the complex treatment. The received data clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) usage for normalization of innate immunity indices and inflammation reduction. Immunostimulating effect in patients given anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) could be seen on the fourth day of the threatment. The drug is equally effective in patients of young and middle age as well as in patients of elderly and senility age. The positive influence of anti-thymocytic immunoglobulin (ATG) on inflammation is shown with the reduction of CRP, gamma-globuline, alpha1-protein fraction serum levels normalization. The use of Antilymfolin induces the regression of inflammation and apparently improves the quality and duration of treatment and rehabilitation.

  17. Detection of Leptospira interrogans DNA and antigen in fixed equine eyes affected with end-stage equine recurrent uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jacqueline W; Galle, Laurence E; Kleiboeker, Steve B; Turk, James R; Schommer, Susan K; Dubielizig, Richard R; Mitchell, William J; Moore, Cecil P; Giuliano, Elizabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequent cause of blindness in horses worldwide. Leptospira has been implicated as an etiologic agent in some cases of ERU and has been detected in fresh ocular tissues of affected horses. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Leptospira antigen and DNA in fixed equine ocular tissues affected with end-stage ERU. Sections of eyes from 30 horses were obtained. Controls included 1) 10 normal equine eyes and 2) 10 equine eyes with a nonrecurrent form of uveitis. The experimental group consisted of 10 eyes diagnosed with ERU based on clinical signs and histologic lesions. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with an array of rabbit anti-Leptospira polyclonal antibodies. DNA extractions were performed by using a commercial kit designed for fixed tissue. Real-time PCR analysis was completed on extracted DNA. The target sequence for PCR was designed from alignments of available Leptospira 16S rDNA partial sequences obtained from GenBank. Two of 10 test samples were positive for Leptospira antigen by immunohistochemical assay. Zero of 20 controls were positive for Leptospira antigen. All test samples and controls were negative for Leptospira DNA by real-time PCR analysis. Leptospira was detected at a lower frequency than that previously reported for fresh ERU-affected aqueous humor and vitreous samples. Leptospira is not frequently detectable in fixed ocular tissues of horses affected with ERU when using traditional immunohistochemical and real-time PCR techniques.

  18. Unraveling the equine lymphocyte proteome: differential septin 7 expression associates with immune cells in equine recurrent uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, Roxane L; Hauck, Stefanie M; Amann, Barbara; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2014-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease.

  19. Unraveling the equine lymphocyte proteome: differential septin 7 expression associates with immune cells in equine recurrent uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane L Degroote

    Full Text Available Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease.

  20. Recent advances in equine abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C L; Dowling, B A; Dart, A J

    2005-07-01

    Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that has applications as a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic technique. Specialized equipment is necessary to perform equine laparoscopy, and there is a large range of instruments, both disposable and non-disposable available. Laparoscopic procedures described include ovariectomy, cryptorchidectomy, adhesiolysis and herniorrhaphy. Laparoscopy can be performed in a standing or dorsally recumbent position, depending on surgeon preference, patient status and the procedure to be performed. Stapling equipment is frequently used in gastrointestinal surgery in horses. Advantages include decreased surgical time and a decrease in the risk of contamination. Stapling equipment is often used in creating anastomoses, both in the large and small intestines, as well as in vessel ligation. New surgical techniques intended to decrease adhesion formation include the use of carboxymethylcellulose and bioresorbable patches. Indwelling abdominal drains can be used for peritoneal lavage following surgery and also appear to decrease the risk of adhesion formation. Improvements in post-operative care, including the treatment of post-operative ileus and endotoxaemia can significantly improve the outcome of horses that have undergone surgery for abdominal disorders. Recommendations for the use of prokinetic agents in horses with ileus vary widely. Prokinetic agents include local anaesthetics, macrolide antimicrobials, cholinergic agonists and dopamine antagonists. Endotoxaemia is common in horses following surgery for gastrointestinal disorders. The antibiotic polymyxin B binds to the circulating endotoxin molecule, decreasing its half-life in the intra-vascular space and reducing associated inflammation. This drug appears to be an effective and affordable treatment option for horses with endotoxaemia. The use of specific cyclooxygenase inhibitors in veterinary medicine have been studied recently. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may

  1. Determination of sex hormone-binding globulin in human semen by selective ammonium sulphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvay, J; Traub, A

    1984-01-01

    A simple method was developed to measure the SHBG capacities of human serum, semen and sperm cells. After suitable dilution, disintegration and addition of labelled dihydrotestosterone-1,2-3 H or testosterone-1,2-3 H, the SHBG was precipitated by the addition of saturated ammonium sulphate in a final concentration of 42.3%. The precipitate was centrifuged and the activity of the non-bound, labelled steroid was counted in an aliquot of the supernatant. Subtraction of this result from the total activity yielded the SHBG-bound steroid in microgram/100 ml or nmol/l. Examination of 52 males gave normal values of means = 13.91 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0,746) dihydrotestosterone binding globulin (DHTBG) and means = 11.67 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0.555) testosterone binding globulin (TBG) in serum, while the concentrations in the seminal plasma were means = 10.89 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0,723) DHTBG and means = 8.93 nmol/l (S.E.M. = 0.625) TBG. means = 5.57 ng/mg protein (S.E.M. = 0.516) DHTBG and means = 4.91 ng/mg protein (S.E.M. = 0.440) TBG were found in the disintegrated sperm cells.

  2. Investigation of selected biochemical indicators of Equine Rhabdomyolysis in Arabian horses: pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Wael Mohamed; El-Bahr, Sabry M

    2010-12-01

    A total of 30 horses were divided into two groups, one served as a control whereas other was rhabdomyolysis diseased horses. After blood collection, the resulted sera were used for estimation of the activities of creatin kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactic acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, Triiodothyronine (T(3)), calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride, vitamin E, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α). In addition, whole blood was used for determination of selenium, reduced glutathione (G-SH) and prostaglandin F2-α (PGF2α). The erythrocyte hemolysates were used for the determination of the activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The present findings revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the values of CK, AST, LDH, glucose, lactate, TAG, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, MDA, TNF- α, IL6 and PGF2- α in diseased horses when compared with the control. Furthermore, the values of calcium, SOD, CAT, TAC, NO and GSH in diseased horses were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than the control. The other examined parameters were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the examined pro-inflammatory cytokines were useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of Equine rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses beside the old examined biomarkers. In the future, efforts should be made to confirm this in other breed. If this could be achieved, it would open up new perspectives in research fields dealing with ER.

  3. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  4. The repertoire of equine intestinal α-defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetens Jens

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defensins represent an important class of antimicrobial peptides. These effector molecules of the innate immune system act as endogenous antibiotics to protect the organism against infections with pathogenic microorganisms. Mammalian defensins are classified into three distinct sub-families (α-, β- and θ-defensins according to their specific intramolecular disulfide-bond pattern. The peptides exhibit an antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Alpha-Defensins are primarily synthesised in neutrophils and intestinal Paneth cells. They play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases and may regulate the flora of the intestinal tract. An equine intestinal α-defensin (DEFA1, the first characterised in the Laurasiatheria, shows a broad antimicrobial spectrum against human and equine pathogens. Here we report a first investigation of the repertoire of equine intestinal α-defensins. The equine genome was screened for putative α-defensin genes by using known α-defensin sequences as matrices. Based on the obtained sequence information, a set of oligonucleotides specific to the α-defensin gene-family was designed. The products generated by reverse-transcriptase PCR with cDNA from the small intestine as template were sub-cloned and numerous clones were sequenced. Results Thirty-eight equine intestinal α-defensin transcripts were determined. After translation it became evident that at least 20 of them may code for functional peptides. Ten transcripts lacked matching genomic sequences and for 14 α-defensin genes apparently present in the genome no appropriate transcript could be verified. In other cases the same genomic exons were found in different transcripts. Conclusions The large repertoire of equine α-defensins found in this study points to a particular importance of these peptides regarding animal health and protection from infectious diseases. Moreover, these

  5. Intranasal Location and Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Equine Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, Alexandra; Wenisch, Sabine; Failing, Klaus; Herden, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines, or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g., horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of five adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein and doublecortin (DCX) expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tropomyosin receptor kinase A was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine types a and b were located differently within the nose and

  6. Relationship between in vitro Fe and Zn dialysability and peptide composition of albumin and globulins extracted from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi-Boccia, G; Carbonaro, M; Cappelloni, M; Carnovale, E

    1996-11-01

    In vitro dialysability of iron, zinc and protein was determined from whole bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), albumin and globulin (G1, G2) after cooking. Albumin showed the highest iron, zinc, protein and phytic acid content. Cooking increased iron and protein dialysability only in whole bean and albumin. Compared to globulins, albumin also presented a higher in vitro protein digestibility and cystine chemical reactivity. HPLC analysis of peptides in dialysates of bean and protein fractions suggested that some aggregation occurred during dialysis. The percentage of amino acids in dialysed peptides was found to be different between albumin and globulins. The difference in iron and zinc dialysability between albumin and globulins seems to depend on the phytic acid content of the albumin fraction and the protein properties of globulins.

  7. Usefulness of a commercial equine IgG test and serum protein concentration as indicators of failure of transfer of passive immunity in hospitalized foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Nadine; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Hardy, Joanne; Schwarzwald, Colin C; Wittum, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Detection of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) is important in reducing morbidity and mortality in neonatal foals. We investigated the performance of a commercial equine IgG test (SNAP Foal IgG Test Kit) to diagnose FTPI in hospitalized foals. Furthermore, we evaluated the usefulness of serum total protein (STP) and serum globulin (SG) concentrations as indicators of FTPI. Serum IgG concentration was measured by means of the SNAP test and single radial immunodiffusion, and SG and STP concentrations were determined by means of a clinical chemistry analyzer. Subjects were 67 hospitalized foals .05) by plasma fibrinogen concentration, sepsis score, or bacteremia. Specificity for detection of [IgG] < or = 800 mg/dl was lower (P < .05) in foals with sepsis score < or =11 (50% [31-60%] versus 100% [8-100%]) and bacteremia (25% [5-56%] versus 62% [45-62%]). Sensitivity and specificity of [STP] < or = 5.0 g/dl for [IgG] < or =800 mg/dl was 94% (83-99%) and 47% (30-56%), respectively. Performance of the SNAP test in hospitalized foals is impaired because of low specificity, but can have usefulness provided that the properties of the test and characteristics of the foal being examined are considered when interpreting the results. The STP and SG concentrations are poor sole indicators of FTPI in hospitalized foals, but may be useful adjunctive tests.

  8. Serological, molecular characterization and epidemiological situation of equine influenza in the Arabic Maghreb countries between 1972 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boukharta

    2014-08-01

    This finding does not corroborate the recent studies of the H3N8 subtype of equine influenza viruses which have demonstrated that the oldest equine H3N8 strains, circulating before 1990 apparently went extinct.

  9. Guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for hematologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Ali, Kaiser; Blanchette, Victor; Brouwers, Melissa; Couban, Stephen; Radmoor, Paula; Huebsch, Lothar; Hume, Heather; McLeod, Anne; Meyer, Ralph; Moltzan, Catherine; Nahirniak, Susan; Nantel, Stephen; Pineo, Graham; Rock, Gail

    2007-04-01

    Canada's per capita use of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) grew by approximately 115% between 1998 and 2006, making Canada one of the world's highest per capita users of IVIG. It is believed that most of this growth is attributable to off-label usage. To help ensure IVIG use is in keeping with an evidence-based approach to the practice of medicine, the National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services convened a panel of national experts to develop an evidence-based practice guideline on the use of IVIG for hematologic conditions. The mandate of the expert panel was to review evidence regarding use of IVIG for 18 hematologic conditions and formulate recommendations on IVIG use for each. A panel of 13 clinical experts and 1 expert in practice guideline development met to review the evidence and reach consensus on the recommendations for the use of IVIG. The primary sources used by the panel were 3 recent evidence-based reviews. Recommendations were based on interpretation of the available evidence and where evidence was lacking, consensus of expert clinical opinion. A draft of the practice guideline was circulated to hematologists in Canada for feedback. The results of this process were reviewed by the expert panel, and modifications to the draft guideline were made where appropriate. This practice guideline will provide the NAC with a basis for making recommendations to provincial and territorial health ministries regarding IVIG use management. Specific recommendations for routine use of IVIG were made for 7 conditions including acquired red cell aplasia; acquired hypogammaglobulinemia (secondary to malignancy); fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia; hemolytic disease of the newborn; HIV-associated thrombocytopenia; idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; and posttransfusion purpura. Intravenous immune globulin was not recommended for use, except under certain life-threatening circumstances, for 8 conditions

  10. Equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; David Wilson, W; Madigan, John E; Ferraro, Gregory L

    2009-06-01

    Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM), although a relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms or boarding stables. Although outbreaks of EHM have been recognized for centuries in domestic horse populations, many aspects of this disease remained poorly characterized. In recent years, an improved understanding of EHM has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks and veterinary hospitals throughout North America and Europe. These outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature of EHV-1 and have prompted a re-evaluation of diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities, preventative measures and biosecurity protocols for the disease. This review concentrates on these and other selected, clinically relevant aspects of EHM.

  11. Babesiosis in equines in Pakistan: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Rashid

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne haematological disease of equidae that can affect acutely, subacutely and chronically. The disease is manifested by intermittent fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. The authors describe the clinical, haematological and therapeutic aspects of babesiosis in equines at two units in Kotley and at two units in Jehlum of the Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps (RVFC. Animals on these units showed the signs of illness. On clinical examination, intermittent temperature, increased respiratory rate, anaemia, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and pale mucous membranes were observed. Haematological examination revealed a decrease in red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration, accompanied by an increase in total white blood cell count. Cases of babesiosis in horses were successfully treated with imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg body weight, administered intramuscularly four times at 72 h intervals, together with supportive therapy.

  12. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Daiki; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Matsuzaki, Shouta; Sunaga, Takafumi; Fujiki, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue.

  13. Antimicrobial drug concentrations and sampling techniques in the equine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Lotte

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of antimicrobial drugs in the equine lung is important in designing optimal dosage regimens for the treatment of lower airway infections. Several studies in horses and other species have shown that the pharmacokinetics of a drug in the lung cannot necessarily be predicted by its behaviour in plasma, and influencing factors include the class of drug, the animal species and the chosen sampling technique. This review provides a description of the target site for bacterial lower airway infections and describes the penetration of antibiotics into lung matrices. It also offers an overview of published equine pulmonary pharmacokinetic studies and considers the different sampling methods used and the influence existing methodological problems can have on the interpretation of data. An awareness of these factors is important in establishing optimal dosage regimes to treat lower airway infections in horses.

  14. Molecular biological characterization of equine surfactant protein A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospes, R; Hospes, B I L; Reiss, I; Bostedt, H; Gortner, L

    2002-12-01

    In the following, we describe the isolation and sequencing of the equine surfactant protein A (Sp-A) as found in both the cDNA and the genomic DNA. We found a length of the cDNA sequence of 747 bp (base pairs), in translation into amino acids of 248. Compared with the known molecular biological facts about Sp-A in other species, the cDNA sequence obtained showed highest homology with that of sheep (85.01%). The genomic DNA of equine Sp-A, as in other species, includes three introns. There were no hints for the existence of two different Sp-A genes. These results should form the basis for a better understanding of respiratory failure in foals and adult horses, and also lead to further studies on this item.

  15. New Approaches in Accountancy of the Romanian Equine Growth Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity of equine growth puts many problems regarding the way of recognition, registration and valuation of equines as biological assets, but also regarding the way of calculation for the auction prices. Taking into consideration the ascendant trend of this sector, and also the diversification of its activities, accountancy faces new situations, which require to be solved in the conditions of the existent International Accounting Standards. In this respect, Romania came with certain improvements, which allow the separate registration of biological assets, their valuation at the fair value and the separate registration of the economic benefits brought by the biological assets to the entity. This paper presents a part of these aspects, in the context of the new settlements adopted in accounting by the Romanian legislation.

  16. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2.

  17. Complete genome amplification of Equine influenza virus subtype 2

    OpenAIRE

    Sguazza, G. H.; Fuentealba, N. A.; Tizzano, Marco Antonio; Galosi, Cecilia Mónica; Pecoraro, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a method for rapid amplification of the complete genome of equine influenza virus subtype 2 (H3N8). A ThermoScriptTM reverse transcriptase instead of the avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase or Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase was used. This enzyme has demonstrated higher thermal stability and is described as suitable to make long cDNA with a complex secondary structure. The product obtained by this method can be cloned, used in later...

  18. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa

    2015-01-01

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reli.......g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively....

  19. Viral DNA in horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, N R; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Casey, J W; Lahn, S; Stephens, R. M.; Edwards, J.

    1989-01-01

    The amount and distribution of viral DNA were established in a horse acutely infected with the Wyoming strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The highest concentration of viral DNA were found in the liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. The kidney, choroid plexus, and peripheral blood leukocytes also contained viral DNA, but at a lower level. It is estimated that at day 16 postinoculation, almost all of the viral DNA was located in the tissues, with the liver alone containing...

  20. Konsentrasi Protein Total, Albumin, dan Globulin Anak Kambing Peranakan Etawah Setelah Pemberian Berbagai Sediaan Kolostrum* (TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, AND GLOBULIN CONCENTRATIONS ON ETTAWAH CROSSBREED NEONATES FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF VARIOUS FORM O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the profile of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrationson Ettawah crossbreed neonates after consuming various colostrums. Twenty four healthy neonatal kidswere used in this study. The neonates were divided into four groups. Each group received fresh maternal(goat colostrum, frozen-thawed bovine colostrum, bovine spray dried colostrum, and bovine powdercommercial colostrum, respectively. Colostrums were given at 10% of body weight directly after birth andfollowed by the same amount every 12 hours, for three days. The blood was taken from jugular vein at 0, 12,24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth to determine total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations.Results of this study indicated that the serum total protein and globulin concentration increased andreached the peak at 24 hours after birth. Compared to the concentration at birth, the increase of totalprotein concentration were 62.77%, 59.26%, 48.05%, and 66.67% in fresh maternal (goat, frozen-thawedbovine, bovine spray dried, and commercial bovine colostrum, respectively. Serum globulin concentrationincreased 4.9, 4.4, 4.8, and 14.6 times in fresh matermnal goat, frozen-thawed bovine, spray dried, andcommercial bovine colostrums respectively, compared to the concentration at birth. In conclusion, theconsumption of various colostrums i.e. fresh maternal goat colostrums, bovine colostrums (frozen-thawed,spray dried and commercial colostrums would increase the concentration of blood total protein and globulin,which both reached the highest concentration at 24 h after birth.

  1. Brief Report: Dysregulated Immune System in Children with Autism: Beneficial Effects of Intravenous Immune Globulin on Autistic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudhir; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children (ages 3-12) with autism (n=25) were given intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) treatments at 4-week intervals for at least 6 months. Marked abnormality of immune parameters was observed in subjects, compared to age-matched controls. IVIG treatment resulted in improved eye contact, speech, behavior, echolalia, and other autistic features.…

  2. Self-Assembly of Nano Hydroxyapatite or Aragonite Induced by Molecular Recognition to Soy Globulin 7S or 11S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Tian, Huafeng; Kumar, Rakesh; Zhang, Lina

    2009-09-01

    Molecular self-assembly is emerging as a viable 'bottom-up' approach to build stable organic/inorganic nanometer-scale blocks. Herein, under the conditions of appropriate pH and ionic strength, soy globulin 7S or 11S were coprecipitated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) or aragonite (Arag), respectively, to fabricate two organic/inorganic hybrids: 7S/HAp and 11S/Arag. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the hybrids exhibit a nanosized core-shell structure with globulin monomer 7S or 11S as core and HAp or Arag as shells. 7S/HAp and 11S/Arag present a disk and hexagon shape, respectively. After calcinations, monodispersed HAp without support from globulins existed as nanospheres. It was revealed that the globulin as host induces the self-assembly and growth layer by layer of HAp or Arag nanocrystals. The factors of molecular recognition and surface potential definitely affected the size and shape of the hierarchical blocks. This work provided a novel pathway to controllably synthesize a wide variety of precise plant protein/biomineral hybrid biomaterials.

  3. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Langenberg, Claudia;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiologi...

  4. Equine pastern vasculitis: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psalla, Dimitra; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Stoffel, Michael H; Chiers, Koen; Gaschen, Véronique; Doherr, Marcus G; Gerber, Vincent; Welle, Monika M

    2013-11-01

    Equine pastern vasculitis is clinically challenging and the underlying aetiopathogenesis is unclear. The aims of this retrospective study were to establish histopathological criteria for pastern vasculitis, to look for an underlying cause, to investigate whether the histopathological lesions are associated with a distinct clinical picture, to assess if and how the clinical picture varies, and to determine the treatment response. Skin biopsies and clinical data from 20 horses with a diagnosis of vasculitis of the distal extremities were investigated and histology was compared to biopsies from healthy horses. It was concluded that intramural inflammatory cells, leukocytoclasia with nuclear dust, thickening and oedema of the vessel walls, and microhaemorrhages are highly specific histological findings in equine pastern vasculitis. Based on the feedback from the clinicians, the lesions were mostly seen on the lateral and medial aspects of un-pigmented legs. Lesions in white skin were characterised by exudation and crusts, whereas those in pigmented skin were alopecic and characterised by scaling. The response to treatment was poor and the prognosis guarded. No association was found between any of the histopathological findings and a distinct clinical picture. An underlying cause of equine pastern vasculitis could not be identified. Considering the large number of confounding factors, the causative agents are difficult to identify, but may involve drugs or a hypersensitivity reactions to yet unknown antigens.

  5. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  6. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates in equines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Rabyia; Taku, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Badroo, Gulzaar Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra), molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of R. equi isolates was done by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by virulence associated protein A (Vap A) gene amplification. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics, viz., amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During the study, 9 R. equi isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and biochemical tests. In the polymerase chain reaction based detection, 3 among the 9 rhodococcal isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA gene and revealed amplicon of 450 bp for confirmation of 16S rRNA gene. None of the sample was found positive for Vap A gene. In antibiogram, R. equi isolates were found sensitive for amoxicillin, while some isolates were also found resistant to the most conventional antibiotic penicillin G. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that R. equi infection is prevalent in equines in Jammu region of India and the indiscriminate use of the antibiotics is leading toward the development of resistant strains of R. equi. PMID:28246441

  7. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabyia Javed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra, molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of R. equi isolates was done by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by virulence associated protein A (Vap A gene amplification. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics, viz., amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During the study, 9 R. equi isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and biochemical tests. In the polymerase chain reaction based detection, 3 among the 9 rhodococcal isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA gene and revealed amplicon of 450 bp for confirmation of 16S rRNA gene. None of the sample was found positive for Vap A gene. In antibiogram, R. equi isolates were found sensitive for amoxicillin, while some isolates were also found resistant to the most conventional antibiotic penicillin G. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that R. equi infection is prevalent in equines in Jammu region of India and the indiscriminate use of the antibiotics is leading toward the development of resistant strains of R. equi.

  8. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  9. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  10. Antithymocyte globulin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome after renal transplantation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Guo-wei; JU Min-jie; XU Ming; RONG Rui-ming; ZHU Tong-yu; LUO Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has long been used for immune-induction and anti-rejection treatments for solid organ transplantations.To date,few cases of ATG-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been published.Here,we present a case of ARDS caused by a single low-dose of ATG in a renal transplant recipient and the subsequent treatments administered.Although the patient suffered from ARDS and delayed graft function,he was successfully treated.We emphasize that the presence of such complications should be considered when unexplained respiratory distress occurs.Early use of corticosteroids,adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens,and conservative fluid management,as well as empiric antimicrobial therapies,may be effective strategies for the treatment of ARDS caused by ATG.

  11. Detection of opsonic antibodies against Enterococcus faecalis cell wall carbohydrates in immune globulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, M; Sixel, K; Hammer, F; Kropec, A; Sava, I G; Theilacker, C; Berner, R; Huebner, J

    2014-08-01

    Three different commercially available polyvalent immune globulins (IG) were investigated for the existence of antibodies against cell wall carbohydrates of four different E. faecalis serotypes (using a cell wall carbohydrate-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and whether these antibodies mediated opsonic killing (using an opsonic-killing assay). All three IG preparations contained antibodies against all four serotypes (CPS-A to CPS-D). However, only one of the three IG preparations showed opsonic killing against all four serotypes. Average killing was higher against serotypes A and B (72 and 79 %, respectively) than against serotypes C and D (30 and 37 %, respectively). Such IG preparations could play a role as an adjuvant therapeutic option in life-threatening infections with E. faecalis, particularly when resistant strains are involved.

  12. Characterization of the 11S globulin gene family in the castor plant Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chileh, Tarik; Esteban-García, Belén; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-01-13

    The 11S globulin (legumin) gene family has been characterized in the castor plant Ricinus communis L. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of two diverged subfamilies (RcLEG1 and RcLEG2) comprising a total of nine genes and two putative pseudogenes. The expression of castor legumin genes has been studied, indicating that it is seed specific and developmentally regulated, with a maximum at the stage when cellular endosperm reaches its full expansion (around 40-45 DAP). However, conspicuous differences are appreciated in the expression timing of individual genes. A characterization of the 5'-proximal regulatory regions for two genes, RcLEG1-1 and RcLEG2-1, representative of the two legumin subfamilies, has also been performed by fusion to the GUS reporter gene. The results obtained from heterologous expression in tobacco and transient expression in castor, indicating seed-specific regulation, support the possible utility of these promoters for biotechnological purposes.

  13. Comparison of Two Soy Globulins on the Dynamic-Mechanical Properties of the Dough and the Quality of Steamed Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Li Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the soy protein concentrate (CSP and 7S and 11S soy globulin on wheat dough and steamed bread (SB, mixing properties of the dough were assessed by farinograph and dynamic-mechanical analyzer (DMA. The quality attributes of SB were assessed by texture profile analyzer (TPA, sensory analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that CSP, 7S, or 11S (each from 2.0 to 4.0% significantly decreased gluten content (from 29.4 to 26.0, 36.7 to 31.8, and 31.6 to 30.7%, when those were added to wheat flour. The CSP/wheat dough stability was increased (from 6.5 to 8.4, 6.5 to 8.5, and 6.5 to 8.3 min and the degree of softening was decreased (from 71.0 to 68.0, 71.0 to 64.0, and 71.0 to 62.0 min, but 7S or 11S had the opposite result. Moreover, the ratio of 7S and 11S has a significant effect on the quality of the dough. The storage modulus and loss modulus of soy/wheat dough decreased in the order of CSP, control, 11S soy globulin, and 7S soy globulin. The hardness, chewiness, and cohesiveness of SB decreased in the order of control, CSP, 11S soy globulin, and 7S soy globulin. Microstructure demonstrated that gluten network was interfered by SPC, 7S, and 11S soy protein, which was in agreement with the texture analysis index. The quality of SB with 3% 11S was the best in texture, microstructure, and sensory. These findings indicate that 11S has the potential to be used as a special soy protein for SB making.

  14. Replication kinetics of neurovirulent versus non-neurovirulent equine herpesvirus type 1 strains in equine nasal mucosal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, S; Gryspeerdt, A C; Steukers, L; Duchateau, L; Osterrieder, N; Van de Walle, G R; Nauwynck, H J

    2010-08-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the causative agent of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, of which outbreaks are reported with increasing frequency throughout North America and Europe. This has resulted in its classification as a potentially emerging disease by the US Department of Agriculture. Recently, it was found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the viral DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) at aa 752 (N-->D) is associated with the neurovirulent potential of EHV-1. In the present study, equine respiratory mucosal explants were inoculated with several Belgian isolates typed in their ORF30 as D(752) or N(752), to evaluate a possible difference in replication in the upper respiratory tract. In addition, to evaluate whether any observed differences could be attributed to the SNP associated with neurovirulence, the experiments were repeated with parental Ab4 (reference neurovirulent strain), parental NY03 (reference non-neurovirulent strain) and their N/D revertant recombinant viruses. The salient findings were that EHV-1 spreads plaquewise in the epithelium, but plaques never cross the basement membrane (BM). However, single EHV-1-infected cells could be observed below the BM at 36 h post-inoculation (p.i.) for all N(752) isolates and at 24 h p.i. for all D(752) isolates, and were identified as monocytic cells and T lymphocytes. Interestingly, the number of infected cells was two to five times higher for D(752) isolates compared with N(752) isolates at every time point analysed. Finally, this study showed that equine respiratory explants are a valuable and reproducible model to study EHV-1 neurovirulence in vitro, thereby reducing the need for horses as experimental animals.

  15. Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis in association with asinine herpesvirus type 5 and equine herpesvirus type 5: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Back Helena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A standardbred gelding with a history of 10 days pyrexia and lethargy was referred to the Equine Hospital at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden. The horse had tachypnea with increased respiratory effort and was in thin body condition. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia and hypoxemia. Thoracic radiographs showed signs of pneumonia with a multifocal nodular pattern, which in combination with lung biopsy findings indicated Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF. EMPF is a recently described disease in adult horses with clinical signs of fever, weight loss and respiratory problems. The pathological findings include loss of functional pulmonary parenchyma due to extensive nodular interstitial fibrosis which has been related to infection with the equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5. In this case, lung biopsy and tracheal wash samples tested positive for both asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AHV-5 and EHV-5 using PCR assays. The horse failed to respond to treatment and was euthanized for humane reasons. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of EMPF. This case suggests that not only EHV-5 alone should be considered in association with the development of this disease.

  16. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  17. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  18. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  19. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  20. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Linde Henriksen, Michala; Andersen, Pia H; Thomsen, Preben D;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with focus on the duration of the corneal disease, medical treatment, season of presentation, clinical appearance, and the degree of corneal vascularization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Equine DSA diagnosed, biopsied, and surgically treated...

  1. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  2. Selection of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasthuys Frank

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR can be a very powerful and accurate technique to examine gene transcription patterns in different biological conditions. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is accurate normalisation. In most of the studies published on real-time PCR in horses, normalisation occurred against only one reference gene, usually GAPDH or ACTB, without validation of its expression stability. This might result in unreliable conclusions, because it has been demonstrated that the expression levels of so called "housekeeping genes" may vary considerably in different tissues, cell types or disease stages, particularly in clinical samples associated with malignant disease. The goal of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for studies concerning normal equine skin and equine sarcoids, which are the most common skin tumour in horses. Results In the present study the gene transcription levels of 6 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, HPRT1, UBB, TUBA1 and RPL32 were determined in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids. After applying the geNorm applet to this set of genes, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB were found to be most stable in normal skin and B2M, ACTB and UBB in equine sarcoids. Conclusion Based on these results, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB, respectively B2M, ACTB and UBB can be proposed as reference gene panels for accurate normalisation of quantitative data for normal equine skin, respectively equine sarcoids. When normal skin and equine sarcoids are compared, the use of the geometric mean of UBB, ACTB and B2M can be recommended as a reliable and accurate normalisation factor.

