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Sample records for anti-taenia crassiceps cysticerci

  1. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice

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    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.

  2. Differential in vitro effects of insulin on Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci.

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    Escobedo, G; Romano, M C; Morales-Montor, J

    2009-12-01

    Hormones play a significant role in murine cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps), and increase the frequency of porcine cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium. In the present study, we report the in vitro effect of insulin on the larval stages of T. crassiceps (ORF strain) and T. solium. In vitro exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to insulin was found to stimulate this parasite's reproduction twofold with respect to control values, while the same treatment had no effect on T. solium cysticerci. Moreover, normal female mice (BALB/cAnN) infected with T. crassiceps cysticerci previously exposed to insulin presented larger parasite loads than mice inoculated with vehicle-treated cysticerci. To determine the possible molecular mechanisms by which insulin affects T. crassiceps, the insulin receptor was amplified by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, both T. crassiceps and T. solium expressed the insulin receptor, although insulin had effects only on T. crassiceps. These results demonstrate that insulin has a dichotomistic effect; it acts directly only on T. crassiceps cysticerci reproduction, possibly through its binding to a specific insulin receptor synthesized by the parasite. Thus, insulin may be recognized by T. crassiceps cysticercus cells as a mitogenic factor, and contribute to parasite proliferation inside the host, as well as to the female mouse susceptibility to T.crassiceps. This phenomenon has not been reported for cysticercosis caused by T. solium, which could, in part, be related to the poor effect of insulin upon the human parasite.

  3. Auranofin-induced oxidative stress causes redistribution of the glutathione pool in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

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    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; del Arenal, I P

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we have studied the effect of the gold-compound auranofin (AF) on both thioredoxin-glutathione reductasa (TGR) activity and viability of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. It was demonstrated that micromolar concentrations of AF were high enough to fully inhibit TGR and kill the parasites. In this work, the dynamics of changes in the glutathione pool of T. crassiceps cysticerci following the addition of AF, was analyzed. A dose-dependent decrease in the internal glutathione concentration, concomitant with an increase in ROS production was observed. These changes were simultaneous with the formation of glutathione-protein complexes and the export of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the culture medium. Incubation of cysticerci in the presence of both AF and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) prevents all the above changes, maintaining cysticerci viability. By contrast, the presence of both AF and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in a potentiation of the effects of the gold compound, jeopardizing cysticerci viability. These results suggest the lethal effect of AF on T. crassiceps cysticerci, observed at micromolar concentrations, can be explained as a consequence of major changes in the glutathione status, which results in a significant increase in the oxidative stress of the parasites.

  4. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin-Glutathione Reductase from Larval Taenia crassiceps (Cysticerci

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    Alberto Guevara-Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial thioredoxin-glutathione reductase was purified from larval Taenia crassiceps (cysticerci. The preparation showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity with either thioredoxin or GSSG, and was able to perform thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. At 25∘C specific activities were 437  ±  27 mU mg-1 and 840  ±  49 mU mg-1 with thioredoxin and GSSG, respectively. Apparent Km values were 0.87  ±  0.04  μM, 41  ±  6  μM and 19  ±  10  μM for thioredoxin, GSSG and NADPH, respectively. Thioredoxin from eukaryotic sources was accepted as substrate. The enzyme reduced H2O2 in a NADPH-dependent manner, although with low catalytic efficiency. In the presence of thioredoxin, mitochondrial TGR showed a thioredoxin peroxidase-like activity. All disulfide reductase activities were inhibited by auranofin, suggesting mTGR is dependent on selenocysteine. The reductase activity with GSSG showed a higher dependence on temperature as compared with the DTNB reductase activity. The variation of the GSSG- and DTNB reductase activities on pH was dependent on the disulfide substrate. Like the cytosolic isoform, mTGR showed a hysteretic kinetic behavior at moderate or high GSSG concentrations, but it was less sensitive to calcium. The enzyme was able to protect glutamine synthetase from oxidative inactivation, suggesting that mTGR is competent to contend with oxidative stress.

  5. Steroid synthesis by Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci is regulated by enzyme inhibitors.

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    Aceves-Ramos, A; Valdez, R A; Gaona, B; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2013-07-01

    Cysticerci and tapeworms from Taenia crassiceps WFU, ORF and Taenia solium synthesize sex-steroid hormones in vitro. Corticosteroids increase the 17β-estradiol synthesis by T. crassiceps cysticerci. T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids, mainly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC). The aim of this work was to investigate whether classical steroidogenic inhibitors modify the capacity of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroid hormones. For this purpose, T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, pre-cultured for 24h in DMEM+antibiotics/antimycotics and cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone ((3)H-P4), androstendione ((3)H-A4), or dehydroepiandrosterone ((3)H-DHEA) plus different doses of the corresponding inhibitors, for different periods. Blanks with the culture media adding the tritiated precursors were simultaneously incubated. At the end of the incubation period, parasites were separated and media extracted with ether. The resulting steroids were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Data were expressed as percent transformation of the tritiated precursors. Results showed that after 2h of exposure of the cysticerci to 100 μM formestane, the (3)H-17β-estradiol synthesis from tritiated androstenedione was significantly inhibited. The incubation of cysticerci in the presence of (3)H-DHEA and danazol (100 nM) resulted in (3)H-androstenediol accumulation and a significant reduction of the 17β-estradiol synthesis. The cysticerci (3)H-DOC synthesis was significantly inhibited when the parasites were cultured in the presence of different ketoconazole dosis. The drug treatments did not affect parasite's viability. The results of this study showed that corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis in T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci can be modified by steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors. As was shown previously by our laboratory and others, parasite survival and development depends

  6. Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids in vitro: metyrapone regulates the production.

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    Valdez, R A; Hinojosa, L; Gómez, Y; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2012-05-01

    Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci and tapeworms have the ability to synthesize sex steroid hormones and have a functional 3β-hydroxisteroid dehydrogenase. Corticosteroids (CS) like corticosterone and dexamethasone have been shown to stimulate in vitro estrogen production by Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The aim of this work was to study the ability of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids, and the effect of the inhibitor metyrapone on the CS synthesis. For this purpose T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, thoroughly washed and pre-incubated in multiwells for 24 h in DMEM plus antibiotics/antimycotics. The tritiated CS precursor progesterone ((3)H-P4) was added to the culture media and parasites cultured for different periods. Blanks containing the culture media plus the (3)H-P4 were simultaneously incubated. Blanks and parasite culture media were ether extracted and analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. Corticosterone production was measured in the culture media by RIA. In some experiments metyrapone (0.1-0.5 mM) was added for 24, 48 or 72 h. Results showed that cysticerci mainly synthesized tritiated 11-deoxy corticosterone (DOC) and small amounts of corticosterone that was also detected by RIA. Small amounts of (3)H-11-deoxy cortisol were also found. Corticosteroid synthesis was time dependent. The addition of metyrapone significantly inhibited tritiated DOC, deoxycortisol and corticosterone synthesis. These results show for the first time that parasites have the capacity to synthesize CS that is modulated by metyrapone. Data suggest that DOC is the main corticosteroid in the parasites.

  7. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos

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    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6

  8. Effect of Transforming Growth Factor-β upon Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci.

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    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Rosas, Gabriela; Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Bobes, Raúl J; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Trejo, Celeste; Meneses, Gabriela; Hernández, Beatriz; Estrada, Karel; Fleury, Agnes; Laclette, Juan P; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2017-09-27

    Taeniids exhibit a great adaptive plasticity, which facilitates their establishment, growth, and reproduction in a hostile inflammatory microenvironment. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ), a highly pleiotropic cytokine, plays a critical role in vertebrate morphogenesis, cell differentiation, reproduction, and immune suppression. TGFβ is secreted by host cells in sites lodging parasites. The role of TGFβ in the outcome of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticercosis is herein explored. Homologues of the TGFβ family receptors (TsRI and TsRII) and several members of the TGFβ downstream signal transduction pathway were found in T. solium genome, and the expression of Type-I and -II TGFβ receptors was confirmed by RT-PCR. Antibodies against TGFβ family receptors recognized cysticercal proteins of the expected molecular weight as determined by Western blot, and different structures in the parasite external tegument. In vitro, TGFβ promoted the growth and reproduction of T. crassiceps cysticerci and the survival of T. solium cysticerci. High TGFβ levels were found in cerebrospinal fluid from untreated neurocysticercotic patients who eventually failed to respond to the treatment (P = 0.03) pointing to the involvement of TGFβ in parasite survival. These results indicate the relevance of TGFβ in the infection outcome by promoting cysticercus growth and treatment resistance.

  9. Analysis of the expression of cytoskeletal proteins of Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci (Cestoda).

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    Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Paredes-Salomon, Cristina; Pérez-Reyes, América; Landa, Abraham; Robert, Lilia; Mendoza, Guillermo; Ambrosio, Javier R

    2014-05-01

    The Taenia crassiceps ORF strain is used to generate a murine model of cysticercosis, which is used for diagnosis, evaluation of drugs, and vaccination. This particular strain only exists as cysticerci, is easily maintained under in vivo and in vitro conditions, and offers an excellent model for studying the cytoskeletons of cestodes. In this study, several experimental approaches were used to determine the tissue expression of its cytoskeletal proteins. The techniques used were microscopy (video, confocal, and transmission electron), one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, immunochemistry, and mass spectrometry. The tissue expression of actin, tubulin, and paramyosin was assessed using microscopy, and their protein isoforms were determined with 1D and 2D electrophoresis and immunochemistry. Nineteen spots were excised from a proteomic gel and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and immunochemistry. The proteins identified were classic cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes, and proteins with diverse biological functions, but mainly involved in detoxification activities. Research suggests that most noncytoskeletal proteins interact with actin or tubulin, and the results of the present study suggest that the proteins identified may be involved in supporting the dynamics and plasticity of the cytoskeleton of T. crassiceps cysticerci. These results contribute to our knowledge of the cellular biology and physiology of cestodes.

  10. Nitazoxanide induces in vitro metabolic acidosis in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

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    Isac, Eliana; de A Picanço, Guaraciara; da Costa, Tatiane L; de Lima, Nayana F; de S M M Alves, Daniella; Fraga, Carolina M; de S Lino Junior, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina C

    2016-12-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug used against a wide variety of protozoans and helminthes. Albendazole, its active metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), is one of the drugs of choice to treat both intestinal and tissue helminth and protozoan infections. However little is known regarding their impact on the metabolism of parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effect of NTZ and ABZSO in the glycolysis of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The cysticerci were treated with 1.2; 0.6; 0.3 or 0.15 μg/mL of NTZ or ABZSO. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses were performed in the culture medium and in the cysticerci extract. Regarding the glucose concentrations was possible to observe two responses: impair of the uptake and gluconeogenesis. The pyruvate concentrations were increased in the ABZSO treated group. Lactate concentrations were increased in the culture medium of NTZ treated groups. Therefore it was possible to infer that the metabolic acidosis was greater in the group treated with NTZ than in the ABZSO treated group indicating that this is one of the modes of action used by this drug to induce the parasite death.

  11. Elucidating the influence of praziquantel nanosuspensions on the in vivo metabolism of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

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    Silva, Luciana Damacena; Arrúa, Eva Carolina; Pereira, Dayanne Amaral; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza da; Hemphill, Andrew; Salomon, Claudio Javier; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop nanosuspensions of praziquantel (PZQ) and to evaluate their influence on the energetic metabolism of cysticerci inoculated in BALB/c mice. We analyzed metabolic alterations of glycolytic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the parasite. The nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poloxamer 188 (P188) and poloxamer 407 (P407) were used as stabilizers. Nanosuspension prepared with PVA had a particle size of 100nm, while P188- and P407-based nanosuspensions had particle sizes of 74nm and 285nm, respectively. The zeta potential was -8.1, -8.6, and -13.2 for the formulations stabilized with PVA, P188 and P407, respectively. Treatments of T. crassiceps cysticerci-infected mice resulted in an increase in glycolysis organic acids, and enhanced the partial reversion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the urea cycle and the production of ketonic bodies in the parasites when compared to the groups treated with conventional PZQ. These data suggest that PZQ nanosuspensions greatly modified the energetic metabolism of cysticerci in vivo. Moreover, the remarkable metabolic alterations produced by the stabilizers indicate that further studies on nanoformulations are required to find potentially suitable nanomedicines.

  12. In vivo albendazole treatment of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci strain WFU: proliferation, damage, and recovery.

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    Zurabian, R; Aguilar-Vega, L; Terrones Vargas, E; Cervera Hernández, M E; Willms, K; Ruíz-Velasco Acosta, S

    2013-11-01

    Taenia crassiceps has been widely experimented as a model for in vitro and in vivo studies on drug responses. The purpose of this study was to treat BALB/c mice infected with T. crassiceps strain WFU with commercially available albendazole and to analyze the reduction in parasite infrapopulations. Here, we describe the reduction and apparent damage of T. crassicceps WFU cysticerci in infected mice after antihelminthic drug treatment and subsequent inoculation of those treated parasites into a naïve host. We were able to reduce significantly the parasite counts to 33 and 48% after albendazole treatment for 20 or 25 days and compared with the untreated mice. We also observed morphological damage such as the partial blebbing in the tegument and parenchyma of treated parasites, as well as disorganized musculature and the loss of cell membranes in subtegumental tissue section. However, larvae from albendazole-treated mice inoculated into the next host were able to become re-established in the next murine host due, probably, to the survival of proliferative parasite cells.

  13. The effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) cysticerci.

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    Hinojosa, L; Valdez, R A; Salvador, V; Rodríguez, A G; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2012-12-01

    We have shown previously that cultured Taenia crassiceps Wake Forest University (WFU) and Taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3H]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to control the inflammation caused by T. solium cysticerci in the brain. These steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. Since there is no information on the effect of GC on the endocrine function of cysticerci, we investigated the effect of natural and synthetic GCs on the synthesis of oestrogens in cultured T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci. The cysticerci were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of infected female BALB/c mice; the cysts were washed extensively and pre-cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) plus antibiotics for 5 days. The parasites were further cultured with different doses of corticosterone, dexamethasone or the vehicle for 5 days. [3H]Dehydroepiandrosterone (3H-DHEA) was added to the media and the cysticerci were further incubated for 6 or 24 h. Media were then removed and the steroids ether-extracted. Aliquots of the media were seeded on silica gel plates and developed in solvent systems. Parasites incubated in the presence of 3H-DHEA synthesized [3H]androstenediol, [3H]testosterone and [3H]17β-oestradiol ([3H]17β-E2). The addition of 100 nm or higher corticosterone doses to the media increased [3H]17β-E2 synthesis fourfold after 24 h. Dexamethasone also increased [3H]17β-E2 synthesis. The experiments presented here show for the first time that corticosterone and the synthetic GC dexamethasone modulate the synthesis of oestrogens by cysticerci.

  14. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci: Characterization of the 14-kDa glycoprotein with homologies to antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci.

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    Peralta, Regina H; Espíndola, Noeli M; Pardini, Alessandra X; Iha, Alberto H; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Vaz, Adelaide J; Peralta, José M

    2010-03-01

    Glycoproteins from the total vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tc) were prepared using three different purification methods, consisting of ConA-lectin affinity chromatography (ConA-Tc), preparative electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) (14 gp-Tc), and monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography (18/14-Tc). The complex composition represented by the VF-Tc and ConA-Tc antigens revealed peptides ranging from 101- to 14-kDa and from 92- to 12-kDa, respectively. Immunoblotting using lectins confirmed glucose/mannose (glc/man) residues in the 18- and 14-kDa peptides, which are considered specific and immunodominant for the diagnosis of cysticercosis, and indicated that these fractions are glycoproteins. Serum antibodies from a patient with neurocysticercosis that reacted to the 14 gp band from T. crassiceps (Tc) were eluted from immunoblotting membranes and showed reactivity to 14 gp from Taenia solium. In order to determine the similar peptide sequence, the N-terminal amino acid was determined and analyzed with sequences available in public databases. This sequence revealed partial homology between T. crassiceps and T. solium peptides. In addition, mass spectrometry along with theoretical M(r) and pI of the 14 gp-Tc point suggested a close relationship to some peptides of a 150-kDa protein complex of the T. solium previously described. The identification of these common immunogenic sites will contribute to future efforts to develop recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides for immunological assays.

  15. Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.

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    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

    2015-04-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1μM, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the α3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins.

  16. Alternative energy production pathways in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to a benzimidazole derivative (RCB20).

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    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Da Costa, Tatiane Luiza; De Castro, Ana Maria; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Ambrosio, Javier; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2016-04-01

    Biochemical studies of benzimidazole derivatives are important to determine their mode of action and activity against parasites. The lack of antihelminthic alternatives to treat parasitic infections and albendazole resistance cases make the search for new antiparasitary drugs of utmost importance. The 6-chloro-5-(1-naphthyloxy)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (RCB20) is a benzimidazole derivative with promising effect. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of RCB20 in the alternative energetic pathway of in vitro Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The parasites were in vitro exposed to 6.5 and 13 µM of RCB20 and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO). The quantification of acetate, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, fumarate and propionate was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantification of urea, creatinine and total proteins was performed by spectrophotometry. The increase in β-hydroxybutyrate reflects the enhancement of the fatty acid oxidation in the treated groups. Volatile fatty acids secretion, acetate and propionate, was increased in the treated groups. The secretion mechanisms of the treated parasites were impaired due to organic acids increased concentrations in the cysticerci. It is possible to conclude that the metabolic effect on alternative energetic pathways is slightly increased in the parasites treated with RCB20 than the ones treated with ABZSO.

  17. Budding of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci In Vitro Is Promoted by Crowding in Addition to Hormonal, Stress, and Energy-Related Signals

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    Pedro Ostoa-Saloma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1 ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17ß-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments.

  18. Budding of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro is promoted by crowding in addition to hormonal, stress, and energy-related signals.

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    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Bazúa, Silvana; Larralde, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts) reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1 ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding) stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17beta-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments.

  19. A benzimidazole derivative (RCB20) in vitro induces an activation of energetic pathways on Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) cysticerci.

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    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; da Costa, Tatiane Luiza; de Castro, Ana Maria; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Ambrosio, Javier; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2017-01-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is unusual; however, it is an useful experimental model for cysticercosis studies. Benzimidazole derivatives are important antihelminthic drugs widely used against helminths. A novel compound 6-chloro-5-(1-naphthyloxy) -2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (RCB20) is a benzimidazole derivative less polar and more lipophilic. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of the RCB20 on the in vitro energetic metabolism of T. crassiceps cysticerci. For this, products of the metabolism both produced and secreted/excreted (S/E) by the parasite were detected through spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography after exposure to 6.5 and 13 μM of RCB20 and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO). There was a gradual increase in the concentrations of glucose not uptaken by parasites exposed to both concentrations RCB20 and ABZSO. There was a higher concentration of all the organic acids related to the tricarboxilic acid cycle int the parasites exposed to RCB20. The structural differences between RCB20 and ABZSO result in different targets within the parasite and in a greater induction of the energetic pathways, such as the glycolysis and the TCA cycle. RCB20 is a good candidate as a substitute for anthelminthic benzimidazoles due to a differentiated site of action with similar outcome.

  20. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity▿

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    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  1. A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

    2014-02-01

    The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFNγ and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection.

  2. Study on Human Taeniasis by Administring Anti-Taenia Drug

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    EB Kia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Mazandaran province, northern Iran, has been an area with highest prevalence of infectivity with human taeniasis during past decades. In order to assess current situation of taeniasis in the province by a method which can yield a correct estimation of infection rate, this study was performed by administrating anti-Taenia drug, during 2003-2004. A total of 417 people were randomly selected from rural areas of Mazandaran province. All of them were at first given a dose of niclosamide (2-4 500 mg tablets and bisacodile (1-3 5 mg tablets; then their 36 h stool passage was collected and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The results revealed that 2 individuals (0.5% were infected with Taenia saginata. Compared with previous decades, there is a sharp drop on human taeniasis in the study area. Infected peoples were followed up till complete treatment.

  3. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps

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    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas

  4. Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.

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    Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment.

  5. Generalized Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

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    Basso, Walter; Rütten, Maja; Deplazes, Peter; Grimm, Felix

    2014-01-17

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite that uses carnivores as definitive hosts and rodents and rabbits as main intermediate hosts, but other animal species and humans may also get infected. One adult male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) from an animal shelter in Switzerland presented widespread subcutaneous fluctuant swellings extended over the forehead, nose, face and thoracic regions with a progressive growth over 3 months. The thoracic swelling was surgically resected, and it consisted of numerous 3-4mm small transparent vesicles, mainly confined to the subcutaneous tissue, which were morphologically identified as cysticerci of T. crassiceps. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis of fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. After 1.5 months, due to enlargement of the swollen areas and deterioration of the general health condition, the chinchilla was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. Thousands of small cysticerci were observed widespread in the subcutis, involving underlying musculature of the whole body, in the thoracic cavity, larynx, pharynx and in the retropharyngeal region. Additionally, three larger metacestodes were detected in the liver and morphologically and molecularly identified as Taenia taeniaeformis strobilocerci. The present case represents an indicator of the environmental contamination with Taenia eggs, highlighting the risk of infection for susceptible animals and humans. Besides the clinical relevance for pets, T. crassiceps is a zoonotic parasite and can be also cause of severe cysticercosis in humans.