  3. Poisoning with equine phenylbutazone in a racetrack worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, T A; Rose, S R

    1991-02-01

    Phenylbutazone is a potent nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug often used by veterinarians to treat racetrack animals. Its use in human beings is limited because of significant adverse effects and the availability of newer, safer drugs. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who ingested 17 g of equine phenylbutazone over a 24-hour period to treat the pain of a toothache. He developed grand mal seizures, coma, hypotension, respiratory and renal failure, and hepatic injury. Serum phenylbutazone concentration obtained approximately eight hours after presentation was 900 micrograms/mL. The patient recovered during six weeks of intensive supportive care and repeated hemodialysis.

  4. Characterization of amyloid in equine recurrent uveitis as AA amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostevik, L; de Souza, G A; Wien, T N; Gunnes, G; Sørby, R

    2014-01-01

    Two horses with chronic uveitis and histological lesions consistent with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) were examined. Microscopical findings in the ciliary body included deposits of amyloid lining the non-pigmented epithelium, intracytoplasmic, rod-shaped, eosinophilic inclusions and intraepithelial infiltration of T lymphocytes. Ultrastructural examination of the ciliary body of one horse confirmed the presence of abundant extracellular deposits of non-branching fibrils (9-11 nm in diameter) consistent with amyloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positive labelling for AA amyloid and mass spectrometry showed the amyloid to consist primarily of serum amyloid A1 in both cases. The findings suggest that localized, intraocular AA amyloidosis may occur in horses with ERU.

  5. Equine recurrent uveitis--a spontaneous horse model of uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Hauck, Stefanie M; Amann, Barbara; Pompetzki, Dirk; Altmann, Frank; Raith, Albert; Schmalzl, Thomas; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an autoimmune disease that occurs with a high prevalence (10%) in horses. ERU represents the only reliable spontaneous model for human autoimmune uveitis. We already identified and characterized novel autoantigens (malate dehydrogenase, recoverin, CRALBP) by analyzing the autoantibody-binding pattern of horses affected by spontaneous recurrent uveitis (ERU) to the retinal proteome. CRALBP also seems to be relevant to human autoimmune uveitis. Proteomic screening of vitreous and retinal samples from ERU diseased cases in comparison to healthy controls has led to the identification of a series of differentially regulated proteins, which are functionally linked to the immune system and the maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier.

  6. Equine recurrent uveitis: the viewpoint from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, B C

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a common disease in horses in the USA. There have been many advances in the treatment of ERU; however, frequent misdiagnosis of ERU occurs in cases of primary corneal or uveal disease. It is critical to remember that primary uveitis (i.e. one bout of inflammation) is a different disease to ERU, which is an immune mediated recurrent uveitis. Standard symptomatic anti-inflammatory therapy is effective to control most cases of ERU; however, some horses require advanced therapy, such as placement of drug delivery devices or removal of the vitreous, when they fail to respond to the standard therapy.

  7. Protein chemical characterization of Gc globulin (vitamin D-binding protein) isoforms; Gc-1f, Gc-1s and Gc-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Maja; Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Laursen, Inga;

    2007-01-01

    exchange chromatography. The separated isoforms and several commercial preparations of individual isoforms were characterized by mass spectrometry. This revealed that the major isoforms were non-glycosylated. Compared to the Gc-1f isoform the other dominating isoforms represented an Asp/Glu substitution......Gc globulin, also called vitamin D-binding protein, is a plasma protein involved in the extracellular actin-scavenger system, vitamin D transport and possibly also other biological activities. Low levels of Gc globulin have been found to correlate with multiple organ failure and non......-survival of patients with fulminant hepatic failure and trauma. Here, we characterize the dominant isoforms of plasma-derived Gc globulin from Cohn fraction IV paste with respect to amino acid sequence and posttranslational modifications. Gc globulin was purified in large scale and the isoforms separated by ion...

  8. Update on the use of intravenous immune globulin in the treatment of patients with inflammatory muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C

    1995-11-01

    The inflammatory myopathies consist of three distinct groups: dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and inclusion body myositis. Dermatomyositis is distinguished by its characteristic rash, while polymyositis is a diagnosis of exclusion. Inclusion body myositis is characterized by early involvement of distal muscle groups and the quadriceps. Definitive diagnosis is made by muscle biopsy, which demonstrates histological features characteristic for each disorder. Immune mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory myopathies. A complement-mediated microangiopathy is seen in dermatomyositis, while there is evidence for a T cell-mediated process in polymyositis and inclusion body myositis. Treatment with prednisone is helpful to a majority of patients for a period of time. Immunosuppressive drugs have met with limited success. We describe a group of patients with dermatomyositis, resistant to available therapies, whose muscle strength, skin changes, and muscle biopsies improved significantly during treatment with intravenous immune globulin. The treatment of polymyositis and inclusion body myositis with intravenous immune globulin is currently under study.

  9. Interactions of protein content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins in relation to tofu gel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew T; Yang, Aijun

    2016-03-01

    The content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins are known to affect tofu quality and food-grade soybeans usually have higher levels of proteins. We studied the tofu quality of soybeans with high (44.8%) or low (39.1%) protein content and with or without the 11S globulin polypeptide, 11SA4. Both protein content and 11SA4 significantly affected tofu gel properties. Soybeans containing more protein had smaller seeds which produced significantly firmer (0.663 vs.0.557 N, pprotein subunits, which may have contributed to the improvement in tofu gel properties. These results suggest that, in combination with higher protein content, certain protein subunits or their polypeptides can also be targeted in selecting soybeans to further improve soy food quality.

  10. The reactive centre loop of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a protease target for cortisol release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G; Elder, Peter A

    2014-03-25

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binds more than 90% of circulating cortisol and is a non-inhibitory member of the family of serine protease inhibitors (SERPINS) with an exposed elastase sensitive reactive centre loop (RCL). At sites of inflammation neutrophil activation can release elastase which may cleave the RCL and result in cortisol release from CBG. The RCL sequence also has two theoretical chymotrypsin cleavage sites and we used a monoclonal antibody with specificity for the RCL to investigate chymotrypsin cleavage of CBG. Here we show, for the first time, rapid chymotrypsin cleavage of the RCL of CBG, resulting in undetectable levels of intact CBG, whereas total CBG levels were unchanged. Coincident with both chymotrypsin and elastase cleavage there was an increase in the free cortisol fraction of serum to levels similar to when CBG had been inactivated by heat indicating total cortisol release from CBG. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism for cortisol release from its binding globulin.

  11. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  12. Positive predictive value of albumin: globulin ratio for feline infectious peritonitis in a mid-western referral hospital population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Unity; Deitz, Krysta; Hostetter, Shannon

    2012-12-01

    Low albumin to globulin ratio has been found previously to have a high positive predictive value for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats with clinical signs highly suggestive of the disease. However, FIP can have a more vague clinical presentation. This retrospective study found that the positive predictive value of an albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio of <0.8 and <0.6 was only 12.5% and 25%, respectively, in a group of 100 cats with one or more clinical signs consistent with FIP. The negative predictive value was 100% and 99% for an A:G ratio of <0.8 and A:G<0.6%, respectively. Therefore, when the prevalence of FIP is low, the A:G ratio is useful to rule out FIP but is not helpful in making a positive diagnosis of FIP.

  13. Retrospective diagnosis of Q fever in a country abattoir by the use of specific IgM globulin estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.M.; Hunt, J.G.

    1981-10-03

    Twenty-two cases of pyrexial illness which occurred amongst workers in a country abattoir were investigated retrospectively for Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. In 18, the illness was shown to be Q fever. No diagnoses were established for the other four. The demonstration of circulating Q-fever-specific IgM globulin was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis in many of the cases.

  14. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis....

  15. Effect of colostrum type on serum gamma globulin concentration, growth and health of goat kids until three months

    OpenAIRE

    Iepema, G.L.; Eekeren, N. van

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effect of three colostrum types; goat, cow and artificial colostrum, on serum gamma globulin concentration (GGC), growth and health of goat kids during the first three months of the rearing phase was measured. Thirty newborn goat kids were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; goat colostrum (GC), cow colostrum (CC) and artificial colostrum (AC). At 2, 28, 56 and 86 days serum GGC and live weight were measured. The three colostrum types were analysed on immunoglobu...

  16. Preparation and use of erythrocyte-globulin conjugates to Lassa virus in reversed passive hemagglutination and inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Conditions were defined for functional covalent coupling of anti-Lassa virus globulins to glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken erythrocytes. Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate in a reaction mixture containing not more than 0.01 M NaCl produced uniformly good conjugates which were used in reversed passive hemagglutination (RPH) and reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (RPHI) tests to detect Lassa virus antigens in infected cell cultures and specific antigens in Vero cell cultures. Identical results wer...

  17. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M

    2006-09-09

    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH.

  18. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  19. [Serum gamma globulin concentration in goat kids after colostrum administration: effect of time of administration, volume and type of colostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, K; van Amerongen, J J; Zadoks, R N; van Doorn, D C; Wensing, T

    2000-12-01

    In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended.

  20. A gene encoding a vicilin-like protein is specifically expressed in fern spores. Evolutionary pathway of seed storage globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutov, A D; Braun, H; Chesnokov, Y V; Bäumlein, H

    1998-02-15

    The isolation and characterisation of a cDNA coding for a vicilin-like protein of the fern Matteuccia struthiopteris is described. The corresponding gene is specifically expressed during late stages of spore development. Extensive sequence comparisons suggest that the fern protein can be considered as a molecular missing link between single-domain germin/spherulin-like proteins and two-domain seed storage globulins of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Further, evidence is provided for the existence of a superfamily of structurally related, functionally different proteins which includes storage globulins of the vicilin and legumin families, a membrane-associated sucrose-binding protein of soybean, a Forssman antigen-binding lectin of velvet bean, the precursor of the vacuolar membrane bound proteins MP27/MP32 of pumpkin, the embryogenesis-specific protein Gea8 of carrot, the fern-spore-specific protein described here as well as the functionally diverse family of germins/germin-like proteins and the spherulins of myxomycetes. We propose that seed storage globulins of spermatophytes evolved from desiccation-related single-domain proteins of prokaryotes via a duplicated two-domain ancestor that is best represented by the extant fern spore-specific vicilin-like protein.

  1. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-05-15

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-/sup +/g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state.

  2. PROFIL PROTEIN TOTAL, ALBUMIN DAN GLOBULIN PADA AYAM BROILER YANG DIBERI KUNGIY, BAWANG PUTIH DAN ZINC (ZN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sus Derthi Widhyari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effectiveness of turmeric, garlic and zinc supplementation on protein, albumin and globulin concentration of broiler. One hundred DOC were divided into five treatments, four replications, consist of five chicks in each replicate. The treatments were R0 (basal diet as a control, R1 (R0 + 1,5% turmeric powder +2,5 % garlic powder, R2 (R0 + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc, R3 (R0 +1,5% turmeric powder + 120ppm zinc and R4 (R0 +1,5 turmeric powder + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc. The diet contain 23,5% crude protein and 3215 kcal metabolizable energy. Blood samples were taken from axillary veins at the three and six weeks of age. The results showed that total protein and globulin concentration at 6 weeks slightly higher than 3 weeks old chicks but not significantly different (P>0.05. Albumin concentration were highest on R3 treatment. Total protein and globulin concentration was highest on the R2 treatment. In conclusion, the supplementation of garlic (2.5% and ZnO (120 ppm showed the best combination to improve immune response in broiler

  3. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.

  4. Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bornet, Hubert; Ricart, Wifredo

    2005-05-01

    Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene--Apm1--encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin resistance, we studied whether CBG could explain cortisol-to-adiponectin relationship. One hundred twenty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Plasma CBG and serum cortisol concentration were measured by radioimmunoassay. The cortisol-to-CBG ratio was used to calculate free cortisol. An RIA kit (Linco Research, St Louis, MO) was used to measure adiponectin levels. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostatis model of assessment (HOMA) value. Circulating adiponectin was associated with serum CBG ( r = 0.38, P fasting cortisol ( P = .019) contributed to 14% and 4%, respectively, of CBG variance. In summary, circulating adiponectin, CBG concentration, and fasting cortisol were significantly interrelated in healthy subjects. A significant sexual dimorphism exists in this association.

  5. Role of corticosteroid binding globulin in the fast actions of glucocorticoids on the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, M P; Minni, A M; Dominguez, G; Helbling, J C; Foury, A; Henkous, N; Dorey, R; Béracochéa, D

    2014-03-01

    Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) is a glycoprotein synthesized in liver and secreted in the blood where it binds with a high affinity but low capacity glucocorticoid hormones, cortisol in humans and corticosterone in laboratory rodents. In mammals, 95% of circulating glucocorticoids are bound to either CBG (80%) or albumin (15%) and only the 5% free fraction is able to enter the brain. During stress, the concentration of glucocorticoids rises significantly and the free fraction increases even more because CBG becomes saturated. However, glucocorticoids unbound to CBG are cleared from the blood more quickly. Our studies on mice totally devoid of CBG (Cbg k.o.) showed that during stress these mutant mice display a lower rise of glucocorticoids than the wild-type controls associated with altered emotional reactivity. These data suggested that CBG played a role in the fast actions of glucocorticoids on behavior. Further analyses demonstrated that stress-induced memory retrieval impairment, an example of the fast action of glucocorticoids on the brain is abolished in the Cbg k.o. mice. This effect of stress on memory retrieval could be restored in the Cbg k.o. mice by infusing corticosterone directly in the hippocampus. The mechanisms explaining these effects involved an increased clearance but no difference in corticosterone production. Thus, CBG seems to have an important role in maintaining in blood a glucocorticoid pool that will be able to access the brain for the fast effects of glucocorticoids.

  6. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio and prognostic nutrition index predict prognosis for glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Zhe; Li, Feng; Xu, Zhen-Kuan; Chen, Xuan; Sun, Bin; Cao, Jing-Wei; Liu, Yu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Impaired immunonutritional status has disadvantageous effects on outcomes for cancer patients. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) and the prognostic nutrition index (PNI) have been used as prognostic factors in various cancers. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the AGR and PNI in glioblastoma. Materials and methods This retrospective analysis involved 166 patients. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. AGR and the PNI were calculated as AGR = albumin/(total serum protein − albumin) and PNI = albumin (g/L) + 5 × total lymphocyte count (109/L). Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of AGR and the PNI. Cox proportional-hazard models estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariable and multivariable survival analyses. Results The cutoff values of AGR and PNI were 1.75 and 48. OS was enhanced, with high AGR (>1.75) and the PNI (>48) (Pglioblastoma. AGR and the PNI could also help in developing good adjuvant-therapy schedules. PMID:28223828

  7. Self-Assembly of Rice Bran Globulin Fibrils in Electrostatic Screening: Nanostructure and Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various ionic strengths and protein concentrations on the fibrils structure and gel properties of rice bran globulin (RBG at pH 2.0 were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM, rheometer, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. AFM images showed the morphology of assembling RBG fibrils from strand beads to becoming branch clustered, when electrostatic repulsive forces attenuated gradually with increasing ionic strength. NaCl seems to accelerate the kinetics of fibrils formation, resulting in a significant increase in Th T fluorescence intensity. The increased ionic strengths promote particle size increasing and zeta potential decreasing synchronously. The percolation model G'~C-Cpn be used to calculate theoretical RBG gels concentration at various ionic strengths (0–500 mM, which decreased from 15.17 ± 0.63 to 2.26 ± 0.27 wt%. SEM images exhibited a granular mesh-like gel structure. A more homogenous structure occurred in low ionic strength. This study elucidates properties of RBG fibrils and gels as a bioactive material.

  8. Clinical benefits and immunopathological correlates of intravenous immune globulin in the treatment of inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C

    1996-05-01

    High-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) is emerging as a promising therapy for patients with inflammatory myopathies who have become unresponsive to, or cannot tolerate, conventional therapies. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, using objective criteria for improvement, IVIG demonstrated moderate to dramatic improvement in 75% of the patients with dermatomyositis. Preliminary results from a controlled study in inclusion-body myositis show that IVIG may also exert a mild benefit, but only in a small number of patients and in certain muscle groups. In some patients with polymyositis, IVIG is reported to be of benefit but controlled studies have not yet been completed. Immunocytochemical, immunological and in vitro studies on the patients' repeated muscle biopsies and follow-up sera showed that IVIG exerts its action in inflammatory myopathies by: (i) inhibiting myotoxic cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1; (ii) blockade of Fc receptors on endomysial macrophages interfering with Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis; and (iii) inhibiting the uptake of C3 and intercepting the formation and deposition of membranolytic attack complex on the endomysial capillaries.

  9. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Danilowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a. Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6% women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4% non-selected, normal weight, women (group b, were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  10. Inhibition of corticosteroid-binding globulin gene expression by glucocorticoids involves C/EBPβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Verhoog

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG, a negative acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, is responsible for the transport of glucocorticoids (GCs. It also modulates the bioavailability of GCs, as only free or unbound steroids are biologically active. Fluctuations in CBG levels therefore can directly affect GC bioavailability. This study investigates the molecular mechanism whereby GCs inhibit the expression of CBG. GCs regulate gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, which either directly binds to DNA or acts indirectly via tethering to other DNA-bound transcription factors. Although no GC-response elements (GRE are present in the Cbg promoter, putative binding sites for C/EBPβ, able to tether to the GR, as well as HNF3α involved in GR signaling, are present. C/EBPβ, but not HNF3α, was identified as an important mediator of DEX-mediated inhibition of Cbg promoter activity by using specific deletion and mutant promoter reporter constructs of Cbg. Furthermore, knockdown of C/EBPβ protein expression reduced DEX-induced repression of CBG mRNA, confirming C/EBPβ's involvement in GC-mediated CBG repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP after DEX treatment indicated increased co-recruitment of C/EBPβ and GR to the Cbg promoter, while C/EBPβ knockdown prevented GR recruitment. Together, the results suggest that DEX repression of CBG involves tethering of the GR to C/EBPβ.

  11. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article.

  12. Venous hemogasometry of equines finalists in 90 km endurance races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia B.S. Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Front of exercise, the organic systems may suffer water-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, particularly in the case of blood gases, demonstrating variations from different causes, whether respiratory and/or metabolic. Understanding the physiological adaptations to exercise is essential in the search for the optimum performance. In this way, this study measured the venous blood gases (pO2, pCO2, as well as the oxygen saturation (SatO2 in healthy equines, Arabian horses finalists in 90km endurance races. A total of fourteen Arabian horses were evaluated, nine males and five females, between six and 12 years old, finalists in 90km endurance races. There was a significant reduction in pO2, pCO2 and SatO2 after the exercise, however, the values remained within the normality range, and did not change the athletic performance of the animals, indicating a temporary alteration, assuming thus a character of physiological response to the exercise performed. The equines, finalists in 90 Km endurance races, demonstrated efficient ventilatory process, without any alterations in the athletic performance, being adapted to the type of exercise imposed.

  13. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  14. [Equine exudative canker: an (auto-)immune disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloets, A M C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Meeus, P J H M; Back, W

    2005-02-15

    Equine canker is a chronic, hyperplastic, exudative pododermatitis affecting one or more feet. Although many causes and treatments have been suggested, the cause of the disease is still unknown and most probably multifactorial. Local treatments include radical surgical debridement of the diseased hoof tissue and application of caustic substances, antibiotics, and pressure bandaging. Nevertheless, the number of recurrences is high (45%). This article presents a 3-year-old New Forest pony-cross mare in which all horny structures (frogs, coronets, spurs, chestnuts) of all feet were affected. Bacteriological and fungal cultures of the frogs were found negative for the pathogens tested. Papilloma virus was not found. Clinical findings raised the hypothesis that the non-specific hyperplastic inflammation of these horn-like structures might have been caused by an (auto-)immune reaction. On the basis of the clinical findings, the pony was treated with surgical debridement of the frogs of a diagonal pair of feet and oral administration of prednisolone (1 mg/kg sid). The frogs, coronets, spurs, and chestnuts of all four feet healed completely within 8 weeks, thus making an (auto-)immune reaction more likely. In conclusion, this case report raised the hypothesis that an aspecific, hyperplastic inflammation of all four feet ('equine canker') and other horny structures may be caused by an (auto-)immune reaction, and that corticosteroids (prednisolone 1 mg/kg sid per os) are effective as treatment.

  15. Drug contamination of the equine racetrack environment: a preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A

    2008-10-01

    Advances in analytical technology now make it feasible to detect and confirm exceptionally low concentrations (pg to fg/mL) of drugs and their metabolites in equine biological fluids. These new capabilities complicate the regulatory interpretation of drug positives and bring into question the fair application of medication rules. Such approaches and policies are further complicated by the possibility that drug positives may arise from contamination of the equine environment on the backstretch of the race track. This manuscript provides data demonstrating that the general environment of the backstretch in which horses live is contaminated with therapeutic drugs and drugs of human origin. The major contaminants are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, phenylbutazone and naproxen, present in the soil in stalls, on stall surfaces, in the dust that circulates and in the lagoon waters that accumulate on the backstretch. The presence of caffeine and cotinine suggest other possible vectors for contamination by humans. Concentrations of these compounds as well as their frequency of occurrence are provided.

  16. The Effect of PEI and PVP-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles on Equine Platelets Activation: Potential Application in Equine Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hecold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different stabilizing agents, for example, polyethylenimine (PEI and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and their influence on equine platelet activation and release of particular growth factors. The gold nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles in investigated solutions. The AuNPs were incubated with whole blood at various concentrations. The morphology of platelets in PRP prepared from the blood incubated with AuNPs was characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, whereas the concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by ELISA assays. The most promising results were obtained with equine platelets incubated with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI, which lead to secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 and simultaneously cause decrease in concentration of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α. The qRT-PCR confirmed ELISA test results. The incubation with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI leads to upregulation of BMP-2 and VEGF transcripts of mRNA level and to downregulating expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6. Obtained data shed a promising light on gold nanoparticle application for future regenerative medicine application.

  17. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Mietelka, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    To investigate histopathologic and immunohistochemical aspects of equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with a focus on the histopathologic diagnosis, presumptive etiology, and the immunohistochemical expression of three angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF...

  18. Purification of the envelope glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus by glass wool column chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, K.; Simizu, B

    1980-01-01

    Glass wool column chromatography was used for separation of the two glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus. Cross-contamination of each protein separated was confirmed to be negligible by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  19. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  20. Globulin-platelet model predicts minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Dong Liu; Jian-Lin Wu; Jian Liang; Tao Zhang,; Qing-Shou Sheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish a simple model consisting of the routine laboratory variables to predict both minimal fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients.METHODS:We retrospectively investigated 114 chronic HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy in two different hospitals.Thirteen parameters were analyzed by step-wise regression analysis and correlation analysis.A new fibrosis index [globulin/platelet (GP) model] was developed,including globulin (GLOB) and platelet count (PLT).GP model =GLOB (g/mL) x 100/PLT (x 109/L).We evaluated the receiver operating characteristics analysis used to predict minimal fibrosis and compared six other available models.RESULTS:Thirteen clinical biochemical and hematological variables [sex,age,PLT,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase (AST),albumin,GLOB,total bilirubin (T.bil),direct bilirubin (D.bil),glutamyl transferase,alkaline phosphatase,HBV DNA and prothrombin time (PT)] were analyzed according to three stages of liver fibrosis (F0-F1,F2-F3 and F4).Bivariate Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that six variables,including age,PLT,T.bil,D.bil,GLOB and PT,were correlated with the three fibrosis stages (FS).Correlation coefficients were 0.23,-0.412,0.208,0.220,0.314 and 0.212; and P value was 0.014,< 0.001,0.026,0.018,0.001 and 0.024,respectively.Univariate analysis revealed that only PLT and GLOB were significantly different in the three FS (PLT:F =11.772,P <0.001; GLOB:F =6.612,P =0.002).Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that PLT and GLOB were also independently correlated with FS (R2 =0.237).By Spearman's rank correlation analysis,GP model was significantly correlated with the three FS (r =0.466,P < 0.001).The median values in F0-F1,F2-F3 and F4 were 1.461,1.720 and 2.634.Compared with the six available models (fibrosis index,AST-platelet ratio,FIB-4,fibrosis-cirrhosis index and age-AST model and age-PLT ratio),GP model showed a highest correlation

  1. Serum corticosteroid-binding globulin concentration and insulin resistance syndrome: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; Grasa, Mar; Broch, Montserrat; Vendrell, Joan; Brun, Jocelyne; Ricart, Wifredo

    2002-10-01

    It has been suggested that a low grade inflammatory state could predispose for developing insulin resistance and contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), the main plasma protein transport for cortisol, has been shown to be negatively regulated by insulin and IL-6, at least in vitro, suggesting that insulin resistance and inflammation may both contribute to decreasing CBG levels. In the present study we measured CBG concentrations in a human healthy population and investigated the relationships of CBG with anthropometric and biochemical markers for inflammation and/or insulin resistance. The data showed that the mean serum CBG level was significantly lower in males (n = 151) than in females (n = 113; 32.5 +/- 9.1 vs. 39.2 +/- 13.9 mg/liter; P fasting cortisol/CBG) was significantly associated with WHR (r = 0.24; P = 0.001), systolic (r = 0.18; P = 0.01) and diastolic (r = 0.19; P = 0.007) blood pressures, and HOMA value (r = 0.20; P = 0.005), but not with BMI or age. BMI (P < 0.0001), free cortisol (P = 0.003), and CBG (P = 0.009), but not WHR and age, contributed to 20%, 6%, and 8%, respectively, of HOMA variance in women in a multiple regression analysis. In this model only BMI (P < 0.0001) independently contributed to HOMA variance in men. These findings support the hypothesis that the CBG level is an interesting indicator for both insulin resistance and low grade inflammation. Whether the decrease in CBG levels is genetic by nature or directly associated to increased insulin and/or IL-6 merits further investigation. Nevertheless, because CBG has been shown to be expressed by the adipose tissue, decreased CBG could create locally increased cortisol disposal, with no change in circulating cortisol, and facilitate fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Isoflavone supplementation reduced serum sex hormone-binding globulin concentration in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Edy Parwanto

    2015-12-01

    The bone loss that occurs with ageng in postmenopausal women is related to a decrease in serum levels of bioavailable estrogen and testosterone, which are mainly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and albumin. Phytoestrogens are thought to exert hormonal effects in the body due to their structural resemblance to 17â-estradiol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of isoflavone supplementation on levels of SHBG in postmenopausal women aged 47- 60 years. Methods A study of pre and post test design with controls was conducted in 70 women aged 47- 60 years. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups, the isoflavone group received 100 mg isoflavones/day + calcium 500 mg/day and the control group calcium 500 mg/day for 6 months. Measurement of bone mineral density was performed prior to supplementation, and serum SHBG levels before and after supplementation. Results Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months reduced the SHBG levels by 31.1% in the isoflavone group (p=0.000, whereas supplementation of calcium for 6 months did not affect the levels of SHBG in the control group (p=0.359. Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months reduced SHBG levels of postmenopausal women in the isoflavone group with either osteopenia (p=0.028 or osteoporosis (p=0.008. Conclusion Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months decreased the SHBG levels of postmenopausal women in the isoflavone group with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens may significantly decreased SHBG levels in postmenopausal women.

  3. Lack of association between Rh status, Rh immune globulin in pregnancy and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Judith H; Takahashi, T Nicole

    2007-07-01

    Though causes of autism are considered largely genetic, considerable concern remains that exposure to Rh immune globulin (RhIg), which until 2001 in the United States contained the preservative thimerosal, can cause autism. To determine whether mothers of children with autism are more likely to be Rh negative (Rh(-)) or to have received RhIg preserved with thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl mercury, we surveyed families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained through a University-based autism clinic considered free of ascertainment biases related to type of autism or severity. Between 2004 and 2006, 305 mothers of 321 children with an ASD agreed to participate in a telephone interview. Analysis of complete records including the blood group status and RhIg exposure of 214 families showed that Rh(-) status is no higher in mothers of children with autism than in the general population, exposure to antepartum RhIg, preserved with thimerosal is no higher for children with autism and pregnancies are no more likely to be Rh incompatible. This was also true for autism subgroups defined by behavioral phenotype, gender, IQ, regressive onset, head circumference, dysmorphology, birth status, essential, or complex phenotype. These findings support the consensus that exposure to ethylmercury in thimerosal is not the cause of the increased prevalence of autism. These data are important not only for parents in this country but also for the international health community where thimerosal continues to be used to preserve multi-dose vials which in turn makes vaccines affordable.

  4. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  5. What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstein, John D

    2013-04-12

    For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about

  6. A systematic review of intravenous gamma globulin for therapy of acute myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crumley Ellen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous gamma globulin (IVGG is commonly used in the management of acute myocarditis. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature evaluating this practice. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search (electronic databases, trials registries, conference proceedings, reference lists, contact with authors to identify studies evaluating the use of IVGG in adults and children with a clinical or histologically proven diagnosis of myocarditis of possible viral etiology and symptoms of less than six months duration. Two reviewers independently screened the searches, applied inclusion criteria, and graded the evidence. Results Results were described qualitatively; data were not pooled because only one randomized controlled trial (RCT with 62 patients was identified. The RCT showed no benefit with respect to cardiac function, functional outcome, or event-free survival. A small, uncontrolled trial (n = 10 showed significant improvement in LVEF from a mean of 24% to 41% 12 months after IVGG in nine survivors. A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients showed improvement in cardiac function and a trend towards improved survival in patients receiving IVGG (n = 21 versus historic controls (n = 25. Ten case reports and two case series (total n = 21 described improvement in cardiac function after administration of IVGG; two case reports showed no benefit of IVGG. One case of hemolytic anemia was attributed to IVGG. Conclusion There is insufficient data from methodologically strong studies to recommend routine use of IVGG for acute myocarditis. Future randomized studies that take into account the etiology of acute myocarditis will be required to determine the efficacy of IVGG.