  6. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur.

  7. Genetic similarity between cysticerci of Taenia solium isolated from human brain and from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Juarez, Araceli Consuelo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; McManus, Donald Peter; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2008-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and mt cox1 cysticerci sequence data were compared with previously published Taenia spp. sequences. The variation in the ITS1 and cox1 sequences of samples collected from Mexico was minimal, regardless of geographical origin, size or colour of cysticerci from either pigs or human brain. These results suggest that the racemose and cellulose types represent genetically identical metacestodes of T. solium. Alignment of the mt cox1 sequences of the Mexican samples with sequences of other Taenia taxa showed that most were very similar to T. solium from Mexico and T. solium from Colombia; one T. solium Mexican isolate and Taenia hydatigena were placed in the same group close to Taenia crassiceps. The ITS1 sequences for the Mexican T. solium samples indicated the majority were in the same group as the Latin American T. solium. Two Mexican T. solium samples and T. solium from Philippines were placed together in a different group.

  8. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

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    Íria Márcia PEREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI. All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c or resistance (C57BL/6 were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  11. Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas, Ana María Fernández; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Willms, Kaethe

    2005-04-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection and either frozen at -70 degrees C or fixed in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde. Frozen sections were processed using the DNA fragmentation fluorescent TUNEL reagents and examined in an epifluorescent microscope. Fixed tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Typical apoptotic cells were found in the central core of scolex and strobilar tissues, mainly in the germinal tissue and subtegumentary areas. By the TUNEL technique, cells exhibited the characteristic fluorescent images of condensed nuclear chromatin. By light microscopy of thick sections stained with toluidine blue, we found a number of small rounded cells which had lost their cytoplasmic bridges and had shrunken nuclei with aggregated chromatin, cells which were found interspersed with normal syncytial cells. Similar cell morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Stunted viable worms, recovered with longer mature specimens, had very short strobilae and exhibited a large number of apoptotic cells in the germinal neck tissues. The results are consistent with the syncytial nature of these parasites, and strongly suggest that cell proliferation and PCD in these adult cestodes are continuous processes of the germinal tissue and tegumentary cytons.

  12. Characterization of one typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin gene of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Landa, Abraham

    2009-09-01

    The Taenia genus is capable of living for long periods within its hosts. Reports have shown that this successful establishment is related to its efficient defense mechanisms against host immune response and its high tolerance to oxidative stress. In this work, we describe the genomic sequences of one Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Ts2-CysPrx, Tc2-CysPrx) genes, which are 94% identical in primary sequence with the typical 2-Cys Prxs catalytic motifs. Both genes have the same genomic architecture, showing a TATA box and Initiator (Inr) sequence in their proximal promoter, two exons split by a 67-bp type III intron and one unique transcription start site located inside the Inr. We show that T. crassiceps cysticerci are highly tolerant to H(2)O(2) presenting a lethal concentration 50 of 3.0 mM and demonstrate that the typical Tc2-CysPrx gene is not induced by H(2)O(2), showing a behavior of an antioxidant housekeeping gene. This study describes for first time the gene structure of a typical 2-Cys Prx in the Taenia genus.

  13. Partial reverse of the TCA cycle is enhanced in Taenia crassiceps experimental neurocysticercosis after in vivo treatment with anthelminthic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Leandro, Leticia; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2014-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection and neglected disease of the central nervous system. It is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and seizures worldwide. Therefore, to study this important neglected disease, it is important to use experimental models. There is no report in the literature on how the parasite's metabolism reacts to antihelminthic treatment when it is still within the central nervous system of the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the energetic metabolism of cysticerci experimentally inoculated in the encephala of BALB/c mice after treatment with low dosages (not sufficient to kill the parasite) of albendazole (ABDZ) and praziquantel (PZQ). BALB/c mice were intracranially inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and, after 30 days, received treatment with low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ. After 24 h of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the cysticerci were removed and analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the organic acids related to the energetic metabolism of the parasite. The partial reverse of the TCA cycle was enhanced by the ABDZ and PZQ treatments both with the higher dosage, as the organic acids of this pathway were significantly increased when compared to the control group and to the other dosages. In conclusion, it was possible to detect the increase of this pathway in the parasites that were exposed to low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ, as it is a mechanism that would amplify the energy production in a hostile environment.

  14. Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens

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    BRAGAZZA Lúcia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

  15. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

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    Javier R Ambrosio

    Full Text Available The effects of testosterone (T4 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml and time exposed (10 days in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells.

  16. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells.

  17. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  18. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites.

  19. A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Soldevila, Gloria; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús Ramsés; Nava, Karen; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; López-Griego, Lorena; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    MAP kinases (MAPK) are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17β-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design. PMID:20145710

  20. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

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    Alberto N. Peón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage and canids (in its adult stage that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.

  1. The Target of Benzimidazole Carbamate Against Cysticerci cellulosae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-zhang; HAO Yan-hong; GAO Xue-jun; GAO Wen-xue; ZHAO Bing

    2007-01-01

    To study the target of benzimidazole carbamate drugs against Cysticerci cellulosae and give a theoretical basis for type evolution and new drug design, the changes of key enzyme activities and metabolite contents in the pathway of energy metabolism in C. cellulosae in vitro and in vivo were tested with albendazole and oxfendazole, respectively. Both albendazole and oxfendazole inhibited the pathways of anaerobic glycolysis, partial inversed tricarboxylic acid cycle of Taenia Solium oncosphere, immature and mature Cysticerci in vitro, and immature and mature Cysticerci in vivo to a certain degree, and enhanced fat decomposing, amino acid decomposing, xanthine decomposing metabolism, and on the other hand, the absorption of glucose was hindered; furthermore, both albendazole and oxfendazole inhibited the activities of the fumaric reductase (FR) complex noncompetently in vitro. Benzimidazole carbamate drugs could inhibit the activities of FR complex noncompetently and hinder the absorption of glucose.

  2. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez; Irma Rivera-Montoya; Roberto Cárdenas-Arreola; Liborio Morán; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS). Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D) symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A...

  3. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  4. Effects of Three Drugs on Membrane Metabolism Against Cysticerci cellulosae in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yanhong; LI Qingzhang; GAO Xuejun; LIU Yongjie; GAO Wenxue

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of the benzimidazole carbamate and benmidine drugs on Cysticerci cellulosae and choose effective drugs on Cysticerci cellulosae, the membrane metabolism of Cysticerci cellulosae in vitro was tested after three kinds of drugs which were used respectively. The indexes included the contents of lipids, the contents of SA and the changes of the membrane fluidity. The results showed that oxfendazole could inhibit the membrane metabolism of immature and mature Cysticerci cellulosae in vitro, and albendazole only inhibited the mature one, while thibendimidine neither acted on the immature nor mature one.

  5. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Protection against the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rosas, Lucia E.; David, John R; Bojalil, Rafael; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulation of immune response during murine cysticercosis caused by the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we analyzed the course of T. crassiceps infection in MIF−/− BALB/c mice. MIF−/− mice were highly susceptible to T. crassiceps and developed significantly higher parasite loads compared to similarly infected MIF+/+ mice. Throughout the course of infection, Taenia crassiceps soluble antigen-stimulated spleen cells f...

  6. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immun...

  7. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-α. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  8. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  9. Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben Ramirez-Aquino; Irena Radovanovic; Anny Fortin; Edda Sciutto-Conde; Gladis Fragoso-González; Philippe Gros; Irma Aguilar-Delfin

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, wit...

  10. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination.

  11. A Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor enhances ovarian follicle atresia and oocyte degeneration in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, S; Zepeda, N; Copitin, N; Fernandez, A M; Tato, P; Molinari, J L

    2015-01-01

    The histopathological effects of Taenia crassiceps infection or T. crassiceps metacestode factor inoculation on the mouse ovary were determined using six female mice in three groups: infected mice, mice inoculated with the metacestode factor and control mice. The control group was subcutaneously inoculated with healthy peritoneal fluid. The infected group was intraperitoneally inoculated with 40 T. crassiceps metacestodes, and the metacestode factor group was subcutaneously inoculated with T. crassiceps metacestode factor (MF). Light and electron microscopy and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assays revealed a significant increase in ovarian follicular atresia (predominantly in antral/preovulatory stages of development), oocyte degeneration (P< 0.05), and a decrease in the amount of corpus luteum in follicles of mice infected and inoculated with MF compared with the control group. Significant abnormalities of the granulosa cells and oocytes of the primordial, primary and secondary ovarian follicles occurred in both treated mouse groups (P< 0.05) compared with no degeneration in the control group. These pathological changes in female mice either infected with T. crassiceps metacestodes or inoculated with T. crassiceps MF may have consequences for ovulation and fertility.

  12. Immune response to Taenia solium cysticerci after anti-parasitic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Amrita; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Prasad, Amit; Rai, Ravi P; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Mukesh; Husain, Nuzhat; Prasad, Kashi N

    2015-10-01

    Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Swine were divided into two groups; swine in group 1 were treated with albendazole and those in group 2 were treated with albendazole plus steroid (prednisolone). All the animals underwent follow-up MRIs at 6 and 12 weeks after start of therapy and were then sacrificed. Tissues surrounding the cysticerci were collected and studied for the expression of different cytokines by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Albendazole therapy was found to be more effective in parasite killing than albendazole plus steroid (94.11% versus 70.96%, P=0.011). Albendazole therapy provoked a pro-inflammatory, Th1 (IFN-γ) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokine response around the dead cysticerci. Despite a heavy parasite burden in the brain, all the pigs treated with albendazole plus steroid survived. In this group of animals, a mixed pro-inflammatory Th1, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory cytokine (IL-10) response was associated with responder cysticerci. Further, Th2 and regulatory cytokine responses were associated with non-responder cysticerci.

  13. Strategies of statistical image analysis of 2D immunoblots: the case of IgG response in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Larralde, Carlos

    2009-12-31

    A procedure is described to measure the diversity and enrich the meaning and usefulness of the information contained in 2D immunoblot images of the reaction between a complex mixture of parasite antigens and the complex set of antibodies usually present in the sera of infected individual hosts. The procedure and results are illustrated by the experimental infection of 30 mice (three strains, both sexes, 5 mice in each strain x sex combination) with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, thirty days after the challenge. The exercise revealed a significant positive correlation of parasite loads with the hosts' IgG response, in association with their genetic background and less clearly with their sex, all in the midst of a remarkable diversity of both response variables among individual mice. After superimposing a 10 x 10 grid upon the 2D immunoblots some 10% of the positive grid-cells (those who had at least one spot) were positively correlated, suggesting shared epitopes between different antigen spots and/or similar factors controlling different antibody-producing cell clones. Also, a significant correlation was found between many of the positive grid-cells with high values of [Sigma]parasites, but none with low. Thus, the procedure provided many clues for the selection of antigen spots useful to improve immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis and weakened the inclusion of any as vaccine candidate(s). However, some 16 antigen spots were shared almost exclusively by the resistant strains and could relate to protection. The procedure here illustrated may be used in other infections to assess and identify the relevance of antibodies in diagnosis and prevention, as well as provides a measurement of the expected diversity in the hosts' antibody response to the pathogen and of the possible relations between the individual responses towards different antigens contained in the mixture.

  14. Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Adalid-Peralta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host’s inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC, the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possible mechanisms of Treg induction in human NC. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC from healthy human donors, cocultivated with autologous CD4+ naïve cells either in the presence or absence of cysticerci, promoted CD25highFoxp3+ Treg differentiation. An increased Treg induction was observed when cysticerci were present. Moreover, an augmentation of suppressive-related molecules (SLAMF1, B7-H1, and CD205 was found in parasite-induced DC differentiation. Increased Tregs and a higher in vivo DC expression of the regulatory molecules SLAMF1 and CD205 in NC patients were also found. SLAMF1 gene was downregulated in NC patients with extraparenchymal cysticerci, exhibiting higher inflammation levels than patients with parenchymal parasites. Our findings suggest that cysticerci may modulate DC to favor a suppressive environment, which may help parasite establishment, minimizing the excessive inflammation, which may lead to tissue damage.

  15. Taenia solium: inhibition of spontaneous evagination of cysticerci by the host inflammatory capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, L; Correa, D; Faradji, R; Garcia, H; Flisser, A

    1991-09-01

    The effect of the host's inflammatory capsule or of physical restraint on the spontaneous evagination capacity of Taenia solium cysticerci was evaluated. Parasites obtained from infected pig muscle, in which the surrounding inflammatory capsule was not eliminated, were unable to evaginate spontaneously after 12 or 60 h of culture. This phenomenon was not abolished when the capsule was eliminated and the parasites were cultured in semi-solid agar or in liquid medium.

  16. Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-08-01

    The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis.

  17. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

  18. Cerebellar cysticercosis caused by larval Taenia crassiceps tapeworm in immunocompetent woman, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela; Holzmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing.

  19. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis...

  20. Substance P Signaling Contributes to Granuloma Formation in Taenia crassiceps Infection, a Murine Model of Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Armandina Garza; David J Tweardy; Joel Weinstock; Balaji Viswanathan; Prema Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection with larval cysts of the cestode Taenia solium. Through pathways that are incompletely understood, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction that, in the brain, causes seizures. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide involved in pain-transmission, contributes to inflammation and previously was detected in granulomas associated with dead T. crassiceps cysts. To determine if SP contributes to granuloma formation, we measured granuloma-size and levels of IL-1β, TN...

  1. Apoptosis of mouse hippocampal cells induced by Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, N; Solano, S; Copitin, N; Chávez, J L; Fernández, A M; García, F; Tato, P; Molinari, J L

    2017-03-01

    Seizures, headache, depression and neurological deficits are the signs and symptoms most frequently reported in human neurocysticercosis. However, the cause of the associated learning and memory deficits is unknown. Here, we used Taenia crassiceps infection in mice as a model of human cysticercosis. The effects of T. crassiceps metacestode infection or T. crassiceps metacestode factor (MF) treatment on mouse hippocampal cells were studied; control mice were included. At 45 days after infection or treatment of the mice with MF, all mice were anaesthetized and perfused transcardially with saline followed by phosphate-buffered 10% formalin. Then the brains were carefully removed. Coronal sections stained using several techniques were analysed. Extensive and significant apoptosis was found in the experimental animals, mainly in the dentate gyrus, CA1, CA2, CA3 and neighbouring regions, in comparison with the apparently intact cells from control mice (P < 0.01). These results suggest that neurological deficits, especially the learning and memory deficits, may be generated by extensive apoptosis of hippocampal cells.

  2. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Our work of the last 25 yr was concerned with the development of a vaccine aimed to prevent porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis and was based on cross-reacting Taenia crassiceps antigens that had proved protective against experimental intraperitoneal murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis (EIMTcC). In recent times the efficacy of the vaccine has been considered in need of confirmation, and the use of EIMTcC has been questioned as a valid tool in screening for vaccine candidates among the many antigens possibly involved. A review of our work divided in 2 parts is presented at this point, the first dealing with EIMTcC and the second with porcine T. solium cysticercosis (presented in this issue). Herein, we revise our results using EIMTcC as a measure of the protective capacity of T. crassiceps complex antigen mixtures, of purified native antigens, and of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine composed by 3 protective peptides: GK-1, KETc1, and KETc12 either synthetic or recombinantly expressed and collectively or separately, by diverse delivery systems when administered at different doses and by different routes. Statistical analyses of the data lead confidently to the strong inference that S3Pvac is indeed an effective vaccine against EIMTcC via specific and non-specific mechanisms of protection.

  3. Taenia crassiceps Infection Does Not Influence the Development of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juárez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA. PMID:23509709

  4. Vaccine effect of intact metacestodes of Taenia crassiceps against T. taeniaeformis infection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Takami, T; Itoh, M

    1991-06-01

    Wistar rats inoculated intraperitoneally with 10 viable metacestodes of Taenia crassiceps without adjuvant once on day 0 showed strong resistance to challenge with 200 eggs of T. taeniaeformis on day 30. When rats were killed one month after challenge, there were 80.4% and 46.1% reductions in the number of cystic and total metacestodes of T. taeniaeformis in the liver, respectively. When five rats were killed 16 months after challenge, they showed almost complete immunity against the challenge, with 99.4% and 91.1% reductions in the number of cystic and total metacestodes, respectively. There were only a few degenerated, pin-point metacestodes of T. taeniaeformis in the liver of all five rats; one harbored one cystic metacestode as well. However, there were no such reductions in rats injected initially with cyst fluid antigens of T. crassiceps with Freund's complete adjuvant. An additional experiment was carried out using 500 eggs of T. taeniaeformis in order to confirm the vaccine effect against higher egg dose. There were 96.6%, 87.9%, 83.9%, and 79.3% reductions in the number of cystic metacestodes in rats initially inoculated with 10 viable, 10 formalized, and 10 frozen metacestodes, and injected with sodium deoxycholate-solubilized metacestode antigens, respectively. It is strongly suggested that rats singly dosed with 10 viable or non-viable, intact metacestodes of T. crassiceps without adjuvant became highly resistant to challenge infection with eggs of T. taeniaeformis, which resulted in almost no cystic metacestode establishment.

  5. Taenia crassiceps infection and its excreted/secreted products inhibit STAT1 activation in response to IFN-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2014-08-01

    It is well understood that helminth infections modulate the immune responses of their hosts but the mechanisms involved in this modulation are not fully known. Macrophages and dendritic cells appear to be consistently affected during this type of infection and are common target cells for helminth-derived molecules. In this report, we show that macrophages obtained from chronically Taenia crassiceps-infected mice displayed an impaired response to recombinant murine IFN-γ, but not to recombinant murine IL-4, as measured based on the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT6, respectively. These macrophages expressed high levels of SOCS3. However, the inhibition of phosphatase activity by orthovanadate restored the IFN-γ response of these macrophages by increasing STAT1 phosphorylation without affecting SOCS3 expression. Therefore, we aimed to identify the phosphatases associated with IFN-γ signaling inhibition and found that macrophages from T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed enhanced SHP-1 expression. Interestingly, the exposure of naïve macrophages to T. crassiceps excreted/secreted products similarly interfered with IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. Moreover, macrophages exposed to T. crassiceps excreted/secreted products expressed high levels of SOCS3 as well as SHP-1. Strikingly, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were exposed to T. crassiceps excreted/secreted products in vitro also displayed impaired STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN-γ; again, phosphatase inhibition abrogated the T. crassiceps excreted/secreted product-altered IFN-γ signaling. These data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminth infection and the products derived during this infection target intracellular pathways to block the response to inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ in both murine and human cells.

  6. [Total protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong

    2011-06-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus.

  7. Echinorhynchus brayi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from Pachycara crassiceps (Roule) (Zoarcidae), a deep-sea fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, M T; Sommerville, C; Gibson, D I

    1999-06-01

    Echinorhynchus brayi n. sp. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) is described from Pachycara crassiceps (Roule) (Zoarcidae) from the Porcupine Seabight, Northeast Atlantic. The new species closely resembles E. canyonensis Huffman & Kliever, 1977, a parasite of a Pacific zoarcid, but has longer lemnisci, larger eggs and larger testes. E. brayi n. sp. can be readily differentiated from the ten other Echinorhynchus spp. recorded from deep-sea fishes (E. abyssicola, E. gadi, E. longiproboscis, E. malacocephali, E. melanoglaeae, E. muraenolepisi, E. petrotschenkoi, E. sebastolobi, E. trachyrinci and E. truttae), because it has fewer hooks per longitudinal row.

  8. Relevant peptides of Taenia crassiceps for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by immunoblot

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    L.F. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the limited knowledge about the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by immunoblot, the aim of this study was to assess the applicability of this test, identifying key peptides with diagnostic value. Immunoblot assays were performed using total larval antigen of Taenia crassiceps and 60 sera of positive bovines for cysticercosis (30 naturally and 30 experimentally infected with T. saginata eggs, 30 sera of negative bovines for cysticercosis and 30 sera of bovines with other diseases (fascioliasis, hydatidosis and tuberculosis. The peptides of greater diagnostic importance, in descending order of accuracy (%, were as follows: 6-8kDa (90.8%, 129-143kDa (74.2%, 99-105kDa (71.7% and 14-19kDa (71.1%. Cross-reactions, due to fascioliasis and hydatidosis, were observed in the four intervals of peptides highlighted. The results demonstrate that the total antigen of T. crassiceps has peptides with a high diagnostic potential; therefore, the immunoblot is useful in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

  9. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

  10. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

  11. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  12. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Palafox-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht, which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg, were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  13. Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents.

  14. Purification, properties, and kinetic studies of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustín; Nava, Gabriela; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo

    2009-07-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (L: -malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37) from the cytoplasm of Taenia solium cysticerci (cMDHTs) was purified 48-fold through a four-step procedure involving salt fractionation, ionic exchange, and dye affinity chromatography. cMDHTs had a native M (r) of 64,000, while the corresponding value per subunit, obtained under denaturing conditions, was 32,000. The enzyme is partially positive, with an isoelectric point of 8.7, and had a specific activity of 2,615 U mg(-1) in the reduction of oxaloacetate. The second to the 21st amino acids from cMDHTs N-terminal group were P G P L R V L I T G A A G Q I A Y N L S. This sequence is 100% identical to that of Echinococcus granulosus. Basic kinetic parameters were determined for this enzyme. The optimum pH for enzyme reaction was at 7.6 for oxaloacetate reduction and at 9.6 for malate oxidation. K (m) values for oxaloacetate, malate, NAD, and NADH were 2.4, 215, 50, and 48 microM, respectively. V (max) values for the substrates and cosubstrates as described above were 1,490, 87.8, 104, and 1,714 micromol min(-1) mg(-1). Several NAD analogs, structurally altered in either the pyridine or purine moiety, were observed to function as coenzymes in the reaction catalyzed by the purified malate dehydrogenase. cMDHTs activity was uncompetitive inhibited by arsenate for both the forward (Ki = 8.2 mM) and reverse (Ki = 77 mM) reactions. The mechanism of the cMDHTs reactivity was investigated kinetically by the product inhibition approach. The results of this study are qualitatively consistent with an Ordered Bi Bi reaction mechanism, in which only the coenzymes can react with the free enzyme.

  15. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995

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    Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

  16. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  17. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.

  18. Management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals.

  19. A Taenia crassiceps factor induces apoptosis of spleen CD4+T cells and TFG-β and Foxp3 gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, N; Tirado, R; Copitin, N; Solano, S; Fernández, A M; Tato, P; Molinari, J L

    2016-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a parasite substance produces structural pathology in the mouse spleen. A low-molecular-weight Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor (MF) isolated from the peritoneal fluid of female mice infected with T. crassiceps metacestodes induced pathological and immunological changes in mouse spleen cells in vivo. Electron microscopy and confocal microscopy revealed severe changes in the spleen histoarchitecture of T. crassiceps-infected and MF-treated mice. Apoptotic degenerated spleen cells were observed in the white and red pulps and were more conspicuous in the white pulp of the spleen from the T. crassiceps-infected mice than in that of the MF-treated mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the numbers of spleen CD4+T cells were significantly lower in both experimental groups than in control mice. The ex vivo expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and factor Foxp3 were significantly higher in splenocytes of the experimental mice than the basal expression observed in the control cells. These findings may have potential applications for a better understanding of the host-parasite relationship in human neurocysticercosis.

  20. Permeability studies on taenid metacestodes: I. Uptake of proteins by larval stages of Taenia taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustead, S T; Williams, J F

    1977-04-01

    Host immunoglobulins of several different classes were detected within the bladder fluids of Taenia taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus. Radioiodinated proteins were taken up in vitro by larvae of both T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps and were shown to retain their physicochemical and antigenic characteristics. Rates of uptake were similar in the 2 species and were not related to the molecular weight of the proteins. Immunoglobulins were taken up both in vitro and in vivo by larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Absorbed immunoglobulins were shown to retain both antigen binding capacity and biologic functions associated with the Fc portion of the molecules. Not all cysts of E. granulosus contained detectable host proteins. Uptake of 125I occurred when hydatid cysts were exposed to labeled proteins in vitro, but it appeared that rapid degradation of the labeled carrier led to the appearance of dialysable fragments. This may be attributable to proteolysis within the bladder fluid. We conclude that taeniid metacestodes are capable of absorbing a variety of proteins, and that these macromolecules can retain their structural and functional integrity following transport. This absorptive capacity accounts for the presence of host serum components within bladder fluids.

  1. Freeze-etch characterization of the teguments of three metacestodes: Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia crassiceps, and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, G A; Marchiondo, A A; Williams, J F; Andersen, F L

    1983-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the teguments of metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia crassiceps, and Taenia taeniaeformis using the freeze-etch technique. Metacestodes of E. granulosus (19 mo old), T. crassiceps (28 days old), and T. taeniaeformis (34 days old) from gerbils, mice and rats, respectively, were fixed for 2 hr in 3% glutaraldehyde and then prepared for freeze-etching and thin sectioning by standard techniques. Freeze-etch replicas of the teguments of all three species displayed morphologic characteristics that were generally in agreement with previous ultrastructural work, although some new features and interpretations arose from use of this technique. For each species there was a concentric ring structure within the microthrix base, and cytoplasmic extensions of the perikarya into the distal tegument were membrane-bound rather than confluent bridges; these extensions frequently branched within the tegument. In addition, channels running from the proximal tegumental membrane to, and opening at the distal surface of, the tegument were seen in thin sections.

  2. Protein and antigen diversity in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from naturally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

  3. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1 Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

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    Daniel Montero-Barrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1 recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1−/− mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1−/− macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1−/− mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1−/− mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1−/− macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  4. The macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1) recognizes Taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  5. 未成熟与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白双向电泳的图谱分析%Total Protein Analysis of Immature and Mature Cysticerci of Taenia solium by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    为从蛋白质水平揭示猪带绦虫入侵中间宿主家猪的免疫逃避机制,应用双向电泳技术分析未成熟与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白质表达差异,进行双向电泳图像软件分析.结果表明:未成熟猪囊尾蚴与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白的双向电泳凝胶上分别有(217±13)个、(241±17)个蛋白斑点,未成熟猪囊尾蚴表达上调2倍以上的蛋白有6个,下调2倍以上的蛋白有2个.%In order to explore the immune-escape mechanisms of the T. solium cysticercus on the protein level, the differentially expressed proteins of the immature and mature T. solium cysticerci were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis respectively and analyzed by ImageMaster 2D Plantinum 6. 0 software. The results showed that the immature and mature T. solium cysticerci have 217 13 and 241 17 protein spots respectively, the immature T. solium cysticerci have six proteins of more than two times upregulation and two proteins of more than two times downregulation compared to the mature T. solium cysticerci.

  6. HISTOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON TAENIA SOLIUM CYSTICERCI IN THE DEVELOPMENT%发育过程中的猪带绦虫囊尾蚴的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永杰; 郝艳红; 李庆章

    2002-01-01

    Objective To systematically study the changes of histological structure of Taenia solium cysticerci in the development. Methods At the different periods after infected with T. solium eggs, pigs were autopsied and blocks of the tissues with cysticerci were made into histological sections. Results The developmental extent of cysticerci was variable in the different parts or even a same part in a same host. The youngest cysticerci were observed in skeletal muscles 19 days after infection. Histological examination revealed obvious early development of scolex. No cysticerci were found in other tissues or organs. 30 days after the infection, hooklets and brood suckers had appeared in the cysticerci from skeletal muscles. With the duration of infection, scolex began to differentiate and possessed suckers and fewer folds. At 60 days, there were a larger sucker and more folds. The cysticerci at 70 days and afterward were similar to those seen at 60 days in histology. In every developmental stage there existed degenerated cysticerci. Conclusion The appearing of cysticerci is at about 19 days and the mature is at about 60 days after infection. During the development the bladder wall was a transitory embryo, on the basis of which the scolex developed.%目的系统地研究猪囊尾蚴发育过程中的组织结构变化. 方法仔猪感染猪带绦虫卵不同时间后剖杀,取囊尾蚴寄生部位作病理组织学检查. 结果同一宿主不同部位甚至同一宿主同一部位囊尾蚴的组织结构发育程度不同.感染后19 d在骨骼肌中即有幼年期囊尾蚴出现,组织学检查显示了头节的早期发育,其他组织器官内未发现有囊尾蚴寄生.感染后30 d骨骼肌内寄生的囊尾蚴出现小钩及吸盘的雏形.随着猪囊尾蚴体内发育时间的延长,头节区逐渐分化,出现吸盘及折叠.感染后60 d,骨骼肌内寄生的囊尾蚴头节区出现较大的吸盘和大量折叠.70 d以后的囊尾蚴在组织学结构上和60 d

  7. Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads

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    Karen E. Nava-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC’s, which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. We wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES, an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. In all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads than males, and neonatal DES administration did not modify this pattern. In the spleen, noninfected mice showed sex-related differences in the percentage of the CD8+ subpopulation, but DES decreased the percentage of CD3+, CD19+, and CD8+ subpopulations in infected mice. In the mesenteric lymphatic node (MNL, DES showed a dimorphic effect in the percentage of CD19+ cells. Regarding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α expression, DES treatment induced a reduction in the expression of this receptor in both noninfected female and male mice in the spleen, which was decreased only in males in CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in MNL cell subpopulations. Our study is the first one to demonstrate that DES neonatal treatment in male and female mice affects the immune cell percentage, without effect on the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis.

  8. Evaluation of IgG4 and total IgG antibodies against cysticerci and peptide antigens for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Khotsri, Piyarat; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Morakote, Nimit

    2008-12-01

    To support the clinical diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC), we evaluated two peptides, HP6-3 and Ts45W-1, as well as crude saline extract (SE) of Tenia solium cysticerci as antigens for the detection of specific IgG4 subclass and total IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sera of definitive diagnosed NCC patients, patients infected with other parasitoses and healthy controls were examined. The diagnostic sensitivity for IgG4 and total IgG detection of the ELISA against SE antigen was 100% and 64.3% with a high amount of cross-reactions to taeniasis saginata at 88.9% (8/9) and 100% (9/9), respectively. The SE-based IgG4-ELISA showed the highest specificity (80.9%). Both peptide-based IgG4-ELISAs provided a superior sensitivity (78.6%) to the total IgG tests whereas their specificity was 66.7% for HP6-3 and 69.8% for Ts45W-1 only. The SE-based ELISA for the detection of specific IgG4 antibody can be used for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis as well as for serological surveys of NCC endemic areas. The peptide-based IgG4 ELISAs potentially provide a reliable and cost effective alternative method independent from live parasite supply.

  9. Inactivation effect of 60Co gamma ray on cysticerci of Taenia solium in pork%60Coγ射线对猪肉中囊尾蚴的辐照杀灭效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟凯; 高翔; 计融

    2011-01-01

    Objective revealing the relationship between irradiation dose and inactivation ratio for eysticerei of Taenia solium in pork, determining the minimal dose for totally killing cysticerci and providing scientific evidence for setting up relevant hygienic standards of radiation. Methods After Taenia solium infected pork being treated with different irradiation doses; cysticerci were separated and incubated in fresh swine bile. The adjusted inactivation ratio was calculated according to the survival rate. Results There was a linear correlation between irradiation dose and adjusted inactivation ratio, the D10 value was about 3.8 kGy, and a totally killing could be achieved by 4.5 kGy irradiation. Conclusion Irradiation at a dose of 4.5 kGy could be applied as the maximum dose to inactivate cysticerci of Taenia solium in pork processing.%目的 揭示猪肉中囊尾蚴灭活率与辐照剂量的相关关系及最小杀灭剂量,为制定相应辐照卫生规范提供科学依据.方法 以不同剂量Co γ射线处理感染囊尾蚴的猪肉,并用新鲜猪胆汁孵化剥离出的囊尾蚴,根据成活率计算校正灭活率.结果 辐照剂量与校正灭活率具有线性相关,D值约为3.8 kGy,4.5 kGy可完全杀灭囊尾蚴.结论 4.5 kGy γ射线对猪肉中囊尾蚴有很好的杀灭效果.

  10. Evaluación de cisticerco de taenia crassiceps como antígeno sustituto para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

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    Sonia Agudelo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis (NCC se requiere de extractos antigénicos obtenidos de los cisticercos de Taenia solium (T.so, lo cual presenta dificultades técnicas por la difícil consecución de cerdos naturalmente infectados (1. Sin embargo, los extractos antigénicos obtenidos de Taenia crassiceps (T.cra muestran una alta homología con los de T.so, brindando ventajas en la producción de antígenos para implementar en técnicas serológicas (2,3. Nuestro grupo ha venido trabajando en la búsqueda de alternativas para el diagnóstico serológico de cisticercosis humana y porcina en
    Colombia y en el establecimiento de un modelo animal de fácil mantenimiento que permita la obtención de cisticercos a gran escala.

     

     

  11. Evaluación del Cisticerco Longicollis de Taenia Crassiceps como Fuente de Antígeno para el Diagnóstico de la Neurocisticercosis.

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    Jorge Humberto Botero Garcés

    2004-03-01

    >

    La sensibilidad del inmunoblot se ha visto afectada por el diseño metodológico, la evolución de la enfermedad y principalmente el tipo de antígeno utilizado Para evitar estos inconvenientes, algunos grupos de investigadores han realizado un gran esfuerzo por buscar cisticercos de otras Taenias que compartan moléculas con T. solium y puedan ser utilizados como antígenos heterólogos para las pruebas inmunológicas, por lo que se ha planteado la posibilidad de emplear el cisticerco longicollis de Taenia crassiceps. Taenia crassiceps es un metacéstodo que infecta de forma natural a los zorros rojos (Vulpes vulpes, lobos (Canis lupuis y otros pequeños roedores hasta ahora reportados en Europa y Ontario (20, presenta una alta tasa de reproducción, la cual se debe a la propiedad de reproducirse asexualmente por gemación en la zona opuesta al éscolex tanto en la parte externa como en la parte interna del cisticerco, una característica que muy pocos parásitos pueden desarrollar (4.

    Cuando se realizan infecciones orales experimentales de hospederos intermediarios incluyendo al ratón, los huevos ingeridos se desarrollan como metacéstodos en la fascia, el tejido muscular, el tejido peritoneal, el riñón, el pericardio, etc, mientras que cuando se realizan infecciones por inoculación intraperitoneal, los cisticercos se quedan confinados en la cavidad abdominal (4.

    Algunos estudios comparativos entre cisiticerco longicollis y cisticerco cellulosae han demostrado que los antígenos de T. crassiceps pueden ser tan sensibles y específicos como los de T. solium (1,9-12. García y colaboradores sugieren que el antígeno obtenido de T. solium puede ser sustituido por el antígeno obtenido de T. crassiceps pues además de reaccionar cruzadamente con los péptidos de c. cellulosae en las pruebas inmunológicas y de obtenerse una muy buena reproducibilidad, ofrece varias ventajas por cuanto puede ser fácilmente mantenido en animales de laboratorio, lo que representa la

  12. Permeability studies on taeniid metacestodes: II. Antibody-mediated effects on membrane permeability in larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis and Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustead, S T; Williams, J F

    1977-04-01

    Incubation in immune rat serum (IRS) was shown to increase the rate of absorption of 125I RNase-A but not 125I BSA by larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps. This effect required a heat labile factor in serum, and partial activity could be restored in heat-treated IRS by adding normal rat serum (NRS) as a source of complement. In addition, the effectiveness of IRS in altering permeability was shown to be dependent on the concentration of functional complement. Both live and dead larvae incubated in NRS rapidly depleted hemolytic complement levels in the surrounding medium. Immunoglobulin fractions from IRS separated by anion exchange chromatography and and gel filtration were tested in the presence of excess complement for their ability to affect uptake of 125I RNase-A. Enhanced permeability was observed in larvae incubated in each fraction. The results show that antibodies in conjunction with complement are capable of disrupting larval permeability control in vitro. The observation that larvae were able to restore normal control as complement levels declined suggests that the parasites may overcome this immunologic effector mechanism by interfering with complement function.

  13. Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-10-18

    Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis.

  14. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis by using semi-purified scolex antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci Imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana usando antígenos semipurificados de escolex de cisticercos de Taenia solium

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    Francesco Iudici Neto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude antigen and semi-purified proteins from scolices of Taenia solium cysticerci were evaluated for the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis neurocysticercosis. Semi-purified proteins obtained by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and by electroelution were tested by means of the immunoenzymatic reaction against sera from normal individuals and from patients with neurocysticercosis or other parasitic diseases. The 100kDa protein provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the immunodiagnosis. When 95 or 26kDa proteins were used, 95 and 100% sensitivity and specificity were obtained, respectively. The assays involving crude antigen and sera from normal individuals or from patients with neurocysticercosis, diluted to 1:256, gave excellent agreement with those in which 100, 95 or 26kDa proteins were tested against the same serum samples diluted to 1:64. (Kappa: 0.95 to 1.00. Crude scolex antigen may be useful for serological screening, while 100, 95 or 26kDa protein can be used in confirmatory tests on neurocysticercosis-positive cases.Antígeno bruto e proteínas semipurificadas de escóleces de cisticercos de Taenia solium foram avaliados para o imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana neurocisticercose. As proteínas semipurificadas, obtidas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição, foram testadas na reação imunoenzimática contra soros de indivíduos normais e de pacientes com neurocisticercose ou outras parasitoses. A proteína de 100kDa proporcionou 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade no imunodiagnóstico. Quando a proteína de 95 ou 26kDa foi empregada, foram obtidos 95 e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. Os ensaios envolvendo antígeno bruto e soros de indivíduos normais ou de pacientes com neurocisticercose, diluídos a 1:256, tiveram ótima concordância com aqueles onde a proteína de 100, 95 ou 25kDa foi testada contra os mesmas amostras de soro diluídas a 1:64 (Kappa: 0

  15. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections.

  16. Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador

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    Luis Escalante

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 % of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 % were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years and in the oldest (51-60 years group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

  17. Fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by Cysticercus longicollis in a captive ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alić, Amer; Hodžić, Adnan; Škapur, Vedad; Alić, Alma Šeho; Prašović, Senad; Duscher, Georg G

    2017-07-15

    Here we describe fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by Cysticercus longicollis, the larval stage of Taenia crassiceps in a 15-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) from Sarajevo Zoo. After sudden death, the lemur was subjected to necropsy and large multicystic structure, subdivided with fibrous septa and filled with numerous translucent, oval to ellipsoid bladder-like cysts (cysticerci), almost completely replacing right lung lobe was observed. In addition, numerous free and encysted cysticerci were found in the thoracic cavity. Histopathology revealed connective tissue outlined cavities that compress lung parenchyma. Each cavity contained several thin walled cysticerci with single inverted protoscolex, one or more suckers and rostelum with two rows of hooks. In many of the cysticerci one or several exogenous buds of daughter cysticerci were observed. Based on morphology and microscopic appearance the parasite was identified as C. longicollis. Subsequent molecular analysis and sequencing confirmed presumptive diagnosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of T. crassiceps and cysticercosis caused by C. longicollis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Total Protein Analysis by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis in Cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica%猪带绦虫囊尾蚴与亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴蛋白双向电泳图谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80 000 Taenia solium or T. Asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Plantinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236±12) and (231 ±14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. Solium and T. Asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-lated in T- scutum rt-Tir^rrus iiy 2-fold or more compared with those in T. Asioiica cystirercua-%将2头20日龄三元杂交乳猪分别感染猪带绦虫虫卵和亚洲带绦虫虫卵,8×104个/头.感染后40 d分别收集寄生在肝脏的未成熟猪带绦虫囊尾蚴(简称猪囊尾蚴)和亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴,制备囊尾蚴蛋白,并进行蛋白双向电泳分析,用ImageMaster 2D Plantinum 6.0软件分析差异表达蛋白.结果显示,感染后40 d肝脏寄生的未成熟猪囊尾蚴和亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴蛋白的双向电泳凝胶上分别有(236±12)和(231±14)个蛋白斑点,差异表达2倍以上的蛋白共10个,其中猪囊尾蚴表达上调的蛋白3个,下调的蛋白7个.

  19. Taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in individuals of a peasants' settlement (Teodoro Sampaio, Pontal of Paranapanema, SP, Brazil

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    Prestes-Carneiro Luiz Euribel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in a population of a peasants' settlement, located at Teodoro Sampaio, state of São Paulo, Brazil (longitude 52degrees 36'12 ", latitude 22degrees 17'12 " a series of laboratory markers were determined. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a standardized questionnaire. To determine anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies, the samples were tested by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay using 18-and 14-kDa antigen proteins from vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Total IgE levels were determined by chemmiluminescence's assay and hemogram by flow cytometer flux counter. A total of 84 individuals, 5.9% presented anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in ELISA and 3.6% were strongly reactive in the 18/14 kDa immunoblotting confirmatory test. All of the individuals with positive antibodies showed elevated Total IgE levels. We conclude that the frequency of anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in this population is higher than other regions considered endemic in São Paulo. Thus, it is important to carry out surveys in Peasants' settlement areas with the objective of establishing public health measures for prevention and control of infectious diseases such as taeniosis-cysticercosis.