  7. Emerging Role of Corticosteroid Binding Globulin in Glucocorticoid-driven Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Moisan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs are critical for survival since they ensure energy supply necessary to the body in an ever challenging environment. GCs are known to act on appetite, glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and storage. However, in order to be beneficial to the body, GC levels should be maintained in an optimal window of concentrations. Not surprisingly, conditions of GC excess or deficiency, e.g. Cushing’s syndrome or Addison’s disease are associated with severe alterations of energy metabolism. Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG, through its high specific affinity for GCs, plays a critical role in regulating plasma GC levels. Genetic studies in various species including humans have revealed that CBG is the major factor influencing inter-individual genetic variability of plasma GC levels, both in basal and stress conditions. Some, but not all of these genetic studies have also provided data linking CBG levels to body composition. The examination of CBG-deficient mice submitted to hyperlipidic diets unveiled specific roles for CBG in lipid storage and metabolism. The importance of CBG is even more striking when animals are submitted to high-fat diet combined to chronic stress, mimicking our occidental lifestyle. An influence of CBG on appetite has not been reported but remains to be more finely analyzed. Overall, a role of CBG in GC-driven metabolic disorders is emerging in recent studies. Although subtle, the influence of CBG in these diseases could open the way to new therapeutic interventions since CBG is easily accessible in the blood.

  8. Cortisol levels, binding, and properties of corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, L L; Murai, J T; Siiteri, P K

    1986-01-01

    New World primates have exceptionally high plasma levels of cortisol and other steroid hormones when compared with humans and other primates. It has been suggested that this difference can be explained by either low affinity or concentration of cellular steroid receptors. We have assessed cortisol availability in serum from several species of New and Old World primates under physiological conditions (whole serum at 37 degrees C). Measurements were made of total and free cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and affinity for cortisol, distribution of cortisol in serum, and its binding to albumin. In agreement with earlier reports, plasma free cortisol levels in Old World primates, prosimians, and humans range from 10-300 nM. However, very high total plasma cortisol together with low CBG binding capacity and affinity result in free cortisol concentrations of 1-4 microM in some New World primates (squirrel monkey and marmosets) but not in others such as the titi and capuchin. In squirrel monkeys, free cortisol levels are far greater than might be predicted from the affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor estimated in cultured skin fibroblasts. In addition to low affinity, CBG from squirrel monkeys and other New World primates exhibits differences in electrophoretic mobility and sedimentation behavior in sucrose density ultracentrifugation, suggestive of a molecular weight that is approximately twice that of CBG from other species. Together with other data these results indicate that the apparent glucocorticoid resistance found in New World primates is a complex phenomenon that is not easily explained by present concepts of glucocorticoid action.

  9. Intravenous immune globulin in hereditary inclusion body myopathy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorward Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM is an autosomal recessive, adult onset, non-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder with no effective treatment. The causative gene, GNE, codes for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyzes the first two reactions in the synthesis of sialic acid. Reduced sialylation of muscle glycoproteins, such as α-dystroglycan and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, has been reported in HIBM. Methods We treated 4 HIBM patients with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG, in order to provide sialic acid, because IgG contains 8 μmol of sialic acid/g. IVIG was infused as a loading dose of 1 g/kg on two consecutive days followed by 3 doses of 400 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Results For all four patients, mean quadriceps strength improved from 19.0 kg at baseline to 23.2 kg (+22% directly after IVIG loading to 25.6 kg (+35% at the end of the study. Mean shoulder strength improved from 4.1 kg at baseline to 5.9 kg (+44% directly after IVIG loading to 6.0 kg (+46% at the end of the study. The composite improvement for 8 other muscle groups was 5% after the initial loading and 19% by the end of the study. Esophageal motility and lingual strength improved in the patients with abnormal barium swallows. Objective measures of functional improvement gave variable results, but the patients experienced improvements in daily activities that they considered clinically significant. Immunohistochemical staining and immunoblotting of muscle biopsies for α-dystroglycan and NCAM did not provide consistent evidence for increased sialylation after IVIG treatment. Side effects were limited to transient headaches and vomiting. Conclusion The mild benefits in muscle strength experienced by HIBM patients after IVIG treatment may be related to the provision of sialic acid supplied by IVIG. Other sources of sialic acid are being explored as treatment options for HIBM.

  10. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and metabolic syndrome among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sá

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70 who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII. Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT. The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

  11. Low-dose rabbit anti-thymoglobin globulin versus basiliximab for induction therapy in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu V Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a single-center prospective double-arm open-labeled study on kidney transplant patients from 2010 to 2011 to evaluate the efficacy of induction therapy using low, single-dose rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG, 1.5 mg/kg on Day 0 (n = 80, 60 males, mean age 35.9 years, versus basiliximab (Interleukin-2 blocker 20 mg on Days 0 and 4 (n = 20, 12 males, mean age 45.1 years on renal allograft function in terms of serum creatinine (SCr, rejec-tion and infection episodes and patient/graft survival and cost. Demographic and post-transplant follow-up including immunosuppression was similar in both groups. In the r-ATG group, donors were unrelated (spouse, n = 25, deceased (n = 31 and parents/siblings (others, with a mean HLA match of 1.58. Donors in the basiliximab group were living unrelated (spouse, n = 15 and deceased (n = 5, with a mean HLA match of 1.56. No patient/graft was lost in the r-ATG group over a mean of one year follow-up, and the mean SCr was 1.28 mg/dL with 7.5% acute rejection (AR episodes; infections were also not observed. In the basiliximab group, over the same period of follow-up, there was 95% death-censored graft survival, and the mean SCr was 1.23 mg/dL with 10% AR episodes. One patient died due to bacterial pneumonia and one succumbed to coronary artery disease; one graft was lost due to uncontrolled acute humoral and cellular rejection. The cost of r-ATG and basiliximab were $600 and $2500, respectively. We conclude that induction immunosuppressive therapy with a low-dose r-ATG may be a better option as compared with basiliximab in terms of graft function, survival and cost benefit in kidney transplant patients.

  12. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien J; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-09-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in Africa and Israel. This study aimed to provide insight in the probability of an EEV outbreak in The Netherlands caused by infected vectors or hosts, the contribution of potential source areas (risk regions) to this probability, and the effectiveness of preventive measures (sanitary regimes). A stochastic risk model constructed for risk assessment of AHSV introduction was adapted to EEV. Source areas were categorized in risk regions (high, low, and very low risk) based on EEV history and the presence of competent vectors. Two possible EEV introduction pathways were considered: importation of infected equines and importation of infected vectors along with their vertebrate hosts. The probability of EEV introduction (PEEV) was calculated by combining the probability of EEV release by either pathway and the probability of EEV establishment. The median current annual probability of EEV introduction by an infected equine was estimated at 0.012 (90% uncertainty interval 0.002-0.020), and by an infected vector at 4.0 10(-5) (90% uncertainty interval 5.3 10(-6)-2.0 10(-4)). Equines from high risk regions contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction with 74% on the EEV introduction by equines, whereas low and very low risk regions contributed 18% and 8%, respectively. International movements of horses participating in equestrian events contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction by equines from high risk regions (86%), but also contributed substantially for low and very low risk regions with 47% and 56%. The probability of introducing EEV into The Netherlands is much higher than the probability of introducing AHSV with equines from high risk countries

  13. Characterization and Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    to assess intranasal EEEV infection 70 (Adams, 2008). The small size of the marmoset allows for easy handling, reasonable housing 71 space , and...P.D., Boolukos, P.J. 1969. Eastern equine encephalitis. Distribution of 599 central nervous system lesions in man and Rhesus monkey . J Comp Pathol...pp. 831-838. 654 Wyckoff, R.W. 1939. Encephalomyelitis in monkeys . Science. 89(2319), 542-543. 655 Wyckoff, R.W., Tesar, W.C. 1939. Equine

  14. Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Glycoprotein Using DNA-Directed RNA Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    e _s~u~m mary - Introduction: Alphaviruses are a large family of RNA viruses that can cause acute infection resulting in arthritis and encephalitis...One of the important alphaviruses is the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. This virus has been linked to a number of outbreaks in both North and... replication of VEE virus in vitro. Bhogal, H.S., McLaws, L.J., and Jager, S.J. 2006. Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus E2

  15. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  16. Prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in equines of a tropical region of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-González, Rosa I.; González-Reyes, Ismael; Flores-Gutiérrez, Gerardo H.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determinate the seroprevalence rate of equine brucellosis in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Serum samples from 420 equines were analyzed with the Rose Bengal test at cell concentrations of 3% (RBT-3%) and 8% (RBT-8%), and positive results were confirmed with the Rivanol test (RT). Risk factors were determined with the prevalence ratio (PR) and the use of variables generated from a questionnaire administered to the animals’ owners. Serum from 1 stalli...

  17. Serological survey for equine viral arteritis in several municipalities in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Góngora O; María Barrandeguy; Karl Ciuoderis A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The goal of this study was to determine the current status of the Equine Arteritis virus (EAV) in horse populations in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Materials and methods. A transversal study was conducted by serological survey of equine (n=100) from 11 municipalities of the Colombian Orinoquia region. Serum samples were tested by virus seroneutralization assay according to the guidelines provided by the World Organization for Animal Health. Results. After testing was c...

  18. Functional anatomy of the equine temporomandibular joint: Collagen fiber texture of the articular surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, K.; Schulz-Kornas, E; Arzi, B.; Failing, K.; Vogelsberg, J; Staszyk, C

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal ty...

  19. Equine assisted therapy for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Equine assisted therapy is presented as one of possible approaches when helping individuals with special needs. This work includes explanation of basic conceptions from the fields of equine assisted therapy and autism spectrum disorders. Motives for inclusion individuals with autism spetrcum disorders to this form of therapy are presented. Study was planned based on presented findings and carried out during school year 2009/2010. The purpose of this study is to ascertain possible effects of e...

  20. The ultrastructure of camel blood platelets: a comparative study with human, bovine, and equine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gader, Abdel Galil M Abdel; Ghumlas, Abeer K Al; Hussain, Mansour F; Haidari, Ahmed Al; White, James G

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that the camel has a very active haemostatic mechanism with a short bleeding time and thrombocytosis. However, platelet function, when tested by agonist-induced aggregation and PFA 100 closure time, showed marked inhibition compared to humans. Since camels are also far more resistant to long exposure to excessive heat and high body temperature than humans, it seemed worthwhile to explore fundamental morphological differences between human and camel platelets and those from other species. The present study has examined the ultrastructure of camel platelets and compared them with the fine structures of human, bovine and equine thrombocytes. Camel platelets, like bovine and equine cells, are discoid in shape and about two-thirds the size of human platelets. A circumferential coil of microtubular supports the disk-like form of camel platelets. Their cytoplasm, like bovine and equine platelets, is filled with alpha granule twice as large as those in human platelets, but lacking the organized matrix of equine alpha granules. Dense bodies are present in camel platelets with whip-like extensions not present on bovine or equine thrombocytes, but found on occasional human platelet dense bodies. Camel platelets, like bovine and equine thrombocytes, lack an open canalicular system (OCS) and must secrete granule products by fusion with the cell wall rather than an OCS. Future studies will determine if the differences in ultrastructural anatomy protect camel platelets from heat more than human thrombocytes.

  1. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of equine influenza virus nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Liping; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Gang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Guibin; Liu, Cuiyun; Xiang, Wenhua

    2011-07-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed for the detection of the equine influenza virus (EIV), employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the A/equine/Xingjiang/2007 (H3N8) nucleoprotein (NP). Immunoglobulin G antibodies were purified and used as capture or detector antibodies. The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using EIV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4), equine arteritis virus (EAV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), resulting in only EIV specimens yielding a strong signal. A minimal concentration of 50 ng/ml EIV protein was detected in Nonidet P40-treated virus preparations. Virus from the nasal swabs of equines infected experimentally were detected from days 3 to 7 post-infection using this AC-ELISA, with results confirmed by virus isolation and multi reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Both H3N8 and H7N7 EIV subtypes were AC-ELISA positive, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of all EIV subtypes.

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partap S. Narwal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  3. Evaluation of the presence of equine viral herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equine viral herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) DNA in stallion semen using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebia-Fellah, Imen; Léauté, Anne; Fiéni, Francis; Zientara, Stéphan; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Besse, Bernard; Fortier, Guillaume; Pronost, Stephane; Miszczak, Fabien; Ferry, Bénédicte; Thorin, Chantal; Pellerin, Jean-Louis; Bruyas, Jean-François

    2009-06-01

    In the horse, the risk of excretion of two major equine pathogens (equine herpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4)) in semen is unknown. The objective of our study was to assess the possible risks for the horizontal transmission of equine rhinopneumonitis herpesviruses via the semen and the effect of the viruses on stallion fertility. Samples of stallion semen (n=390) were gathered from several different sources. Examination of the semen involved the detection of viral DNA using specific PCR. The mean fertility of the stallions whose sperm tested positive for viral DNA and the mean fertility of stallions whose sperm did not contain viral DNA, were compared using the Student's t-test. EHV-4 viral DNA was not detected in any of the semen samples. EHV-1 DNA was identified in 51 of the 390 samples, (13%). One hundred and eighty-two samples came from 6 studs and there was significant difference (pherpes viruses in other species.

  4. Recent advances in diagnosing pathogenic equine gastrointestinal helminths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, D. K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup;

    2013-01-01

    the needs for reliable and practical diagnostic tools for detection of major parasites infecting equines. The current, widely used coprological techniques are important and useful, but they do have considerable limitations as they are incapable of diagnosing the pathogenic migrating stages. Species...... for diagnosing A. perfoliata infection, but interpretation is complicated by the fact that horses not harbouring tapeworms can maintain elevated antibody titres. Recent work with a coproantigen ELISA has shown promise for reliable detection of current A. perfoliata infection. Perhaps most remarkable is the fact...... that the pathogenic larval stages of cyathostomins and large strongyles cannot be detected by any of the available diagnostics. With the lengthy prepatency periods characterizing these parasites, there is a huge need for developing such assays. The recent identification of a possible diagnostic marker for encysted...

  5. An outbreak of equine influenza at a harness horse racetrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemen, M J; Frank, R A; Babish, J B

    1985-04-01

    An outbreak of an influenza-like illness affected approximately 1/3 of the 1050 race horses stabled at a standardbred racetrack and resulted in a 3-day suspension of racing. A/Equi-2 influenza virus was isolated from 1 affected horse and 8 of 10 horses sampled seroconverted. Threshold protective levels of HI antibody against A/Equi-2 influenza virus were not demonstrated in unaffected horses. Resistance in unaffected horses was assumed to result from other factors following previous exposure. Few of the horses had been vaccinated against equine influenza. It was felt that an outbreak of this magnitude might have been prevented if a vaccination program had been followed.

  6. Four cases of equine motor neuron disease in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Naoki; IMAMURA, Yui; SEKIYA, Akio; ITOH, Megumi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses. Although lack of vitamin E is speculated to be a contributory factor for development of EMND, no significant improvement was observed following administration of vitamin E.

  7. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  8. Auditive Discrimination of Equine Gaits by Parade Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Cruz-Becerra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine parade horses’ auditory discriminationamong four types of equine gaits: paso-fino (“fine step”, trote-reunido(“two-beat trot”, trocha (“trot”, and galope-reunido (“gallop”. Two experimentallynaïve horses were trained to discriminate the sound of their owngait (paso-fino or fine step, through an experimental module that dispensedfood if the subject pressed a lever after hearing a sound reproduction of aparticular gait. Three experimental phases were developed, defined by theperiod of exposure to the sounds (20, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. Thechoice between pairs of sounds including the horse’s own gait (fine stepand two-beat trot; fine step and gallop; and fine step and trot was reinforceddifferentially. The results indicate that the fine step horses are able todiscriminate their own gait from others, and that receptivity to their ownsounds could be included in their training regime.

  9. Expression of serum amyloid a in equine wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Jacobsen, Stine; Berg, Lise Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    higher (P healing with EGT formation than in body and limb wounds with normal healing. In body wounds and limb wounds with normal healing SAA expression was very low, in EGT SAA expression levels varied from low to very high. CONCLUSIONS SAA is a major equine acute phase protein......, which is produced in the liver and several extrahepatic tissues during inflammatory conditions. This study shows that cells in EGT derived from horses produce SAA. This may be related to the length of the inflammatory phase of the wound healing, which is short (approximately 3 days) in wounds......OBJECTIVES Aberrant wound healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) occurs frequently in horses and may affect their athletic career and quality of life. The objective of the study was to determine mRNA expression levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) in normal and aberrant wound...

  10. Duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, J G; Kersten, A J; Weststrate, M W; van den Hoven, R

    2001-11-01

    An adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (Group A). The first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. The third was administered 6 months later. Another group of foals (Group B) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (EHV) vaccine (EHV1.4) vaccine. Antibody responses to the equine influenza (single radial haemolysis; SRH) and tetanus (ToBi ELISA) components of the vaccines were examined from first vaccination until 1 year after the third vaccination. The influenza components of the combination vaccine induced high antibody titres at two weeks after the second vaccination whereafter titres declined until the time of the third vaccination. After the third vaccination, the titres rose rapidly again to remain high for at least 1 year. Antibody titres against tetanus peaked only after the third vaccination but remained high enough to offer protective immunity for at least 1 year. Foals vaccinated with monovalent EHV1.4 remained seronegative for influenza and tetanus throughout the study. Four and a half months after the third vaccination of groups A and B, a third group of animals was vaccinated twice with monovalent EHV1.4 vaccine 4 weeks apart (Group C). Two weeks after the administration of the second dose in the later group, all groups (A, B, C and an unvaccinated control group D) were challenged with EHV-4. Vaccinated foals (Group A, B, C) showed a clear reduction of clinical symptoms and virus excretion after EHV-4 challenge compared with the unvaccinated control foals. No difference could be demonstrated among the vaccinated groups, suggesting that the combination vaccine protects as well as the monovalent vaccine. In EHV1.4-vaccinated foals both antigenic fractions induced clear protection up to 6 months after vaccination (9). It can

  11. Immune response against equine gammaherpesvirus in Icelandic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Roelse, Mieke; Olafsdóttir, Gudbjörg; Thorsteinsdóttir, Lilja; Torfason, Einar G; Torsteinsdóttir, Sigurbjörg

    2009-06-12

    Horses are hosts to two types of gammaherpesviruses, equine herpes virus (EHV) 2 and 5. While EHV-2 is ubiquitous in adult horses, EHV-5 has been less frequently described. Due to strong serological cross-reactivity, EHV-2 and -5 cannot be discriminated in broad spectrum antibody tests and are thus commonly referred to as gamma-EHV. Total IgG and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV were determined in serum from 41 healthy Icelandic horses, thereof 20 adults, 10 foals aged 10 months, and 11 foals aged 1-4 months. Additionally, in 10 of the adult horses, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 expression were measured by real-time PCR in white blood cells upon in vitro stimulation with EHV-2. With the exception of one orphan foal, all tested individuals were seropositive for gamma-EHV. All but one adult had high titer of EHV-specific IgG4/7 (IgGb) in combination with much lower titer of IgG1 (IgGa) and IgG3/5 (IgG(T)), indicating a stabilized response. IgG titer and subclasses in the foals showed considerably more variation, possibly dependant on maternal antibodies and/or recent infection. In all the 10 horses tested for cytokine expression, IFN-gamma production exceeds production of IL-4. These results indicate that equine gammaherpesvirus infection is characterized by an induction of IgG1, IgG4/7 and IgG3/5 with prevailing IgG4/7 and cytokine profile dominated by IFN-gamma. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytokine and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV in horses.

  12. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Capomaccio

    Full Text Available The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases, as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise

  13. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Vitulo, Nicola; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including

  14. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...... three different outbreaks of EVA. From these fatalities, the complete open reading frame 5, encoding the EAV GL protein, was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. Furthermore, DNA sequences were obtained from virus isolated from semen...

  15. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. Irish Hepatology Research Group.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny-Walsh, E

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In February 1994, batches of anti-D immune globulin used in Ireland during 1977 and 1978 to prevent Rh isoimmunization were found to be contaminated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a single infected donor. In March 1994, a national screening program was initiated for all women who had received anti-D immune globulin between 1970 and 1994. Of the 62,667 women who had been screened when this study began, 704 (1.1 percent) had evidence of past or current HCV infection, and 390 of those 704 (55 percent) had positive tests for serum HCV RNA on reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction analysis. All 390 were offered a referral for clinical assessment and therapy. We evaluated 376 of these 390 women (96 percent); the other 14 were not seen at one of the designated treatment centers. RESULTS: The mean (+\\/-SD) age of the 376 women was 45+\\/-6 years at the time of screening. They had been infected with hepatitis C for about 17 years. A total of 304 women (81 percent) reported symptoms, most commonly fatigue (248 [66 percent]). Serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were slightly elevated (40 to 99 U per liter) in 176 of 371 women (47 percent), and the concentrations were 100 U per liter or higher in 31 (8 percent). Liver biopsies showed inflammation in 356 of 363 women (98 percent); in most cases the inflammation was slight (41 percent) or moderate (52 percent). Although the biopsy samples from 186 of the 363 women (51 percent) showed evidence of fibrosis, only 7 women (2 percent) had probable or definite cirrhosis. Two of the seven reported excessive alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the women with HCV infection 17 years after receiving HCV-contaminated anti-D immune globulin had evidence of slight or moderate hepatic inflammation on liver biopsy, about half had fibrosis, and 2 percent had probable or definite cirrhosis.

  16. IgE-binding epitopic peptide mapping on a three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) consists of three protomers exhibiting the cupin motif, arranged in a homotrimer around a three-fold symmetry axis. Using the SPOT technique, 11 continuous IgE-binding epitopic peptides were characterized on the molecular surface of the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat. Except for one of them, they all correspond to well exposed regions containing electropositiveley and/or electronegatively charged residues, which cover up to 40% of the molecular surface of the allergen. Some of these epitopes come in close contact to probably create more extended discontinuous epitopes, especially those located on the edge of the 13S globulin homotrimer. Half of the identified epitope peptides remain unaltered in a core structure protected against hydrolysis by digestive proteases and are thus assumed to promote the allergenicity of the 13S globulin. In addition, a few of these epitopes coincide with sequential IgE-binding epitopes previously characterized in soybean 11S globulins, that could account for the IgE-binding cross-reactions observed between soybean and buckwheat in Western blot experiments.

  17. The cortisol response to ACTH in pigs, heritability and influence of corticosteroid-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzul, C; Terenina, E; Foury, A; Billon, Y; Louveau, I; Merlot, E; Mormede, P

    2015-12-01

    In the search for biological basis of robustness, this study aimed (i) at the determination of the heritability of the cortisol response to ACTH in juvenile pigs, using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model, and (ii) at the study of the relationships between basal and stimulated cortisol levels with corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), IGF-I and haptoglobin, all important players in glucose metabolism and production traits. At 6 weeks of age, 298 intact male and female piglets from 30 litters (30 dams and 30 boars) were injected with 250 µg ACTH(1-24) (Synacthen). Blood was taken before ACTH injection to measure basal levels of cortisol, glucose, CBG, IGF-I and haptoglobin, and 60 min later to measure stimulated cortisol levels and glucose. Cortisol increased 2.8-fold after ACTH injection, with a high correlation between basal and stimulated levels (phenotypic correlation, r p=0.539; genetic correlation, r g=0.938). Post-ACTH cortisol levels were highly heritable (h 2=0.684) and could therefore be used for genetic selection of animals with a more reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. CBG binding capacity correlated with cortisol levels measured in basal conditions in males only. No correlation was found between CBG binding capacity and post-ACTH cortisol levels. Basal IGF-I concentration was positively correlated with BW at birth and weaning, and showed a high correlation with CBG binding capacity with a strong sexual dimorphism, the correlation being much higher in males than in females. Basal haptoglobin concentrations were negatively correlated with CBG binding capacity and IGF-I concentrations. Complex relationships were also found between circulating glucose levels and these different variables that have been shown to be related to glucose resistance in humans. These data are therefore valuable for the genetic selection of animals to explore the consequences on production and robustness traits, but

  18. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  19. Characterisation of equine satellite cell transcriptomic profile response to β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, Katarzyna A; Ciecierska, Anna; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro. Upon isolation from the semitendinosus muscle, equine satellite cells were cultured until the 2nd day of differentiation. Differentiating cells were incubated with HMB for 24 h. Total cellular RNA was isolated, amplified, labelled and hybridised to microarray slides. Microarray data validation was performed with real-time quantitative PCR. HMB induced differential expressions of 361 genes. Functional analysis revealed that the main biological processes influenced by HMB in equine satellite cells were related to muscle organ development, protein metabolism, energy homoeostasis and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that HMB has the potential to influence equine satellite cells by controlling global gene expression. Genes and biological processes targeted by HMB in equine satellite cells may support HMB utility in improving growth and regeneration of equine skeletal muscle; however, the overall role of HMB in horses remains equivocal and requires further proteomic, biochemical and pharmacokinetic studies.

  20. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Research progress on globulins of edible legumes%食用豆类球蛋白研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 康玉凡

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzed and compared the storage protein content and composition of soybean (Glycine max L.),mung bean(Vigna radiate L. Wilczek),pea(Pisum staivum)and faba bean (Vicia faba)respectively. A summary was made on the structures and properties of the main globulin components:11S,7S and 8S. Extraction methods,functional properties and research trends of globulin were also discussed in this article to provide a theoretical and practical reference on the further study of legume proteins.%  该文比较分析大豆、绿豆、豌豆、蚕豆等蛋白含量及组成,就豆类蛋白主要成分―11S球蛋白、7S球蛋白和8S球蛋白亚基结构及性质,球蛋白提取方法及功能特性进行概述,并展望其研究发展趋势,以期为豆类球蛋白进一步研究及应用提供参考。

  2. Resolution of Mild Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Disease with Reduced-Dose Cidofovir and CMV-Hyperimmune Globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir J. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV is associated with significant morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Management of ganciclovir-resistant CMV may be complicated by nephrotoxicity which is commonly observed with recommended therapies and/or rejection induced by “indirect” viral effects or reduction of immunosuppression. Herein, we report a series of four high serologic risk (donor CMV positive/recipient CMV negative kidney transplant patients diagnosed with ganciclovir-resistant CMV disease. All patients initially developed “breakthrough” viremia while still receiving valganciclovir prophylaxis after transplant and were later confirmed to exhibit UL97 mutations after failing to eradicate virus on adequate dosages of valganciclovir. The patients were subsequently and successfully treated with reduced-dose (1-2 mg/kg cidofovir and CMV-hyperimmune globulin, given in 2-week intervals. In addition, all patients exhibited stable renal function after completion of therapy, and none experienced acute rejection. The combination of reduced-dose cidofovir and CMV-hyperimmune globulin appeared to be a safe and effective regimen in patients with mild disease due to ganciclovir-resistant CMV.

  3. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  4. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  5. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  6. Equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division of the Gambia: A study of veterinary gate-clinic consultation records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the

  7. From collagen to tenocyte : How the equine superficial digital flexor tendon responds to physiologic challenges and physical therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yi-Lo

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Injuries to the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) play a prominent role in the orthopaedic disorders and form an important threat to both the equine athletic potential and welfare. Therefore this thesis aims at in-depth understanding the development of ECM composition in

  8. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  9. Liquid storage of equine semen : Assessing the effect of d-penicillamine on longevity of ejaculated and epididymal stallion sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogan, P T; Beitsma, M; Henning, H; Gadella, B M; Stout, T A E

    2015-01-01

    Short-term storage of equine sperm at 5°C in an extender containing milk and/or egg yolk components is common practice in the equine breeding industry. Sperm motility, viability, DNA integrity and, consequently, fertilizing ability decline over time, partly due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) gener

  10. Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine influenza a (H3N8) virus from 1968 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Lewis; J.M. Daly; C.A. Russell (Colin); D.L. Horton; E. Skepner (Eugene); N.A. Bryant; D.F. Burke; A.S. Rash; J.L.N. Wood; T.M. Chambers; R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J.A. Mumford; D.M. Elton; D.J. Smith (Derek James)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEquine influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen in horses, and outbreaks of disease often lead to substantial disruption to and economic losses for equestrian industries. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is of key importance in the control of equine influenza because HA is the prima

  11. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior during Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Roeter, Stephanie; Smith, Annelise; Jacobson, Sue; Erdman, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated…

  12. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate..., including name, age, sex, breed, color, and markings. Reactor. Any horse, ass, mule, pony or zebra which is... to prevent the transmission of equine infectious anemia to other horses, asses, ponies, mules,...

  13. Diagnostic methods applied to analysis of an outbreak of equine influenza in a riding school in which vaccine failure occurred

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, van C.; Essen, van G.J.; Minke, J.; Daly, J.M.; Yates, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza H3N8 in a riding school is described retrospectively with emphasis on diagnosis and putative vaccine failure. In March 1995 an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among 11 horses in a riding school, where most horses had received basic primary immunizations and seve

  14. Structural Illumination of Equine MHC Class I Molecules Highlights Unconventional Epitope Presentation Manner That Is Evolved in Equine Leukocyte Antigen Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shugang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Junya; Wu, Yanan; Gao, George Fu; Xia, Chun

    2016-02-15

    MHC class I (MHC I)-restricted virus-specific CTLs are implicated as critical components in the control of this naturally occurring lentivirus and in the protective immune response to the successfully applied attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine in the horse. Nevertheless, the structural basis for how the equine MHC I presents epitope peptides remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the binding of several equine infectious anemia virus-derived epitope peptides by the ability to refold recombinant molecules and by thermal stability, and then by determining the x-ray structure of five peptide-MHC I complexes: equine MHC class I allele (Eqca)-N*00602/Env-RW12, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-GW12, Eqca-N*00602/Rev-QW11, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-CF9, and Eqca-N*00601/Gag-GW12. Although Eqca-N*00601 and Eqca-N*00602 differ by a single amino acid, Eqca-N*00601 exhibited a drastically different peptide presentation when binding a similar CTL epitope, Gag-GW12; the result makes the previously reported function clear to be non-cross-recognition between these two alleles. The structures plus Eqca-N*00602 complexed with a 9-mer peptide are particularly noteworthy in that we illuminated differences in apparent flexibility in the center of the epitope peptides for the complexes with Gag-GW12 as compared with Env-RW12, and a strict selection of epitope peptides with normal length. The featured preferences and unconventional presentations of long peptides by equine MHC I molecules provide structural bases to explain the exceptional anti-lentivirus immunity in the horse. We think that the beneficial reference points could serve as an initial platform for other human or animal lentiviruses.