  20. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase in T. solium, as has been described for very few other platyhelminths.

  1. Gender-Associated Differential Expression of Cytokines in Specific Areas of the Brain During Helminth Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O.; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host–parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network. PMID:25495255

  2. Murine cysticercosis model: influence of the infection time and the time of treatment on the cysticidal efficacy of albendazole and praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Pinzón-Estrada, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, Taenia crassiceps ORF strain cysticerci have been used instead of T. solium for in vitro studies. Up to date, the main criteria for the use of the murine cysticercosis model for drug efficacy evaluation have not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two of the main variables related to the in vivo efficacy: the length of drug treatment and the starting time of treatment after experimental infection, using albendazole (ABZ) and praziquantel (PZQ) as test drugs. Additionally, the relationship between the number of cysts and the parasite weight was assessed. For the study, female BALB/c mice were experimentally infected with T. crassiceps cysts. Three different post-infection periods (10, 20 and 30 days) and three different lengths of treatment with ABZ or PZQ (10, 20 and 30 days) were selected. The efficacy of each treatment was evaluated by comparison with a control group. Our results show that for in vivo efficacy studies, the best time to start the drug treatment is 10 days post-infection and that a minimum of 20 days of treatment is required when ABZ or PZQ are used as positive control. Moreover, in this model the parasite weight can be used as a rapid tool to measure the in vivo drug activity.

  3. Towards the development of an oral vaccine against porcine cysticercosis: expression of the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen in transgenic carrots cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Hernández, Marisela; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Garate, Teresa; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    The Taenia solium HP6/TSOL18 antigen was produced in carrot cells, yielding an immunogenic protein that induced significant protection in an experimental murine model against T. crassiceps cysticercosis when orally administered. This result supports the potential of HP6/TSOL18-carrot as a low-cost anti-cysticercosis vaccine candidate. Cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by Taenia solium that can be prevented by interrupting the parasite life cycle through pig vaccination. Several injectable vaccine candidates have been reported, but the logistic difficulties and costs for its application limited its use in nationwide control programs. Oral plant-based vaccines can deal with this limitation, because of their easy administration and low cost. A stable expression of the HP6/TSOL18 anti-T. solium cysticercosis protective antigen in carrot calli transformed with an optimized transgene is herein reported. An antigen accumulation up to 14 µg g(-1) of dry-weight biomass was achieved in the generated carrot lines. Mouse immunization with one of the transformed calli induced both specific IgG and IgA anti-HP6/TSOL18 antibodies. A statistically significant reduction in the expected number of T. crassiceps cysticerci was observed in mice orally immunized with carrot-made HP6/TSOL18, in a similar extent to that obtained by subcutaneous immunization with recombinant HP6/TSOL18 protein. In this study, a new oral plant-made version of the HP6/TSOL18 anti-cysticercosis vaccine is reported. The vaccine candidate should be further tested against porcine cysticercosis.

  4. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  5. Tamoxifen treatment in hamsters induces protection during taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.

  6. Experimental neurocysticercosis: absence of IL-4 induces lower encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelberto Matos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most severe clinical manifestation of cysticercosis. One of the factors responsible for its symptomatology is the host inflammatory response. Therefore the influence of interleukin 4 (IL-4 on the induction of encephalitis in experimental NCC was evaluated. Methods BALB/c (WT and BALB/c (IL-4-KO mice were inoculated intracranially with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and euthanized at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days later, the encephala removed and histopathologically analyzed. Results The absence of IL-4 induced greater parasitism. In the initial phase of the infection, IL-4-KO showed a lower intensity in the inflammatory infiltration of polimorphonuclear cells in the host-parasite interface and intra-parenquimatous edema. The IL-4-KO animals, in the late phase of the infection, showed lower intensity of ventriculomegaly, encephalitis, and meningitis, and greater survival of the parasites in comparison with the WT animals. Conclusion The absence of IL-4 induced lower inflammatory infiltration, ventriculomegaly and perivasculitis in experimental NCC.

  7. Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.

  8. Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock. PMID:23509701

  9. Comparison of biochemical and immunochemical properties of myosin II in taeniid parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, M; Reyes-Torres, A; Reynoso-Ducoing, O; Flisser, A; Ambrosio, J R

    2006-07-01

    Type II myosins are highly conserved proteins, though differences have been observed among organisms, mainly in the filamentous region. Myosin isoforms have been identified in Taenia solium, a helminth parasite of public health importance in many developing countries. These isoforms are probably associated with the physiological requirements of each developmental stage of the parasite. In this paper we extend the characterization of myosin to several other Taenia species. Type II myosins were purified from the larvae (cysticerci) of Taenia solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps and the adult stages of T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. saginata. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against some of these myosins were specific at high dilutions but cross-reacted at low dilutions. ATPase activity was evaluated and kinetic values were calculated for each myosin. Homologous actin-myosin interactions increased both the affinity of myosin for ATP and the hydrolysis rate. The results indicate immunological and biochemical differences among taeniid myosins. This variability suggests that different isoforms are found not only in different taeniid species but also at different developmental stages. Further characterization of myosin isoforms should include determination of their amino acid composition.

  10. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Romano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  11. Crosstalk among Taenia crassiceps (ORF Strain Cysts Regulates Their Rates of Budding by Ways of Soluble and Contact Signals Exchanged between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivel-Velázquez Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per mL of culture medium show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. Close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. Thus, contact signals, together with the release of soluble growth factors, could endow cysts with the capacity to sense and regulate their numbers inside their habitat in relation to their population density.

  12. Crosstalk among Taenia crassiceps (ORF Strain) cysts regulates their rates of budding by ways of soluble and contact signals exchanged between them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcela, Esquivel-Velázquez; Ricardo, Hernández; Carlos, Larralde; Pedro, Ostoa-Saloma

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per mL of culture medium) show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. Close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. Thus, contact signals, together with the release of soluble growth factors, could endow cysts with the capacity to sense and regulate their numbers inside their habitat in relation to their population density.

  13. REACTIONS OF THE HOSTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF Taenia solium CYSTICERCI%猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)囊尾蚴发育过程中的周围宿主反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永杰; 郝艳红; 李庆章

    2003-01-01

    首次系统地研究了猪囊尾蚴发育过程中的周围宿主反应.结果显示,宿主炎性细胞在囊尾蚴周围出现有先后顺序.初期以嗜中性粒细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞和淋巴细胞为主,随后巨噬细胞及上皮样细胞开始出现,并在虫体周围呈围墙样增生,最后在虫体外围形成结缔组织包囊.从病理组织学结果可以看出,嗜酸性粒细胞是虫体开始遭到破坏的决定细胞.

  14. Ultrastructural Observation on Taenia solium Cysticerci in Development%猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)囊尾蚴发育过程的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳兵; 李庆章; 郝艳红

    2005-01-01

    系统地研究了猪囊尾蚴发育过程中超微结构的变化.5头仔猪,分别经口服感染3节猪带绦虫孕卵节片,于感染后不同时期剖杀,剥离囊尾蚴.取囊壁和头颈部,作透射电镜观察.观察结果表明,随感染时间的延长,猪囊尾蚴细胞或组织的类型未发生明显变化,只在大小或发育程度上有所增加.头节和囊壁均由皮层和实质区构成,但二者的超微结构有差别.头节肌肉较发达,皮层外表面的微毛较短,基质区线粒体较少,实质区糖原颗粒不及囊壁贮存多,并且排泄管也较少.提示二者可能执行不同的功能:囊壁与营养吸收有关,而头节可能与将来的发育有关.

  15. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Maravilla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

  16. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Pablo; Valera, Aldo; Souza, Valeria; Martinez-Gordillo, Mario; Flisser, Ana

    2003-12-01

    Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

  17. Infectivity of irradiated and non-irradiated metacestodes of Taenia saginata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerts, S.; Borchgrave, J. de; Brandt, J.R.A.; Kumar, V.; Deken, R. de; Falla, N.; Brabant, R. van (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium). Veterinary Dept.)

    No data are available on the fate of irradiated cysticerci of T. saginata in the human intestine. Since there is no definitive host of T. saginata other than man, this experiment was set up to study the infectivity of irradiated cysticerci of T. saginata in human volunteers in order to determine the minimal effective irradiation dose to inhibit their development. (Author).

  18. Sex-Associated Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules CD80, CD86, and Accessory Molecules, PDL-1, PDL-2 and MHC-II, in F480+ Macrophages during Murine Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cristián Togno-Peirce; Karen Nava-Castro; Luis Ignacio Terrazas; Jorge Morales-Montor

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between T. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. Also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. Here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules MHC-II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2 on peritoneal F4/80hi macrophages of BALB/c mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to T. crassiceps total extract (TcEx). BALB/c Females...

  19. [Killing Effect of Carpesium abrotanoides on Taenia asiatica Cysticercus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Wang, Heng

    2015-06-01

    The cysticerci of Taenia asiatica were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of water decoction of Carpesium abrotanoides (20, 40, and 60 mg/ml). The killing effect of C. abrotanoides on T. asiatica and the morphological change of cysticerci were observed under microscope 24 hours post-culture. The water decoction of C. abrotanoides showed significant killing effect on the cysticerci. The mortality of the parasites(95.0%, 57/60) was highest in 60 mg/ml group. The dead body of cysticercus shows shrunken with the enlarged scolex, and sucker tissue degenerated.

  20. Influence of the cerebrospinal fluid laboratory parameters in the ELISA test for neurocysticercosis using a total cysticerci antigen Influência dos parâmetros laboratoriais do líquido cefalorraquidiano no teste ELISA para neurocisticercose utilizando antígeno total de cisticerco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Casanova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters may influence the cysticercosis immunoreactivity response in the CSF. CSF samples of 109 patients were analyzed and classified in three groups, according to the neurological manifestations and the reactivity in antibody-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA testing in CSF for neurocysticercosis (NC: group A, 18 patients with neurological disorders compatible with NC and reactive Ab-ELISA in CSF for NC; group B, 50 patients with neurological disorders non-compatible with NC and reactive Ab-ELISA for NC; group C, 41 patients with neurological disorders non-compatible with NC and non-reactive Ab-ELISA in CSF for NC. The CSF analysis in group A was compatible with NC. The group B in comparison to the groups A and C presents higher frequency and intensity of hypercytosis, presence of red blood cells in CSF, protein concentration and immunological reactive test for other etiological agents (pAvaliar se os parâmetros do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR podem influenciar na reatividade da resposta imune específica do LCR na neurocisticercose (NC. Amostras de LCR de 109 pacientes foram analisadas e classificadas em três grupos, de acordo com as manifestações neurológicas e reatividade do teste de Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR. Grupo A, 18 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas compatíveis com NC e reatividade do teste Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR; grupo B, 50 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas não compatíveis com NC e reatividade do teste Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR; grupo C, 41 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas não compatíveis com NC e na ausência de reatividade do teste de Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR. A análise do LCR do grupo A foi compatível com NC. O grupo B apresentou maior freqüência e intensidade da pleocitose, da presença de hemácias no LCR, hiperproteinorraquia, reatividade imune para outros agentes etiológicos em comparação aos grupos A e C (p<0.05. Os dados indicam que o processo inflamatório e os elevados níveis de concentração da proteína no LCR podem influenciar na ocorrência de reações falso positivas de Ab-ELISA para NC. Destacamos a importância da correlação clínico-laboratorial para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose e o uso de testes laboratoriais confirmatórios.

  1. Disease: H01047 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01047 Cysticercosis Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is endemic in many poorer co...r ingestion of undercooked pork infected with cysticerci. Infection of the human nervous system by T. solium

  2. Experimental infection in cattle: kinetics of production of IgM and IgG against bovine cysticercosis and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Paola Meneguete dos Guimarães-Peixoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that affects humans in their adult form (taeniasis and its larval is found inserted in the musculature of infected cattle (cysticerci. It is still not entirely clear how animal immune response against infection occurs, being the comprehension of this process necessary for the enhancement of diagnostic capacity and disease prevention. This work aimed to evaluate the evolution of the immune response in experimentally infected cattle, compared with findings in cell response by optical microscopy. Nine animals were infected at a rate of 120,000 eggs of Taenia saginata. Five of the animals were similar in the kinetics of antibody production against cysticerci, with maximal levels of IgG and IgM. The other four animals showed an immune response different from the majority, with two of them showing delayed response to infection by cysticerci while the others apparently did not have initial contact with antigens secreted by cysticerci. Regarding the cellular response, it was found that, in lesions of viable cysticerci, inflammatory cells predominated, whereas in nonviable cysticerci there were tissue repair cells in the most part, being possible to notice that the amount of migratory calcareous corpuscles are related to the death stage of the parasite. These findings are important for the understanding immune response of cattle infected with cysticercosis.

  3. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis using Taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. Results strongly support that the different versions of S3Pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. The data also support the validity of T. crassiceps murine cysticercosis as an effective tool to identify vaccine candidates against some metacestode infections.

  4. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Wnt4 gene in metacestodes of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-04-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium.

  5. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated.

  6. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  7. Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by detecting live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wanzala

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available An ante mortem antigen-ELISA-based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n = 24 and naturally (n = 25 infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in naturally infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificial infections it was above 14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves, and 1 and 2 live cysticerci in naturally infected steers, escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harbouring dead cysticerci gave negative reactions in the assay as was the case in non-infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially infected calves (r = 0.798, n = 24 ; P < 0.05 and naturally infected steers (r = 0.631, n = 25 ; P < 0.05. These results clearly show the potential effectiveness of ante mortem monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in cattle. Its value lies in the diagnosis of infection in cattle as a screening test in a herd, rather than as a diagnostic test at the individual level, due to false positive and negative reactions. In a herd of heavily infected cattle, the assay may, however, provide for individual diagnosis. Nevertheless, more work is recommended to increase its sensitivity so as to be able to diagnose light infections consistently in the field.

  8. Parasites of red foxes in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H J

    1978-07-01

    Sixty-one red foxes from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were examined for helminths. Alaria americana, A. arisaemoides, A. mustelae, Cryptocotyle lingua, Echinostoma revolution and Metorchis conjunctus, Capillaria aerophila, Crenosoma vulpis, Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala and Taenia crassiceps were found. Approximately 67% of the foxes examined were clinically affected with Sarcoptes scabiei mange.

  9. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.

  10. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.

  11. Novel Rat Model for Neurocysticercosis Using Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verastegui, Manuela R.; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  12. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis.

  13. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.;

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it i...

  14. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  15. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy.

  16. The 10 kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes shows genus specific antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S K; Yun, D H; Chung, J Y; Kong, Y; Cho, S Y

    2000-09-01

    Genus specific antigenicity of the 10 kDa protein in cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestodes was demonstrated by comparative immunoblot analysis. When CFs from taeniid metacestodes of T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps were probed with specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against 150 kDa protein of T. solium metacestodes, specific antibody reactions were observed in 7 and 10 kDa proteins of T. solium and in 7/8 kDa of T. saginata, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps. The mAb did not react with any protein in hydatid fluid of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. This result revealed that the 10 kDa peptide of T. solium metacestodes and its equivalent proteins of different Taenia metacestodes are genus specific antigens that are shared among different Taenia species.

  17. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Two Populations of Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, P.N.S.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2017-01-01

    Parasitological examination of 275 faecal samples from Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) collected at Zackenberg Valley and Karupelv Valley in north-east Greenland from 2006 to 2008 was conducted using sieving and microscopy. Overall, 125 (45.5%) samples contained parasite eggs of Taenia crassiceps......, Taenia serialis, Toxascaris leonina, Eucoleus boehmi, Physalopteridae and Ancylostomatidae, and Strongyloides-like larvae. As long-term ecological studies are conducted at both sampling locations, the present findings constitute a baseline data set for further parasitological monitoring....

  18. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Stephanie A. Amici; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Lindsay M Webb; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity o...

  19. The specificity of somatic and metabolic Taenia taeniaeformis preparations in murine metacestode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J R; Sewell, M M

    1983-09-01

    Excretory-secretory and somatic preparations of Taenia taeniaeformis contained shared immunologically-active components although immunoelectrophoresis indicated that the major antigen present in the excretory-secretory preparation was only a minor component of the somatic preparation. Both antigens gave similar immunoelectrophoretic reactions with sera from mice infected with either T. taeniaeformis or Taenia crassiceps, but there was evidence from the results using the ELISA technique that the excretory-secretory components showed more species specificity than those of somatic origin.

  20. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of β-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  1. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Amici, Stephanie A.; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Webb, Lindsay M.; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show two distinct populations of AAMϕs, based on the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 molecules, resulting upon T. crassiceps infection. Adoptive transfer of Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to PD-L1+/PD-L2+, but not PD-L1+/PD-L2− cells in T. crassiceps-infected mice, demonstrating that the PD-L1+/PD-L2+ subpopulation of AAMϕs originates from blood monocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of PD-L1+/PD-L2+ AAMϕs into EAE induced mice reduced disease incidence, delayed disease onset, and diminished the clinical disability, indicating the critical role of these cells in the regulation of autoimmune disorders. PMID:28094319

  2. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E; Terrazas, César A; Reyes, Jose L; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins.

  3. Animal cysticercosis in indigenous Brazilian villages Cisticercose animal em aldeias indígenas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Carvalho de Aragão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary inspection of beef and pork meat has been the major tool for diagnosing animal cysticercosis and for preventing taeniasis in Brazil. The indigenous villages Jaguapiru and Bororo are located close to the urban area of the municipality of Dourados in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, where precarious basic sanitation conditions are observed. Both cattle and pigs are raised for self-consumption of meat and milk as well as for sale on the external market, generally without official sanitary inspection. In this study, 96 bovine carcasses and 117 pig blood serum samples from animals raised in these indigenous villages were evaluated for the presence of metacestodes by postmortem evaluation, and anti-Taenia sp. antibodies were investigated using the indirect ELISA test. Metacestode forms were observed in 18.7% of the bovine carcasses, and 9.4% of the pig serum samples were positive for anti-Taenia sp. antibodies. The occurrence of animal cysticercosis in the villages may favor the occurrence of this zoonosis in the indigenous populations. Enforcement of proper slaughter and sanitary inspection conditions are urgently needed for controlling the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex among the indigenous population.A inspeção sanitária da carne bovina e suína tem sido a principal forma diagnóstica da cisticercose animal e da prevenção da teníase no Brasil. As aldeias indígenas Jaguapirú e Bororó estão localizadas próximo à área urbana do município de Dourados-MS, com condições precárias de saneamento básico, onde bovinos e suínos são criados como fonte de alimento para consumo próprio, bem como para comercialização externa, geralmente sem inspeção sanitária oficial. Neste estudo, 96 carcaças bovinas e 117 amostras de soro de suínos, criados nas aldeias indígenas, foram avaliadas para a presença de formas metacestóides à inspeção sanitária e de anticorpos anti-Taenia sp. ao teste ELISA, respectivamente

  4. Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis.

  5. MRI and CT patterns of neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S.O.; Rupp, N.; Einsiedel, H. von

    1987-05-01

    MRI and CT manifestations were studied in five cases of neurocysticercosis. As demonstrated by long-term follow-ups the disease usually causes multiple lesions the morphology of which depends on the life cycle of the parasite. Tissue lesions consist of three main types: 1) vital cysticerci, 2) inflammatory parenchymatous reactions following degenerating cysts and 3) calcified granulomas. MRI provides all information that is given by CT except for small calcifications which are usually missed. Morphological details of vital cysticerci like cysts wall and scolex are better outlined by MRI. When i.v. contrast medium is applied, it leads to nodular or annular enhancement of inflamed tissue. The sensitivity of MRI towards edema caused by parasite exceeds that of CT by several weeks. CT and MRI are complementary methods providing at the present time the highest degree of specificity in diagnosing neurocysticercosis.

  6. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA data reveal cryptic species within Taenia krabbei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lehtinen, Markus J; Laaksonen, Sauli; Holmström, Sauli; Isomursu, Marja; Oksanen, Antti; Meri, Seppo

    2010-06-01

    Cysticerci of Taenia sp. from two elks (Alces alces) in Finland were characterized using morphological criteria and sequences of two mitochondrial DNA regions. The host species, size, structure and location of the cysticerci indicated that they might belong to Taenia krabbei, a circumpolar species occurring in a sylvatic life cycle in wild canids and cervids. Based on the number, length and shape of the rostellar hooks, the specimens could not be unambiguously defined as belonging to T. krabbei, T. cervi, T. ovis or T. solium. In the phylogenetic analysis, based on mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data, Taenia sp. was placed as a sister species of T. solium, distant from T. krabbei isolates previously characterized from Svalbard. This indicates that the Finnish and the Svalbard isolates, resembling T. krabbei, cannot represent a single species. The results suggest that careful morphological and genetic analyses of further isolates from intermediate and definitive hosts are required to define the taxonomic status of these two cryptic species.