  15. Comparison of gene-specific DNA methylation patterns in equine induced pluripotent stem cell lines with cells derived from equine adult and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Catherine H; Greve, Line; Novakofski, Kira D; Fortier, Lisa A

    2012-07-01

    Cellular pluripotency is associated with expression of the homeobox transcription factor genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 (OCT3/4 protein). Some reports suggest that mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) may express increased quantities of these genes, creating the possibility that MPCs are more "pluripotent" than other adult cell types. The objective of this study was to determine whether equine bone marrow-derived MPCs had gene expression or DNA methylation patterns that differed from either early fetal-derived or terminally differentiated adult cells. Specifically, this study compared DNA methylation of the NANOG and SOX2 promoter regions and concurrent gene expression of NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 in equine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, fetal fibroblasts, fetal brain cells, adult chondrocytes, and MPCs. Results indicate that NANOG and POU5F1 were not detectable in appreciable quantities in tissues other than the equine iPS cell lines. Equine iPS cells expressed large quantities of all three genes examined. Significantly increased quantities of SOX2 were noted in iPS cells and both fetal-derived cell types compared with adult cells. MPCs and adult chondrocytes expressed equivalent, low quantities of SOX2. Further, NANOG and SOX2 expression inversely correlated with the DNA methylation pattern in the promoter region, such that as gene expression increased, DNA methylation decreased. The equine iPS cell lines examined demonstrated DNA methylation and gene expression patterns that were consistent with pluripotency features described in other species. Results do not support previous reports that NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 are poised for increased activity in MPCs compared with other adult cells.

  16. Characterization of extracellular matrix macromolecules in primary cultures of equine keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollitt Christopher C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research to date involving laminins and extracellular matrix protein function in both normal and pathological conditions involves in vitro culture of keratinocytes. Few methods are established to allow for prolonged propagation of keratinocytes from equine tissues, including the hoof lamellae. In this study we modified cell isolation and culture techniques to allow for proliferation and sub-culturing of equine lamellar keratinocytes. Additionally, the production and processing of extracellular matrix molecules by skin and lamellar keratinocytes were studied. Results Physical and proteolytic tissue separation in combination with media containing a calcium concentration of 0.6 mM in combination with additional media supplements proved optimal for proliferation and subculture of equine lamellar keratinocytes on collagen coated substratum. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies confirmed that equine skin and lamellar keratinocytes produce Ln-332 in vitro and processing of this molecule follows that of other species. As well, matrix components including integrin alpha-6 (α6 and the hemidesmsome proteins, bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BP180 bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 (BP230 and plectin are also expressed. Conclusions Isolation of equine keratinocytes and study of the matrix and adhesion related molecules produced by them provides a valuable tool for future work in the veterinary field.

  17. Equine hepatocytes: isolation, cryopreservation, and applications to in vitro drug metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibany, Khaled A; Tötemeyer, Sabine; Pratt, Stefanie L; Paine, Stuart W

    2016-10-01

    Despite reports of the successful isolation of primary equine hepatocytes, there are no published data regarding the successful cryopreservation of these isolated cells. In this study, a detailed description of the procedures for isolation, cryopreservation, and recovery of equine hepatocytes are presented. Furthermore, the intrinsic clearance (Clint) and production of metabolites for three drugs were compared between freshly isolated and recovered cryopreserved hepatocytes. Primary equine hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step collagenase perfusion method, with an average cell yield of 2.47 ± 2.62 × 10(6) cells/g of perfused liver tissue and viability of 84.1 ± 2.62%. These cells were cryopreserved with William's medium E containing 10% fetal bovine serum with 10% DMSO. The viability of recovered cells, after a 30% Percoll gradient, was 77 ± 11% and estimated recovery rate was approximately 27%. These purified cells were used to determine the in vitro Clint of three drugs used in equine medicine; omeprazole, flunixin, and phenylbutazone, via the substrate depletion method. Cryopreserved suspensions gave a comparable estimation of Clint compared to fresh cells for these three drugs as well as producing the same metabolites. This work paves the way for establishing a bank of cryopreserved equine hepatocytes that can be used for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters such as the hepatic metabolic in vivo clearance of a drug as well as producing horse-specific drug metabolites.

  18. Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Sandra J; Frank, Linda A; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Donnell, Robert L; Morandi, Federica

    2006-06-01

    Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information.

  19. Prevalence of antibodies against influenza virus in non-vaccinated equines from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaíva e Silva, Lucas; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Isis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  20. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gaíva E Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1% with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5% and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV (61.7% were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  1. Evaluation of a positioning method for equine lateral stifle scintigrams

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    Mathis Marion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current lack of a standardized protocol for positioning of the gamma camera relative to the horse limb in a lateral stifle scintigram, and thus the reliance on subjective positioning, may be a cause of diagnostic error and inter-operator variability due to variations of the view angle. The aims of this study were to develop a reliable method to obtain a lateral scintigram of the equine stifle based on fixed anatomical landmarks and measure the resulting foot to gamma camera angle on sequential measurements of the same horse and of different horses Methods Technetium filled capsules were glued on the skin on sites adjacent to the origin of the medial and lateral femorotibial collateral ligaments in 22 horses using ultrasound guidance. A lateral view of the stifle was defined as the image where the two radioactive point sources were aligned vertically (point sources guided method. Five sequential lateral acquisitions (one to five of the stifle with the point sources vertically aligned were acquired in each horse, and the angle between the mid-sagittal foot-axis and the vertical axis of the gamma camera (FC angle was measured for each of these acquisitions Results For acquisition group one to five, the mean of the means FC angle was 91.6 ± 2° (2SD and the coefficient of variation (COV was 1.1%. In the 22 horses the 95% CI for the mean FC angles was 91.6° ± 12.1° (2SD and the COV was 6.6%. Conclusions The use of point sources to guide gamma camera position results in less variation in the lateral scintigram than if the distal limb is used as guidance due to a difference in FC angle between horses. The point source guided positioning method is considered suitable as a reference standard method to obtain lateral scintigrams of the equine stifle, and it will be of value in clinical scintigraphy and research. The use of alignment of specifically located point sources may also be applied in other regions to

  2. Damage assessment of the equine sperm membranes by fluorimetric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To validate a practical technique of simultaneous evaluation of the plasma, acrosomal and mitochondrial membranes in equine spermatozoa three fluorescent probes (PI, FITC-PSA and MITO were associated. Four ejaculates from three stallions (n=12 were diluted in TALP medium and split into 2 aliquots, 1 aliquot was flash frozen in liquid nitrogen to induce damage in cellular membranes. Three treatments were prepared with the following fixed ratios of fresh semen: flash frozen semen: 100:0 (T100, 50:50 (T50, and 0:100 (T0. A 150-µL aliquot of diluted semen of each treatment was added of 2 µL of PI, 2 µL of MITO and 80 µL of FITC-PSA; incubated at 38.5ºC/8 min, and sperm cells were evaluated by epifluorescent microscopy. Based in regression analysis, this could be an efficient and practical technique to assess damage in equine spermatozoa, as it was able to determine the sperm percentage more representative of the potential to fertilize the oocyte.Para validar uma técnica prática de avaliação simultânea das membranas plasmática, acrossomal e mitocondrial em espermatozóides eqüinos três sondas fluorescentes (PI, FITC-PSA e MITO foram associadas. Quatro ejaculados de três garanhões (n=12 foram diluídos em meio TALP e divididos em duas alíquotas, uma alíquota foi submetida a flash frozen em nitrogênio líquido para induzir danos nas membranas celulares. Três tratamentos foram preparados com as seguintes proporções de sêmen fresco: sêmen flash frozen: 100:0 (T100, 50:50 (T50, e 0:100 (T0. Uma amostra de 150 µL de sêmen diluído de cada tratamento foi adicionada de 2 µL de PI, 2 µL de MITO e 80 µL de FITC-PSA; incubadas à 38,5ºC/8 min, e as células espermáticas foram avaliadas por microscopia de epifluorescência. Baseados na análise de regressão esta é uma técnica eficiente e prática para determinar danos em espermatozóides eqüinos, capaz de determinar a porcentagem de espermatozóides mais representativa do

  3. Troponin assays in the assessment of the equine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, T M; Pyle, W G; Maxie, M G; Pearl, D L; Physick-Sheard, P W

    2014-05-01

    In 2000, troponin assays were adopted as the test of choice for detection of myocardial injury in man. This decision was made after extensive testing and followed a 60 year search for a biomarker of myocardial damage with sufficient analytical sensitivity and specificity. This has led to proliferation of assays for use in human medicine, each requiring extensive testing and validation before it could be made available on the open market for human use. The search for ever-more analytically sensitive assays and for a standard reference material continues. The adoption of troponin testing in veterinary medicine followed shortly after its development for use in man, providing a much-needed means of detecting and monitoring myocardial damage in horses. However, application of these tests in veterinary medicine has exclusively involved use of assays designed for and clinically validated in human patients. There is no mandated requirement for test validation in veterinary medicine and, while many of these assays have been shown to be capable of detecting equine troponin, the wide diversity of available tests, lack of validation, absence of protocols for their use and lack of standardisation make their application problematic. The objective of this review article is to address this issue, offering guidance where data are available and encouraging caution where there are none. Ultimately, the overall goal of this review is to examine critically the use of troponin assays in the horse and to promote the accurate and appropriate interpretation of valid results.

  4. Epidemiology, electrolytes balance and treatment strategy of equine anhidrosis

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    Arshad Zahoor,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was designed to study the prevalence, electrolytes balance and treatment strategy of equine anhidrosis in Faisalabad, Pakistan. The study was conducted in the hottest month of summer (June-September. Anhidrosis was diagnosed by clinical signs and subsequent intra- dermal adrenaline and salbutamol injections. Overall prevalence of anhidrosis in horses was 13.2% of the total tested horses. Prevalence of anhidrosis was high during months of July and August. Further, it was observed that 612 years old horses are more susceptible to this syndrome. Serum analysis showed that sodium and chloride were significantly low and potassium concentration was significantly high in anhidrotic horses. Diseased horses showed positive response to the treatment of iodinated casein and germinated wheat and the clinical signs disappeared gradually. It was concluded from this study that horses are vulnerable to the attack of anhidrosis during warmer months of summer affecting serum electrolytes profile. Further, iodinated casein and germinated wheat have excellent therapeutic potential against this syndrome.

  5. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J S

    2014-11-01

    Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses, along with economic costs and broader impacts associated with the loss of members of a species that generates income, acts as a working animal and is a companion. Endemic diseases continue to challenge, emerging diseases are an ever-present threat and outbreaks can be both destructive and disruptive. While infectious diseases can never be completely prevented, measures can be introduced to restrict the entry of pathogens into a population or limit the implications of the presence of a pathogen. Objective research regarding infection control and biosecurity in horses is limited, yet a variety of practical infection prevention and control measures can be used. Unfortunately, infection control can be challenging, because of the nature of the equine industry (e.g. frequent horse movement) and endemic pathogens, but also because of lack of understanding or motivation to try to improve practices. Recognition of the basic concepts of infection control and biosecurity, and indeed the need for measures to control infectious diseases, is the foundation for successful infection prevention and control.

  6. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  7. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

  8. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Robich, Rebecca M; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Huaman, Alfredo; Guevara, Carolina; Rios, Zonia; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Olson, James; Weaver, Scott C

    2007-02-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

  9. Use of firocoxib for the treatment of equine osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnell JR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Josh R Donnell, David D Frisbie Department of Clinical Sciences, Orthopedic Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Abstract: This review presents the pathogenesis and medical treatment of equine osteoarthritis (OA, focusing on firocoxib. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 remains a fundamental treatment for decreasing clinical symptoms (ie, pain and lameness associated with OA in horses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which inhibit the production of prostaglandin E2 from the arachidonic acid pathway, continue to be a mainstay for the clinical treatment of OA. Firocoxib is a cyclooxygenase (COX-2-preferential NSAID that has been shown to be safe and to have a 70% oral bioavailability in the horse. Three clinical reports identified symptom-modifying effects (reduction in pain and/or lameness in horses with OA administered the once-daily recommended dose (0.1 mg/kg of oral firocoxib following 7 days of administration. Other reports have suggested that a one-time loading dose (0.3 mg/kg of firocoxib provides an earlier (1–3 days onset of action compared to the recommended dose. It is noteworthy that OA disease-modifying effects have been reported in horses for other COX-2-preferential NSAIDs (meloxicam and carprofen, but have not been attributed to firocoxib due to a lack of investigation to date. Keywords: horse, osteoarthritis, firocoxib, COX-2 inhibitor, NSAID

  10. Role of prostaglandins in intrauterine migration of the equine conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, T A; Allen, W R

    2001-05-01

    Between at least day 9 and day 16 after ovulation the spherical equine conceptus migrates continuously throughout the uterine lumen, propelled by peristaltic myometrial contractions. This unusually long period of intrauterine movement ensures that the conceptus delivers its anti-luteolytic signal to the entire endometrium to achieve luteostasis. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that prostaglandins stimulate the myometrial contractions that result in the migration of the conceptus. Serial ultrasonographic examinations of the uteri of eight mares performed during 2 h periods between day 10 and day 18 of gestation recorded the pattern of conceptus migration before and after treatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor flunixin meglumine. Conceptus mobility was high between day 10 and day 14 after ovulation (4.3 +/- 0.8, 4.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.3 +/- 0.9 changes of location per h on day 10, day 12 and day 14, respectively), but was reduced immediately and markedly by an i.v. injection of flunixin meglumine (3.8 +/- 1.5, 1.8 +/- 0.8 and 0.7 +/- 0.2 location changes per h), thereby implicating prostaglandins as the primary stimulus for the myometrial contractions that drive migration of the conceptus.

  11. Clinical Sentinel Surveillance of Equine West Nile Fever, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, C; Alba-Casals, A; García-Bocanegra, I; Dal Pozzo, F; van Galen, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical data issued from a passive epidemiosurveillance network from September 2010 to December 2011 on horses in Spain were statistically compared and used to develop a predictive diagnostic decision tree, both with the aim to improve the early clinical detection of WNF in horses. Although clinical signs were variable in horses affected by WNF, four clinical signs and the month of occurrence were identified as useful indicators to distinguish between WNF-related and WNF-unrelated cases. The signs that pointed out a presumptive diagnosis of WNF in horses were cranial nerves deficits, limb paralysis, photophobia and nasal discharge. Clinical examination of horses with neurological signs that are not vaccinated against WNV could provide important clues for the early clinical detection of WNF and therefore serve as an alert for possible human viral infections. The study of the clinical pattern of WNF in horses is of importance to enhance awareness and better understanding and to optimize surveillance designs for clinical detection of WNF in horses in advance of epidemic activity affecting humans.

  12. Virus de la inmunodeficiencia felina (VIF: evaluación de las globulinas en pacientes infectados espontáneamente Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV: study of globulins in patients with natural infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiadas las posibles correlaciones de parámetros tales como la Alfa glicoproteína ácida (AGP, proteína de fase aguda, fracciones electroforéticas de las proteínas séricas y títulos de Toxoplasma gondii en gatos infectados por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Felina (VIF. Los títulos de Toxoplasma gondii obtenidos por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFI no correlacionaron con los valores de Proteínas Totales ni con los de las globulinas. Sí se halló múltiple correlación entre todas las proteínas estudiadas (r: 0,98, pStatistical correlation between parameters such as globulins, Alpha- Glycoprotein AGP, serum proteins fractions by electrophoresis and Toxoplasma gondii titles in cats infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV were studied. Indirect Immunofluorecence titles to Toxoplasma gondii did not showed correlation with Total proteins and globulins. It was observed correlation between all types of proteins studied (r: 0,98, p<0,04. Total proteins versus globulins showed positive correlation (r:0,93, p <0,0001. Total protein versus alpha-globulin evidenced negative correlation (r:-0,75, p<0,01. AGP and alpha-globulins did not showed correlation and it was detected negative correlation with gamma-globulins (r:-0, 94, p<0,0001 and with globulins (r:-0,67, p<0,03. The patients evaluated showed a high level of Total proteins because of the increase of globulins. Gamma-Globulins were detected increased but there was not correlation with Toxoplasma gondii titles. It was not observed correlation between AGP and Alfa-globulins.

  13. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus activity in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paige Adams

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003-2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas.

  14. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising.

  15. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohaib, A; Saqib, M; Beck, C; Hussain, M H; Lowenski, S; Lecollinet, S; Sial, A; Asi, M N; Mansoor, M K; Saqalein, M; Sajid, M S; Ashfaq, K; Muhammad, G; Cao, S

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65.0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan.

  16. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  17. Serological survey for equine viral arteritis in several municipalities in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

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    Agustín Góngora O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to determine the current status of the Equine Arteritis virus (EAV in horse populations in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Materials and methods. A transversal study was conducted by serological survey of equine (n=100 from 11 municipalities of the Colombian Orinoquia region. Serum samples were tested by virus seroneutralization assay according to the guidelines provided by the World Organization for Animal Health. Results. After testing was carried out no positives samples to EAV were found in the population analyzed. Conclusions. Although the sample size of the population screened in this study does not represent the total equine population size for the region or the country, data obtained has shown the absence of EAV infection in these animals. However, a wider study area including other regions of the country, with a feasible statistical design, would determine if this infection continues to be an exotic disease for Colombia.

  18. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA.

  19. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  20. Polymorphism at expressed DQ and DR loci in five common equine MHC haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2017-03-01

    The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.

  1. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Coviello (Andrea); R. Haring (Robin); M. Wellons (Melissa); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Keildson (Sarah); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); C. He (Chunyan); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Mangino (Massimo); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); B. Chen (Benjamin); J. Eriksson (Joel); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y. Liu (Yongmei); A. Koster (Annemarie); K. Lohman (Kurt); L.-P. Lyytikäinen; A.K. Petersen; C.A.J. Prescott; L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); A.R. Wood (Andrew); W.V. Zhuang; A. Ruokonen (Aimo); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Brabant (Georg); D.G. Cox (David); S. Cummings; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M.J. Gunter (Marc J.); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); H. Martikainen (Hannu); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Illig (Thomas); J.O. Jansson; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); M. Karlsson (Magnus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); P. Kraft (Peter); O.̈. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); M. Maggio (Marcello); M.R.P. Markus (Marcello R. P.); D. Mellström (Dan); I. Miljkovic (Iva); D. Mirel (Daniel); S. Nelson (Sarah); L. Morin Papunen (Laure); P.H.M. Peeters; I. Prokopenko (Inga); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); M. Reincke (Martin); A.P. Reiner (Alex); K. Rexrode (Kathryn); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); D.S. Siscovick (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); D. Stöckl (Doris); S. Tworoger (Shelley); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.H. van Gils (Carla); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); G. Zhai (Guangju); S. Bhasin (Shalender); M. Bidlingmaier; S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I. de Vivo (Immaculata); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D. Hunter (David); M. Kähönen (Mika); P. Ouyang (Pamela); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J. Viikari (Jorma); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); S. Franks (Steve); M.R. Jarvelin; F.A. de Jong (Floris); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Teumer (Alexander); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J. Murabito (Joanne); J.R.B. Perry (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers s

  2. Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men : An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Judith S.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Schneider, Harald J.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Haring, Robin; Corona, Giovanni; Onat, Altan; Maggio, Marcello; Bouchard, Claude; Tong, Peter C. Y.; Chen, Richard Y. T.; Akishita, Masahiro; Gietema, Jourik A.; Gannage-Yared, Marie-Helene; Unden, Anna-Lena; Hautanen, Aarno; Goncharov, Nicolai P.; Kumanov, Philip; Chubb, S. A. Paul; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Klotsche, Jens; Wallaschofski, Henri; Voelzke, Henry; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific

  3. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

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    E. T. Butty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

  4. Influence of equine growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and its interaction with gonadotropins on in vitro maturation and cytoskeleton morphology in equine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G R; Lorenzo, P L; Carneiro, G F; Ball, B A; Pegoraro, L M C; Pimentel, C A; Liu, I K M

    2013-09-01

    In horses, successful in vitro fertilization procedures are limited by our inability to consistently mature equine oocytes by in vitro methods. Growth hormone (GH) is an important regulator of female reproduction in mammals, playing an important role in ovarian function, follicular growth and steroidogenesis. The objectives of this research were to investigate: the effects of equine growth hormone (eGH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of equine oocytes, and the effects of eGH in addition to estradiol (E2), gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on IVM. We also evaluated the cytoskeleton organization of equine oocytes after IVM with eGH. Equine oocytes were aspirated from follicles <30 mm in diameter and matured for 30 h at 38.5°C in air with 5% CO2. In experiment 1, selected cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were randomly allocated as follows: (a) control (no additives); (b) 400 ng/ml eGH; (c) 200 ng/ml IGF-I; (d) eGH + IGF-I; and (e) eGH + IGF-I + 200 ng/ml anti-IGF-I. In addition to these treatment groups, we also added 1 μg/ml E2, 5 IU/ml FSH, 10 IU/ml LH and 10% FCS in vitro (experiment 2). Oocytes were stained with markers for microtubules (anti-α-tubulin antibody), microfilaments (AlexaFluor 488 Phalloidin) and chromatin (TO-PRO3-iodide) and assessed via confocal microscopy. No difference was observed when eGH and IGF-I was added into our IVM system. However, following incubation with eGH alone (40%) and eGH, E2, gonadotropins and FCS (36.6%) oocytes were classified as mature v. 17.6% of oocytes in the control group (P < 0.05). Matured equine oocytes showed that a thin network of filaments concentrated within the oocyte cortex and microtubules at the metaphase spindle showed a symmetrical barrel-shaped structure, with chromosomes aligned along its midline. We conclude that the use of E2, gonadotropins and FCS in the presence of eGH increases the number of oocytes reaching oocyte competence.

  5. Prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) DNA in ocular swabs and its cell tropism in equine conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, K; Ebert, M; Fetsch, A; Hammond, T; Sterner-Kock, A

    2006-12-20

    Equine herpes virus 2 (EHV-2), a gamma(2)-herpesvirus, is common in horses of all ages. Its role as a primary pathogen is unclear but there is an association between EHV-2, respiratory disease and keratoconjunctivitis. The purpose of this study was to gain more information on the prevalence of EHV-2 DNA in conjunctival swabs from horses with and without ocular disease and to define the anatomical site and cell type harbouring viral genome or antigen. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 22 out of 77 (28.6%) ocular swabs of clinically healthy and only 4 out of 48 (8.3%) samples from diseased horses were positive. To define the main virus reservoir ocular tissue from 13 randomly selected horses without pathological evidence of ocular disease were analysed by nested PCR. In two horses optic nerve, lacrimal gland and conjunctiva, in further two cases lacrimal gland and conjunctiva and in four horses the conjunctiva only were EHV-2 PCR positive. For specifying the target cell we focused on conjunctivae and selected 3 out of 15 clinically healthy slaughterhouse horses positive for EHV-2 by PCR. In situ hybridisation on sections of these paraffin embedded conjunctivae localized viral genome in histiocyte-like cells of the submucosa. Immunohistochemical staining with an EHV-2 or S100 specific polyclonal antiserum demonstrated that Langerhans cells were co-localized in the same region of the sample section where virus positive cells were detected. Furthermore, we concluded that detection of viral antigen revealed a productive virus infection.

  6. Interactions and compatibility of 11 S globulin from Vicia faba seeds and sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Yu A; Dmitrochenko, A P; Leontiev, A L

    2006-02-28

    This work studies specific interactions and compatibility between a legumin and a linear carboxylated polysaccharide using gel permeation chromatography, sedimentation analysis, SDS gel electrophoresis, viscometry and phase analysis measurements. It uses the system water/11 S globulin/CMC as a model. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) molecules are able to cause a partial dissociation of the protein, subsequent formation of soluble interbiopolymeric complexes and partial aggregation of the free non combined protein at room temperature and pH 6.0-6.5. The maximal binding of biopolymers is observed at their equimolar ratio. The decrease in temperature of the mixture from 293 to 277 K leads to formation of the complex coacervate. The increase in pH from 6.0 to 7.6 results in suppression of complex formation and manifestation of the phenomenon of thermodynamic incompatibility if the total concentration of biopolymers in the system exceeds the critical concentration of segregative phase separation.

  7. Addition of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Bovine Globulins to Bread and Determination of Hypotensive Effects in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarga, Tomas; Gallagher, Eimear; Aluko, Rotimi E; Auty, Mark A E; Hayes, Maria

    2016-03-02

    The aim of this study was to develop bread containing a papain hydrolysate of bovine α- and β-globulins (GPH) with in vitro and in vivo antihypertensive activities. The physical characteristics of the formulated bread were assessed over a six day period and results suggested that the overall quality and acceptance of bread was not affected by the inclusion of GPH at a concentration of 4% (w/w). Bright field light microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy images were used to visualize the main ingredients of the bread. In addition, the antihypertensive activity of the bread was assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) over a 24 h period where a maximum significant decrease in systolic blood pressure of 36.2 ± 1.9 mmHg was observed 8 h after oral administration. Results demonstrate that the antihypertensive activity of GPH was resistant to the baking process and shows potential for use as a functional antihypertensive ingredient.

  8. Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xizhong; Nolen, Leisha D.; Sun, Junfeng; Booth, Malcolm; Donaldson, Lindsay; Quinn, Conrad P.; Boyer, Anne E.; Hendricks, Katherine; Shadomy, Sean; Bothma, Pieter; Judd, Owen; McConnell, Paul; Bower, William A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009–2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0–5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6–11) received treatment. AIG-IV recipients had surgery more often and, among survivors, had longer hospital stays than did nonrecipients. AIG-IV recipients were sicker than nonrecipients. This difference and the small number of higher risk patients confound assessment of AIG-IV effectiveness in this outbreak. PMID:27983504

  9. [The macrophage disappearance reaction in guinea pigs sensitized with bovine gamma globulin or human scrum albumin (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, R; Bernstein, B; Ambrosius, H

    1977-01-01

    The macrophage disappearance reaction (MDR) is a suitable test for detection of cell mediated immunity against bovine gamma globulin (BGG) and human serum albumin (HSA) in guinea pigs. The MDR is a technical simple, good manipulable, and quantifiable test. The optimal test conditions for the antigens BGC and HSA are the following: Peritoneal exudat cells (PEC) were stimulated with paraffin oil. On the 5th day after receiving oil the animals were injected with 80 microgram BGG or 30 microgram HSA i.p. 5 hours later the PEC were harvested and counted. With the MDR it is possible to detect differences with respect to degree of cell-mediated immunity. Supernatants of sensitized lymphocytes produces the MDR too.

  10. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  11. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Ortiz, Diana; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1993 and 1996, subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus caused epizootics in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. Previously, only subtype IAB and IC VEE virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. The IAB and IC epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. However, experimental equine infections with subtype IE equine isolates from the Mexican outbreaks demonstrated neuro-virulence but little viremia, inconsistent with typical VEE emergence mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the mosquito vector host range might have contributed to the Mexican emergence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the susceptibility of the most abundant mosquito in the deforested Pacific coastal locations of the VEE outbreaks and a proven epizootic vector, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. The Mexican epizootic equine isolates exhibited significantly greater infectivity compared with closely related enzootic strains, supporting the hypothesis that adaptation to an efficient epizootic vector contributed to disease emergence. Reverse genetic studies implicated a Ser → Asn substitution in the E2 envelope glycoprotein as the major determinant of the increased vector infectivity phenotype. Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence. PMID:15277679

  12. Appropriate threshold levels of cardiac beat-to-beat variation in semi-automatic analysis of equine ECG recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pedersen, Philip Juul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study was to de......Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study...... was to determine the appropriate threshold levels of maximum acceptable deviation of RR intervals in equine ECG analysis, and to evaluate a novel two-step timing algorithm by quantifying the frequency of arrhythmias in a cohort of healthy adult endurance horses. Results: Beat-to-beat variation differed......, range 1–24). Conclusions: Beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm varies according to HR, and threshold levels in equine ECG analysis should be adjusted accordingly. Standardization of the analysis criteria will enable comparisons of studies and follow-up examinations of patients. A small number...

  13. The role of IKKβ in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushimi Amaya

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ(-/- cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKK

  14. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Kelen Patrick T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  15. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present.

  16. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  17. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; May, Maeva A; Peters, Sarah T; Metzger, Stephan M; Rosas, Cristina T; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-01-22

    Vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and equine influenza virus (EIV). Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant EHV-1 modified live virus vaccine (MLV) based on a recent abortogenic EHV-1 strain, NY03. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the MLV was tested in horses in an EHV-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent EHV-1 strain OH03. Induction of a robust EHV-1-specific immune response was observed. Upon challenge infection, vaccinated horses were partially protected against disease as demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical signs, nasal shedding and viremia levels. In addition, the NY03-based MLV was used to express the EIV H3 protein and immunogenicity was tested in horses. Expression of H3 was readily detected in NY03-H3-infected cells in vitro. Vaccination of horses resulted in the induction of a robust serological immune responses against two recent but genetically distinct EIV representatives, VA05 and NY-99, which were above the threshold predicted to be protective against development of clinical disease.

  18. Serological detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in equines from Santa Fe, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Laura; Marino, Betina; Diaz, Luis Adrian; Lucca, Eduardo; Gallozo, Debora; Spinsanti, Lorena; Contigiani, Marta

    2012-06-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) present ecological and antigenic similarities and are responsible for serious human diseases. In addition, WNV is a significant pathogen in terms of equine health. The purpose of our study was to analyse the seroprevalence of SLEV and WNV in equine sera collected in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. The seroprevalence determined using the plaque reduction neutralisation test was 12.2% for SLEV, 16.2% for WNV and 48.6% for a combination of both viruses. These results provide evidence of the co-circulation of SLEV and WNV in equines in Santa Fe.

  19. Combined alphavirus replicon particle vaccine induces durable and cross-protective immune responses against equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas S; Glass, Pamela J; Bakken, Russell R; Barth, James F; Lind, Cathleen M; da Silva, Luis; Hart, Mary Kate; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Dudek, Jeanne; Owens, Gary; Kamrud, Kurt I; Parker, Michael D; Smith, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal. Importance: Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the surface

  20. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  1. [Neurological disorders caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 and cauda equina neuritis in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Binkhorst, G J

    1984-12-15

    The differences in aetiology, symptomatology, pathomorphology, diagnosis and therapy between the nervous form (paralytic form) of Equine Herpes Virus, type 1, and Neuritis Caudae Equinae are reviewed. The conclusion is that in most cases it is possible to differentiate between these two clinical syndromes.

  2. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; non-primate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes he...

  3. Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Betts, Dean H.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from various tissues hold great promise for their therapeutic use in horses, but so far efficacy or proof-of-principle has not been established. The basic characteristics and properties of various equine stem cells remain largely unknown, despite their increasingly widespread experimen...

  4. An eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) outbreak in Quebec in the fall of 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Sonia; Côté, Geneviève; Vanderstock, Johanne; Macieira, Susana; Laperle, Alain; Hélie, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) was diagnosed in 19 horses and a flock of emus in the province of Quebec in fall 2008. The EEE virus caused unusual gross lesions in the central nervous system of one horse. This disease is not usually present in Quebec and the relation between the outbreak and favorable environmental conditions that summer are discussed.

  5. Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemelä, Tytti; Virén, Tuomas; Liukkonen, Jukka; te Moller, Nikae; Puhakka, Pia H.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tulamo, R.M.; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods. A

  6. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2007-01-01

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when the new drug xlasses can be exoected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attemt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible...

  7. Diarrhea-associated pathogens, lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces: responses to antibiotic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects o...

  8. Prevalence and Antibiogram study of Rhodococcus equi in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Kumar, Bablu; Taku, Anil; Bhardwaj, Rajinder Kumar; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Badroo, Gulzar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and evaluate the zoonotic threat posed by this organism to equine owners and tourists. One hundred and forty-one samples (98 samples from adult animals ≥5 years old and 43 samples from foals less than 6 months old) were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of equines for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 12 isolates of R. equi were recovered, of which 9 were from foals and 3 from adult animals. Therefore, the present study recorded prevalence rates of 20.93% and 3.06% among foals and adult equines respectively. The prevalence rates were found to be 25.58% and 4.08% by 16S rRNA species-specific PCR among foals and adult animals respectively. Thus, the PCR-based assay was found to be more sensitive and helped in quick detection of R. equi than the culture based method which is time consuming and laborious. However, the culture-based method is still preferred due to some limitations of PCR. The antibiogram of the isolates revealed that erythromycin and rifampicin were the most effective antimicrobials with 100% sensitivity, followed by amoxicillin (66.67%), lincomycin (58.3%) and kanamycin (58.3%). The results also revealed that resistance was highest for penicillin G (50%), followed by kanamycin (25%) and streptomycin (25%).

  9. EX VIVO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGY VARIATIONS IN EQUINE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraa, Stefanie; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; van den Belt, Antoon Jan; Wijnberg, Inge; Back, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is one of the pillars in the clinical workup of horses with clinical signs of cervical spinal disease. An improved awareness of morphologic variations in equine cervical vertebrae would be helpful for interpreting findings. The aim of this anatomic study was to describe CT variati

  10. Equine metabolic myopathies with emphasis on the diagnostic approach - Comparison with human myopathies - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C. M.; Dorland, L.; Wijnberg, I. D.; van der Kolk, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the presently known human and equine metabolic myopathies with emphasis on the diagnostic approach. Metabolic myopathies are muscle disorders caused by a biochemical defect of the skeletal muscle energy system, which results in inefficient muscle performance. Myopath

  11. Topographical mapping of biochemical properties of articular cartilage in the equine fetlock joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brama, P.A.J.; Tekoppele, J.M.; Bank, R.A.; Karssenberg, D.; Barneveld, A.; Weeren, P.R. van

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographical differences in the biochemical composition of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage of the normal equine fetlock joint. Water content, DNA content, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and a number of characteristics of the collagen network (t

  12. Effect of cytokines and ovarian steroids on equine endometrial function: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvao, A.; Valente, L.; Skarzynski, D.J.; Szostek, A.; Piotrowska-Tomala, K.; Rebordao, M.R.; Mateus, L.; Ferreira-Dias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of immune-endocrine interactions in the equine endometrium is not fully understood. The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate the presence of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interferon gamma (IFNG), Fas ligand (FASLG) and their receptors in the mare endometrium throughout

  13. The influence of casein and urea as nitrogen sources on in vitro equine caecal fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, A.S.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Martin-Rosset, W.; Cotovio, M.; Silva, F.; Bennett, R.N.; Cone, J.W.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To access the fermentative response of equine caecal microbial population to nitrogen availability, an in vitro study was conducted using caecal contents provided with adequate energy sources and nitrogen as limiting nutrient. Two nitrogen (N) sources were provided, protein (casein) and non-protein

  14. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  15. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from equine bone marrow and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Orthopaedic injury is the most common cause of lost training days or premature retirement in the equine athlete. Cell-based therapies are a potential new treatment option in musculo-skeletal diseases. Mesenthymal stromal cells (MSC) have been derived from multiple sources in the horse...

  16. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From... the regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for imported horses 731 days of...

  17. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From... importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the.... ``Subpart C--Horses,'' Sec. Sec. 93.300 through 93.326, pertains to the importation of horses into...

  18. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  19. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries... imported horses 731 days of age or less and adding new testing protocols for test mares and...

  20. Sequence analysis of trinucleotide repeat microsatellites from an enrichment library of the equine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, T; Inoue, S; Mashima, S; Ohta, M; Miura, N; Tomita, M

    2000-04-01

    Microsatellites are useful tools for the construction of a linkage map and parentage testing of equines, but only a limited number of equine microsatellites have been elucidated. Thus, we constructed the equine genomic library enriched for DNA fragments containing (CAG)n repeats. The enriched method includes hybridization-capture of repeat regions using biotin-conjugated oligonucleotides, nucleotide substrate-biased polymerase reaction with the oligonucleotides and subsequent PCR amplification, because these procedures are useful for the cloning of less abundant trinucleotide microsatellites. Microsatellites containing (CAG)n repeats were obtained at the ratio of one per 3-4 clones, indicating an enrichment value about 10(4)-fold, resulting in less time consumption and less cost for cloning. In this study, 66 different microsatellites, (CAG)n repeats, were identified. The number of complete simple CAG repeats in our clones ranged 4-33, with an average repeat length of 8.8 units. The microsatellites were useful as sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. In addition, some clones containing (CAG)n repeats showed homology to human (CAG)n-containing genes, which have been previously mapped. These results indicate that the clones might be a useful tool for chromosome comparison between equines and humans.

  1. Glucose homeostasis and the enteroinsular axis in the horse a possible role in equine metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Roelfsema, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal components of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is hyperinsulinaemia combined with insulin resistance. It has long been known that hyperinsulinaemia occurs after the development of insulin resistance. But it is also known that hyperinsulinaemia itself can induce insulin resistance

  2. Continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in Central Asia, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, A; Kasymbekov, Y; Khan, E; Daulbayeva, K; Asanova, S; Zhumatov, K; Seidalina, A; Sayatov, M; Fereidouni, S R

    2014-09-01

    Equine influenza (EI) continues to be an important respiratory pathogen of horses worldwide. Since 2007 several outbreaks of EI have occurred in Central Asian countries, including Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, India and western China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) isolates from Kazakhstan, A/equine/Almaty/26/2007 and A/equine/South Kazakhstan/236/12, were related to Florida sublineage 2, with high similarity to EIVs circulating in the same period in neighbouring countries. New outbreaks of EI during 2011 and 2012 in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries were caused by viruses of the same lineage. Genetic characterization of the viruses showed formation of a small EIV cluster with specific genetic signatures and continued evolution of this lineage in Central Asia between 2007 and 2012. The main genetic changes were observed in hemagglutinin gene without any antigenic drift. Although no vaccination policy was carried out in Kazakhstan, application of Florida clade 2-based vaccines is recommended.

  3. Effectiveness of a Standardized Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Marta; Loliva, Dafne; Cerino, Stefania; Chiarotti, Flavia; Venerosi, Aldina; Bramini, Maria; Nonnis, Enrico; Marcelli, Marco; Vinti, Claudia; De Santis, Chiara; Bisacco, Francesca; Fagerlie, Monica; Frascarelli, Massimo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an equine-assisted therapy (EAT) in improving adaptive and executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined (children attending EAT, n = 15, control group n = 13; inclusion criteria: IQ > 70). Therapeutic sessions consisted in structured activities involving horses and…

  4. An epidemiological analysis of equine welfare data from regulatory inspections by the official competent authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, P L; Hultgren, J; Frössling, J; Emanuelson, U; Keeling, L J

    2016-12-09

    Determining welfare status in a population is the first step in efforts to improve welfare. The primary objective of this study was to explore a new epidemiological approach for analysis of data from official competent authorities that pertain to compliance with animal welfare legislation. We reviewed data already routinely collected as part of Swedish official animal welfare inspections for 2010-13, using a checklist containing 45 checkpoints (CPs). These covered animal-, resource- and management-based measures of equine welfare. The animal-based CPs were measures that directly related to the animal and included social contact, body condition, hoof condition and cleanliness. Non-compliance with one or more of the animal-based CPs was used as a binary outcome of poor equine welfare; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the exact binomial distribution. Associations were determined using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for clustering on premises. Resource- and management-based CPs (model inputs) were reduced by principal component analysis. Other input factors included premises characteristics (e.g. size, location) and inspection characteristics (e.g. type of inspection). There were 30 053 premises with horses from 21 counties registered by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. In total 13 321 inspections of premises were conducted at 28.4% (n=8532) of all registered premises. For random inspections, the premises-prevalence of poor equine welfare was 9.5% (95% CI 7.5, 11.9). Factors associated with poor equine welfare were non-compliance with requirements for supervision, care or feeding of horses, facility design, personnel, stable hygiene, pasture and exercise area maintenance, as well as the owner not being notified of the inspection, a previous complaint or deficiency, spring compared with autumn, and not operating as a professional equine business. Horses at premises compliant with stabling and shelter requirements had significantly better

  5. Ex vivo penetration of low-level laser light through equine skin and flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Larson, Maureen K; Plant, Thomas K; Sundholm-Tepper, Andrea; Payton, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation). Influence of hair color; skin preparation, color, and thickness; and wavelength on energy penetration were assessed. RESULTS For haired skin, energy penetration was greatest for light-colored hair and least for dark-colored hair. Clipping or shaving of skin improved energy penetration. Light-colored skin allowed greatest energy penetration, followed by medium-colored skin and dark-colored skin. Greatest penetration of light-colored skin occurred with the 800-nm wavelength, whereas greatest penetration of medium- and dark-colored skin occurred with the 970-nm wavelength. As skin thickness increased, energy penetration of samples decreased. Only 1% to 20% and 0.1% to 4% of energy were absorbed by SDFTs and DDFTs, respectively, depending on skin color, skin thickness, and applied wavelength. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that most laser energy directed through equine skin was absorbed or scattered by the skin. To achieve delivery of energy doses known to positively affect cells in vitro to equine SDFTs and DDFTs, skin preparation, color, and thickness and applied wavelength must be considered.

  6. Equine cloning: in vitro and in vivo development of aggregated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; Jarazo, Javier; Olivera, Ramiro; Salamone, Daniel F

    2012-07-01

    The production of cloned equine embryos remains highly inefficient. Embryo aggregation has not yet been tested in the equine, and it might represent an interesting strategy to improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effect of cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro and in vivo equine embryo development. Zona-free reconstructed embryos were individually cultured in microwells (nonaggregated group) or as 2- or 3-embryo aggregates (aggregated groups). For in vitro development, they were cultured until blastocyst stage and then either fixed for Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining or maintained in in vitro culture where blastocyst expansion was measured daily until Day 17 or the day on which they collapsed. For in vivo assays, Day 7-8 blastocysts were transferred to synchronized mares and resultant vesicles, and cloned embryos were measured by ultrasonography. Embryo aggregation improved blastocyst rates on a per well basis, and aggregation did not imply additional oocytes to obtain blastocysts. Embryo aggregation improved embryo quality, nevertheless it did not affect Day 8 and Day 16 blastocyst Oct-4 expression patterns. Equine cloned blastocysts expanded and increased their cell numbers when they were maintained in in vitro culture, describing a particular pattern of embryo growth that was unexpectedly independent of embryo aggregation, as all embryos reached similar size after Day 7. Early pregnancy rates were higher using blastocysts derived from aggregated embryos, and advanced pregnancies as live healthy foals also resulted from aggregated embryos. These results indicate that the strategy of aggregating embryos can improve their development, supporting the establishment of equine cloned pregnancies.

  7. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  8. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2. PMID:23231956

  9. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A scale-construction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C

    2015-12-01

    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) in horses with acute colic. A cohort follow-up study was performed using 50 adult horses (n = 25 with acute colic, n = 25 controls). Composite pain scores were assessed by direct observations, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were assessed from video clips. Colic patients were assessed at arrival, and on the first and second mornings after arrival. Both the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP scores showed high inter-observer reliability (ICC = 0.98 for EQUUS-COMPASS, ICC = 0.93 for EQUUS-FAP, P scores was found (ICC = 0.63, P <0.001). The cut-off value for differentiation between healthy and colic horses for the EQUUS-COMPASS was 5, and for differentiation between conservatively treated and surgically treated or euthanased patients it was 11. For the EQUUS-FAP, cut-off values were 4 and 6, respectively. Internal sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (sensitivity 95.8%, specificity 84.0%) and EQUUS-FAP (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 88.0%). The use of the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP enabled repeated and objective scoring of pain in horses with acute colic. A follow-up study with new patients and control animals will be performed to further validate the constructed scales that are described in this study.

  10. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endo...

  11. Sero-epidemiology of equine toxoplasmosis using a latex agglutination test in the three metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, M; Hussain, M H; Sajid, M S; Mansoor, M K; Asi, M N; Fadya, A A K; Zohaib, A; Sial, A U R; Muhammad, G; Ullah, I

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan.

  12. The study of aerobic bacterial flora of the upper respiratory tract of equines from Jammu and Kashmir region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad Mir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim:To isolate aerobic bacterial micro flora residing in the upper respiratory tract of equines used by the pilgrims and tourists in Jammu & Kashmir. Materials and Methods:88 apparently healthy equines and 53 equines with respiratory tract diseases were used in this study. Swab samples were collected from the upper respiratory tract of equines. Isolation and identification of the bacteria was conducted under aerobic conditions. Each of the sample processed yielded at least one type of bacteria species. Results: A total of 321 bacterial isolates were recovered from both groups of equines. The majority of the isolates were Gram positive (84.11% and the rest were Gram negative (15.88%. Bacterial isolates identified in order of the magnitude were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (17.44%, Micrococcus spp. (9.96%, Corynebacterium (9.65%, Staphylococcus intermedius (9.65%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.72%, Bacillus spp. (7.16%, Streptococcus pneumonia (5.60%, Staphylococcus chromogens (5.60%, Streptococcus equismilis (5.29%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.29%, Rhodococcus equi (3.73%, Escherichia coli (3.73%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.42%, Proteus vulgaris (3.42%, and Streptococcus equisubsp. equi(1.24%. Conclusion: The present study reveals the predominance of Gram positive bacteria in both healthy and diseased animals. Bacteria were recovered at a higher rate from diseased equines than from apparently healthy animals. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicuswas mainly found to be associated with respiratory tract infections.

  13. Intravenous immune globulin (10% caprylate-chromatography purified) for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (ICE study): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Richard; Donofrio, Peter; Bril, Vera; Dalakas, Marinos; Deng, Chunqin; Hanna, Kim; Hartung, H P; Latov, Norman; Merkies, Ingemar; van Doorn, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Short-term studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin might reduce disability caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) but long-term effects have not been shown. We aimed to establish whether 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immune globulin intravenous (IGIV-C) has short-term and long-term benefit in patients with CIDP. Methods: 117 patients with CIDP who met specific neurophysiological inflammatory neuropathy cause and treat...

  14. Sensitization with 7S Globulins from Peanut, Hazelnut, Soy or Pea Induces IgE with Different Biological Activities Which Are Modified by Soy Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Rigby, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    times with 100 μg purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. Results: The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical......, such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their ‘normal’ matrix. Methods: Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3...... level of specific antibodies, but peanut 7S induced IgE of higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, had a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. Soy tolerance reduced the functionality of IgE without influencing antibody titers. Conclusions: Although the 4 7S globulins are structurally...

  15. A BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE PHENOMENA KNOWN AS COMPLEMENT-SPLITTING : FIRST PAPER: SPLITTING OF THE COMPLEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH GLOBULIN PRECIPITATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Noguchi, H

    1912-06-01

    It is generally accepted that complement may be split into a mid-piece and an end-piece. The mid-piece is thought to be in the globulin fraction, and the end-piece in the albumin fraction. The restoration of complement activity by putting together the albumin and globulin fractions does not prove, however, that each fraction contained a part of the complement, for the albumin fraction can be reactivated in the absence of the globulin fraction. Complement-splitting as brought about by hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxid, and dialysis, is really an inactivation of the whole complement by certain acids or alkalis, either added in the free state to the serum, or liberated as a result of the dissociation of certain electrolytes. That the whole complement, and not a part only, is present in the albumin fraction of the serum can be demonstrated by the removal of the inhibitory action of the acid or alkali. This can be effected by the addition, not only of alkali or acid, but also of any amphoteric substance. When hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxid, or dialysis are employed to produce the phenomenon known as complement-splitting, the complement is merely inactivated, not split.

  16. Partial deficiency of thyroxine-binding globulin-Allentown is due to a mutation in the signal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerhut, Anja; Reutrakul, Sirimon; Knuedeler, Sebastian D; Moeller, Lars C; Greenlee, Carol; Refetoff, Samuel; Janssen, Onno E

    2004-05-01

    We present an unusual variant of T(4)-binding globulin (TBG) found in a family from Allentown, Pennsylvania (TBG-AT). The heterozygous proposita presented serum total T(4) and TBG levels ranging from low to normal. TBG gene sequencing revealed a C-to-T substitution in codon -2 (CAC to TAC) leading to the substitution of the normal histidine by a tyrosine within the signal peptide. No mutation within the mature peptide was found. Allele-specific PCR confirmed the H(-2)Y mutation in the propositas mother and son. T(4)-binding analysis of TBG in serum from the proposita and son showed normal affinity but reduced capacity when compared with the unaffected father. Heat stability and isoelectric focusing of TBG-AT were normal. In vitro expression of a recombinant TBG-AT in Xenopus oocytes revealed a diminished secretory efficiency and confirmed the normal binding affinity and heat stability of the small amount of secreted TBG-AT. This study has defined impaired cotranslational processing as a hitherto unrecognized cause of hereditary TBG deficiency.

  17. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples.

  18. Efficacy of rabbit antithymocyte globulin as first-line treatment of severe aplastic anemia: an Asian multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuncharunee, Suporn; Wong, Raymond; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chang, Kian Meng; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hwang, Wen-Li; Koh, Liang Piu; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Leung, Anskar Yh; Norasetthada, Lalita; Wang, Shih-Chung; Chang, Ming-Chih; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2016-10-01

    Due to the unavailability of horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in many markets worldwide, patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) are limited to the use of rabbit ATG. We aimed to analyze hematologic response and overall survival (OS) of Asian patients treated with rabbit ATG as first-line therapy of SAA. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 97 consecutive patients who received rabbit ATG as first-line treatment of SAA from 2006 to 2012 at centers in four Asian countries. The primary endpoint was 6- and 12-month overall response rates (ORR) for patients receiving rabbit ATG within the recommended dose range (2.5-3.75 mg/kg/day). Secondary endpoints included ORR in patients receiving any dose of rabbit ATG and 2-year OS. For patients who received rabbit ATG within the recommended dose range, 6- and 12-month ORRs were 17.4 and 63.6 %, respectively. For patients who received any dose of rabbit ATG, 6- and 12-month ORRs were 24.3 and 68.6 %, respectively. The 2-year OS rate was 86.3 %. Rabbit ATG is effective for treatment of SAA in Asian patients. The 12-month ORR and 2-year OS with rabbit ATG were comparable to historical results obtained with horse ATG.

  19. Prospective study of rabbit antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for aplastic anemia from the EBMT Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Judith C; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Tichelli, Andre; Risitano, Antonio M; Passweg, Jakob R; Killick, Sally B; Warren, Alan J; Foukaneli, Theodora; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Al-Zahrani, H A; Höchsmann, Britta; Schafhausen, Philip; Roth, Alexander; Franzke, Anke; Brummendorf, Tim H; Dufour, Carlo; Oneto, Rosi; Sedgwick, Philip; Barrois, Alain; Kordasti, Shahram; Elebute, Modupe O; Mufti, Ghulam J; Socie, Gerard

    2012-06-07

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG; thymoglobulin, Genzyme) in combination with cyclosporine, as first-line immunosuppressive therapy, was evaluated prospectively in a multicenter, European, phase 2 pilot study, in 35 patients with aplastic anemia. Results were compared with 105 age- and disease severity-matched patients from the European Blood and Marrow Transplant registry, treated with horse ATG (hATG; lymphoglobulin) and cyclosporine. The primary end point was response at 6 months. At 3 months, no patients had achieved a complete response to rATG. Partial response occurred in 11 (34%). At 6 months, complete response rate was 3% and partial response rate 37%. There were 10 deaths after rATG (28.5%) and 1 after subsequent HSCT. Infections were the main cause of death in 9 of 10 patients. The best response rate was 60% for rATG and 67% for hATG. For rATG, overall survival at 2 years was 68%, compared with 86% for hATG (P = .009). Transplant-free survival was 52% for rATG and 76% for hATG (P = .002). On multivariate analysis, rATG (hazard ratio = 3.9, P = .003) and age more than 37 years (hazard ratio = 4.7, P = .0008) were independent adverse risk factors for survival. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00471848.

  20. Intramuscular hepatitis B immune globulin combined with lamivudine in prevention of hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Lin Yan; Yong-Bing Chen; Lu-Nan Yan; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Tian-Fu Wen; Wen-Tao Wang; Jia-Yin Yang; Ming-Qing Xu; Zhi-Hui Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) and lamivudine in prophylaxis of the recurrence of hepatitis B after liver transplantation has signiifcantly improved the survival of HBsAg positive patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the outcomes of liver transplantation for patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV). METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis and a review of the organ transplant database identiifed 51 patients (43 men and 8 women) transplanted for benign HBV-related cirrhotic diseases between June 2002 and December 2004 who had survived more than 3 months. HBIg was administered intravenously during the ifrst week and intramuscularly thereafter. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 14.1 months, the overall recurrence rate in the 51 patients was 3.9%(2/51). The overall patient survival was 88.3%, and 82.4%after 1 and 2 years, respectively. A daily oral dose of 100 mg lamivudine for 2 weeks before transplantation for 10 patients enabled 57.1%(4/7) and 62.5%(5/8) of HBV-DNA and HBeAg positive patients respectively to convert to be negative. Intramuscular HBIg was well tolerated in all patients. CONCLUSION:Lamivudine combined with intramuscular HBIg can effectively prevent allograft from the recurrence of HBV after liver transplantation.

  1. Expression and characterization of a His-tagged 11S seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Nielsen, Niels C; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2004-01-01

    DNA encoding a His-tagged 11S globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (amarantin) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strains BL21 (DE3) and Origami (DE3). The two strains produced different accumulation patterns. Whereas most of the proamarantin expressed in BL21 (DE3) was localized in inclusion bodies, that produced in Origami (DE3) was soluble (76 mg/L). Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation analysis of the expressed soluble proamarantin revealed that the protein was assembled into trimers. Treatment of proamarantin trimers in vitro using purified asparaginyl endopeptidase resulted in the appearance of peptides of the sizes expected for acidic and basic chains. Because the proamarantin assembles into trimers with the expected sedimentation characteristics and is cleaved into acidic and basic chains rather than being degraded, the results suggest that the protein folding occurring in E. coli is similar to that taking place in seeds. The His-tagged proamarantin was purified in a single step by immobilized metal affinity chromatography with a final yield of 48 mg/L. The overexpression of proamarantin in E. coli, together with the one-step purification will facilitate further investigation of this storage protein through site-directed mutagenesis.

  2. Targeting of natural killer cells by rabbit antithymocyte globulin and campath-1H: similar effects independent of specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stauch

    Full Text Available T cell depleting strategies are an integral part of immunosuppressive regimens widely used in the hematological and solid organ transplant setting. Although it is known to induce lymphocytopenia, little is known about the effects of the polyclonal rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG or the monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab on Natural Killer (NK cells in detail. Here, we demonstrate that induction therapy with rATG following kidney/pancreas transplantation results in a rapid depletion of NK cells. Treatment of NK cells with rATG and alemtuzumab in vitro leads to impairment of cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis even at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 microg/ml compared with T and B cells. By generating Fc-parts of rATG and alemtuzumab we illustrate that their ligation to FcgammaRIII (CD16 is sufficient for the significant induction of degranulation, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine release (FasL, TNFalpha and IFNgamma exclusively in CD3(-CD56(dim NK cells whereas application of rATG and alemtuzumab F(ab fragments abolishes these effects. These findings are of general importance as our data suggest that NK cells are also mediators of the clinically relevant cytokine release syndrome and that their targeting by therapeutic antibodies should be considered as they are functionally relevant for the effective clearance of opportunistic viral infections and anti-tumor activity posttransplantation.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the β-subunit gene in 7S globulin protein in soybean using RNAi technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, J; Liu, S Y; Wang, P W; Guan, S Y; Fan, Y G; Yao, D; Zhang, L; Dai, J L

    2016-04-26

    The objective of this study was to use RNA interference (RNAi) to improve protein quality and decrease anti-nutritional effects in soybean. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was conducted using RNAi and an expression vector containing the 7S globulin β-subunit gene. The BAR gene was used as the selective marker and cotyledonary nodes of soybean genotype Jinong 27 were chosen as explant material. Regenerated plants were detected by molecular biology techniques. Transformation of the β-subunit gene in the 7S protein was detected by PCR, Southern blot, and q-PCR. Positive plants (10 T0, and 6 T1, and 13 T2) were tested by PCR. Hybridization bands were detected by Southern blot analysis in two of the T1 transgenic plants. RNAi expression vectors containing the soybean 7S protein β-subunit gene were successfully integrated into the genome of transgenic plants. qRT-PCR analysis in soybean seeds showed a clear decrease in expression of the soybean β-subunit gene. The level of 7S protein β-subunit expression in transgenic plants decreased by 77.5% as compared to that of the wild-type plants. This study has established a basis for the application of RNAi to improve the anti-nutritional effects of soybean.

  4. 葡聚糖对大豆7S球蛋白的物性修饰%Properties of soybean 7S globulin modified by dextran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曦; 齐军茹; 杨晓泉; 卓秀英

    2012-01-01

    Soybean 7S globulin-dextran covalent conjugate was prepared via Maillard reaction in macromolecular crowding condition in liquid system, the covalent attachment of dextran to globulin was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Gel permeation chromatography ( GPC ), Haake rheometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer and UV-visible spectrophotometer were used to confirm the formation of covalent conjugate and analyze the functional characteristics of protein after the covalent attachment of polysaccharide. The results showed that 5% 7S globulin and 15% dextran in pH7. 0, at 95℃ for 6 h, obtained higher degree of grafting. Soybean 7S globulin and dextran macromolecule covalent conjugate was formed. GPC spectra showed that the reaction products of 7S globulin and dextran were composed of a mixture of various molecular weights. Within a specific range, apparent viscosity of the covalent conjugate gradually increased with increasing reaction time. The emulsification activity of covalent conjugate increased by about 221. 7%.%通过大分子拥挤环境下液相体系中发生Maillard反应制备大豆7S球蛋白-葡聚糖共价复合物,采用十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)技术证实大豆7S球蛋白和葡聚糖发生了共价结合.采用凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)、哈克流变仪、荧光分光光度计、紫外可见分光光度计系统研究了共价复合物的形成及葡聚糖共价键入后对蛋白特性的影响.结果表明:5%的7S球蛋白与15%的葡聚糖在pH7.0条件下,95℃反应6h得到的产物接枝度较高,大豆7S球蛋白和葡聚糖形成了大分子的共价复合物,产物乳化活性提升了约221.7%.

  5. Fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, Peter; Lehmbecker, Annika; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Böer, Michael; Kummrow, Maja; Haas, Ludwig; Grummer, Beatrice

    2011-05-05

    In a zoological collection, four black bears (Ursus americanus) died from neurological disease within six months. Independently in a geographically different zoo, two Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsoni) and 18 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus f. dom.) suffered from neurological disorders. In addition, guinea pigs showed abortions and stillbirths. All affected animals displayed a non suppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistology demonstrated equine herpes virus antigen and ultrastructurally herpes viral particles were detected. Virus isolation and molecular analysis identified neurotropic equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 strains in both epizootics. There is serological evidence of a possible virus transmission from other equids to the affected animals. Cross-species transmission of EHV-1 should be considered in the management of captive wild equids and ungulates, particularly with respect to fatal disease in irreplaceable species.

  6. Equine infectious anemia on Marajo Island at the mouth of the Amazon river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra F.Q.R. Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Equine infectious anemia (EIA is a transmissible and incurable disease caused by a lentivirus, the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. There are no reports in the literature of this infection in Equidae on Marajo Island. The objective of this study was to diagnose the disease in the municipalities of Cachoeira do Arari, Salvaterra, Santa Cruz do Arari and Soure, on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil. For serological survey samples were collected from 294 horses, over 5-month-old, males and females of puruca and marajoara breeds and from some half-breeds, which were tested by immunodiffusion in Agar gel (AGID. A prevalence of 46.26% (136/294 positive cases was found. EIA is considered endemic in the municipalities studied, due to the ecology of the region with a high numbered population of bloodsucking insect vectors and the absence of official measures for the control of the disease.

  7. Optical coherence tomography enables accurate measurement of equine cartilage thickness for determination of speed of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Pia H; Te Moller, Nikae C R; Tanska, Petri; Saarakkala, Simo; Tiitu, Virpi; Korhonen, Rami K; Brommer, Harold; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Arthroscopic estimation of articular cartilage thickness is important for scoring of lesion severity, and measurement of cartilage speed of sound (SOS)-a sensitive index of changes in cartilage composition. We investigated the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in measurements of cartilage thickness and determined SOS by combining OCT thickness and ultrasound (US) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Material and methods - Cartilage thickness measurements from OCT and microscopy images of 94 equine osteochondral samples were compared. Then, SOS in cartilage was determined using simultaneous OCT thickness and US TOF measurements. SOS was then compared with the compositional, structural, and mechanical properties of cartilage. Results - Measurements of non-calcified cartilage thickness using OCT and microscopy were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.92; p measurement of articular cartilage thickness. Although SOS measurements lacked accuracy in thin equine cartilage, the concept of SOS measurement using OCT appears promising.

  8. Desing of a virtual interactive tutorial of the equine encephalon macroscopic anatomy for veterinary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Venegas Cortes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer the problem of what could be the most appropriate innovative didactic to improve the learning process of equine encephalon anatomy in the School of Veterinary Medicine of La Salle University, this project began to design, apply and evaluate a didactic prototype Computerized Educative Media CEM in macroscopic anatomy of equine encephalon, to improve the «significant learning» in this subject. The project was developed in three phases regarding the Galviz software engineering, as well as the selected environment for learning, within the framework of the conceptual Novak maps, the significant learning of Ausubel, and the test of usability adapted and applied to the anatomy students, as a MEC evaluation.