  8. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.

  9. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Hernández-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis.

  10. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  11. Identification of species and genetic variation in Taenia isolates from human and swine of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Aloukick K; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Chauhan, Ranjeet S; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Pati, Binod K

    2016-10-01

    Taenia solium is the major cause of taeniasis and cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the developing countries including India, but the existence of other Taenia species and genetic variation have not been studied in India. So, we studied the existence of different Taenia species, and sequence variation in Taenia isolates from human (proglottids and cysticerci) and swine (cysticerci) in North India. Amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We identified two species of Taenia i.e. T. solium and Taenia asiatica in our isolates. T. solium isolates showed similarity with Asian genotype and nucleotide variations from 0.25 to 1.01 %, whereas T. asiatica displayed nucleotide variations ranged from 0.25 to 0.5 %. These findings displayed the minimal genetic variations in North Indian isolates of T. solium and T. asiatica.

  12. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  13. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form.

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    Nancy Chile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages.T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development--days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32% of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15-30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages.This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite's immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations.

  14. Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis

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    Singh N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male, presented with insidious onset, gradually progressive, burning paresthesia over the saddle area, sphincteric disturbance, impotence and paraparesis. Investigations revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the conus medullaris suggestive of neurocysticercosis . This was supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci. On treatment with steroids he showed marked improvement.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA diagnosis for taeniasis and cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello Otake; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans on the basis of mitochondrial DNA analysis was reviewed. Development and application of three different methods, including restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, base excision sequence scanning thymine-base analysis and multiplex PCR, were described. Moreover, molecular diagnosis of cysticerci found in specimens submitted for histopathology and the molecular detection of taeniasis using copro-DNA were discussed.

  16. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

    2015-01-01

    Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents ≥ 60 years of age were invited to undergo computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (P = 0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens' medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens' scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (P = 0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings.

  17. Calcified Neurocysticercosis Associates with Hippocampal Atrophy: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J.; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H.

    2015-01-01

    Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents ≥ 60 years of age were invited to undergo computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (P = 0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens' medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens' scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (P = 0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings. PMID:25349375

  18. Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes

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    Abraham Landa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43 kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, αmethyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

  19. Dynamic Pathologic Changes in Pigs Infected with Taenia solium%猪囊尾蚴感染家猪的组织病理学动态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2012-01-01

    将4头20日龄三元杂交乳猪感染猪带绦虫虫卵,8×104个/头,感染后第40、80、120和150天采集有囊尾蚴寄生的肝、肌肉和脑组织,制备病理切片,观察囊尾蚴发育过程中周围组织的病理反应.结果显示,感染第40~80天,肝脏内寄生的囊尾蚴被宿主纤维结缔组织增生形成的外膜包围,与肝组织交界处有大量炎症细胞浸润;感染第120天,大部分囊尾蚴出现死亡或钙化;感染第150天,囊尾蚴已全部死亡或钙化.感染第40天,寄生于骨骼肌和舌肌的囊尾蚴周围有炎症细胞浸润,邻近头节的肌纤维炎症反应较囊壁其余部位严重;感染第80~150天,囊尾蚴周围炎症细胞浸润呈带状分布.心肌的病理反应与骨骼肌和舌肌相似,但浸润的炎症细胞稍多.感染第40天,寄生于脑组织的囊尾蚴周围有少量炎症细胞浸润,感染第80~150天,囊尾蚴周围有大量炎症细胞浸润,形成炎症带.猪囊尾蚴寄生的周围组织的炎症反应随感染时间延长逐渐加强,且肝脏的炎症反应强于肌肉和脑组织的反应.%Four three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected each with 80 000 Taenia solium eggs. One pig was sacrificed respectively at 40, 80, 120, and 150 d post-infection, and tissue samples containing cysticerci were collected for pathological sections. The results showed that in 40-80 days, cysticerci in the liver were surrounded by membrane formed with the hyperplastic fibrous connective tissue and inflammatory cells. On 120* day, a large number of the cysticerci were dead or calcified. On 150* day, all cysticerci died or calcified. On 40* day, the inflammatory cells infiltrated around the cysticerci in the tongue and skeletal muscle, and the inflammatory responses near the scolex were more serious than that near cyst wall. In the 80-150 days, the inflammatory cells showed bandlike distribution. The pathological response in cardiac muscle was similar to that of the skeletal muscle and the

  20. The 10 kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes shows genus specific antigenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Yun, Doo-Hee; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Seung-Yull

    2000-01-01

    Genus specific antigenicity of the 10 kDa protein in cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestodes was demonstrated by comparative immunoblot analysis. When CFs from taeniid metacestodes of T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps were probed with specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against 150 kDa protein of T. solium metacestodes, specific antibody reactions were observed in 7 and 10 kDa proteins of T. solium and in 7/8 kDa of T. saginata, T. taeniaeformis and T. cra...

  1. Cysticercosis in experimentally and naturally infected pigs: parasitological and immunological diagnosis

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    Márcia R.M. da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis by examining "ante mortem" (inspection of the tongue, "post mortem" (inspection and detailed necropsy and ELISA for research in serum of antibodies (Ab-ELISA and antigens (Ag-ELISA. Seven (7 pigs were experimentally infected orally with eggs of Taenia solium and another 10 were naturally infected. In the pigs experimentally infected, inspection of the tongue was negative in all animals, in the routine inspection detailed necropsy and cysticercis were identified in all of them. In pigs with heavy natural infection, inspection of the tongue identified cysticerci in two (20%, while at inspection with necropsy the parasites were identified in large quantities in all animals. In ELISA for antibody search (Ab-ELISA TS-14 recombinant protein was used, and in search for antigen (Ag-ELISA a monoclonal antibody against this protein. In animals experimentally infected, blood was collected weekly for 140 days. The Ab-ELISA identified an increase in titers of antibody to cysticerci 21 days after infection, and at the end of the experimental period six animals (86% were positive to the test. The search for circulating antigens (Ag-ELISA was positive in two pigs 28 to 91 days after infection. All naturally infected pigs were positive for Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA. The search for antibodies and antigens by ELISA in serum from 30 pigs of a local farm and without history of cysticercosis was negative. Thus, the use of TS-14 antigen in ELISA test (Ab-ELISA can be useful for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs with low infection.

  2. Molecular identification of cryptic cysticercosis: Taenia ovis krabbei in wild intermediate and domestic definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, N; Chiari, M; Trogu, T; Gaffuri, A; Garbarino, C; Boniotti, M B; Corradini, C; Lanfranchi, P; Ferrari, N

    2017-03-28

    The complex life cycle of taeniids represents an ideal model of a multi-host system. The complexity of these parasites can therefore cover the epidemiological issues of the interface between wild and domestic animals, especially once spatial overlap between wild and domestic definitive and intermediate hosts occurs. Here we use the occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei in two model areas as an example of this epidemiological complexity. In two contiguous areas in the Italian northern Apennines, two hunted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed numerous cysticerci in the muscles of their whole body and an adult tapeworm was recorded in a semi-stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Through molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene, cysticerci and the adult tapeworm of T. krabbei were identified. Taenia krabbei cysticercosis was recorded for the first time in Italy. Although the role of dogs in the parasite's life cycle emerges, the overlap between wild and domestic definitive hosts and the increase of wild population densities raise concerns about the temporal (old or new) introduction and the spread of this parasite by one of these canid species (wolf (Canis lupus) or dog). Although T. krabbei is not a public health issue, economic concerns emerged for hunters and meat producers, related to the damage of carcasses by cysticerci. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the spread of T. krabbei in the intermediate and definitive host populations, and to ensure the relevant sanitary education for hunters in order to avoid practices that could favour the spread and maintenance of its life cycle.

  3. Visualization and 3D reconstruction of flame cells of Taenia solium (cestoda.

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    Laura E Valverde-Islas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton.

  4. Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

  5. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: Future developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham Iii, Arve Lee

    2006-01-01

    due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated...... with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial...

  6. A CASE SERIES OF CYSTIC LESIONS OF CONJUNCTIVA

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    Srinivas Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the nervous system. The disease occurs when humans become the intermediate host in the life cycle of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food. The most common sites of involvement of cysticerci are soft tissue , eye and central nervous system. Unusual location of the cysts may result in uncommon manifestations. Ocular cysticercosis can involve both the intraocular and extra ocular muscle. Extra ocular muscle cysticercosis is rare. PRESENTATION OF CAS ES : In the department of ophthalmology , G.S.L medical college , Rajahmundry we are reporting 6 cases of cystic lesions of eye

  7. Bruns' syndrome and racemose neurocysticercosis: a case report

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    Roberta Diehl Rodriquez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The parasite may infect the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC. The clinical manifestations depend on load, type, size, location, stage of development of the cysticerci, and the host's immune response against the parasite. The racemose variety occurs in the ventricles or basal cisterns and is a malignant form. Mobile ventricular mass can produce episodic hydrocephalus on changing head posture with attacks of headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head, a phenomenon called Bruns' syndrome (BS. We report a patient with racemose NCC and BS.

  8. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Hul, Anke Van; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  9. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-09-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons.

  10. Improvement of the synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in search of a more effective, inexpensive and manageable vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Morales, Julio; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Blancas, Abel; Acero, Gonzalo; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Bobes, Raul J; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Huerta, Mirna; Diaz-Orea, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; de Aluja, Aline S; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

    2007-02-09

    Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions in production costs and in the logistics of its administration are necessary for the feasibility of nationwide control programs. This review highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration.

  11. Disease Centered Around Calcified Taenia solium Granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Theodore E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium (the pork tapeworm) is present in most developing countries, where it is a frequent cause of seizures and other neurological disease. Parasitic larvae invade the human brain, establish, and eventually resolve, leaving a calcified scar. While these lesions are common in endemic regions, and most of these are clinically silent, a proportion of individuals with calcified cysticerci develop seizures from these lesions, and 30-65% of these cases are associated with perilesional edema (PE), likely due to host inflammation. This manuscript summarizes the importance, characteristics, natural history, and potential prevention and treatments of symptomatic calcified neurocysticercosis (NCC).

  12. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2016-01-01

    , it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected...... and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye...

  13. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia

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    Marion Wassermann

    2015-04-01

    Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6, black-backed jackals (2 of 7 and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12. The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia taeniaeformis (lion, Taenia regis (lions and oryx and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx.

  14. Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizure using ELISA and immunoblot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Maria M I; Peralta, Regina Helena S; Livramento, José A; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Peralta, José M; Vaz, Adelaide J

    2006-01-01

    Sera from 88 patients from Santa Catarina and São Paulo states of Brazil, with epileptic seizures who underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) were analyzed for the detection of antibodies to T. solium cysticercus by ELISA and Immunoblot (IB) with the following antigens: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso), Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-vf) and T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-gp). ELISA carried out with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens showed 95%, 90% and 80% sensitivities, respectively, and 68%, 85% and 93% specificities, respectively. In the epileptic patients group, ELISA positivity was 30%, 51% and 35% with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens respectively. Considering the IB as the confirmatory test, the positivity was 16% (14/88) in the epileptic patients total group and 22% (12/54) in the epileptic patients with positive CT and signals of cysticercosis. We found a significant statistical correlation among ELISA or IB results and the phase of the disease when any antigens were used (p neurocysticercosis (NC) in patients presenting with epileptic seizures because of the high risk of acquiring NC in our region and its potential cause of epilepsy.

  15. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005

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    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.

  16. A non-hepatotropic parasite infection increases mortality in the acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure murine model: possible roles for IL-5 and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A De León-Nava

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a non-hepatotropic parasite infection (Taenia crassiceps on the outcome of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in mice. Uninfected and T. crassiceps infected mice orally received either 300 mg/kg acetaminophen or water as vehicle (n = 5 per group. Survival analysis, hepatocyte necrosis, alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, CYP2E1 protein, interleukin (IL- 5, and IL-6 were assessed for all groups. All infected mice died within 16 h after exposure to acetaminophen (Tc+APAP group, whereas only one-third of uninfected animals exposed to acetaminophen (APAP group died. Uninfected (Control group and infected (Tc group mice that received the vehicle showed no liver damage. Tc+APAP mice exhibited massive liver necrosis characterised by marked balloning degeneration of hepatocytes and higher serum ALT compared to Control, Tc, and APAP animals. Liver tissue from Tc+APAP mice also displayed increased expression of CYP2E1 protein and higher mRNA and protein levels of IL-5 and IL-6 compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that non-hepatotropic parasite infections may increase mortality following acute liver failure by promoting hepatocyte necrosis via IL-5 and IL-6-dependent CYP2E1 overproduction. This study identifies new potential risk factors associated with severe acute liver failure in patients.

  17. A non-hepatotropic parasite infection increases mortality in the acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure murine model: possible roles for IL-5 and IL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Nava, Marco A; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Donis-Maturano, Luis; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselin; Manjarrez-Reyna, Aaron N; Cruz-Avilés, Edgar; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Fragoso, José M; Escobedo, Galileo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a non-hepatotropic parasite infection (Taenia crassiceps) on the outcome of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in mice. Uninfected and T. crassiceps infected mice orally received either 300 mg/kg acetaminophen or water as vehicle (n = 5 per group). Survival analysis, hepatocyte necrosis, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, CYP2E1 protein, interleukin (IL-) 5, and IL-6 were assessed for all groups. All infected mice died within 16 h after exposure to acetaminophen (Tc+APAP group), whereas only one-third of uninfected animals exposed to acetaminophen (APAP group) died. Uninfected (Control group) and infected (Tc group) mice that received the vehicle showed no liver damage. Tc+APAP mice exhibited massive liver necrosis characterised by marked balloning degeneration of hepatocytes and higher serum ALT compared to Control, Tc, and APAP animals. Liver tissue from Tc+APAP mice also displayed increased expression of CYP2E1 protein and higher mRNA and protein levels of IL-5 and IL-6 compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that non-hepatotropic parasite infections may increase mortality following acute liver failure by promoting hepatocyte necrosis via IL-5 and IL-6-dependent CYP2E1 overproduction. This study identifies new potential risk factors associated with severe acute liver failure in patients. PMID:27812602

  18. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  19. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and neurocutaneous cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous cysticerci are often a pointer to the involvement of internal organs. A series of 33 patients including 5 vegetarians, between 10 to 48 years age, were investigated. Almost half the patients presented with cutaneous cysts of less than one month duration or were unaware of it. In the, other the duration varied upto 10 years. Cutaneous cysts were present in the case&Mental retardation, diminished vision and flashes of lights were, recorded in one case each, raised intracranial tension in 11 and seizures in 29 patients. Four, of the 6 patients with solitary cysts had no involvement of the internal- organs, whereas all the 27 patients with multiple had in nt of brain. Trunk was the commonest site in 16 patients. The other sites involved were scalp, eyelids, face, tongue neck, breast and limbs. Stool examination -for tapeworm segments/ eggs was positive in 2,calcification was seen on X-ray examination of skull in one and of soft tissues in 3, CT scan of skull was suggestive of cysticerci in 27 and skin biopsy for cysticercosis was confirmatory in all the 33 patients. Four patients with a solitary cutaneous cyst were treated by excision. One patients with neurocutaneous cysts was treated with albendazole without response. Out of 16patients with mucocutaneous and neurocutaneous cysticercosis treated with praziquantel, one did not respond. 7 responded partially and 8 had complete relief.

  20. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Fleury

    Full Text Available Human neurocysticercosis (NC is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000 were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres to 5.4% (500 oncospheres. Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3% and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  1. Induced neurocysticercosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) produces clinical signs and lesions similar to natural disease in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, N; Saleque, A; Sood, N K; Singla, L D

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  2. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  3. "Full moon" endoscopic sign in intraventricular neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Zúñiga, R; de La Cruz-Ramírez, J; Casillas-Espinosa, P M; Sánchez-Prieto, J A; López-Hernández, M D S

    2011-04-01

    Despite improvements in sanitation, diagnosis and treatment, neurocysticercosis is still a public health problem in many countries. In symptomatic patients, there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. When cysticerci are lodged in the ventricles or the subarachnoid space, the flow of cerebrospinal fluid can be obstructed and lead to hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension. The endoscopic view may be useful as a diagnostic tool. This report clearly shows a common endoscopic pattern in 4 selected patients with ventricular cysticercosis (2 third ventricle/2 lateral ventricle). The endoscopic view of the cysts in the ventricles resembles a "full moon". This analogy helped to identify the features of cysticerci with intact walls and the vesicular stage, malleable due to its cystic content and having an irregular surface, as evidence of the microscopic structure of the cyst wall in a cysticercus. This finding is not seen in other intraventricular cysts or tumors that can actually be considered as an additional diagnostic criterion among the definitive findings to establish the diagnosis of cysticercosis, since it involves direct endoscopic visualization of a cysticercus under histopathological demonstration. Additionally, the endoscopic approach can be used as primary treatment for these cases, following the minimally invasive approach principle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  5. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  6. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  7. 应用小鼠动物模型进行猪囊虫病免疫预防的实验研究%STUDIES ON IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS OF SWINE CYSTICERCOSIS WITH THE ANIMAL MODEL OF KUNMING MOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雨德; 顾志香; 刘玉; 郁兴明

    2000-01-01

    Aim To investigate the immune effects of the genetic engineering vaccine against swine cysticercosis with the animal mode of kunming mouse. Method 78 kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups: 1 )injection one times with the vaccine, 2)injection twice with the vaccine at intervals of ten days, 3)non-vaccination group. All the mice were infected with the vial hatched oncopheres by the tag vein at 20 days after the first vaccination,and were killed and dissected to look for swine cysticerci 63 days later. In order to know the immune response of the vaccine and the stateof parasites in the rats,the antigens and antibodies of swine cysticerci were detected by immune methods. Results The vaccine was safety to all the vaccinated rats. The antibodies against swine cysticerci began to appear positive in some of the immunized mice at 7 days postvaccination,and they were all positive at 21 days. 65 cysticerci were found in the mice of the nonvaccination group,which lodged mainly in the chests. 2 and lcysticerci were respectively found in two rats of the first group and in one rat of the second group, their protective rates of cysticerci were 96.9% and 98. 4%,respectively. Conclusion Kunming mouse as the animal model of swine cysticercosis was stable and reliable,and the genetic engineering vaccine against swine cysticercosis was safety and efficiency.%目的以昆明小鼠作实验动物模型,探讨猪囊虫病基因工程疫苗的免疫效果。方法 78只昆明小鼠随机分为3组,第一组用猪囊虫病基因工程疫苗免疫1次,每二组免疫2次,第三组不免疫。第一次免疫后20d各小鼠经尾静脉感染已孵化的有活力的六钩蚴,63d后剖检小鼠检查有无囊虫.并观察虫体的活力。用免疫学方法检测血清中囊虫抗原和抗体,以监测疫苗的免疫反应及虫体寄生状况。结果所有免疫小鼠均未出现不良反应;免疫7d后部分免疫小鼠可检测到囊虫抗体,免疫后21d

  8. Neurocisticercose experimental: efeito do tratamento anti-helmíntico no metabolismo energético e respiratório de cisticercos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Realizou-se a análise do metabolismo energético e respiratório de cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps inoculados no encéfalo de camundongos BALB/c fêmeas. Após 30 dias de infecção, esses camundongos foram tratados com baixas doses (3,0 e 6,0 mg/kg) de albendazol e praziquantel visando observação de alterações provocadas no metabolismo do parasito. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar a influência de baixas doses desses anti-helmínticos na produção dos ácidos orgânicos do metabolismo intermediá...

  9. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Monrad, J.

    2006-01-01

    .4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena......, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Nor-them Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one...... acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence...

  10. Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I. Terrazas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have emerged as key regulators of immune responses. They influence immune cells' function and probably the outcome of several infections. Currently, it is largely unknown if helminth parasites and their antigens modify host microRNAs expression. The aim of this study was to explore if excreted/secreted antigens of Taenia crassiceps regulate LPS-induced miRNAs expression in human Dendritic Cells. We found that these antigens repressed LPS-let-7i induction but not mir-146a or mir-155 and this correlates with a diminished inflammatory response. This let-7i downregulation in Dendritic Cells constitutes a novel feature of the modulatory activity that helminth-derived antigens exert on their host.

  11. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal.