  9. Determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X; Meleka-Boules, M; Chen, C L; Ceska, D M; Tiffany, D M

    1997-04-25

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a solid-phase extraction method was developed for the determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum. The suitable CE run conditions were described. The factors affecting flunixin recovery rates were investigated and optimum solid-phase extraction conditions for flunixin in equine urine and serum were established. Limits of detection and quantitation were 3.4 and 5.6 ng/ml for serum and 16.9 and 33.1 ng/ml for urine, respectively. The recoveries exceeded 96% for urine and 79% for serum. Urine samples from race horses and urine and serum samples from a mare administrated with flunixin were analyzed with this procedure.

  10. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Quiroz

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama and Panama provinces (central Panama near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  11. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  12. Candidate Vectors and Rodent Hosts of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Chiapas, 2006–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Freier, Jerome E.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been known to occur in Mexico since the 1960s. The first natural equine epizootic was recognized in Chiapas in 1993 and since then, numerous studies have characterized the etiologic strains, including reverse genetic studies that incriminated a specific mutation that enhanced infection of epizootic mosquito vectors. The aim of this study was to determine the mosquito and rodent species involved in enzootic maintenance of subtype IE VEEV in coastal Chiapas. A longitudinal study was conducted over a year to discern which species and habitats could be associated with VEEV circulation. Antibody was rarely detected in mammals and virus was not isolated from mosquitoes. Additionally, Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus populations were found to be spatially related to high levels of human and bovine seroprevalence. These mosquito populations were concentrated in areas that appear to represent foci of stable, enzootic VEEV circulation. PMID:22144461

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  14. Different pattern of haemagglutinin immunoreactivity of equine influenza virus strains isolated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśnik Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of haemagglutinin (HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus was compared among the strains isolated in Poland, using H3 monoclonal antibody. A stronger signal in immunoblot reaction was observed for A/equi/Pulawy/2008 HA polypeptides compared to A/equi/Pulawy/2006, despite the fact that both strains are phylogenetically closely related and belong to Florida clade 2 of American lineage. The strongest signal, observed in the case of A/equi/Pulawy/2008, seemed to be connected with the presence of G135, I213, E379, and/or V530 instead of R135, M213, G379, and I530 present in A/equi/Pulawy/2006 HA sequence. This implies that point mutations within amino acid sequences of HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus may change their immunoreactivity even when they are not located within five basic antigenic sites.

  15. Ultrastructural aspects of feeding and secretion-excretion by the equine parasite Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, M S; Ryan, M F

    1999-06-01

    Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to provide further data on the putative origins of the immunogenic secretory-excretory product (ESP) of Strongylus vulgaris (Looss 1900). The sharply delineated but superficial attachment to the equine caecum by the mouth leaves behind an oval area devoid of epithelial cells. Attachment does not extend deeply enough to reach the muscularis mucosa layer of the equine intestine. The progressive digestion of the ingested plug of tissue (epithelial cells, blood cells and mucous) was visualized. The coelomocytes, floating cells and membranous structures located in the pseudocoelom and intimately associated with the digestive, excretory and reproductive systems, and with the somatic muscles are described. The secretory-excretory system comprises two, ventrally-located, secretory-excretory glands connected to tubular elements. These glands synthesize granules of various sizes and densities that are delineated.

  16. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, D; Romero-Zuñiga, J J; Dolz, G

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  17. Effects of stress on pain in horses and incorporating pain scales for equine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ann E

    2010-12-01

    The stress response represents an animal's attempt to reestablish the body's homeostasis after injury, intense physical activity, or psychological strain. Two different neuroendocrine pathways may be activated in stressful situations: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, leading to increased cortisol levels, and the sympathoadrenomedullar system, leading to increased catecholamine levels. By applying some of the evaluation methods described in this article in the appropriate clinical situations, equine veterinarians can almost certainly improve their ability to recognize and manage pain in horses.

  18. Generation of Constructs for DNA-Directed RNA Interference of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    20(Xi-237 Executive summary Introduction: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) is one of a number of different alphaviruses , which can cause...required for replication . It is hypothesized that targeting essential virus genes, either individually or simultaneously, will lead to knockdown or...silencing of the genes, and subsequent inhibition of virus replication . This paper describes the PCR-based approach used to generate DNA cassettes that

  19. eNAP-2, a novel cysteine-rich bactericidal peptide from equine leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, M A; Harwig, S S; Cullor, J S; Hughes, J. P.; Lehrer, R I

    1992-01-01

    We purified a novel cysteine-rich antibiotic peptide, eNAP-2 (M(r), approximately 6,500), from acid extracts of equine neutrophils by sequential gel filtration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and determined its partial N-terminal amino acid sequence. Although its cysteine motif distinguished eNAP-2 from all other currently known endogenous antibiotic peptides, including defensins and granulins, it showed substantial sequence similarity to WDNM1, a putative member of ...

  20. After-hours equine emergency admissions at a university referral hospital (1998 - 2007) : causes and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, A; M.N. Saulez; C.M. Donnellan; Bester, L; B. Gummow

    2009-01-01

    Medical records of equine after-hours admissions from 1998 to 2007 are reviewed. Data extracted from the medical records included signalment, reason for admission, pre-admission treatment, clinical presentation, procedures performed, final diagnoses, complications occurring in hospital, length of stay and outcome. Eight hundred and twenty after-hours admissions were available of which 75 % were classified as emergencies. Most horses originated from Gauteng province (82 %), with Thoroughbred, ...

  1. Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in five draught equine populated metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Raza, Fahad; Muhammad, Ghulam; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Saleem, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-05-28

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by intraerythrocytic parasites (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution. In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. In order to obtain the first insights into the prevalence of the disease, a total of 430 equids, including 33 mules, 65 horses and 332 donkeys, aging from ≤ 5 to ≥ 10 years of either sex, from five metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan, were serologically tested for the presence of antibodies directed against B. caballi and T. equi, using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Out of 430 equid serum samples tested, 226 (52.6%, 95% CI 47.7-57.4) were found cELISA positive for EP (T. equi and/or B. caballi infections). The overall seroprevalence of EP was 41.2% (95% CI 36.5-46.0) for T. equi and 21.6% (95% CI 17.8-25.8) for B. caballi. A small proportion of equids (10.2%, 95% CI 7.5-13.5) was seropositive for both T. equi and B. caballi. Seroprevalence of T. equi was significantly higher (P<0.01) in equines from the metropolis of Lahore (66.7%, 95% CI 54.3-77.6) and in horses (56.9%, 95% CI 44.0-69.2). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that factors associated with prevalence of EP were being an equine species kept in metropolis Lahore (OR=4.24, 95% CI 2.28-7.90), horse (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.53-5.20) and male equids (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.86).

  2. Demographics of natural oral infection of mosquitos by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Serafín; Thébaud, Gaël; Smith, Darci R; Kenney, Joan L; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    The within-host diversity of virus populations can be drastically limited during between-host transmission, with primary infection of hosts representing a major constraint to diversity maintenance. However, there is an extreme paucity of quantitative data on the demographic changes experienced by virus populations during primary infection. Here, the multiplicity of cellular infection (MOI) and population bottlenecks were quantified during primary mosquito infection by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, an arbovirus causing neurological disease in humans and equids.

  3. Identification of a Human Monoclonal Antibody To Replace Equine Diphtheria Antitoxin for Treatment of Diphtheria Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Sevigny, Leila M; Booth, Brian J.; Rowley, Kirk J.; Leav, Brett A.; Cheslock, Peter S.; Kerry A Garrity; Sloan, Susan E.; Thomas, William; Babcock, Gregory J.; Wang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) has been the cornerstone of the treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection for more than 100 years. Although the global incidence of diphtheria has declined steadily over the last quarter of the 20th century, the disease remains endemic in many parts of the world, and significant outbreaks still occur. DAT is an equine polyclonal antibody that is not commercially available in the United States and is in short supply globally. A safer, more readily available ...

  4. Use of equine pericardium sheet (LYOMESH®) as dura mater substitute in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Luigi M.; Solari, Domenico; Somma, Teresa; Di Somma, Alberto; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the use of equine pericardium sheet (Lyomesh®) as dural substitute for sellar reconstruction after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for the removal of pituitary adenomas. Methods: We reviewed data of patients that underwent surgery by means of an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for the removal of pituitary adenomas over a 12-months period, starting in May 2012, i.e. when we adopted Lyomesh® (Audio Technologies, Pia...

  5. An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yapkic

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV and no positive result was detected.

  6. Foetal and postnatal equine articular cartilage development: magnetic resonance imaging and polarised light microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cluzel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage (AC has a well described multizonal collagen structure. Knowledge of foetal AC organisation and development may provide a prototype for cartilage repair strategies, and improve understanding of structural changes in developmental diseases such as osteochondrosis (OC. The objective of this study was to describe normal development of the spatial architecture of the collagen network of equine AC using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and polarised light microscopy (PLM, at sites employed for cartilage repair studies or susceptible to OC. T2-weighted fast-spin echo (FSE sequences and PLM assessment were performed on distal femoral epiphyses of equine foetuses, foals and adults. Both MRI and PLM revealed an early progressive collagen network zonal organisation of the femoral epiphyses, beginning at 4 months of gestation. PLM revealed that the collagen network of equine foetal AC prior to birth was already organised into an evident anisotropic layered structure that included the appearance of a dense tangential zone in the superficial AC in the youngest specimens, with the progressive development of an underlying transitional zone. A third, increasingly birefringent, radial layer developed in the AC from 6 months of gestation. Four laminae were observed on the MR images in the last third of gestation. These included not only the AC but also the superficial growth plate of the epiphysis. These findings provide novel data on normal equine foetal cartilage collagen development, and may serve as a template for cartilage repair studies in this species or a model for developmental studies of OC.

  7. Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Tytti; Virén, Tuomas; Liukkonen, Jukka; te Moller, Nikae; Puhakka, Pia H.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tulamo, R.M.; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods. Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising tool introduced for quantitative detection of cartilage degeneration and scoring of the severity of chondral lesions. The aim o...

  8. Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Tytti; Virén, Tuomas; Liukkonen, Jukka; Argüelles, David; te Moller, Nikae C R; Puhakka, Pia H.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Background Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods. Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising tool introduced for quantitative detection of cartilage degeneration and scoring of the severity of chondral lesions. The aim of...

  9. Functional anatomy of the equine temporomandibular joint: Collagen fiber texture of the articular surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, K; Schulz-Kornas, E; Arzi, B; Failing, K; Vogelsberg, J; Staszyk, C

    2016-11-01

    In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal typical morphological features indicating biomechanical adaptions. Therefore, the collagen fiber alignment was visualized using the split-line technique in 16 adult warmblood horses without any history of TMJ disorders. Within the central two-thirds of the articular surfaces of the articular tubercle, the articular disc and the mandibular head, split-lines ran in a correspondent rostrocaudal direction. In the lateral and medial aspects of these articular surfaces, the split-line pattern varied, displaying curved arrangements in the articular disc and punctual split-lines in the bony components. Mediolateral orientated split-lines were found in the rostral and caudal border of the articular disc and in the mandibular fossa. The complex movements during the equine chewing cycle are likely assigned to different areas of the TMJ. The split-line pattern of the equine TMJ is indicative of a relative movement of the joint components in a preferential rostrocaudal direction which is consigned to the central aspects of the TMJ. The lateral and medial aspects of the articular surfaces provide split-line patterns that indicate movements particularly around a dorsoventral axis.

  10. Serosurveillance of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Amphibians and Reptiles from Alabama, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sean P.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; Chapman, Taryn; White, Gregory; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is among the most medically important arboviruses in North America, and studies suggest a role for amphibians and reptiles in its transmission cycle. Serum samples collected from 351 amphibians and reptiles (27 species) from Alabama, USA, were tested for the presence of antibodies against EEEV. Frogs, turtles, and lizards showed little or no seropositivity, and snakes had high seropositivity rates. Most seropositive species were preferred or abundant h...

  11. Cryopreservation does not affect the stem characteristics of multipotent cells isolated from equine peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    Martinello, Tiziana; Bronzini, Ilaria; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Mascarello, Francesco; Patruno, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian adult stem cells show, in vitro, extensive differentiative ability and may represent a versatile tool for tissue regenerative purposes, even after long term storage. Multipotent stem cells isolated from horse blood have been shown to possess the capacity to differentiate into diverse mesenchymal lineages although their full characterization is still at an early stage. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cryopreservation on stemness characteristics of adult equine mes...

  12. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jiménez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV, Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4, West Nile Virus (WNV, Influenza A Virus (IAV, Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV, Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%, followed by WNV (44.2%, and IAV (41.8%. Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9% was lower than to T. equi (38.1%. For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%, EVAV (5.0%, C. abortus (4.8%, and N. caninum (4.4%. Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  13. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetic profile of a new, highly purified, heat-treated equine rabies immunoglobulin, administered either alone or in association with a purified, Vero-cell rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Attanath, P; Quiambao, B; Singhasivanon, V; Chanthavanich, P; Montalban, C; Lutsch, C; Pepin-Covatta, S; Le Mener, V; Miranda, M; Sabchareon, A

    1998-07-30

    A clinical evaluation of a new, purified, heat-treated equine rabies immunoglobulin (PHT-Erig), F(ab')2 preparation, was carried out in Thailand and in the Philippines-two countries where rabies is endemic. An initial prospective, randomised, controlled trial (Study 1), compared the safety and pharmacokinetics (serum concentrations of rabies antibodies) after administration either of PHT-Erig or of a commercially-available, equine rabies immune globulin (Erig PMC). A second trial (Study 2) simulated post-exposure rabies prophylaxis by using a reference cell culture vaccine, the purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (PVRV), administered in association with either Erig PMC or PHT-Erig. In Study 1, 27 healthy, Thai adults received a 40 IU kg(-1) dose of either Erig PMC (n = 12) or PHT-Erig (n = 15) via the intramuscular (i.m.) route; half of the dose was injected into the deltoid area and the other half into the buttocks. Serum for rabies antibody determination and F(ab')2 concentration was collected at hours (H) 0, 6 and 12, and on day (D) 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15. Both products were safe, with no serious adverse events, and in particular, no anaphylactic reactions or serum sickness was reported. A statistical comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters did not demonstrate bioequivalence of the two products. Nonetheless, the relative bioavailability of 93% and the similar absorption rates suggest the pharmacokinetic profiles of Erig and PHT-Erig are similar. The antibody level in either group were low throughout the 15-day study period. The geometric mean titer (GMT) values ranged from group 0.027-0.117 IU ml(-1) in the Erig group and from 0.029 to 0.072 IU ml(-1) in the PHT-Erig. There was no significant difference between the evolution of GMT values for the two groups. In Study 2, 71 healthy volunteers received 40 IU kg(-1) via the intramuscular route of either Erig PMC (n = 36) or PHT-Erig (n = 35) on D0, in association with five doses of PVRV on D0, D3, D7, D14

  14. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  15. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

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    António Galvão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP, Ghrelin (GHR and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4, prostaglandin (PG E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF; macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation, in equine corpus luteum (CL from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated.

  16. Feed restriction enhances the depressive effects of erythromycin on equine hindgut microbial metabolism in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Manuela; Guschlbauer, Maria; Feige, Karsten; Schluesener, Michael; Bester, Kai; Beyerbach, Martin; Breves, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Equine typholocolitis is a sporadic diarrheal disease causing high mortality rates. One of the risk factors responsible for this is the oral application of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate whether erythromycin in combination with feed restriction provokes changes in microbial hindgut metabolism and could therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of equine typhlocolitis. As application of erythromycin and feed restriction are risk factors for equine typhlocolitis, both factors were chosen to investigate their individual and combined effects on hindgut microbial metabolism. The colon simulation technique (Cositec) was used to evaluate biochemical parameters of microbial metabolism. Production rates of the acetate, proprionate and butyrate were measured as quantitative parameters of microbial fermentation. Application of erythromycin (10 mg/d) predominantly decreased the production rates of propionate. Reducing the fermentable substrate to 30% induced an even more pronounced impairment. The detrimental effects of feed restriction on the production rates of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were enhanced when feed restriction was combined with the application of erythromycin. Irrespective of erytrhomycin, the butyrate fermentation rate was completely inhibited by feed restriction within two days after start of restriction. The reduction in butyrate fermentation rate has to be discussed as a pathophysiological factor for the onset of acute typhlocolitis.

  17. Morphological study of the Golgi tendon organ in equine superficial digital flexor tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takafumi; Hosaka, Yoshinao; Yamamoto, Etsuko; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

    2004-08-01

    The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) is an encapsulated fusiform mechanoreceptor siding in the musculo-tendinous junction of many animal species. Inhibitory function of afferent nerve fibers distributed from nearby motor units, the organ responds to active tension exerted onto the muscle. The morphological features of the equine GTO have not yet been elucidated. Additionally, there is some controversy regarding to the existence of the GTO in the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). Therefore, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy using alcian blue (pH 2.5) staining and the silver-enhanced colloidal gold method were carried out to determine both the location and characteristics of the GTO at the musculo-tendinous junction of the SDFT. A GTO with a fusiform structure of approximately 3 mm in length was found in the tendinous part. The lumen of the GTO was divided into compartments by septal cells. Each compartment contained collagen fibrils, nerve fibers and Schwann cells. This is the first report of the equine GTO.

  18. Prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in equines of a tropical region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-González, Rosa I; González-Reyes, Ismael; Flores-Gutiérrez, Gerardo H

    2006-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determinate the seroprevalence rate of equine brucellosis in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Serum samples from 420 equines were analyzed with the Rose Bengal test at cell concentrations of 3% (RBT-3%) and 8% (RBT-8%), and positive results were confirmed with the Rivanol test (RT). Risk factors were determined with the prevalence ratio (PR) and the use of variables generated from a questionnaire administered to the animals' owners. Serum from 1 stallion had positive results with both the RBT-8% and the RT, for a seroprevalence rate of 0.238%. Drinking of water from a pond that was also used by cattle and dogs was the only associated risk factor for this animal (PR = 0.25). However, the results were considered false-positive, because the results for other horses in the same environmental conditions were negative. Although brucellosis is considered endemic in ruminants in the study area, the results obtained suggest that equines are not a reservoir of brucellosis and do not play an important role in the epidemiologic patterns of this disease in northeastern Mexico.

  19. Flow cytometric probing of mitochondrial function in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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    Coignoul Freddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria that is detectable by a fluorescence shift from green to orange. As a consequence, mitochondrial membrane potential can be optically measured by the orange/green fluorescence intensity ratio. A flow cytometric standardized analytic procedure of the mitochondrial function of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells is proposed along with a critical appraisal of the crucial questions of technical aspects, reproducibility, effect of time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing and reference values. Results The JC-1-associated fluorescence orange and green values and their ratio were proved to be stable over time, independent of age and sex and hypersensitive to intoxication with a mitochondrial potential dissipator. Unless time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing does not exceed 5 hours, the values retrieved remain stable. Reference values for clinically normal horses are given. Conclusion Whenever a quantitative measurement of mitochondrial function in a horse is desired, blood samples should be taken in sodium citrate tubes and kept at room temperature for a maximum of 5 hours before the laboratory procedure detailed here is started. The hope is that this new test may help in confirming, studying and preventing equine myopathies that are currently imputed to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  20. Use of equine pericardium sheet (LYOMESH®) as dura mater substitute in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Luigi M.; Solari, Domenico; Somma, Teresa; Di Somma, Alberto; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cappabianca, Paolo

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the use of equine pericardium sheet (Lyomesh ® ) as dural substitute for sellar reconstruction after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for the removal of pituitary adenomas. Methods We reviewed data of patients that underwent surgery by means of an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for the removal of pituitary adenomas over a 12-months period, starting in May 2012, i.e. when we adopted Lyomesh ® (Audio Technologies, Piacenza, Italy) an equine pericardium sheet, as dura mater substitute. Results: During the 12-months period evaluated, we performed an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal operation for a variety of pituitary lesions on 102 consecutive patients. Among these, in 12 patients (9.4%) harboring a pituitary adenoma, the implant of the pericardium sheet was used. Four patients (33.3%) presented a small intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak; in these cases the Lyomesh ® was placed intradurally with fibrin glue and, thereafter, several layers were positioned in extradural space. In 8 other subjects without any evidence of CSF leak, the dural substitute was placed intradurally and fibrin glue was injected intradurally to hold the material in place. Conclusions: Even if based on a relatively small patient series, our experience demonstrated that the use of equine pericardium sheet (Lyomesh ® ) as dura mater substitute in transsphenoidal surgery is safe and biocompatible, as compared with other dural substitutes. PMID:24251248

  1. Modulatory activities of Agelanthus dodoneifolius (Loranthaceae) extracts on stimulated equine neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, Raïnatou; Dessy, Stéphanie; Kohnen, Stephan; Kini, Félix; Lompo, Marius; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Agelanthus dodoneifolius DC Danser (Loranthaceae) is used for the treatment of various diseases including asthma. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic and bronchorelaxant activities. The present study investigates the effects of the aqueous decoction and the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and butanolic fractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius DC Danser (Loranthaceae) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated equine neutrophils and on purified equine MPO activity. ROS production and MPO release by the PMA-stimulated neutrophils were measured by the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and ELISA assays, respectively. Specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection (SIEFED) was used to specifically measure the equine MPO activity. Identification and quantification of the individual and total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were performed using UPLC-MS/MS equipment and colorimetric methods involving Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl₃, respectively. All the tested extracts displayed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the oxidant activities of neutrophils; a stronger effect was observed with the organic fractions than the aqueous decoction. These findings could be correlated with a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The results confirm the previously shown anti-inflammatory effect of Agelanthus dodoneifolius and its potential use for the treatment of neutrophil-dependent inflammatory diseases.

  2. Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.

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    Jennifer L Bolton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma, and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG. Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136 influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.

  3. Adsorption of biopolymers human serum albumin and human gamma globulin to well-defined surfaces of self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregger, Tricia Ann

    The tenacity with which the blood proteins Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Human Gamma Globulin (HGG) adsorb to a surface modified with a monomolecular coating varies with the packing of the alkyl chains in the coating. The adsorption of proteins onto well-defined surfaces of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was studied with X-ray reflectometry (XR), neutron reflectometry (NR), optical reflectometry, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). NR and XR was used to study adsorption in the absence of flow, while optical reflectometry and TIRF were used to probe the adsorption under flow conditions. In particular, competitive adsorption measurements of binary solutions of HSA, HGG and Fibrinogen (FIB) were performed with TIRE The properties of the surface were varied by altering the alkyl chains' packing density and the chain end functionality of the SAMs. The depth profiles of protein concentration near the adsorbing surface measured by NR were dependent upon the chain packing density in the case of HSA. The concentration depth profile of HGG was unaltered by varying chain packing density. Measurements performed under flow using optical reflectometry showed a different behavior: the surface excess of adsorbed HSA was relatively independent of the surface packing, while the surface excess of HGG depended on the packing density of the SAM. The tenacity with which the proteins adsorbed to different functionalized surfaces was determined by attempting to remove the protein using a strong surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ex situ XR measurements suggested that both HSA and HGG adsorb more tenaciously to a less densely-packed monolayer, almost independent of surface functionality. Two exceptions were a less densely-packed vinyl-terminated monolayer and a less densely-packed bromine-terminated monolayer, from which HSA could not be removed at all.

  4. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay identifies vitamin D binding protein (Gc-globulin) in human, rat, and mouse sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W X; Bazaraa, H M; Magiera, H; Cooke, N E; Haddad, J G

    1996-06-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP, also known as Gc-globulin) is a multifunctional protein capable of binding both vitamin D metabolites and actin. DBP can be visualized when analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by staining. Confirmation of its identity had previously required immunoprecipitation with specific anti-DBP antisera or occupancy of the protein with radioactive vitamin D sterols. We present studies showing that preincubation of G-actin with mammalian sera produced a discernible DBP protein band shift on native gel electrophoresis. Addition of DNaseI, a 33-kDa intracellular protein with an avid actin-binding site, to the incubations resulted in a supershift of DBP-actin complexes to an even more cathodal region of the gels. Following incubations with human, rat, and murine sera the same actin shift occurred as did the actin plus DNaseI supershift. The migrations of each complex were correlated with purified DBP migrations under identical conditions. It was confirmed that the supershifted bands contained DBP by Western blotting and detection of DBP by binding of 25-OH[3H]D3. After intravenous G-actin injections into living mice, a serum DBP-actin complex could be detected on native gels as the uncomplexed DBP band decreased in intensity. This simple, direct-staining technique appears to be suitable for identifying DBP/Gc phenotypes in human populations as well as for semiquantitatively monitoring the plasma actin-scavenger system in vivo in animal models or in human diseases.

  5. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women.

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    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified common genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Discovering additional variants has become difficult, as power to detect variants of weaker effect with present sample sizes is limited. An alternative approach is to look for variants associated with quantitative traits that in turn affect disease risk. As exposure to high circulating estradiol and testosterone, and low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels is implicated in breast cancer etiology, we conducted GWAS analyses of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG to identify new susceptibility alleles. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Sisters in Breast Cancer Screening data were used to carry out primary meta-analyses among ~1600 postmenopausal women who were not taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. We observed a genome-wide significant association between SHBG levels and rs727428 (joint β = -0.126; joint P = 2.09 × 10(-16, downstream of the SHBG gene. No genome-wide significant associations were observed with estradiol or testosterone levels. Among variants that were suggestively associated with estradiol (P<10(-5, several were located at the CYP19A1 gene locus. Overall results were similar in secondary meta-analyses that included ~900 NHS current postmenopausal hormone users. No variant associated with estradiol, testosterone, or SHBG at P<10(-5 was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among CGEMS participants. Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk.

  6. A retrospective comparison of cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulin with cyclophosphamide plus busulfan as the conditioning regimen for severe aplastic anemia

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    L.V.M. Ommati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT is the treatment of choice for young patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA. The association of antithymocyte globulin (ATG and cyclophosphamide (CY is the most frequently used conditioning regimen for this disease. We performed this retrospective study in order to compare the outcomes of HLA-matched sibling donor AHSCT in 41 patients with SAA receiving cyclophosphamide plus ATG (ATG-CY, N = 17 or cyclophosphamide plus busulfan (BU-CY, N = 24. The substitution of BU for ATG was motivated by the high cost of ATG. There were no differences in the clinical features between the two groups, including age, gender, cytomegalovirus status, ABO match, interval between diagnosis and transplant, and number of total nucleated cells infused. No differences were observed in the time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment, or in the risk of veno-occlusive disease and hemorrhage. However, there was a higher risk of mucositis in the BU-CY group (71 vs 24%, P = 0.004. There were no differences in the incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related mortality. There was a higher incidence of late rejection in the ATG-CY group (41 vs 4%, P = 0.009. Although the ATG-CY group had a longer follow-up (101 months than the BU-CY group (67 months, P = 0.04, overall survival was similar between the groups (69 vs 58%, respectively, P = 0.32. We conclude that the association BU-CY is a feasible option to the conventional ATG-CY regimen in this population.

  7. New directions for rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin(®)) in solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohty, Mohamad; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Saliba, Faouzi; Zuckermann, Andreas; Morelon, Emmanuel; Lebranchu, Yvon

    2014-09-01

    In the 30 years since the rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) Thymoglobulin(®) was first licensed, its use in solid organ transplantation and hematology has expanded progressively. Although the evidence base is incomplete, specific roles for rATG in organ transplant recipients using contemporary dosing strategies are now relatively well-identified. The addition of rATG induction to a standard triple or dual regimen reduces acute cellular rejection, and possibly humoral rejection. It is an appropriate first choice in patients with moderate or high immunological risk, and may be used in low-risk patients receiving a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-sparing regimen from time of transplant, or if early steroid withdrawal is planned. Kidney transplant patients at risk of delayed graft function may also benefit from the use of rATG to facilitate delayed CNI introduction. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, rATG has become an important component of conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens, following demonstration of reduced acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. More recently, a role for rATG has also been established in reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. In autoimmunity, rATG contributes to the treatment of severe aplastic anemia, and has been incorporated in autograft projects for the management of conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, and systemic sclerosis. Finally, research is underway for the induction of tolerance exploiting the ability of rATG to induce immunosuppresive cells such as regulatory T-cells. Despite its long history, rATG remains a key component of the immunosuppressive armamentarium, and its complex immunological properties indicate that its use will expand to a wider range of disease conditions in the future.

  8. Sex hormone-binding globulin and antithrombin III activity in women with oral ultra-low-dose estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Sumika; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Kana; Keyama, Kaoru; Yoshida, Kanako; Kato, Takeshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-03-20

    Oral oestrogen increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and increases production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in a dose-dependent manner. SHBG has been suggested to be involved in venous thromboembolism. We examined the effects of oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol on circulating levels of SHBG and coagulation parameters, and we compared the effects to those of transdermal oestradiol. Twenty women received oral oestradiol (500 μg) every day (oral ultra-low-dose group) and 20 women received a transdermal patch (50 μg) as a transdermal group. In addition, the women received dydrogesterone continuously (5 mg) except for women who underwent hysterectomy. Circulating SHBG, antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex were measured before and 3 months after the start of treatment. SHBG was significantly increased at 3 months in the oral ultra-low-dose group, but not in the transdermal group. However, percent changes in SHBG were not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups, ATIII was significantly decreased at 3 months. In conclusion, even ultra-low-dose oestradiol orally increases circulating SHBG level. However, the magnitude of change in SHBG caused by oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol is small and is comparable to that caused by transdermal oestradiol. Impact statement Oral oestrogen replacement therapy increases production of SHBG which may be related to increase in VTE risk. However, the effect of oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol on SHBG has not been clarified. Even ultra-low-dose oestradiol orally increases circulating SHBG levels, but the magnitude of change in SHBG caused by oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol is small and is comparable to that caused by transdermal oestradiol. VTE risk in women receiving oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol may be comparable to that in women receiving transdermal oestradiol.

  9. Immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (ERhV1) following inactivation by betapropiolactone (BPL) and ultraviolet (UV) light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.M.; Studdert, M.J.; Blackney, M.H. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). School of Veterinary Science)

    1982-12-01

    Some kinetic data on the inactivation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (ERhV1) by betapropiolactone (BPL) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are reported. 0.25% BPL at 37/sup 0/C for 1 h reduced the titre of EHV1 by > 10sup(3.4) and of ERhV1 by > 10sup(4.1) TCID/sub 50//ml. UV irradiation (334 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/) produced similar reductions in titre after 2 min. These data were used as a basis for inactivating EHV1 and ERhV1 by the combined action of BPL and UV irradiation. Viruses were exposed to 0.1% BPL for 1 h at 4/sup 0/C with constant stirring, followed by UV irradiation for 2 min, followed by incubation for 3 h at 37/sup 0/C. Inactivated EHV1 elicted secondary immune responses only in horses whereas ERhV1 produced primary immune responses in mice (including athymic nu/nu mice), rabbits and probably in horses.

  10. A review of the equine age-related changes in the immune system: comparisons between human and equine aging, with focus on lung-specific immune-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S; Baptiste, K E; Fjeldborg, J; Horohov, D W

    2015-03-01

    The equine aging process involves many changes to the immune system that may be related to genetics, the level of nutrition, the environment and/or an underlying subclinical disease. Geriatric horses defined as horses above the age of 20, exhibit a decline in body condition, muscle tone and general well-being. It is not known whether these changes contribute to decreased immune function or are the result of declining immune function. Geriatric years are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced antibody response to vaccination as a result of changes in the immune system. Humans and horses share many of these age-related changes, with only a few differences. Thus, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence are well-described phenomena in both human and equine research, particularly in relation to the peripheral blood and especially the T-cell compartment. However, the lung is faced with unique challenges because of its constant interaction with the external environment and thus may not share similarities to peripheral blood when considering age-related changes in immune function. Indeed, recent studies have shown discrepancies in cytokine mRNA and protein expression between the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage immune cells. These results provide important evidence that age-related immune changes or 'dys-functions' are organ-specific.

  11. The role of international transport of equine semen on disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, E S

    2001-12-03

    Despite the numerous benefits of having the capability to transport semen internationally, there are serious potential ramifications if that semen is contaminated with a communicable disease. Bacteria: Many commensal bacteria colonize the exterior of the stallion penis and are not regarded as pathogenic. They may be cultured from an ejaculate. Alterations of the normal bacterial flora on the exterior genitalia may cause the growth of opportunistic bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, which, if inseminated, may cause infertility in susceptible mares. Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a highly transmissible, true venereal disease of horses, is caused by the gram-negative coccobacillis, Taylorella equigenitalis. Even with the use of rigorous testing protocols, the current techniques used may not ensure accuracy of results. Viruses: Equine coital exanthema (equine herpes virus type 3; EHV-3) is a highly contagious virus that causes painful lesions on the stallion's penis and mare's vulva. Although it is primarily transmitted through coitus, infected fomites have also been implicated in its spread. Therefore, it is possible that the virus can potentially be transmitted to the ejaculate through penile contact with an artificial vagina or sleeve. Equine arteritis virus appears to be becoming more prevalent in recent years. The most common method of transmission is through respiratory disease, but the organism can also be shed in the semen of asymptomatic stallions. Equine infectious anemia virus has also been found to be present in the semen of an infected stallion, although no evidence exists at this time that there is venereal transmission of this disease. Protozoa: Dourine, caused by Trympanosoma equiperidum, is a venereal disease found only in Africa, South and Central America and the Middle East. Serological testing using complement fixation is recommended for diagnosis. Piroplasmosis, a disease caused by Babesia

  12. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H

    2010-12-01

    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  13. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in equine sarcoids: molecular and epigenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamura Gennaro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs types 1 and 2 are the only known papillomaviruses able to jump the species. In fact, BPVs 1/2 induce neoplasia in their natural bovine host but infection is also associated to neoplastic skin lesions in equids termed sarcoids. The equine sarcoid is considered to be the most common equine cutaneous tumour worldwide for which no effective therapy is available. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying tumourigenesis, although genes contributing to sarcoid development have been identified. Several studies associate the development of cancer to the loss of function of a number of oncosuppressor genes. In this study the putative role of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltrasferase (MGMT was investigated for sarcoids. The expression of the oncosuppressor protein was assessed in normal and sarcoid cells and tissues. In addition, the DNA methylation profile was analysed to assess the role of epigenetic mechanism in regulation of MGMT expression. Results A group of 15 equine sarcoids and two primary sarcoid cell lines (fibroblasts were analyzed for the expression of MGMT protein by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting techniques. The sarcoid cell line EqSO4b and the tumour samples showed a reduction or absence of MGMT expression. To investigate the causes of deregulated MGMT expression, ten samples were analyzed for the DNA methylation profile of the CpG island associated to the MGMT promoter. The analysis of 73 CpGs encompassing the region of interest showed in 1 out of 10 (10% sarcoids a pronouncedly altered methylation profile when compared to the control epidermal sample. Similarily the EqSO4b cell line showed an altered MGMT methylation pattern in comparison to normal fibroblasts. Conclusion As previously demonstrated for the oncosuppressor gene FHIT, analysis of MGMT expression in sarcoid tissues and a sarcoid-derived fibroblast cell line further suggests that

  14. Mutations and phylogenetic analysis of the equine influenza virus (H3N8 nucleoprotein isolated in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boukharta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The equine influenza (EI is a highly contagious respiratory viral disease of equines. The aim of the present study was to determine the amino acid mutation sequences of the partial nucleoprotein (NP, which includes four epitopes of the equine leucocyte antigen (ELA of A/equine/Nador/1/1997 (H3N8. These epitopes are critical for their binding to major histocompatibility molecule complex (MHC class I and recognition by specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs. The isolate was subjected to RT-PCR amplifications followed by sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Moroccan isolate belongs to equine host-specific lineage and more closely related to Italian strains A/equine/Rome/5/1991 and A/equine/Italy/1062/1991. Amino acid sequence comparison of the NP showed that the strain A/equine/Nador/1/1997 has twelve substitutions at the residues T/284/A, A/286/T, R/293/K, I/299/V, V/312/I, N/319/K, S/344/L, V/353/I, M/374/I, C/377/N, N/397/S and R/452/K. All substitutions concerned both the interaction domains NP–NP and NP–PB2. However, the mutation N319 K enhances the NP–PB2 interaction and polymerase activity in mammalian infected cells. S/344/L mutation was located on the FEDLRVSNFI epitope (aa 338–347, this substitution is likely to help the virus to overcome the barrier of cell-mediated immunity of the host. The identified mutations were grouped into two groups, one included residues that facilitate the adaptation and evolution of influenza viruses within the equine lineage such as A/286/T, R/293/K, S/344/L, V/353/I and R/452/K, while the second contained the substitutions which enhance the virulence as polymerase activity (N319 K and mutations that affect CTL epitopes, resulting in an escape from immune surveillance by specific CTLs (S/344/L.

  15. Vector Competence of Peruvian Mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) for a Subtype IIIC Strain in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Complex Isolated from Mosquitoes Captured in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:295–298. Turell MJ, Gargan TP II, Bailey CL. 1984. Replication and dissemination...Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol 42:404–408

  16. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: a comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2013-09-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven.

  17. A randomized, open-label study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of human hepatitis C immune globulin (Civacir) in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary L; Nelson, David R; Terrault, Norah; Pruett, Timothy L; Schiano, Thomas D; Fletcher, Courtney V; Sapan, Christine V; Riser, Laura N; Li, Yufeng; Whitley, Richard J; Gnann, John W

    2005-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplantation, but viral recurrence is universal and progressive graft injury occurs in most recipients. Our aim was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antiviral effects of high doses of a human hepatitis C antibody enriched immune globulin product (HCIG) in patients undergoing liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C. This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial conducted at 4 transplant centers in the United States. A total of 18 patients with chronic hepatitis C, who underwent liver transplantation, were randomized to receive low-dose HCIG (75 mg/kg) or high-dose HCIG (200 mg/kg), or no treatment. A total of 17 infusions of HCIG were administered in each treated patient over 14 weeks using a time-dependent dosing strategy based on the PK of anti-hepatitis B immune globulin in liver transplant recipients. Hepatitis C virus levels, liver enzymes, and liver biopsies were obtained serially throughout the study period. PK profiles of HCV antibodies were determined on days 4, 10, and 98. HCIG infusions were safe and tolerated. The infusion rate could not be maximized because of symptoms for 18% to 30% of the doses. The half-life of HCIG was extremely short immediately after transplantation but was gradually prolonged. In the high-dose group, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels normalized in most subjects and no patient developed hepatic fibrosis. However, serum HCV RNA levels were not suppressed at either dose. In conclusion, HCIG, an anti-HCV enriched immune globulin product, appears to be safe in patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing liver transplantation. Further studies are required to determine whether the drug has beneficial effects in this group of patients.

  18. The effect of TACE combined with tumor interstitial therapy on immune globulin, complement and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bu-Tian Li; Sheng-Ping Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of TACE combined with interstitial therapy on immune globulin, complement and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with liver cancer.Methods:A total of 95 patients with liver cancer from March 2013 to April 2015 in the hospital were selected, and they were randomly divided into group A (n = 47) and group B (n=48), patients in group A were given simple TACE treatment, while patients in group B underwent TACE + tumor interstitial therapy (percutaneous liver tumor injection of lipiodol chemotherapy). Immune globulin, complement and T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood preoperative 1w and postoperative 4w were observed.Results: After treatment, the lipiodol deposition rate, local control rate and tumor reduction rate of group B were significantly higher than that in group A, which had statistically significant difference between the two groups. Compared with that before treatment, CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ were significantly increased, CD8+ was significantly decreased after treatment. There were significantly differences in CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, CD8+ between the two groups after treatment. The immune globulin and complement levels increased in group A after treatment, but had no significant difference. Immunoglobulin and complement levels increased significantly in group B, there were significantly differences in immunoglobulin and complement levels in the two groups after treatment.Conclusions:The results showed that single TACE treatment in patients with liver cancer could enhance immune function, which had little effect on the humoral immunity. TACE combined with interstitial therapy could improve patients' cellular immunity and humoral immunity, which was benefit for prognosis.

  19. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult with Involvement of the Calvarium, Cerebral Cortex and Brainstem: Discussion of Pathophysiology and Rationale for the Use of Intravenous Immune Globulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Christopher; Aung, Thandar; Shapiro, William; Fortune, John; Coons, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 64-year-old male who presented with symptoms and signs of brain involvement, including seizures and hypopituitarism. The diagnosis was confirmed with a biopsy of a lytic skull lesion. The disease affecting the bone showed no sign of progression following a short course of cladribine. Signs of temporal lobe involvement led to an additional biopsy, which showed signs of nonspecific neurodegeneration and which triggered status epilepticus. Lesions noted in the brainstem were typical for the paraneoplastic inflammation reported in this condition. These lesions improved after treatment with cladribine. They remained stable while on treatment with intravenous immune globulin. PMID:25873887

  20. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  1. Effect of hepatitis B vaccine combined with hepatitis B immune globulin on infection in newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Jia Yang; Jin-Hong Liu; Xue-Lian Tong; Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of hepatitis B vaccine combined with hepatitis B immune globulin on infection in newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers. Methods:Two hundred newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers who had received prenatal examination and given birth to their child were selected as the study subjects and divided into the control group and the observation group in accordance with the voluntary principle. Newborn infants in the control group received 100 IU of vaccinations of hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin at postnatal 24 h, 1 month and 6 months, while lying-in women in the observation group were continuously given 200 IU of immune globulin injection at the 27th, 30th, 33rd and 36th weeks of pregnancy. The infection condition and the influence of different delivery modes in infants of the two groups would be observed 12 months after birth. Results:The HBsAg positive rate and HBsAb positive rate of infants in the observation group were 1.00%and 59.00%respectively, while the control group’s were 10.00%and 73.00%. The HBsAg positive rate and HBsAb positive rate of infants in the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The data showed statistical significances. Seven cases of infants born vaginally showed positive HBsAg. One of them belonged to the observation group and the other six were in the control group. Four cases of infants delivered by cesarean section showed positive HBsAg and they all belonged to the control group. The HBsAg positive rate of the observation group was obviously lower than that of the control group no matter what deliver mode those children had received. Conclusions:Hepatitis B vaccine combined with hepatitis B immune globulin could effectively decrease the morbidity rate of positive HBsAg for newborn infants no matter what birth way they had received.

  2. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult with Involvement of the Calvarium, Cerebral Cortex and Brainstem: Discussion of Pathophysiology and Rationale for the Use of Intravenous Immune Globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dardis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 64-year-old male who presented with symptoms and signs of brain involvement, including seizures and hypopituitarism. The diagnosis was confirmed with a biopsy of a lytic skull lesion. The disease affecting the bone showed no sign of progression following a short course of cladribine. Signs of temporal lobe involvement led to an additional biopsy, which showed signs of nonspecific neurodegeneration and which triggered status epilepticus. Lesions noted in the brainstem were typical for the paraneoplastic inflammation reported in this condition. These lesions improved after treatment with cladribine. They remained stable while on treatment with intravenous immune globulin.

  3. Current and future regenerative medicine - principles, concepts, and therapeutic use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering in equine medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Betts, Dean H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a bird's-eye perspective of the general principles of stem-cell therapy and tissue engineering; it relates comparative knowledge in this area to the current and future status of equine regenerative medicine.The understanding of equine stem cell biology, biofactors, and scaffolds...... mesenchymal stromal cells, unless there is proof that they exhibit the fundamental in vivo characteristics of pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. That said, these cells from various tissues hold great promise for therapeutic use in horses. The 3 components of tissue engineering - cells, biological...... factors, and biomaterials - are increasingly being applied in equine medicine, fuelled by better scaffolds and increased understanding of individual biofactors and cell sources.The effectiveness of stem cell-based therapies and most tissue engineering concepts has not been demonstrated sufficiently...

  4. Anatomical Description of the Presence and Variability of the Digital Manica Flexoria in the Equine Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana, M; Cornillie, P; Oosterlinck, M; Simoens, P; Pille, F; Martens, A

    2017-02-01

    During endoscopy (tenoscopy) of the distal aspect of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS), the digital manica flexoria can be visualized connecting the distal branches of the superficial digital flexor tendon. However, this structure has been inconsistently described and variably named in the veterinary literature. The objectives of this study were to describe the presence, configuration and variability of the digital manica flexoria in the equine distal limb. Dissection of 144 equine cadaveric limbs revealed the presence of this structure in all the feet, although different types and conformations were identified. In the forelimbs, a membranous digital manica flexoria predominated (94%; P digital manica flexoria predominated (93%; P digital manica flexoria towards the distal DFTS was only possible in 22 of the 144 limbs, all forelimbs. Clinicians should be aware of the intra- and inter-individual anatomical variations of the digital manica flexoria to avoid misinterpretation during ultrasonographic and tenoscopic examinations of the DFTS.

  5. Identification, characterization and expression of novel Sex Hormone Binding Globulin alternative first exons in the human prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Torres Inés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG gene, located at 17p13.1, comprises, at least, two different transcription units regulated by two different promoters. The first transcription unit begins with the exon 1 sequence and is responsible for the production of plasma SHBG by the hepatocytes, while the second begins with an alternative exon 1 sequence, which replaces the exon 1 present in liver transcripts. Alternative exon 1 transcription and translation has only been demonstrated in the testis of transgenic mice containing an 11-kb human SHBG transgene and in the human testis. Our goal has been to further characterize the 5' end of the SHBG gene and analyze the presence of the SHBG alternative transcripts in human prostate tissue and derived cell lines. Results Using a combination of in silico and in vitro studies, we have demonstrated that the SHBG gene, along with exon 1 and alternative exon 1 (renamed here exon 1A, contains four additional alternative first exons: the novel exons 1B, 1C, and 1E, and a previously identified exon 1N, which has been further characterized and renamed as exon 1D. We have shown that these four alternative first exons are all spliced to the same 3' splice site of SHBG exon 2, and that exon 1A and the novel exon 1B can be spliced to exon 1. We have also demonstrated the presence of SHBG transcripts beginning with exons 1B, 1C and 1D in prostate tissues and cell lines, as well as in several non-prostatic cell lines. Finally, the alignment of the SHBG mammalian sequences revealed that, while exons 1C, 1D and 1E are very well conserved phylogenetically through non-primate mammal species, exon 1B probably aroused in apes due to a single nucleotide change that generated a new 5' splice site in exon 1B. Conclusion The identification of multiple transcription start sites (TSS upstream of the annotated first exon of human SHBG, and the detection of the alternative transcripts in human prostate

  6. De-escalation empirical antibiotic therapy improved survival for patients with severe aplastic anemia treated with antithymocyte globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rong; Chen, Tong; Song, Jia; Wang, Guojin; Li, Lijuan; Ruan, Erbao; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yihao; Wang, Huaquan; Xing, Limin; Wu, Yuhong; Liu, Hong; Qu, Wen; Shao, Zonghong

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of de-escalation empirical therapy for controlling infection in patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) treated with antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Eighty-seven ATG-treated SAA patients who had microbiological culture-confirmed infections from 2006 to 2015 in our center were retrospectively analyzed. The efficacy of de-escalation and non-de-escalation therapy was compared. Among all 87 patients, 63 patients were treated with de-escalation therapy and 24 patients with non-de-escalation therapy. More patients showed response to anti-infection treatment in de-escalation group than in non-de-escalation group both on day 7 (60.32% vs. 25.00%, P = 0.003) and on day 30 (79.37% vs. 58.33%, P = 0.047) since the initial antimicrobial therapy. On day 30, more patients had increased absolute neutrophil count in de-escalation group compared with non-de-escalation group (76.19% vs. 45.83%, P = 0.007), and de-escalation group had lower morality rate (17.46% vs. 37.50%, P = 0.047) and better survival outcome (P = 0.023) on day 90. Twenty-three patients in de-escalation group and 5 patients in non-escalation group received granulocyte transfusions. Granulocyte transfusions helped to control infections in both de-escalation group (P = 0.027) and non-de-escalation group (P = 0.042) on day 7, but did not improve survival on day 90. We concluded that de-escalation antibiotics improved survival in SAA patients after ATG treatment. Early administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics pending microbiological cultures combined with a commitment to change to narrow-spectrum antibiotics should be recommended for controlling infections in SAA patients treated with ATG. Granulocyte transfusions might be an adjunctive therapy in controlling infections.

  7. Preoperative single-bolus high-dose antithymocyte globulin as induction therapy in sensitized renal transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; WU Wei-zhen; YANG Shun-liang; CHEN Jin-hua; TAN Jian-ming

    2006-01-01

    Background Immunological sensitization remains a major problem following renal transplantation. There is no consensus for the management of sensitized renal allograft recipients. The patients become tethered to dialysis while waiting for compatible donors. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative single- bolus high-dose antithymocyte globulin (ATG) as induction therapy in sensitized renal transplant recipients.Methods A total of 56 patients were divided into two groups according to the level of panel reactive antibody(PRA): non-sensitized group (PRA<10%, n=30) and sensitized group (PRA≥ 10%, n=26). The characteristics of the recipients and donors were comparable between the two groups. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 1 g) or ATG(iv. 9 mg/kg) were given preoperatively in the two groups as induction therapy. After the transplantation, the patients were treated with standard triple therapy regimen consisting of tacrolimus (FK-506) or cyclosporine A,MMF, and prednisolone. Acute rejection (AR) and infection episodes were recorded and renal function was monitored during a 12-month follow-up. X2 test and t test were used to analyze the data.Results During the follow-up, 6 patients (20.0%) suffered AR episodes in the non-sensitized group and 4(15.4%) in the sensitized group (P=0.737); 8 patients (26.7%) experienced 11 infection episodes (average, 1.4episodes per infected patient) in the non-sensitized group, and 6 (23.1%) experienced 10 infection episodes (average, 1.7 episodes per infected patient) in the sensitized group (P=0.757, 0.890). The safety of the drugs,which was assessed by the occurrence of side effects, was comparable between the two groups. The hospital stay was 13-25 days (mean, 16.7±3.3) in the nonsensitized group and 14-29 days (mean, 16.2±3.1) in the sensitized group, respectively (P=0.563). No delayed graft function (DGF) was observed in all the patients. Both the 12-month actuarial patient and graft survival rates

  8. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Louise; Sanchez, Linda Chris; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2008-01-01

    Equine gastric ulceration occours in both squampos and glandular mucsa, with the former being studied more. Prevalence studies of high risk horse populations, such as racehorses in training, revealed the 80-90% of this group had lesions within mucosa.......Equine gastric ulceration occours in both squampos and glandular mucsa, with the former being studied more. Prevalence studies of high risk horse populations, such as racehorses in training, revealed the 80-90% of this group had lesions within mucosa....

  9. Full Genome Sequences of Zebra-Borne Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 Isolated from Zebra, Onager and Thomson’s Gazelle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was isolated from zebra. This strain, called “zebra-borne EHV-1”, was also isolated from an onager and a gazelle in zoological gardens in U.S.A. The full genome sequences of the 3 strains were determined. They shared 99% identities with each other, while they shared 98% and 95% identities with the horse derived EHV-1 and equine herpesvirus type 9, respectively. Sequence data indicated that the EHV-1 isolated from a polar bear in Germany i...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF EQUINE-ASSISTED THERAPY IN IMPROVING THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL FUNCTIONING OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Haris MEMISEVIC; Saudin HODZIC

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of short-term equine-assisted therapy as a complementary therapy modality for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There were four children in the study, two boys and two girls from ages 8 to 10 years, with ASD included in this study. All of the children were attending a special education school in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The equine-assisted therapy sessions took place once a week for a period of 10 weeks. The result...

  11. Equine IgE responses to non-viral vaccine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Netherwood, Kristina A; Norris, Meredith Somerville; Behrens, Nicole E; Shao, Matt X

    2012-12-14

    Vaccination of horses is performed annually or semi-annually with multiple viral antigens, either in a combination vaccine or as separate injections. While this practice undoubtedly prevents infection from such diseases as rabies, equine influenza, West Nile virus, and equine herpes virus, the procedure is not without repercussions. Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock, after vaccination, although uncommon, have increased in incidence in recent years. Studies reported herein document the development of IgE antibodies against non-target antigen components of equine viral vaccines. We hypothesize that viral vaccines can induce an IgE response to non-target antigens, which could elicit an adverse response after vaccination with another viral vaccine containing the same component. In one study IgE responses to components of West Nile virus vaccine were evaluated by ELISA before and after vaccination in 30 horses. In a second five-year study 77 horses were similarly tested for IgE antibodies against bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component of most viral vaccines. Mast cell sensitization was evaluated in horses with high, moderate, and negative serum BSA specific IgE using an intradermal skin test with BSA. Over the five-year period high IgE responder horses showed gradually increasing BSA specific serum IgE levels and positive skin test reactivity, yet none had an adverse event. Sera from horses that had developed adverse vaccine reactions were also tested for IgE antibodies. Several of these horses had extremely high levels of BSA-specific IgE. These data suggest that non-essential protein components of vaccines may sensitize horses for future adverse responses to vaccination.

  12. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Harlow

    Full Text Available Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only, HC (high corn, HO (high oats, LC (low corn, LO (low oats, and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings. Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1 before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14. Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2, and on d 6 (S1 and d 13 (S2 of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC, lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P 0.05. All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05. Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05, while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05. The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota.

  13. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  14. Blastocele fluid from in vitro- and in vivo-produced equine embryos contains nuclear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C; Morikawa, M I; Castex, C Baca; Pinto, M R; Ortega, N; Fanti, T; Garaguso, R; Franco, M J; Castañares, M; Castañeira, C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M H; Mutto, A A

    2015-02-01

    Normal mammalian early embryonic development involves apoptosis of blastomeres as a remodeling process during differentiation, starting at the blastocyst stage. Genomic DNA has been recently detected in the blastocele fluid of human embryos and has been amplified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to diagnose the sex of in vitro-produced human embryos. This new approach varies from conventional preimplantation genetic diagnosis in that no cells are extracted from the embryo and only the blastocele fluid is aspirated and used as a DNA sample for diagnosis. In the present work, we investigated whether the blastocele fluid of equine preimplantation embryos contains nuclear DNA and whether this DNA could be used to diagnose the sex of the embryos by conventional PCR, using specific primers that target the TSPY and AMEL equine genes. The sex of 11 of 13 in vivo-produced embryos and of four of five in vitro-produced embryos was successfully diagnosed. The PCR amplification product was analyzed using genetic sequencing reporting that the DNA present in blastocele fluid was genomic. Additionally, after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining, the blastocele fluid from three different embryos produced a ladder pattern characteristic of DNA fragmented during apoptosis. Therefore, the results presented in this work report that blastocele fluid from in vivo- and in vitro-produced equine embryos contains nuclear DNA which is probably originated by apoptosis of embryonic cells, and this DNA could be used to diagnose the sex of preimlpantation embryos by conventional PCR.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  16. Molecular determinants of mouse neurovirulence and mosquito infection for Western equine encephalitis virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Mossel

    Full Text Available Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV is a naturally occurring recombinant virus derived from ancestral Sindbis and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses. We previously showed that infection by WEEV isolates McMillan (McM and IMP-181 (IMP results in high (∼90-100% and low (0% mortality, respectively, in outbred CD-1 mice when virus is delivered by either subcutaneous or aerosol routes. However, relatively little is known about specific virulence determinants of WEEV. We previously observed that IMP infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes at a high rate (app. 80% following ingestion of an infected bloodmeal but these mosquitoes were infected by McM at a much lower rate (10%. To understand the viral role in these phenotypic differences, we characterized the pathogenic phenotypes of McM/IMP chimeras. Chimeras encoding the E2 of McM on an IMP backbone (or the reciprocal had the most significant effect on infection phenotypes in mice or mosquitoes. Furthermore, exchanging the arginine, present on IMP E2 glycoprotein at position 214, for the glutamine present at the same position on McM, ablated mouse mortality. Curiously, the reciprocal exchange did not confer mouse virulence to the IMP virus. Mosquito infectivity was also determined and significantly, one of the important loci was the same as the mouse virulence determinant identified above. Replacing either IMP E2 amino acid 181 or 214 with the corresponding McM amino acid lowered mosquito infection rates to McM-like levels. As with the mouse neurovirulence, reciprocal exchange of amino acids did not confer mosquito infectivity. The identification of WEEV E2 amino acid 214 as necessary for both IMP mosquito infectivity and McM mouse virulence indicates that they are mutually exclusive phenotypes and suggests an explanation for the lack of human or equine WEE cases even in the presence of active transmission.

  17. Molecular and epigenetic analysis of the fragile histidine triad tumour suppressor gene in equine sarcoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazzullo Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoids are peculiar equine benign tumours. Their onset is associated with Bovine Papillomavirus type -1 or -2 (BPV-1/2 infection. Little is known about the molecular interplay between viral infection and neoplastic transformation. The data regarding papillomavirus infections in human species show the inactivation of a number of tumour suppressor genes as basic mechanism of transformation. In this study the putative role of the tumour suppressor gene Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT in sarcoid tumour was investigated in different experimental models. The expression of the oncosuppressor protein was assessed in normal and sarcoid cells and tissue. Results Nine paraffin embedded sarcoids and sarcoid derived cell lines were analysed for the expression of FHIT protein by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence techniques and western blotting. These analyses revealed the absence of signal in seven out of nine sarcoids. The two sarcoid derived cell lines too showed a reduced signal of the protein. To investigate the causes of the altered protein expression, the samples were analysed for the DNA methylation profile of the CpG island associated with the FHIT promoter. The analysis of the 32 CpGs encompassing the region of interest showed no significative differential methylation profile between pathological tissues and cell lines and their normal counterparts. Conclusion This study represent a further evidence of the role of a tumour suppressor gene in equine sarcoids and approaches the epigenetic regulation in this well known equine neoplasm. The data obtained in sarcoid tissues and sarcoid derived cell lines suggest that also in horse, as in humans, there is a possible involvement of the tumour suppressor FHIT gene in BPV induced tumours. DNA methylation seems not to be involved in the gene expression alteration. Further studies are needed to understand the basic molecular mechanisms involved in reduced FHIT expression.

  18. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a role in venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushimi Amaya

    Full Text Available Many viruses have been implicated in utilizing or modulating the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS to enhance viral multiplication and/or to sustain a persistent infection. The mosquito-borne Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV belongs to the Togaviridae family and is an important biodefense pathogen and select agent. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapies for VEEV infections; therefore, it is imperative to identify novel targets for therapeutic development. We hypothesized that a functional UPS is required for efficient VEEV multiplication. We have shown that at non-toxic concentrations Bortezomib, a FDA-approved inhibitor of the proteasome, proved to be a potent inhibitor of VEEV multiplication in the human astrocytoma cell line U87MG. Bortezomib inhibited the virulent Trinidad donkey (TrD strain and the attenuated TC-83 strain of VEEV. Additional studies with virulent strains of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV demonstrated that Bortezomib is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the New World alphaviruses. Time-of-addition assays showed that Bortezomib was an effective inhibitor of viral multiplication even when the drug was introduced many hours post exposure to the virus. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the VEEV capsid protein is ubiquitinated in infected cells, which was validated by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent studies revealed that capsid is ubiquitinated on K48 during early stages of infection which was affected by Bortezomib treatment. This study will aid future investigations in identifying host proteins as potential broad spectrum therapeutic targets for treating alphavirus infections.

  19. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of neural and inflammatory cells in equine brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcambre, Gretchen H; Liu, Junjie; Herrington, Jenna M; Vallario, Kelsey; Long, Maureen T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization of cellular responses in equine infectious encephalitides has had limited description of both peripheral and resident cell populations in central nervous system (CNS) tissues due to limited species-specific reagents that react with formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE). This study identified a set of antibodies for investigating the immunopathology of infectious CNS diseases in horses. Multiple commercially available staining reagents and antibodies derived from antigens of various species for manual immunohistochemistry (IHC) were screened. Several techniques and reagents for heat-induced antigen retrieval, non-specific protein blocking, endogenous peroxidase blocking, and visualization-detection systems were tested during IHC protocol development. Boiling of slides in a low pH, citrate-based buffer solution in a double-boiler system was most consistent for epitope retrieval. Pressure-cooking, microwaving, high pH buffers, and proteinase K solutions often resulted in tissue disruption or no reactivity. Optimal blocking reagents and concentrations of each working antibody were determined. Ultimately, a set of monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (pAb) were identified for CD3(+) (pAb A0452, Dako) T-lymphocytes, CD79αcy(+) B-lymphocytes (mAb HM57, Dako), macrophages (mAb MAC387, Leica), NF-H(+) neurons (mAb NAP4, EnCor Biotechnology), microglia/macrophage (pAb Iba-1, Wako), and GFAP(+) astrocytes (mAb 5C10, EnCor Biotechnology). In paraffin embedded tissues, mAbs and pAbs derived from human and swine antigens were very successful at binding equine tissue targets. Individual, optimized protocols are provided for each positively reactive antibody for analyzing equine neuroinflammatory disease histopathology.