  12. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.INTRODUÇÃO: O primeiro levantamento sobre cisticercose humana e identificação dos fatores de risco associados à transmissão, foram realizados em Lages, SC. MÉTODOS: Oitocentos e setenta e sete voluntários de regiões periurbana e rural foram entrevistados e forneceram informações demográficas e condições sanitárias e de sa

  13. Taenia hydatigena: isolation of mitochondrial DNA, molecular cloning, and physical mitochondrial genome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, K W; Thompson, R C; Rood, J I; Pawlowski, I D

    1987-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA was isolated from Taenia hydatigena, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus using a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide precipitation technique. The technique is simple, rapid, reproducible, and does not require extensive high speed ultracentrifugation. The advantage of using mitochondrial DNA from taeniid cestodes for comparative restriction analysis was demonstrated. Mitochondrial DNA of T. hydatigena was isolated as covalently closed circular molecules. These were linearized by single digestion with BamHI and the molecular weight was estimated from the linear form of 17.6 kb. The mitochondrial DNA of T. hydatigena is therefore similar in size and structure to that of many other animal species. The entire mitochondrial genome was cloned into pBR322 in Escherichia coli and a restriction map of the recombinant molecule was constructed. The potential of using the cloned mitochondrial genome as a probe in speciation studies as well as for providing functional information on the role of the cestode mitochondrion is discussed.

  14. Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizure using ELISA and immunoblot assay Sorodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose em pacientes com crises epiléticas, por meio de ELISA e immunoblot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M.I. Ishida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 88 patients from Santa Catarina and São Paulo states of Brazil, with epileptic seizures who underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT were analyzed for the detection of antibodies to T. solium cysticercus by ELISA and Immunoblot (IB with the following antigens: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso, Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-vf and T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-gp. ELISA carried out with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens showed 95%, 90% and 80% sensitivities, respectively, and 68%, 85% and 93% specificities, respectively. In the epileptic patients group, ELISA positivity was 30%, 51% and 35% with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens respectively. Considering the IB as the confirmatory test, the positivity was 16% (14/88 in the epileptic patients total group and 22% (12/54 in the epileptic patients with positive CT and signals of cysticercosis. We found a significant statistical correlation among ELISA or IB results and the phase of the disease when any antigens were used (p Amostras de soro de 88 pacientes dos Estados de Santa Catarina e São Paulo, Brasil, com crises epilépticas e que se submeteram a exame de Tomografia Computadorizada (TC, foram examinadas para detecção de anticorpos anti-cisticercos de Taenia solium por meio de ELISA e Immunoblot (IB utilizando-se os seguintes antígenos: extrato salino total de cisticercos de T. solium (Tso; líquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra-vf e glicoproteínas purificadas de cisticercos de T. crassiceps (Tcra-gp. Os resultados de ELISA com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp mostraram 95%, 90% e 80% de sensibilidade, respectivamente, e 68%, 85% e 93% de especificidade, respectivamente. No grupo de pacientes epilépticos, a positividade do ELISA foi 30%, 51% e 35% com os antígenos Tso, Tcra-vf e Tcra-gp, respectivamente. Considerando o IB como teste confirmatório, a positividade foi de 16% (14/88 no grupo total de pacientes epil

  15. Characterization of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine components: implications for the development of an anti-cestodiasis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Rassy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis and hydatidosis seriously affect human health and are responsible for considerable economic loss in animal husbandry in non-developed and developed countries. S3Pvac and EG95 are the only field trial-tested vaccine candidates against cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. S3Pvac is composed of three peptides (KETc1, GK1 and KETc12, originally identified in a Taenia crassiceps cDNA library. S3Pvac synthetically and recombinantly expressed is effective against experimentally and naturally acquired cysticercosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the homologous sequences of two of the S3Pvac peptides, GK1 and KETc1, were identified and further characterized in Taenia crassiceps WFU, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences coding for KETc1 and GK1 revealed significant homologies in these species. The predicted secondary structure of GK1 is almost identical between the species, while some differences were observed in the C terminal region of KETc1 according to 3D modeling. A KETc1 variant with a deletion of three C-terminal amino acids protected to the same extent against experimental murine cysticercosis as the entire peptide. On the contrary, immunization with the truncated GK1 failed to induce protection. Immunolocalization studies revealed the non stage-specificity of the two S3Pvac epitopes and their persistence in the larval tegument of all species and in Taenia adult tapeworms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that GK1 and KETc1 may be considered candidates to be included in the formulation of a multivalent and multistage vaccine against these cestodiases because of their enhancing effects on other available vaccine candidates.

  16. Characterization of S3Pvac Anti-Cysticercosis Vaccine Components: Implications for the Development of an Anti-Cestodiasis Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassy, Dunia; Bobes, Raúl J.; Rosas, Gabriela; Anaya, Victor H.; Brehm, Klaus; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Pedraza, Saúl; Morales, Julio; Villalobos, Nelly; de Aluja, Aline S.; Laclette, Juan P.; Nunes, Caris M.; Biondi, Germano F.; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis and hydatidosis seriously affect human health and are responsible for considerable economic loss in animal husbandry in non-developed and developed countries. S3Pvac and EG95 are the only field trial-tested vaccine candidates against cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. S3Pvac is composed of three peptides (KETc1, GK1 and KETc12), originally identified in a Taenia crassiceps cDNA library. S3Pvac synthetically and recombinantly expressed is effective against experimentally and naturally acquired cysticercosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the homologous sequences of two of the S3Pvac peptides, GK1 and KETc1, were identified and further characterized in Taenia crassiceps WFU, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences coding for KETc1 and GK1 revealed significant homologies in these species. The predicted secondary structure of GK1 is almost identical between the species, while some differences were observed in the C terminal region of KETc1 according to 3D modeling. A KETc1 variant with a deletion of three C-terminal amino acids protected to the same extent against experimental murine cysticercosis as the entire peptide. On the contrary, immunization with the truncated GK1 failed to induce protection. Immunolocalization studies revealed the non stage-specificity of the two S3Pvac epitopes and their persistence in the larval tegument of all species and in Taenia adult tapeworms. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that GK1 and KETc1 may be considered candidates to be included in the formulation of a multivalent and multistage vaccine against these cestodiases because of their enhancing effects on other available vaccine candidates. PMID:20585656

  17. Th2-Associated Alternative Kupffer Cell Activation Promotes Liver Fibrosis without Inducing Local Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Navarrete, Giuliana; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; Aguirre-García, Jesús; Ledezma-Soto, Yadira; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Gudiño-Zayas, Marco; Guzmán, Carolina; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; Hernández-Ruíz, Joselín; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Kershenobich, David; Terrazas, Luis I.; Escobedo, Galileo

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final outcome of liver fibrosis. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation is considered to aggravate liver injury and fibrosis. Alternatively-activated macrophages are able to control chronic inflammatory events and trigger wound healing processes. Nevertheless, the role of alternative Kupffer cell activation in liver harm is largely unclear. Thus, we evaluated the participation of alternatively-activated Kupffer cells during liver inflammation and fibrosis in the murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. To stimulate alternative activation in Kupffer cells, 20 Taenia crassiceps (Tc) larvae were inoculated into BALBc/AnN female mice. Six weeks post-inoculation, carbon tetrachloride or olive oil were orally administered to Tc-inoculated and non-inoculated mice twice per week during other six weeks. The initial exposure of animals to T. crassiceps resulted in high serum concentrations of IL-4 accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA levels of Ym-1, with no alteration in iNOS expression. In response to carbon tetrachloride, recruitment of inflammatory cell populations into the hepatic parenchyma was 5-fold higher in non-inoculated animals than Tc-inoculated mice. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis was significantly less in non-inoculated animals than in the Tc-inoculated group. The latter showed elevated IL-4 serum levels and low IFN-γ concentrations during the whole experiment, associated with hepatic expression of IL-4, TGF-β, desmin and α-sma, as well as increased mRNA levels of Arg-1, Ym-1, FIZZ-1 and MMR in Kupffer cells. These results suggest that alternative Kupffer cell activation is favored in a Th2 microenvironment, whereby such liver resident macrophages could exhibit a dichotomic role during chronic hepatic damage, being involved in attenuation of the inflammatory response but at the same time exacerbation of liver fibrosis. PMID:22110380

  18. Th2-Associated Alternative Kupffer Cell Activation Promotes Liver Fibrosis without Inducing Local Inflammation

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    Giuliana López-Navarrete, Espiridión Ramos-Martínez, Karina Suárez-Álvarez, Jesús Aguirre-García, Yadira Ledezma-Soto, Sonia León-Cabrera, Marco Gudiño-Zayas, Carolina Guzmán, Gabriela Gutiérrez-Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhosis is the final outcome of liver fibrosis. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation is considered to aggravate liver injury and fibrosis. Alternatively-activated macrophages are able to control chronic inflammatory events and trigger wound healing processes. Nevertheless, the role of alternative Kupffer cell activation in liver harm is largely unclear. Thus, we evaluated the participation of alternatively-activated Kupffer cells during liver inflammation and fibrosis in the murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. To stimulate alternative activation in Kupffer cells, 20 Taenia crassiceps (Tc larvae were inoculated into BALBc/AnN female mice. Six weeks post-inoculation, carbon tetrachloride or olive oil were orally administered to Tc-inoculated and non-inoculated mice twice per week during other six weeks. The initial exposure of animals to T. crassiceps resulted in high serum concentrations of IL-4 accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA levels of Ym-1, with no alteration in iNOS expression. In response to carbon tetrachloride, recruitment of inflammatory cell populations into the hepatic parenchyma was 5-fold higher in non-inoculated animals than Tc-inoculated mice. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis was significantly less in non-inoculated animals than in the Tc-inoculated group. The latter showed elevated IL-4 serum levels and low IFN-γ concentrations during the whole experiment, associated with hepatic expression of IL-4, TGF-β, desmin and α-sma, as well as increased mRNA levels of Arg-1, Ym-1, FIZZ-1 and MMR in Kupffer cells. These results suggest that alternative Kupffer cell activation is favored in a Th2 microenvironment, whereby such liver resident macrophages could exhibit a dichotomic role during chronic hepatic damage, being involved in attenuation of the inflammatory response but at the same time exacerbation of liver fibrosis.

  19. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  20. IgG Antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Zevallos Lescano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii. Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.. Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES, obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  1. Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-01-01

    Known as a disease of swine in ancient civilizations, cysticercosis is currently considered the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a Taenia carrier by the fecal-oral route. Once in the human intestine, Taenia eggs evolve to oncospheres that, in turn, cross the intestinal wall and lodge in human tissues - especially the nervous system - where cysticerci develop. The brain is a hostile environment in which parasites attempt to escape the immune surveillance while the host is trying to drive out the infection. In some cases, cysticerci are destroyed by this immunological attack, while in others, parasites may live unchanged for years. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing a myriad of pathologic changes that are the main changes responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of the disease, but some patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. With the exception of cystic lesions showing the scolex as an eccentric nodule, neuroimaging findings of neurocysticercosis are nonspecific and may be seen in other diseases of the nervous system. Likewise, immune diagnostic tests have been faced with problems related to poor sensitivity or specificity. Accurate diagnosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunologic tests, in a proper epidemiologic scenario. The introduction of cysticidal drugs has changed the prognosis of neurocysticercosis. Praziquantel and albendazole have been shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain (as seen on neuroimaging studies) and to improve the

  2. Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People’s National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitagele Terefe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People’s National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2–22.5 harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7% had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3% obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat

  3. Seroprevalence of zoonotic parasites in pigs slaughtered in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Pruvot, Mathieu; Joshi, Durga Datt; De Craeye, Stéphane; Jennes, Malgorzata; Ale, Anita; Welinski, Alma; Lama, Sanjyoti; Aryal, Arjun; Victor, Bjorn; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    For several years, the demand for pork has been on the rise in Nepal. To assess the importance of pork as a carrier of zoonotic agents, we performed a cross-sectional study in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, in which we serologically determined the infection status of slaughtered pigs with regard to three of the most important parasites transmitted through pork consumption: Trichinella spp., Taenia solium cysticerci, and Toxoplasma gondii. From 2007 to 2010, 742 pigs were sampled at slaughter, of which 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-0.7%) were found positive for Trichinella infection, 13.8% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 0.8-28.5%) for T. solium cysticercosis, and 11.7% (95% CI 5.2-17.5%) for Toxoplasma infection. Further monitoring of the related animal and human disease burden and strengthening of food safety protocols throughout the pork production chain are strongly recommended.

  4. RARE CASE OF CYSTICERCOSIS OF RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE PRESENTING AS PELVI ABDOMINAL LUMP DURING PUERPERIUM

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    Bangal V

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium. It is a major public health problem indeveloping countries. Infection is acquired through ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containingthe cysticercus. Man is the intermediate host and pig is definitive host. Cases usually present withvague abdominal discomfort, indigestion and diarrhoea. Cysticerci can be found anywhere in the body, but are most commonly detected in brain, eye, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue.Diagnosis is made by the demonstration of eggs or proglottids (Fig. 1 in faeces and definitive diagnosis is by biopsy of the lesion. We report an unusual case, who presented with a pelvi -abdominal lump during puerperium. Diagnosis of cysticercosis of rectus abdominis muscle was confirmed by histopathology. She was treated by surgery and pharmacotherapy.

  5. Passive haemagglutination test for human neurocysticercosis immunodiagnosis: I. Standardization and evaluation of the passive haemagglutination test for the detection of anti-Cysticercus cellulosae antibodies

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    Mirthes Ueda

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available A passive haemagglutination test (PHA for human neurocysticercosis was standardized and evaluated for the detection of specific antibodies to Cysticercus cellulosae in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. For the assay, formaldehyde-treated group O Rh-human red cells coated with the cysticerci crude total saline extract (TS antigen were employed. A total of 115 CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis was analysed, of these 94 presented reactivity, corresponding to 81.7% sensitivity, in which confidence limit of 95% probability (CL95% ranged from 74.5% to 88.9%. Eighty-nine CSF samples derived from individuals of control group presented as nonreactive in 94.4% (CL95% from 89.6% to 99.2%. The positive and negative predictive values were 1.4% and 99.9%, respectively, considering the mean rate of that this assay provide a rapid, highly reproducible, and moderately sensitive mean of detecting specific antibodies in CSF samples.

  6. [Cathepsin L cysteine protease from Taenia solium: its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Nancy; Padilla, Carlos; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, an adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  7. Dogs as alternative intermediate hosts of Taenia solium in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia confirmed by highly specific ELISA and immunoblot using native and recombinant antigens and mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Putra, M I; Subahar, R; Sato, M O; Okamoto, M; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Yamasaki, H; Nakaya, K; Craig, P S; Margono, S S

    2002-12-01

    Serology (ELISA and immunoblot) using native glycoproteins, affinity purified glycoproteins, and a recombinant antigen is known to be highly specific to Taenia solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs. These techniques were applied for dogs in the highly endemic area of cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia. Analysis of dog sera by both ELISA and immunoblot revealed 7 of 64 dogs were highly positive. Examination of two sero-positive dogs revealed cysticerci of T. solium in the brain and heart of these dogs. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed that they were the same as T. solium previously confirmed from pigs and biopsies from local people from Irian Jaya. It is suggested that the life cycle of T. solium may be completed not only between humans and pigs but also between humans and dogs.

  8. Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis.

  9. [Teniasis in a child with finding of Taenia saginata proglottids in the school environment: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of teniasis in a child, associated to the finding of Taenia proglottids in a classroom of a primary school in the area of Cuneo (Local Health Unit Cn-1, Piedmont Region, Italy). Several proglottids had been repeatedly found by cleaners on the bookbox of several schooldesks in the same classroom. Laboratory investigation was able to identify Taenia saginata proglottids and cooperation of the local Public Health Unit with the school management allowed to identify and treat the affected child. Laboratory investigation was crucial to exclude a Taenia solium infection, which should have had important public health implications. In fact, infection among humans can follow the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs and in this case larval forms in several tissues can occur (cysticercosis). Moreover the disease can be particularly severe when cysticerci invade the brain, causing seizures and hydrocephalia.

  10. Neurocysticercosis, Meningioma, and Silent Corticotroph Pituitary Adenoma in a 61-Year-Old Woman

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    Maria del Pilar Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with hydrocephalus and cystic and solid lesions in sella turcica, suprasellar areas, and third ventricle. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt she developed cognitive changes and the cystic lesions enlarged. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated multiple cysts and a solid lesion in the sella and around the anterior clinoid process. With diagnosis of neurocysticercosis she underwent craniotomy. Pathologic examination documented two different lesions: viable and dead cysticerci with inflaming infiltration and a left anterior clinoidal meningioma. At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these three different lesions in the sellar area was not described before.

  11. Neurocysticercosis, meningioma, and silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma in a 61-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Del Pilar; Restrepo, Juan E; Syro, Luis V; Rotondo, Fabio; Londoño, Francisco J; Penagos, Luis C; Uribe, Humberto; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    We report here the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with hydrocephalus and cystic and solid lesions in sella turcica, suprasellar areas, and third ventricle. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt she developed cognitive changes and the cystic lesions enlarged. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated multiple cysts and a solid lesion in the sella and around the anterior clinoid process. With diagnosis of neurocysticercosis she underwent craniotomy. Pathologic examination documented two different lesions: viable and dead cysticerci with inflaming infiltration and a left anterior clinoidal meningioma. At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these three different lesions in the sellar area was not described before.

  12. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Hernández-Hernández, Olivia Tania; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; García-Varela, Martín; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR), since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite. PMID:20037735

  13. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR, since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite.

  14. Studies on the mechanism of long term survival of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwa, B H; Liew, F Y

    1978-03-01

    An attempt was made to determine if blocking antibody is involved in protecting cysticerci of Taenia taeniaeformis against a host immune response. Immunoflourescence microscopy confirmed that host antibody is presnet on the parasite surface within the capsule. To test if the larvae can still survive after such a coat of blocking antibody is removed, the larvae were trysinised and then implanted into recipients. The results indicate that blocking antibody could be involved in the survival of 1 year old established larvae. Untrypsinised larvae were normal 14 days after implantation into control or immunised rats. Trypsinised larvae implanted in control rats were alive but showed on intense cell adherence on their surface. On the other hand, trypsinised larvae implanted into immunised rats were dead and completely encapsulated. However, experiments with 1 month old larvae were inconclusive.

  15. Infectivities of four isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis to various rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, N; Iwaki, T; Okamoto, M; Ooi, H K; Oku, Y; Ohbayashi, M; Kamiya, M

    1994-06-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis were isolated from Norway rats captured at Sapporo (SRN isolate) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KRN) and from Bedford's gray red-backed voles at Toubetsu (TCR) and Abuta (ACR). SRN, KRN and TCR isolates showed similar degree of infectivity to various rodents in which cysticerci with hooks were obtained in laboratory rats, white tuberous lesions in mice and no cysts or lesions in Mongolian gerbils and voles. Contrary to this, inoculation with ACR isolate eggs resulted in strobilocerci formation in the liver of voles, but no cysts were observed in rats, mice or gerbils. This host specificity of ACR isolate to voles suggests that it might be a new species of Taenia.

  16. 猪带绦虫实验动物模型的建立%Laboratory animal models for Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贝妮; 王丹; 王哲; 赵权

    2013-01-01

    为建立猪带绦虫实验动物模型,本实验通过口服激活、未激活囊尾蚴和尾静脉注射激活的囊尾蚴感染昆明小鼠、BALB/c小鼠、SD大鼠、豚鼠、金黄地鼠、沙鼠,对各种鼠体内的绦虫的感染、生长发育及寄生部位等生物学特性进行研究.在感染45 d的金黄地鼠体内检出可见虫体,检出的虫体多数吸附在小肠.本实验建立了猪带绦虫的实验动物模型,使得解决猪带绦虫实验材料的来源问题成为可能,也为猪带绦虫的深入研究奠定了基础.%To establish the animal models for Taenia solium,the Kunming mice,BALB/c mice,SD rots,guinea pigs,golden hamsters and gerbils were infected with activated or not activated cysticerci via oral and tail vein injection of activated cysticerci,respectively.The tapeworm infection,growth and development,and parasite location were examed in artificially infected animals.In addition,the visible parasites only detected in the golden hamster at 45 days post infection and the majority parasites were detected in the small intestine.The primary established animal model for T.solium would facilitate further study for T.solium in vivo.

  17. Interleukin 10 and dendritic cells are the main suppression mediators of regulatory T cells in human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Sillas, A; Álvarez-Luquín, D D; Cárdenas, G; Casanova-Hernández, D; Fragoso, G; Hernández, M; Proaño Narváez, J V; García-Vázquez, F; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E; Adalid-Peralta, L

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system. It is considered that, during co-evolution, the parasite developed strategies to modulate the host's immune response. The action mechanisms of regulatory T cells in controlling the immune response in neurocysticercosis are studied in this work. Higher blood levels of regulatory T cells with CD4(+) CD45RO(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(high) and CD4(+) CD25(high) FoxP3(+) CD95(high) phenotype and of non-regulatory CD4(+) CD45RO(+) FoxP3(med) T cells were found in neurocysticercosis patients with respect to controls. Interestingly, regulatory T cells express higher levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR), suggesting a cell-to-cell contact mechanism with dendritic cells. Furthermore, higher IL-10 and regulatory T cell type 1 (Tr1) levels were found in neurocysticercosis patients' peripheral blood, suggesting that the action mechanism of regulatory T cells involves the release of immunomodulatory cytokines. No evidence was found of the regulatory T cell role in inhibiting the proliferative response. Suppressive regulatory T cells from neurocysticercosis patients correlated negatively with late activated lymphocytes (CD4(+) CD38(+) ). Our results suggest that, during neurocysticercosis, regulatory T cells could control the immune response, probably by a cell-to-cell contact with dendritic cells and interleukin (IL)-10 release by Tr1, to create an immunomodulatory environment that may favour the development of T. solium cysticerci and their permanence in the central nervous system.

  18. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species.

  19. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host.

  20. Swine cysticercosis in the Karangasem district of Bali, Indonesia: An evaluation of serological screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suardita, I Ketut; Kepeng, I Nengah; Wandra, Toni; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Mizuki; Giraudoux, Patrick; Nakao, Minoru; Yoshida, Takahiko; Eka Diarthini, Luh Putu; Sudarmaja, I Made; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Budke, Christine M; Ito, Akira

    2016-11-01

    A serological assessment was undertaken on pigs from the Kubu and Abang sub-districts of Karangasem on the island of Bali, Indonesia, where earlier studies had detected patients with cysticercosis. Antigens purified from Taenia solium cyst fluid by cation-exchange chromatography were used to evaluate antibody responses in the pigs and the serological tests were also evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. A total of 392 serum samples from naturally exposed pigs were tested using an ELISA that could be read based on both a colour change perceptible by the naked eye and an ELISA based on absorbance values. Twenty six (6.6%) pigs were found seropositive by the naked-eye ELISA and were categorized into three groups: strongly positive (absorbance values >0.8, n=6), moderately positive (absorbance values between 0.2 and 0.8, n=7), and weakly positive (absorbance values solium cysticerci (n=3), or co-infected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena (n=3). Four moderately positive pigs were infected solely with T. hydatigena. No cysticerci were found in one pig that was moderately positive by the naked-eye ELISA. Two experimentally infected pigs became antibody positive by 6 weeks post-infection, whereas eight control pigs remained negative. An additional 60 pigs slaughtered at authorized abattoirs on Bali were tested using the same ELISA. All 60 pigs were seronegative with no evidence of Taenia infection at necropsy. The results confirm the presence of porcine cysticercosis on Bali and, while the serological responses seen in T. solium infected animals were much stronger than those infected with T. hydatigena, the diagnostic antigens are clearly not species specific. Further studies are necessary to confirm if it is possible to draw a cut off line for differentiation of pig infected with T. solium from those infected with T. hydatigena.

  1. Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Swasono, Meutia F; Murni, Sri; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Reports showed that an important parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica is found endemic in several areas of Indonesia including Papua, Bali and North Sumatra. At present it is known that the highest prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia, caused by T. solium is among the indigenous communities in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). In the early 1970s, 8-9% of stool samples from the Enarotali hospital, Paniai District (Irian Jaya) were found positive with Taenia eggs. The samples were from members of the Ekari (Kapauku) ethnic group. Stool samples from the Moni ethnic group, living east of surrounding lakes, were egg negative. Cysticerci of T. solium were discovered in pigs. During the years 1973-1976 cases of burns increased and were ultimately found to be primarily associated with epileptic seizures induced by neurocysticercosis cases. Among 257 cases of burns, 88 cases (62.8%) were suffering from epileptic seizures before or during hospitalization. In the year 1981 T. solium seropositive persons were mostly (16%) found in the endemic Obano village. In 1997 the parasite was discovered in Jayawijaya District, which is located approximately 250 km east of Paniai District. During 1991-1995, a local health center in Assologaima, Jayawijaya District reported 1120 new cases with burns and a further 293 new cases of epileptic seizures among 15,939 inhabitants. The histopathologic appearance and mitochondrial DNA analysis found the cysts to be similar to those of T. solium from other regions of the world. Sensitive and specific serological diagnostic methods were used and improved. Cysticerci were detected in dogs, as well as in pigs. A coproantigen test for detection of adult tapeworms in patients was carried out. Medical treatment with praziquantel for taeniasis and albendazole for cysticercosis (with prednisone and sodium phenytoin treatment in cases with neurocysticercosis) was undertaken. Lifestyle, religion, and

  2. Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Pablo; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Gomez-Diaz, Benjamin; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; West, Brett; Molina, Nadia; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Kawa-Karasik, Simon; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8 mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14 days starting the day of infection and their discomfort was followed. Kinetics of coproantigen ELISA or expelled proglottids was used to define the infection status. Efficiency of tapeworm establishment was 21% and of parasite gravidity was 8%; chinchillas showed some degree of suffering along the infection. Viability of eggs obtained from gravid proglottids was tested comparing methods previously published, our results showed 62% viability with propidium iodide, 54% with trypan blue, 34% with neutral red, 30% by oncosphere activation and 7% with bromide 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT) reduction; no statistical differences were obtained between most techniques, except activation. Four piglets were infected with 50,000 eggs each, necropsy was performed 3 months later and, after counting the number of cysticerci recovered, the percentage of infection was similar to data obtained with T. solium eggs recovered from humans. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of T. solium taeniasis in C. laniger is a good alternative for providing eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments; optimization of the model probably depends on the use of inbred hosts and on the reduction of infected animals' suffering.

  3. Lectin binding to cystic stages of Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeman, R M; Williams, J F

    1984-10-01

    Studies of membrane glycoconjugates of Taenia taeniaeformis were initiated by assays of the lectin binding characteristics of 35-day-old cysticerci. Parasites fixed in glutaraldehyde were incubated with one of the following FITC-labelled lectins: Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), fucose binding protein (FBP) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and either their specific or a nonspecific sugar. Ultraviolet microscopy revealed that only Con A and LCA bound in large amounts to the surface of cysticerci. This binding was partly inhibited by the specific sugar, but the nonspecific sugar had little effect. The lectin not removed by either of the sugars may have been bound nonspecifically to the charged glycocalyx. Lectins were primarily bound on the anterior third of the parasite around the scolex invagination. Kinetic studies of lectin interactions were carried out with LCA and RCA by spectrophotofluorometric analysis of the amount bound specifically or nonspecifically over a range of lectin concentrations. Lens culinaris lectin binding was found to be specific and involve 2 receptors which showed large differences in their affinity for lectin and prevalence on the surface. Ricinus communis lectin did not bind specifically but nonspecific interactions were observed. Adherence of small numbers of host cells was shown to have no measurable effect on the lectin binding characteristics. The results suggest that the major surface carbohydrates exposed are D-mannose and/or D-glucose residues with the other sugar groups poorly represented. This relatively homogeneous surface may have implications for the antigenicity of the parasite in its host.

  4. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (Vulpes vulpes dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: Toxocara canis (46.4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11.8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3.9%, Taenia hydatigena (3.3%, Trichuris vulpis (3.3%, Dipylidium caninum (2.6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. All foxes were negative for Trichinella sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: Toxocara canis (46,4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11,8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11,1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3,9%, Taenia hydatigena (3,3%, Trichuris vulpis (3,3%, Dipylidium caninum (2,6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per Trichinella sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  5. [Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteille, B

    2014-01-01

    Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T

  6. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, César A; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2013-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.

  7. Taeniid tapeworm responses to in vitro glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Kaethe; Presas, Ana María Fernández; Jiménez, José Agustín; Landa, Abraham; Zurabián, Rimma; Ugarte, María Eugenia Juárez; Robert, Lilia

    2005-07-01

    Experimental taeniid strobilae from Taenia solium and T. crassiceps (WFU strain) were incubated for 0-72 h in 0, 5 or 20 mM glucose solutions and further exposed for 15 min to the gap junction fluorochrome Lucifer Yellow. Frozen sections were obtained from each worm and observed under an epifluorescent microscope. Worm sections from strobilae incubated with glucose, revealed intense fluorescence in the base of the tegumentary surface, suggesting that this tissue behaves as a gap junction complex. Fluorescence intensity differences between control worms not exposed to glucose and worms incubated with glucose, were highly significant. The results demonstrate that under in vitro conditions, glucose is taken up along the whole strobilar tegument in both taeniid species, suggesting, that although taeniids attached to the duodenum probably take up most of their nutrients directly from the mucosal wall, the capacity for absorbing glucose along the tegumentary surface is always active and may increase the survival capacity of these intestinal worms by promoting glucose absorption at other points in the intestinal lumen.

  8. GK-1 Improves the Immune Response Induced by Bone Marrow Dendritic Cells Loaded with MAGE-AX in Mice with Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Piñón-Zárate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of dendritic cell (DC vaccination in cancer is to induce tumor-specific effector T cells that may reduce and control tumor mass. Immunostimulants that could drive a desired immune response are necessary to be found in order to generate a long lasting tumor immune response. GK-1 peptide, derived from Taenia crassiceps, induces not only increase in TNFα, IFNγ, and MCP-1 production in cocultures of DCs and T lymphocytes but also immunological protection against influenza virus. Moreover, the aim of this investigation is the use of GK-1 as a bone marrow DCs (BMDCs immunostimulant targeted with MAGE antigen; thus, BMDC may be used as immunotherapy against murine melanoma. GK-1 induced in BMDCs a meaningful increment of CD86 and IL-12. In addition, the use of BMDCs TNFα/GK-1/MAGE-AX induced the highest survival and the smallest tumors in mice. Besides, the treatment helped to increase CD8 lymphocytes levels and to produce IFNγ in lymph nodes. Moreover, the histopathological analysis showed that BMDCs treated with GK-1/TNFα and loaded with MAGE-AX induced the apparition of more apoptotic and necrotic areas in tumors than in mice without treatment. These results highlight the properties of GK-1 as an immunostimulant of DCs and suggest as a potential candidate the use of this immunotherapy against cancer disease.

  9. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khumbatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia  solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM, another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM’s contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM−/− mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM−/− mice compared to WT mice (P<0.05. This reduction in parasite burden in SOM−/− mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P<0.05, which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-γ and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1β (P<0.05 for both compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-γ and IL-1β.

  10. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  11. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  12. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  13. Evaluation of a synthetic peptide from the Taenia saginata 18kDa surface/secreted oncospheral adhesion protein for serological diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Peixoto, Rafaella Paola Meneguete; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio Arruda; Santos, Marcus Rebouças; Polêto, Marcelo Depólo; Silva, Letícia Ferreira; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection widely spread throughout Brazil, creating a burden on hygiene maintenance and the economy. Diagnosis of cysticercosis usually relies on post mortem inspection of carcasses in slaughterhouses. This detection method provides only low sensitivity. Recent advancements have improved the performance of serologic tests, such as ELISA, providing greater sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the current study was to identify and evaluate a synthetic peptide derived from the Taenia saginata 18kDa oncospheric surface protein for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in ELISA. Test performance of the identified peptide was compared to an ELISA based on a heterologous crude Taenia crassiceps antigen (Tcra), widely used for the sero-diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. Based on the primary sequence of an in silico structural model of the 18kDa protein, an epitope region designated EP1 was selected (46-WDTKDMAGYGVKKIEV-61). The peptide derived from this region yielded 91.6% (CI=80-96%) sensitivity and 90% (CI=82-95%) specificity when used in an ELISA, whereas the crude antigen yielded 70% (CI=56-8%) sensitivity and 82% (CI=73-89%) specificity. Thus, we conclude that EP1 has higher diagnostic potential for detecting bovine cysticercosis than the crude antigen Tcra.

  14. Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

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    César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

  15. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway

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    Terrazas, César A.; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I.; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.—Terrazas, C. A., Alcántara-Hernández, M., Bonifaz, L., Terrazas, L. I., Satoskar, A. R. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway. PMID:23907435

  16. Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment

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    Alberto N. Peón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. However, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS. The immunomodulatory activities of Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted products (TcES that may suppress EAE development were sought for. Interestingly, it was discovered that TcES was able to suppress EAE development with more potency than dexamethasone; moreover, TcES treatment was still effective even when inoculated at later stages after the onset of EAE. Importantly, the TcES treatment was able to induce a range of Th2-type cytokines, while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Both the polyclonal and the antigen-specific proliferative responses of lymphocytes were also inhibited in EAE-ill mice receiving TcES in association with a potent recruitment of suppressor cell populations. Peritoneal inoculation of TcES was able to direct the normal inflammatory cell traffic to the site of injection, thus modulating CNS infiltration, which may work along with Th2 immune polarization and lymphocyte activation impairment to downregulate EAE development.

  17. GK-1 improves the immune response induced by bone marrow dendritic cells loaded with MAGE-AX in mice with melanoma.

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    Piñón-Zárate, Gabriela; Herrera-Enríquez, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Téllez, Beatriz; Jarquín-Yáñez, Katia; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés Eliú

    2014-01-01

    The aim of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in cancer is to induce tumor-specific effector T cells that may reduce and control tumor mass. Immunostimulants that could drive a desired immune response are necessary to be found in order to generate a long lasting tumor immune response. GK-1 peptide, derived from Taenia crassiceps, induces not only increase in TNFα, IFNγ, and MCP-1 production in cocultures of DCs and T lymphocytes but also immunological protection against influenza virus. Moreover, the aim of this investigation is the use of GK-1 as a bone marrow DCs (BMDCs) immunostimulant targeted with MAGE antigen; thus, BMDC may be used as immunotherapy against murine melanoma. GK-1 induced in BMDCs a meaningful increment of CD86 and IL-12. In addition, the use of BMDCs TNFα/GK-1/MAGE-AX induced the highest survival and the smallest tumors in mice. Besides, the treatment helped to increase CD8 lymphocytes levels and to produce IFNγ in lymph nodes. Moreover, the histopathological analysis showed that BMDCs treated with GK-1/TNFα and loaded with MAGE-AX induced the apparition of more apoptotic and necrotic areas in tumors than in mice without treatment. These results highlight the properties of GK-1 as an immunostimulant of DCs and suggest as a potential candidate the use of this immunotherapy against cancer disease.

  18. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.

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    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Kuhn, Raymond E; Herbert, De'Broski R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. Here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm Taenia crassiceps or the roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of S. pneumoniae (A66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imaging and lung titers. This predisposition to pneumonia appears to be specific to S. pneumoniae, as worm-infected mice did not show evidence of increased morbidity when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus or sublethal doses of Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The defect was also present when worm-infected mice were challenged with a type 2 sepsis-causing strain (D39); an increased rate of pneumonia, decreased survival, and increased lung and blood titers were found. Pneumococcal colonization and immunity against acute otitis media were unaffected. Anti-helminthic treatment in the H. polygyrus model reversed this susceptibility. We conclude that helminth coinfection predisposes mice to fatal pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting increased outgrowth of bacteria in the lungs and blood. These data have broad implications for the prevention and treatment for pneumonia in the developing world, where helminth infections are endemic and pneumococcal pneumonia is common.

  20. Survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2013-10-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes.

  1. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy

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    Francesca Gori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1 followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats of taeniids in this area.

  2. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples.

  3. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

    1999-06-01

    A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts.

  4. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  5. Human Neurocysticercosis: Comparison of Different Diagnostic Tests Using Cerebrospinal Fluid ▿

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    Michelet, Lorraine; Fleury, Agnès; Sciutto, Edda; Kendjo, Eric; Fragoso, Gladis; Paris, Luc; Bouteille, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnosis due to their limited specificity and sensitivity. This study was performed to compare immunodiagnostic assays (antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting [EITB] and HP10 antigen detection by ELISA) with the detection of parasite DNA by PCR amplification of a repetitive element of the parasite genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 radiologically and clinically characterized NC patients. Patients were divided into six groups according to the stage of the parasites and their localization. The CSF cellularity of each patient was also recorded. When all patients were considered, PCR exhibited the highest sensitivity (95.9%) and variable specificity (80% or 100%) depending on the controls used. The sensitivities of antibody detection by ELISA and EITB were not significantly different, and ELISA identified HP10 antigen mostly when vesicular cysticerci were located in the subarachnoideal basal cisterns. These results can help in the selection of different individual assays or combinations of assays to be used in NC diagnosis according to different requirements. PMID:21068283

  6. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

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    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  7. Pulmonary and pleural cysticercosis: a case report; Cisticercose pulmonar pleural: relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, Marco Antonio; Toni, Xisto A. de; Meira, Lisiane A.; Goncalves, Nelson L.; Oliveira, Godofredo G. [Hospital Santa Isabel, Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Toni, Guilherme de [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1995-07-01

    The authors report a case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the lungs, pleura, brain and subcutaneous tissues. Plain chest X-rays and chest computed tomography showed multiple round ill defined nodular lesions scattered through the lungs and pleural surface, identified as cystic lesions by ultrasound. Calcified cysticerci were visualized in the subcutaneous tissues of the arms and thorax at the plain chest X-rays. Biopsy of subcutaneous nodes was performed, which results revealed cysticercosis. Brain CT demonstrated multiple calcified intraparenchymatous lesions, associated with cystic lesions, compatible with cysticercosis. Due to the rarity of the lung involvement by cysticercosis, an open lung biopsy was performed with partial resection of the lingula and two cystic lesions, which anatomo-pathological results revealed pleural and pulmonary cysticercosis. The pleural and pulmonary involvement is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease, usually due to heavy infestation of Taenia solium larvae. As a far as we know, we did not see clear illustration of proved lung and pleural cysticercosis fully documented in the world literature. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

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    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  9. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs.

  10. Recombinant protein- and synthetic peptide-based immunoblot test for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, John; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2014-05-01

    One of the most well-characterized tests for diagnosing neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-bound glycoproteins (LLGP) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. Although the test is very reliable, the purification process for the LLGP antigens has been difficult to transfer to other laboratories because of the need for expensive equipment and technical expertise. To develop a simpler assay, we previously purified and cloned the diagnostic glycoproteins in the LLGP fraction. In this study, we evaluated three representative recombinant or synthetic antigens from the LLGP fraction, individually and in different combinations, using an immunoblot assay (recombinant EITB). Using a panel of 249 confirmed NCC-positive and 401 negative blood serum samples, the sensitivity of the recombinant EITB assay was determined to be 99% and the specificity was 99% for diagnosing NCC. We also tested a panel of 239 confirmed NCC-positive serum samples in Lima, Peru, and found similar results. Overall, our data show that the performance characteristics of the recombinant EITB assay are comparable to those of the LLGP-EITB assay. This new recombinant- and synthetic antigen-based assay is sustainable and can be easily transferred to other laboratories in the United States and throughout the world.

  11. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid S100B concentrations in patients with neurocysticercosis

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    J.E. Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NC are varied and depend on the number and location of cysts, as well as on the host immune response. Symptoms usually occur in NC when cysticerci enter a degenerative course associated with an inflammatory response. The expression of brain damage markers may be expected to increase during this phase. S100B is a calcium-binding protein produced and released predominantly by astrocytes that has been used as a marker of reactive gliosis and astrocytic death in many pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of S100B in patients in different phases of NC evolution. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum S100B concentrations were measured in 25 patients with NC: 14 patients with degenerative cysts (D, 8 patients with viable cysts (V and 3 patients with inactive cysts. All NC patients, except 1, had five or less cysts. In most of them, symptoms had been present for at least 1 month before sample collection. Samples from 8 normal controls (C were also assayed. The albumin quotient was used to estimate the blood-brain barrier permeability. There were no significant differences in serum (P = 0.5 or cerebrospinal fluid (P = 0.91 S100B levels among the V, D, and C groups. These findings suggest that parenchymal changes associated with a relatively small number of degenerating cysts probably have a negligible impact on glial tissue.