  20. Characterization of equine CSN1S2 variants considering genetics, transcriptomics, and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Jakub; Pawlak, Piotr; Wodas, Lukasz; Borowska, Alicja; Stachowiak, Anna; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Luczak, Magdalena; Marczak, Lukasz; Mackowski, Mariusz

    2016-02-01

    Currently, research interest is increasing in horse milk composition and its effect on human health. Despite previously published studies describing the presence of intra- and interbreed variability of equine milk components, no investigations have focused on the genetic background of this variation. Among horse caseins and the genes encoding them, least is known about the structure and expression of the α-S2 casein gene, CSN1S2. Herein, based on direct sequencing of the equine CSN1S2 coding sequence, we describe the presence of 51-bp insertion-deletion (in/del) polymorphism, which significantly changes the protein sequence (lack or presence of 17-amino acid serine-rich peptide). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the observed in/del polymorphism spanned exactly 2 exons; therefore, we hypothesized that we were observing different CSN1S2 splicing isoforms. However, further investigation indicated that the detected sequence variation was caused by a large (1.3-kb) deletion in the genomic DNA. We found that the polymorphic forms (A, longer; B, shorter; KP658381 and KP658382 GenBank records, respectively) were unevenly distributed among different horse breeds (the highest frequency of variant B was observed in coldblood horses and Haflingers). We propose that the analyzed polymorphism is associated with CSN1S2 expression level (the highest expression was recorded for individuals carrying the BB genotype), which was much more pronounced for milk CSN1S2 protein content than for relative transcript abundance (measured in milk somatic cells). Our results provide insight into the equine CSN1S2 structure and lay a foundation for further functional analyses regarding, for example, allergenicity or physiochemical properties of the observed CSN1S2 variants.

  1. Study on decolorization of hydrolytic porcine blood serum globulin%酶解猪血制备血球蛋白粉的脱色工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 刘学文; 张欣

    2009-01-01

    The pig blood was hydrolyzed by compound enzyme, then absorbed by activated carbon to be decolorized. The serum globulin flour can be obtained after spray-drying. The results showed that the best processing condition for decolorizing was as follow: pH 4,temperature 70 ℃ ,dosage of activated carbon 3.5% ,time 100min. Compared with Spray-dried porcine globulin without decolorization as controls, the hydrolytic protein powder was superior to blood powder on the color, ador, particle shape and texture.%猪血通过复合酶水解,用活性炭对其水解液吸附脱色,经喷雾干燥,制作得到脱色血球蛋白粉.结果表明,脱色效果最佳的工艺条件为:pH 4、温度70℃、活性炭用量3.5%,脱色时间100 min.与未水解和脱色的猪血粉相比,产品在颜色、气味、颗粒形状、质地等方面都有着很大的优势和提高.

  2. Application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Singh, B K; Yadav, M P

    1996-11-01

    Fifty aborted foetus samples were diagnosed for the presence of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Specific primer pair for amplification of a particular segment of EHV-1 DNA in gc region having 3 Hae III restriction endonuclease sites was used. A 409 base pair segment obtained as PCR amplification product in 9 samples was digested with Hae III to confirm the presence of EHV-1 as the infectious agent in aborted tissues. It was observed that PCR technique was more sensitive, specific and rapid than the conventional virological diagnostic methods.

  3. A mouse model for testing the pathogenicity of equine herpes virus-1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woensel, P A; Goovaerts, D; Markx, D; Visser, N

    1995-07-01

    A mouse model was developed for testing the pathogenicity of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) strains. The model was validated with EHV-1 strains that are known to be of a low or high pathogenicity in horses. From all parameters tested, the safety index, which was calculated from the body weights of the mice after infection, proved to be the best predictive parameter. When this parameter was used, good and reliable correlations were found with the pathogenicity of the EHV-1 strains in horses. This method enabled the differentiation between the two experimental EHV-1 strains whose genetic backgrounds were supposedly equal.

  4. Differenziell exprimierte Proteine im Serum von Pferden mit equiner rezidivierender Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zipplies, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Die equine rezidivierende Uveitis (ERU) ist eine schubweise auftretende Augenentzündung, die 10% der Pferdepopulation betrifft. Die Entzündungsschübe führen im Verlauf der Erkrankung zur Erblindung des Pferdes. Die intraokuläre Entzündung ist durch autoreaktive T-Zellen gekennzeichnet. Trotz zahlreicher Untersuchungen sind weder die Ätiologie noch die Pathogenese dieser häufigen Erkrankung bislang eindeutig geklärt. Das Blut zirkuliert ständig im Körper und spiegelt dessen Zustand sehr gen...

  5. Advances in the treatment of diseased equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Jennifer T; Earley, Edward

    2013-08-01

    Dental therapies for equid incisor and canine teeth have modernized significantly over the last 2 decades. Basic principles in incisor reduction have become more conservative, and extraction procedures more exacting. Periodontal and endodontic treatments are described to save teeth that would have succumbed to extraction in the past. Pathologic impacts on treatment decisions for equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis are significant, and veterinarians and owners need to be aware of treatment options and outcomes. Easy access to equid incisor and canine teeth offers a variety of therapeutic options, and this article reviews some of the practical procedures available.

  6. [The vaccines based on the replicon of the venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus against viral hemorrhagic fevers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A A; Plekhanova, T M; Sidorova, O N; Borisevich, S V; Makhlay, A A

    2015-01-01

    The status of the various recombinant DNA and RNA-derived candidate vaccines, as well as the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) replicon vaccine system against extremely hazardous viral hemorrhagic fevers, were reviewed. The VEEV-based replication-incompetent vectors offer attractive features in terms of safety, high expression levels of the heterologous viral antigen, tropism to dendritic cells, robust immune responses, protection efficacy, low potential for pre-existing anti-vector immunity and possibility of engineering multivalent vaccines were tested. These features of the VEEV replicon system hold much promise for the development of new generation vaccine candidates against viral hemorrhagic fevers.

  7. Risk of introducing African horse sickness virus into the Netherlands by international equine movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, C J; Hoek, C A; Nodelijk, G

    2012-09-15

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne viral disease of equines that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. and can have severe consequences for the horse industry in affected territories. A study was performed to assess the risk of introducing AHS virus (AHSV) into the Netherlands (P_AHS) by international equine movements. The goal of this study was to provide more insight into (a) the regions and equine species that contribute most to this risk, (b) the seasonal variation in this risk, and (c) the effectiveness of measures to prevent introduction of AHSV. Countries worldwide were grouped into three risk regions: (1) high risk, i.e., those countries in which the virus is presumed to circulate, (2) low risk, i.e., those countries that have experienced outbreaks of AHS in the past and/or where the main vector of AHS, Culicoides imicola, is present, and (3) very low risk, i.e., all other countries. A risk model was constructed estimating P_AHS taking into account the probability of release of AHSV in the Netherlands and the probability that local vectors will subsequently transmit the virus to local hosts. Model calculations indicated that P_AHS is very low with a median value of 5.1×10(-4)/year. The risk is highest in July and August, while equine movements in the period October till March pose a negligible risk. High and low risk regions contribute most to P_AHS with 31% and 53%, respectively. Importations of donkeys and zebras constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from high risk regions, while international movements of competition horses constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from low and very low risk regions. Preventive measures currently applied reduce P_AHS by 46% if compared to a situation in which no preventive measures are applied. A prolonged and more effective quarantine period in high risk regions and more stringent import regulations for low risk regions could further reduce P_AHS. Large uncertainty was involved in estimating model input

  8. Improved isolation protocol for equine cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Betts, Dean H.

    2009-01-01

      BACKGROUND AIMS: A robust methodology for the isolation of cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSCs) from fresh umbilical cord blood has not been reported in any species. The objective of this study was to improve the isolation procedure for equine CB-MSCs. METHODS: Pre-culture...... separation of red and white blood cells was done using either PrepaCyte?-EQ medium or Ficoll-Paque? PREMIUM density medium. Regular FBS and MSC-qualified FBS were compared for their ability to support the establishment of putative primary MSC colonies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Prepa...

  9. Equine protease inhibitor system as a marker for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam E. Vinocur

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The protease inhibitor system (PI was investigated to ascertain if it can be used as a marker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in thoroughbred horses. Serum samples were taken from healthy thoroughbreds (n = 13 and those diagnosed as having COPD (n = 24 or inflammatory airway disease (IAD, n = 38 as well as from 3,600 undiagnosed thoroughbred horses. PI allelic and genotypic frequencies were estimated using protein electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The four groups of horses showed high genotypic similarity and none of the observed alleles or genotypes of the equine PI system were found to be associated with COPD.

  10. An Analysis of Albumin and Globulin of Qinghai Faba Bean Varieties with SDS-PAGE%青海蚕豆清蛋白与球蛋白分级提取SDS-PAGE比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 侯万伟; 严清彪; 刘玉皎

    2011-01-01

    The albumin and globulin of 2005 -00 and Qinghai 13, two varieties of Qinghai Faba bean were studied by improved SDS - PAGE. At the same time by using micro - Kjeldahl Method the appropriate protein content were measured. The result showed that the content of globulin was twice that of albumin.Therefore globulin was the main component of the total protein content. Almost all the albumin and globulin were extracted after extraction for five times with extract solution Ⅰ which included NaCl. But only the globulin were obtained with extract solution Ⅰ for one time after with extraction for four times extract solution Ⅱ which didn't include NaC1, and the globulin had the same mobility as the albumin. The result indicated that albumin was also extracted while extracting globulin, but globulin was not extracted while extracting albumin.%利用改进的SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,对2种青海蚕豆品种2005-00和青海13号的清蛋白、球蛋白进行研究,并采用微量凯氏定氮法测得相应的蛋白质含量.结果表明:球蛋白含量比清蛋白含量高,是总蛋白含量的主要成分.用含有NaCl的球蛋白提取液Ι提取5次蛋白质后,清蛋白和球蛋白被同时提取出来;而用不含NaCl的清蛋白提取液Π提取4次蛋白质后,再用提取液Ι提取,可得到球蛋白组分,而且和清蛋白一样也有相同迁移位置的谱带存在.表明对球蛋白进行提取操作时,总有清蛋白相伴随;而对清蛋白进行提取分析时一般不会有球蛋白的存在.

  11. Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerull, Sabine; Stern, Martin; Apperley, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is usually treated with immunosuppression or allogeneic transplant, depending on patient and disease characteristics. Syngeneic transplant offers a rare treatment opportunity with minimal transplant-related mortality, and offers an insight into disease mechanisms. We present here...... a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin...

  12. New Therapeutic Strategies for Systemic Sclerosis—a Critical Analysis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Zandman-Goddard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a multi-system disease characterized by skin fibrosis and visceral disease. Therapy is organ and pathogenesis targeted. In this review, we describe novel strategies in the treatment of SSc. Utilizing the MEDLINE and the COCHRANE REGISTRY, we identified open trials, controlled trials, for treatment of SSc from 1999 to April 2005. We used the terms scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, pulmonary hypertension, methotrexate, cyclosporin, tacrolimus, relaxin, low-dose penicillamine, IVIg, calcium channel blockers, losartan, prazocin, iloprost, N-acetylcysteine, bosentan, cyclophosphamide, lung transplantation, ACE inhibitors, anti-thymocyte globulin, and stem cell transplantation. Anecdotal reports were omitted.

  13. Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine influenza A (H3N8) virus from 1968 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N S; Daly, J M; Russell, C A; Horton, D L; Skepner, E; Bryant, N A; Burke, D F; Rash, A S; Wood, J L N; Chambers, T M; Fouchier, R A M; Mumford, J A; Elton, D M; Smith, D J

    2011-12-01

    Equine influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen in horses, and outbreaks of disease often lead to substantial disruption to and economic losses for equestrian industries. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is of key importance in the control of equine influenza because HA is the primary target of the protective immune response and the main component of currently licensed influenza vaccines. However, the influenza virus HA protein changes over time, a process called antigenic drift, and vaccine strains must be updated to remain effective. Antigenic drift is assessed primarily by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We have generated HI assay data for equine influenza A (H3N8) viruses isolated between 1968 and 2007 and have used antigenic cartography to quantify antigenic differences among the isolates. The antigenic evolution of equine influenza viruses during this period was clustered: from 1968 to 1988, all isolates formed a single antigenic cluster, which then split into two cocirculating clusters in 1989, and then a third cocirculating cluster appeared in 2003. Viruses from all three clusters were isolated in 2007. In one of the three clusters, we show evidence of antigenic drift away from the vaccine strain over time. We determined that a single amino acid substitution was likely responsible for the antigenic differences among clusters.

  14. Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Equine Influenza A (H3N8) Virus from 1968 to 2007▿‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. S.; Daly, J. M.; Russell, C. A.; Horton, D. L.; Skepner, E.; Bryant, N. A.; Burke, D. F.; Rash, A. S.; Wood, J. L. N.; Chambers, T. M.; Fouchier, R. A. M.; Mumford, J. A.; Elton, D. M.; Smith, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Equine influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen in horses, and outbreaks of disease often lead to substantial disruption to and economic losses for equestrian industries. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is of key importance in the control of equine influenza because HA is the primary target of the protective immune response and the main component of currently licensed influenza vaccines. However, the influenza virus HA protein changes over time, a process called antigenic drift, and vaccine strains must be updated to remain effective. Antigenic drift is assessed primarily by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We have generated HI assay data for equine influenza A (H3N8) viruses isolated between 1968 and 2007 and have used antigenic cartography to quantify antigenic differences among the isolates. The antigenic evolution of equine influenza viruses during this period was clustered: from 1968 to 1988, all isolates formed a single antigenic cluster, which then split into two cocirculating clusters in 1989, and then a third cocirculating cluster appeared in 2003. Viruses from all three clusters were isolated in 2007. In one of the three clusters, we show evidence of antigenic drift away from the vaccine strain over time. We determined that a single amino acid substitution was likely responsible for the antigenic differences among clusters. PMID:21937642

  15. Ecological niche modelling of potential West Nile virus vector mosquito species and their geographical association with equine epizootics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Mulatti, Paolo; Severini, Francesco; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Bongiorno, Gioia; Khoury, Cristina; Bianchi, Riccardo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Patregnani, Tommaso; Bonfanti, Lebana; Rezza, Giovanni; Capelli, Gioia; Busani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, West Nile virus (WNV) equine outbreaks have occurred annually since 2008. Characterizing WNV vector habitat requirements allows for the identification of areas at risk of viral amplification and transmission. Maxent-based ecological niche models were developed using literature records of 13 potential WNV Italian vector mosquito species to predict their habitat suitability range and to investigate possible geographical associations with WNV equine outbreak occurrence in Italy from 2008 to 2010. The contribution of different environmental variables to the niche models was also assessed. Suitable habitats for Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles maculipennis were widely distributed; Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus geniculatus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Coquillettidia richiardii, Aedes vexans, and Anopheles plumbeus were concentrated in north-central Italy; Aedes cinereus, Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, and Culiseta longiareolata were restricted to coastal/southern areas. Elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables showed the highest predictive power. Host population and landscape variables provided minor contributions. WNV equine outbreaks had a significantly higher probability to occur in habitats suitable for Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens, providing circumstantial evidence that the potential distribution of these two species coincides geographically with the observed distribution of the disease in equines.

  16. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  17. Measurement of the cytotoxic effects of different strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube using a calmodulin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, V M; Miller, R B; Rosendal, S; Fernando, M A; Johnson, W H; O'Brien, P J

    1992-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced by five strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium for cells of equine uterine tube explants were tested by measuring changes in cellular and extracellular concentrations of calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin concentrations in samples of total homogenate (TH) and total homogenate supernates (THS) of the infected equine uterine tube explants were significantly lower than respective measurements on noninfected controls. In tissue culture medium fractions (TCM) of some infected explants, CaM concentrations were significantly higher than noninfected controls (p > 0.95). The results suggest that M. equigenitalium colonization on ciliated cells of the equine uterine tube can affect the permeability of the cell membrane leading to leakage or release of CaM during cell breakdown. Measurement of CaM concentrations in samples of TH revealed significant differences in the cytotoxic effects induced by different strains of M. equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube (EUT). The data suggests that some strains of M. equigenitalium may have a role in reproductive failure in the mare. In addition comparisons of the means of the concentrations of CaM in samples of TH or THS in EUT explants from four mares in the follicular and four in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were found to be not significantly different. PMID:1477802

  18. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2007-01-01

    : Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  19. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  20. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  1. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  2. Characterization of nitrate-reducing and amino acid-using bacteria prominent in nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  3. House and Stable Fly Seasonal Abundance, Larval Development Substrates, and Natural Parasitism on Small Equine Farms in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E T; Leppla, N C; Hogsette, J A

    2016-08-01

    House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective.

  4. In vivo effects of phenylbutazone on inflammation and cartilage-derived biomarkers in equine joints with acute synovitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M; van de Lest, C H A; Brunott, A; van Weeren, P R

    2014-01-01

    Although phenylbutazone (PBZ) is commonly used in equine orthopaedic practice, little is known about its in vivo effects on joint inflammation and cartilage turnover. This study investigates the effects of PBZ on inflammatory parameters, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and cartilage biomarke

  5. Cellular damage suffered by equine embryos after exposure to cryoprotectants or cryopreservation by slow-freezing or vitrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks - Onstein, Karin; Roelen, B A J; Colenbrander, B; Stout, T A E

    2015-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine embryos are cryopreserved by slow-freezing or vitrification. While small embryos (<300 μm) survive cryopreservation reasonably well, larger embryos do not. It is not clear if slow-freezing or vitrification is less damaging to horse embryos. OBJECTIVES: To compare

  6. Monitoring equine visceral pain with a composite pain scale score and correlation with survival after emergency gastrointestinal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie S M; Back, Willem; van Weeren, René; Hellebrekers, Ludo J; Back, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Recognition and management of equine pain have been studied extensively in recent decades and this has led to significant advances. However, there is still room for improvement in the ability to identify and treat pain in horses that have undergone emergency gastrointestinal surgery. This study asse

  7. Differential Impact of Unguided versus Guided Use of a Multimedia Introduction to Equine Obstetrics in Veterinary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaere Jan, L. J.; de Kruif, Aart; Valcke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In view of supporting the study of the complex domain of equine obstetrics, a Foal"in"Mare multimedia package with 3D designs has been developed. The present study centers on questions as to the most optimal implementation of the multimedia package in veterinary education. In a pretest-posttest cross-over design, students were randomly assigned to…

  8. Inhibition of fructan-fermenting equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis by hops (Humulus lupulus L.) ß-acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goals were to determine if the '-acid from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) could be used to control fructan fermentation by equine hindgut microorganisms, and to verify the antimicrobial mode of action on the Streptococcus bovis, which has been implicated in fructan fermentation, hindgut acidos...

  9. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine fecal microbiota in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: 1) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and 2) fermentation by equine microflora. Methods and Results: When fecal washed cel...

  10. Neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants of equine herpesvirus 1 in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronost, Stéphane; Léon, Albertine; Legrand, Loic; Fortier, Christine; Miszczak, Fabien; Freymuth, François; Fortier, Guillaume

    2010-10-26

    Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is a common pathogen of the horse which may induce mild respiratory distress, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the EHV-1 DNA polymerase (ORF30 A(2254) to G(2254)) has been associated with clinical signs of Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM). The aim of this work was to analyze the ORF30 genomic region among a panel of EHV-1 DNA extract in order to estimate the prevalence of the EHV-1 neuropathogenic genotype in France. Samples coming from cases associated with EHM, horses with respiratory symptoms and aborted mares, each obtained between 2002 and 2009, were investigated. DNA was directly extracted from biological samples and allelic discrimination was performed using real-time PCR. Thirty of the 125 analysed horses (24%) presented the G(2254) genotype of ORF 30. Among them, 7/16 were provided by EHM cases, 1/24 by respiratory cases and 22/85 by abortion cases. Concerning EHM, the 7 G(2254) genotype of ORF30 were all isolated in 2009 during two outbreaks where mortality was observed. Regarding the 22 G(2254) genotype of ORF 30, 17 were identified in foetuses on which EHV-1 was detected by PCR, without any certainty of viral implication in the abortion. These findings clearly suggest that other factors need to be considered for a better understanding of the impact of DNA polymerase genotype upon EHV-1 neuropathogenic phenotype.

  11. Using differential reinforcement to improve equine welfare: shaping appropriate truck loading and feet handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Charlotte; Dymond, Simon

    2011-03-01

    Inappropriate behavior during common handling procedures with horses is often subject to aversive treatment. The present study replicated and extended previous findings using differential reinforcement to shape appropriate equine handling behavior. In Study 1, a multiple baseline across subjects design was used with four horses to determine first the effects of shaping target-touch responses and then successive approximations of full truck loading under continuous and intermittent schedules of reinforcement. Full loading responses were shaped and maintained in all four horses and occurrences of inappropriate behaviors reduced to zero. Generalization of the loading response was also observed to both a novel trainer and trailer. In Study 2, a changing criterion design was used to increase the duration of feet handling with one horse. The horse's responding reached the terminal duration criterion of 1min and showed consistent generalization and one-week maintenance. Overall, the results of both studies support the use of applied equine training systems based on positive reinforcement for increasing appropriate behavior during common handling procedures.

  12. After-hours equine emergency admissions at a university referral hospital (1998 - 2007 : causes and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viljoen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical records of equine after-hours admissions from 1998 to 2007 are reviewed. Data extracted from the medical records included signalment, reason for admission, pre-admission treatment, clinical presentation, procedures performed, final diagnoses, complications occurring in hospital, length of stay and outcome. Eight hundred and twenty after-hours admissions were available of which 75 % were classified as emergencies. Most horses originated from Gauteng province (82 %, with Thoroughbred, Arabian, and Warmbloods representing 46 %, 10 % and 7 % of horses. Horses had a median age of 7 years and were predominantly male (60 %. Gastrointestinal (64 % and musculoskeletal (19 % disorders were the primary reasons for admission. Anti-inflammatories, sedation and antibiotics were given in 51 %, 20 % and 15 % of cases respectively prior to referral. On admission, 23 % of horses had surgical intervention. Intravenous catheterisation (64 %, rectal examination (61 %, nasogastric intubation (56 %, abdominocentesis (33 % and ultrasonography (19 % were the procedures performed most frequently. Surgical and medical colics constituted 28 % and 27 % respectively of the overall diagnoses, while piroplasmosis was diagnosed in 5 % of horses. Post-admission complications occurred in <2 % of horses. The median length of stay was 4 days (95 % CI: 1 to 21 days. Overall survival to discharge was 74 %. This study demonstrates that the majority of after-hours equine admissions to a university referral hospital required medical intervention and were mostly due to gastrointestinal disorders. Information obtained from this study can be used in emergency referral planning.

  13. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed.

  14. High concentrations of myeloperoxidase in the equine uterus as an indicator of endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla-Hernandez, Sonia; Ponthier, Jérôme; Franck, Thierry Y; Serteyn, Didier D; Deleuze, Stéfan C

    2014-04-15

    Intraluminal fluid and excessive abnormal hyperedema are regularly used for the diagnosis of endometritis in the mare, which is routinely confirmed by the presence of neutrophils on endometrial smears. Studies show a relation between neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after cell lysis. This enzyme has been found in many fluids and tissues, and associated with different inflammatory pathologies in the horse. The aims of this study were to assess the presence and concentration of MPO in the equine uterus, and to investigate its relation with neutrophils, and other clinical signs of endometritis. Mares (n = 51) were evaluated for the presence of intraluminal fluid and excessive endometrial edema before breeding, and a small volume lavage and cytology samples were obtained. From 69 cycles, supernatant of the uterine flushes was analyzed with a specific equine MPO ELISA assay to measure MPO concentration. Cytology samples were used for the diagnosis of endometritis. Myeloperoxidase was present in the uterus of all estrus mares in highly variable concentrations. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in samples with positive cytologies and in the presence of intraluminal fluid. Occasionally, some samples with negative cytologies showed high MPO concentration, but the opposite was never observed. Cycles presenting hyperedema weren't associated with high concentration of MPO, intraluminal fluid, or positive cytology, making it a poor diagnostic tool of endometritis.

  15. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bianchessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP cells in equine synovial fluid (SF and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU assays were performed during primary cultures. At first passage, SF-cells were seeded at low density, with or without FGF-2. Following monolayer expansion and serial immunophenotyping, cells were transferred to chondrogenic pellet cultures. Pellets were analyzed for chondrogenic mRNA expression and cartilage matrix secretion. There was a mean of 59.2 CFU/mL of SF. FGF-2 increased the number of population doublings during two monolayer passages and halved the population doubling times. FGF-2 did not alter the immunophenotype of SF-CPs during monolayer expansion, nor did FGF-2 compromise chondrogenesis. Hypertrophic phenotypic markers were not expressed in control or FGF-2 groups. FGF-2 did prevent the development of a “fibroblastic” cell layer around pellet periphery. FGF-2 significantly accelerates in vitro SF-CP expansion, the major hurdle to clinical application of this cell population, without detrimentally affecting subsequent chondrogenic capacity.

  16. Evaluation of a caudolateral approach for arthrocentesis and injection of the equine elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaan, C J; Riley, C B; Engeli, E

    2016-08-13

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the likelihood of successful arthrocentesis of the equine elbow joint using the caudolateral approach and to determine if the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN) varies in its proximity to the site of centesis. Methylene blue (MB) was injected into 71 elbow joint specimens immediately caudal to the lateral collateral ligament using a 3.8-cm needle advanced to its hub. The elbow joints were dissected, staining of the synovial structures assessed and the proximity of DBRN to the site of centesis evaluated. The articular cartilage of all 71 joints was stained with MB. The location of DBRN did not vary substantially among the specimens and did not course close to the site of centesis. Direct communication was found between the bursa of the tendon of the ulnaris lateralis muscle and the elbow joint in 41 of 71 specimens (57.8 per cent). The caudolateral approach for centesis of the equine elbow joint, performed by inserting a needle 3.8-cm, was found to be reliable. Radial nerve paralysis reported to be caused by injection of local anaesthetic solution using the caudolateral approach may be due to diffusion of the solution from the dorsal pouch rather than from leakage at the site of centesis.

  17. Genetic risk factors for insidious equine recurrent uveitis in Appaloosa horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, K L; Kaese, H J; Valberg, S J; Hendrickson, J A; Rendahl, A K; Bellone, R R; Dynes, K M; Wagner, M L; Lucio, M A; Cuomo, F M; Brinkmeyer-Langford, C L; Skow, L C; Mickelson, J R; Rutherford, M S; McCue, M E

    2014-06-01

    Appaloosa horses are predisposed to equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), an immune-mediated disease characterized by recurring inflammation of the uveal tract in the eye, which is the leading cause of blindness in horses. Nine genetic markers from the ECA1 region responsible for the spotted coat color of Appaloosa horses, and 13 microsatellites spanning the equine major histocompatibility complex (ELA) on ECA20, were evaluated for association with ERU in a group of 53 Appaloosa ERU cases and 43 healthy Appaloosa controls. Three markers were significantly associated (corrected P-value ERU phenotype was confirmed in a second population of 24 insidious ERU Appaloosa cases and 16 Appaloosa controls. The relative odds of being an ERU case for each allele of these three markers were estimated by fitting a logistic mixed model with each of the associated markers independently and with all three markers simultaneously. The risk model using these markers classified ~80% of ERU cases and 75% of controls in the second population as moderate or high risk, and low risk respectively. Future studies to refine the associations at ECA1 and ELA loci and identify functional variants could uncover alleles conferring susceptibility to ERU in Appaloosa horses.

  18. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  19. Causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa (1998 - 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa were determined following retrieval of the medical records of horses admitted during a 10-year study period. The study included 935 horses of which 28 % were admitted after hours. Most horses were Thoroughbreds (54 %, male (57 %, with a mean age of 8.2 years and originated from the Gauteng Province (81 %. Heart rate (98 %, mucous membrane colour (95 % and auscultation of the abdomen (91 % were the clinical data commonly obtained at admission. Packed cell volume, total serum protein and white cell count were recorded in 78 %, 75 % and 44 % of horses respectively. Transrectal palpation (93 %, nasogastric intubation (84 %, intravenous catheterisation (74 % and abdominocentesis (53 % were the most frequently performed procedures. Medical intervention was performed in 558 horses (60 %. The common causes of medical colic were impactions (39 %, tympany (7 % and displacement of the large colon (6 %. An exploratory laparotomy was performed in 331 horses (36 %. The common causes of surgical colic were displacement (29 %, impaction (22 % and small intestinal strangulating lesions (18 %. Death occurred in 3 % of horses, while euthanasia before medical intervention was performed in 4 %. Overall, medical intervention was successful in 93 % of horses and 67 % in horses managed surgically. In conclusion, 55 % of all the equine admissions responded to medical intervention and the recovery rate for horses receiving both medical and surgical intervention was comparable to that reported in other studies.

  20. Equine digital veins are more sensitive to superoxide anions than digital arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Rock Allister; Gogny, Marc; Chatagnon, Gérard; Lalanne, Valérie; Harfoush, Khaled; Assane, Moussa; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine

    2014-10-05

    This work was designed to investigate (i) the effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition on endothelial function and (ii) the free radical-induced endothelial dysfunction in equine digital veins (EDVs) and equine digital arteries (EDAs) isolated from healthy horses. EDV and EDA rings were suspended in a 5 ml organ bath containing Krebs solution. After a 60 min equilibration period, EDV and EDA rings were contracted with phenylephrine. Then, cumulative concentration-response curves (CCRCs) to acetylcholine were performed. In both EDVs and EDAs, acetylcholine (1 nM to 10 µM) produced concentration-dependent relaxation. We investigated the influence of SOD inhibition by diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC; 100 µM), a CuZnSOD inhibitor, on EDAs and EDVs relaxant responses to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine -mediated relaxation was impaired by DETC only in EDVs. SOD activity assayed by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase method was higher in EDAs compared with EDVs (Psuperoxide anions generating systems showed that in both EDVs and EDAs, the acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was significantly impaired by pyrogallol and homocysteine. This impairment was more pronounced in EDVs than in EDAs. Moreover, the pyrogallol-induced impairment of acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was potentiated by DETC to a greater extent in EDVs. We concluded that due to the lower activity of SOD, EDVs are more sensitive to superoxide anions than EDAs. So, any alteration of superoxide anions metabolism is likely to have a more important impact on venous rather than arterial relaxation.