  12. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using a synthetic peptide selected by phage-display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, R C R; Amim, P; de Andrade, H M; de Avila, R A M; Felicori, L; Oliveira, A G; Oliveira, C A; Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A P; Granier, C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2009-04-01

    The usefulness of a synthetic peptide in the serodiagnosis of Taenia solium human neurocysticercosis (NC) has been evaluated. Phage-displayed peptides were screened with human antibodies to scolex protein antigen from cysticercus cellulosae (SPACc). One clone was found to interact specifically with anti-SPACc IgGs. The corresponding synthetic peptide was found to be recognized in ELISA by NC patient's sera. The study was carried out with sera from 28 confirmed NC patients, 13 control sera and 73 sera from patients suffering from other infectious diseases. A 93% sensibility and a 94.3% specificity was achieved. Figures of 89% and 31.4% of sensibility and specificity were obtained in a SPACc-based ELISA. Immunoblotting of SPACc with anti-peptide antibodies revealed a single band of approximately 45 kDa in 1D and four 45 kDa isoforms in 2D-gel electrophoresis. A strong and specific immunostaining in the fibers beneath the suckers, at the base of the rostellum, and in the tissue surrounding the scolex of cysticerci was observed by immunomicroscopy. Our results show that a peptide-based immunodiagnostic of neurocisticercosis can be envisioned.

  13. Tratamento da cisticercose subcutânea co praziquantel: um novo agente cestoidicida Treatment of dermal cysticercosis with praziquantel: a new cestocidal agent

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    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult patients presenting dermal cysticercosis without cerebral or ocular involvement were treated with praziquantel. The first eleven cases received 60 mg/kg/day and the last nine cases 30 mg/kg/day. In both groups the daily dose was split into three oral intakes 4 to 6 hours apart and the drug administration lasted for 6 consecutive days. The latter group of patients also got dexamethasone, 3 mg daily, from one day before until four days after the treatment period with praziquantel. The drug proved to be 100% efficacious as demonstrated histopathologically by the death of the cysticerci of Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae in serial biopsies taken from the 2nd week on after the end of treatment, as well as clinically by the steady disappearence of the dermal nodules during the 6 months following the therapy. Tolerance of praziquantel was good as the incidence and severity of side-effects were not relevant. The drug safety was confirmed through laboratory tests which failed to detect any abnormal findings related to the hematopoietic, liver and kidney functions.

  14. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: past practices and new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis continues to be a major health burden on humans living in many regions of the world, despite the availability of highly effective taeniacides and identification of the cause, Taenia solium, as being potentially eradicable. Several T. solium control trials have been undertaken, generally achieving limited success and none that has been fully documented has achieved what was demonstrated to be a sustainable level of disease control. Pigs act as intermediate hosts for T. solium and two new control tools have become available for application in pigs - single-dose oxfendazole treatment of porcine cysticercosis and the TSOL18 vaccine. Three potential intervention scenarios for pigs are compared for control of cysticercosis, using either oxfendazole or vaccination. A control scenario involving vaccination plus oxfendazole treatment delivered at 4 monthly intervals was predicted to achieve the best outcome, with no pigs slaughtered at 12 months of age having viable T. solium cysticerci. Now that new control tools are available, there are opportunities to concentrate research attention on evaluation of novel control scenarios leading to the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes and a reduction in the global burden of neurocysticercosis.

  15. A rare case of hepatic cysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan; Charudutt Sambhaji; Kavitha Saravu; Abdul Razak; Ashwin Polnaya; Rao SN

    2011-01-01

    Human cysticercosis is an infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium and is commonly seen in developing countries. It usually involves the central nervous system but other organs like the heart, skeletal muscle and the orbit can also be involved. Rarely, the liver can also be the site of involvement. We report a case of a 25-year-old male with no premorbid illness but with a history of headache and vomiting. His physical and laboratory examinations suggested a diagnosis of tubercular meningitis. However, the high resolution ultrasound imaging of his abdomen showed that there were multiple cysticerci with scolices. IgG of cysticercosis detected by ELISA was also strongly positive, which supported the diagnosis of hepatic cysticercosis. He was managed with albendazole. This kind of cases has only been reported twice before in medical literature. It highlights the need to use high resolution ultrasonography in patients with a high index of suspicion of hepatic cysticercosis because of its occult presentation.

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic.

  17. Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk Alces spp.) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Meri, Seppo

    2011-11-01

    Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) is described from the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk Alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from Finland (type-locality) and Alaska, USA. The independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtDNA sequence data of Lavikainen et al. (2011; Parasitology International, 60, 289-295). Special reference is given to morphological differences between the new species and T. krabbei Moniez, 1879 (definitive hosts primarily canines for the latter), both of which use the moose/elk (Alces spp.) as intermediate hosts (the latter also uses Rangifer and perhaps other northern ruminants), and between the new species and T. ursina Linstow, 1893, both of which use the brown bear U. arctos as a definitive host. New morphological data are also provided for adults and cysticerci of T. krabbei. The analysis includes potentially useful morphometric features that have not been previously applied to Taenia spp.

  18. Neurocysticercosis: A case study of a Mongolian traveler who visited China and India with an updated review in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Anu; Davaajav, Abmed; Ukhnaa, Baigalmaa; Purvee, Altantsetseg; Unurkhaan, Saraa; Luvsan, Amartuvshin; Logan, Jenae E; Ito, Akira

    2017-05-03

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) of Taenia solium has never been reported in Mongolia. A Mongolian traveler who visited China and India presented with epileptic seizures after his return to Mongolia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple ring enhancing lesions with edema surrounding several lesions in his brain that were initially diagnosed to be viral encephalitis or NCC. Serology for cysticercosis using diagnostic antigens partially purified by cation-exchange chromatography and chimeric recombinant antigens and DNA analysis of a proglottid found in the patient's stool were applied for differential diagnosis. Serology showed strong positivity for NCC, and mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis revealed Indian but not Chinese haplotype of T. solium. This NCC case was considered to be caused by eggs released from adult tapeworm(s) established after eating uncooked or undercooked pork contaminated with cysticerci during his stay in India. This is a case report of taeniasis and secondary NCC associated with travel to India with an updated review of NCC in Asia. Molecular tracking of the specimen is highly informative as a way to identify where the infection was acquired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurocysticercosis: A Review

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    Oscar H. Del Brutto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment.

  20. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rodriguez-Hidalgo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  1. Recombinant S3Pvac-phage anticysticercosis vaccine: Simultaneous protection against cysticercosis and hydatid disease in rural pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; de Aluja, Aline S; Martínez, Jose Juan; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Beatriz; Blancas, Abel; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Díaz, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2011-02-28

    This paper provides macroscopic and histological evidence on the statistically significant protective effects of S3Pvac-phage vaccination against porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis. The study included 391 rustically bred pigs (187 vaccinated and 204 controls). Vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis by 61.7%. Vaccination also significantly reduced by 56.1% the prevalence of hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus in pigs. The presence of the vaccine epitopes in both cestodes is probably involved in the cross-protection observed. Increased inflammation was found in 5% of cysticerci recovered from controls, versus 24% from vaccinated pigs (P<0.01). Hydatid cysts were non-inflammatory in either group. Vaccination was effective to prevent one single disease, but it failed to prevent the simultaneous infections with both parasites in a same pig. The widening of the S3Pvac-phage vaccine protective repertoire to include hydatidosis is a convenient feature that should reduce the prevalence of two frequent zoonoses that affect rustic porcine breading with a single action. Thus, the costs of two different vaccination programs would be reduced to a single one with significant reduction in both zoonoses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New approaches to improve a peptide vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Hernández-Gonzalez, Marisela; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Cabrera-Ponce, José; López-Casillas, Fernando; González-Bonilla, César; Santiago-Machuca, Araceli; Ruíz-Pérez, Fernando; Sánchez, Joaquín; Goldbaum, Fernando; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium frequently affects human health and rustic porciculture. Cysticerci may localize in the central nervous system of humans causing neurocysticercosis, a major health problem in undeveloped countries. Prevalence and intensity of this disease in pigs and humans are related to social factors (poor personal hygiene, low sanitary conditions, rustic rearing of pigs, open fecalism) and possibly to biological factors such as immunity, genetic background, and gender. The indispensable role of pigs as an obligatory intermediate host in the life cycle offers the possibility of interfering with transmission through vaccination of pigs. An effective vaccine based on three synthetic peptides against pig cysticercosis has been successfully developed and proved effective in experimental and field conditions. The well-defined peptides that constitute the cysticercosis vaccine offer the possibility to explore alternative forms of antigen production and delivery systems that may improve the cost/benefit of this and other vaccines. Encouraging results were obtained in attempts to produce large amounts of these peptides and increased its immunogenicity by expression in recombinant filamentous phage (M13), in transgenic plants (carrots and papaya), and associated to bacterial immunogenic carrier proteins.

  3. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 4(Contd.) PMID:396058

  4. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Mexican village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti-Gutierrez, E J; Schantz, P M; Lara-Aguilera, R; Gomez Dandoy, H; Flisser, A

    1988-09-01

    One hundred and twenty-four persons, nearly the entire population of a rural village in Hidalgo State, were screened for intestinal parasites and clinical or serologic (ELISA) evidence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. Heads of households were questioned about dietary and other practices that might lead to pork tapeworm transmission, and soil samples were examined for helminth eggs. Twenty-five percent of local pigs had cysticerci visible by examination of the undersurface of their tongues. Four persons passed taeniid eggs, 7 were seropositive, and 10 gave medical histories suggestive of neurodysticercosis. Most seropositive persons were not symptomatic and the reverse was also true. The clustered distribution of infected pigs, tapeworm carriers, and persons with serologic or clinical evidence of cysticercosis suggested intrahousehold transmission. Dietary and sanitary practices were generally optimal for transmission of pork tapeworm. No cattle were kept in the village and beef was rarely eaten. This preliminary report attempts to characterize T. solium transmission in communities with endemic disease in rural Mexico and illustrates some of the methodological problems faced by epidemiologists who study this disease.

  5. Current Consensus Guidelines for Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A. W.; Nash, Theodore E.; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M.; White, A. Clinton; Botero, David; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Allan, James C.; Flisser, Ana; Correa, Dolores; Sarti, Elsa; Friedland, Jon S.; Martinez, S. Manuel; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2002-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a common cause of epileptic seizures and other neurological morbidity in most developing countries. It is also an increasingly common diagnosis in industrialized countries because of immigration from areas where it is endemic. Its clinical manifestations are highly variable and depend on the number, stage, and size of the lesions and the host's immune response. In part due to this variability, major discrepancies exist in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. A panel of experts in taeniasis/cysticercosis discussed the evidence on treatment of neurocysticercosis for each clinical presentation, and we present the panel's consensus and areas of disagreement. Overall, four general recommendations were made: (i) individualize therapeutic decisions, including whether to use antiparasitic drugs, based on the number, location, and viability of the parasites within the nervous system; (ii) actively manage growing cysticerci either with antiparasitic drugs or surgical excision; (iii) prioritize the management of intracranial hypertension secondary to neurocysticercosis before considering any other form of therapy; and (iv) manage seizures as done for seizures due to other causes of secondary seizures (remote symptomatic seizures) because they are due to an organic focus that has been present for a long time. PMID:12364377

  6. Racemose neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Kristin; Krupa, Kelly; Pisculli, Mary L.; Athas, Deena M.; Farrell, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an invasive parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The clinical manifestations of NCC depend on the parasitic load and location of infection, as well as the developmental stage of the cysticerci and host immune response, with symptoms ranging from subclinical headaches to seizures, cerebrovascular events, and life-threatening hydrocephalus. Racemose NCC represents a particularly severe variant of extraparenchymal NCC characterized by the presence of multiple confluent cysts within the subarachnoid space and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as a decreased response to treatment. Albendazole is the preferred drug for the treatment of racemose NCC due to its superior cerebrospinal fluid penetration compared to praziquantel and the ability to be used concomitantly with steroids. Case Description: In this report, we describe a 39-year-old man recently emigrated from Mexico with racemose NCC and hydrocephalus successfully treated with prolonged albendazole treatment, high-dose dexamethasone, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for the relief of obstructive hydrocephalus. Conclusions: Treatment of racemose NCC represents a significant clinical challenge requiring multimodal intervention to minimize infectious- and treatment-related morbidity. We review the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features relevant to the management of this aggressive form of NCC. PMID:26958418

  7. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Praet, N; Saa, L R; Vercruysse, J; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2006-11-01

    Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  8. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

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    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  9. The Prevalence of Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors for Taeniasis in Iringa Rural District

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    C. Yohana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors for taeniosis in Iringa rural. A total of 110 households rearing pigs from sixteen villages were involved in a survey in which 308 pigs were examined for Cysticercus cysts by antemortem and postmortem methods. The risk factors for taeniosis were assessed and evaluated through questionnaires, interviews and by direct observation. Of 308 pigs examined by lingual palpation, 23 (7.5%, p<0.001 had cysticerci; the prevalence rates was higher in male pigs than female 16 (69.5% and 7 (30.4%, respectively. Likewise the prevalence was higher in villages away from the main roads where there were pigs that customarily ran loose or fed human feaces. The triceps muscle had the highest number of cysts 44 (51.1% and the diaphragm had the lowest 6 (6.9%. Of 4020 people who sought for treatment in five wards per month, 155 (21.8% had history of intestinal worms, 6 (2.2% consumed uninspected pork from peoples house, 82 (74.5% lack tap water, 13 (12% had no toilets and 40 (22.7% practiced free range pig husbandry or tethering method. The findings from this study identified community behavioral, household hygiene and environmental practices that should be modified to prevent continued transmission of cysticercosis and taeniosis in Iringa rural district.

  10. Recent situation of taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia.

  11. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Aschenborn, Julia; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Various species of Echinococcus have been described in the past from wild mammals of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is only recently, that a few isolates have become available for molecular identification; therefore, the involvement of wildlife in the lifecycles of the various cryptic species within Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is still only partially known. A preliminary survey was undertaken in Etosha National Park, Namibia, from August to October 2012. Faecal samples were obtained from 34 individual wild carnivores, and metacestodes were collected from carcasses of 18 culled herbivores. Single eggs and metacestode tissue were lysed and identified from sequences of the mitochondrial nad1 gene. In case of metacestodes, the cox1 gene was additionally sequenced and haplotype networks were constructed. Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6), black-backed jackals (2 of 7) and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12). The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia) taeniaeformis (lion), Taenia regis (lions and oryx) and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx). PMID:25830103

  12. Third component of complement, immunoglobulin deposition, and leucocyte attachment related to surface sulfate on larval Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letonja, T; Hammerberg, B

    1983-08-01

    Cysticerci and strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis were incubated with leucocytes from peritoneal washings of normal and T. taeniaeformis-infected rats in the presence of either normal sera or sera from infected rats. Leucocytes from infected and normal rats attached exclusively to the scolices but not the bladders of the larvae in the presence of serum from normal or infected rats. Heat inactivation at 56 C for 30 min destroyed the serum-mediated cell attachment. Histochemical staining of the larval taeniids with acid Alcian Blue demonstrated high concentrations of sulfated mucopolysaccharides on bladders that were not present on scolices. Immunofluorescent staining detected no difference in IgG deposition on the surfaces of bladders and scolices after incubation with rat sera in contrast to the markedly greater amounts of complement protein C3 found on scolices versus bladders. These results indicate that polysulfated substances on the bladder of this larval taeniid are associated with regional resistance to C3 deposition and leucocyte attachment.

  13. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies document the prevalence of Taenia solium infections in Nigeria, yet these studies do not cover porcine cysticercosis in private home slaughter slabs where there is no routine meat inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria. Slaughter premises were inspected for availability of basic facilities and questionnaires were used to elicit necessary informative data. Butchers were examined for taeniasis by stool microscopy and copro-antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) to ascertain T. solium - taeniasis. Pigs slaughtered at the premises were examined for cysticerci. Home slaughter conditions were substandard, unhygienic and lacked the basic facilities of a proper slaughterhouse. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 9.3%. The butchers participating in the study had very poor knowledge of T. solium infections and 30% tested positive for taeniasis by copro-Ag ELISA at the time of the study. Home slaughter of pigs in the areas studied should be considered and integrated as a component of prevention and control programmes - particularly through educational interventions - in order to equip individuals involved with a good understanding of the risks associated with animal husbandry and human practices.

  14. Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana em um município do Estado do Piauí, Região Nordeste do Brasil Seroepidemiological survey of human cysticercosis in a municipality of Piaui State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrando as pesquisas sobre parasitoses na região do entorno do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brasil, realizadas entre 1999 e 2001, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a situação epidemiológica da cisticercose humana no Município de João Costa, no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram obtidas informações clínico-epidemiológicas e coletadas amostras de sangue para testes sorológicos imunoenzimáticos (ELISA e Western blot, empregando cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps como antígeno. Na primeira etapa, em 1999, foram investigadas 169 pessoas com história confirmada ou suspeita de infecção/doença pelo complexo teníase-cisticercose, e seus familiares. Na análise, 13,6% das pessoas apresentaram soros reagentes para cisticercose pelo método ELISA. Na segunda etapa, em 2001, foram avaliadas 92 amostras de soro de indivíduos reativos para cisticercose detectados no primeiro momento e seus familiares, sendo que 24,0% das amostras de soro foram reagentes para cisticercose pelo ELISA, e 29,0%, pelo WB. Nessa mesma etapa, realizou-se inquérito coprológico em 701 pessoas, incluindo voluntários. A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais foi de 51,0%, tendo sido observada uma maior prevalência de protozoários (95,0% em relação aos helmintos (5,0%. Os resultados do estudo indicam o caráter endêmico da cisticercose na área, além da elevada freqüência de protozooses intestinais.As part of parasitological studies in the area surrounding the Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí State, Northeast Brazil, from 1999 to 2001, the current study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological profile of human cysticercosis in the Municipality of João Costa. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained, and blood samples were drawn for immunoenzymatic serological tests (ELISA and Western blot, using Taenia crassiceps as the antigen. The first stage, in 1999, investigated 169 individuals with a confirmed history or suspicion of

  15. Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose Evaluation of immunological tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis

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    Heloisa Werneck de Macedo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O diagnóstico da neurocisticercose (NCC deve ser feito pela associação de técnicas de imagem com métodos imunológicos sensíveis e específicos. Objetivos: Avaliar os métodos Elisa e Western blot (Wb, utilizando-se como antígeno extrato bruto salino da larva da Taenia solium, o Cysticercus cellulosae e Wb, empregando-se como antígeno cisticercos da Taenia crassiceps em amostras de soro, para o diagnóstico da NCC. Materiais e métodos: Foram avaliadas amostras de soro de 43 pacientes com diagnóstico de NCC: 21 por clínica, tomografia computadorizada de crânio (TC e presença de anticorpos anticisticerco no líquido cefalorraquiano (LCR; 22 por clínica e TC e 229 pacientes com diferentes parasitoses. Para as análises desses materiais biológicos foram empregados os métodos Elisa, usando-se como antígeno C. cellulosae, e Wb, usando-se como antígeno C. cellulosae e Cysticercus longicollis. Resultados: O método Elisa utilizando C. cellulosae como antígeno apresentou especificidade de 95% e sensibilidade de 71%. O método Wb utilizando C. cellulosae ou C. longicollis como antígeno apresentou sensibilidade de 86% e especificidade de 99%. Conclusões: Os métodos imunológicos no LCR são importantes para a definição da NCC. Entretanto o método Elisa no soro ainda não é adequado pela sua baixa sensibilidade, mas o Wb apresentou alta especificidade e boa sensibilidade, podendo auxiliar no diagnóstico da NCC, possibilitando sugerir a existência de forma transicional da doença, não demonstrada pela TC.Background: The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC has been made by association of neuroimaging studies and use of sensitive and specific serological assays. Objectives: Evaluating Elisa and Western blot (Wb tests using a crude extract of Cysticercus cellulosae (Taenia solium as antigen and a Wb test using a glycoprotein of Cysticercus longicollis (Taenia crassiceps as antigen for the diagnosis of NCC. Methods

  16. Immunoendocrine interactions during chronic cysticercosis determine male mouse feminization: role of IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Montor, J; Baig, S; Mitchell, R; Deway, K; Hallal-Calleros, C; Damian, R T

    2001-10-15

    Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis results in an impressive feminization in male mice during chronic infection, characterized by increased serum estradiol levels 100 times their normal values, while those of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are decreased by 85 and 95% respectively. Concomitantly, the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and IL-6 are increased 70 and 90 times their normal values in the infected male mice. Since a specific Th1/Th2 shift of the immune response has been previously reported during the chronic infection, and this shift may be associated with the feminization process, we proposed that this shift is induced by immunoendocrine interactions during the disease, and this gives way to a change in the initial resistance to the infection in the male mice, which become as susceptible as female mice. To confirm this hypothesis, we depleted immune system activity in two different ways: total body irradiation and neonatal thymectomy. Our results show that when immune system activity is depleted using either strategy, the male mice do not feminize, and the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and IL-6 are inhibited. Depletion of IL-6 using IL-6(-/-) knockout mice does not produce the feminization process stated above, while restitution of the IL-6(-/-) knockout, irradiated, and thymectomized mice with murine recombinant IL-6 restores the feminization process. Expression of the IL-6 gene was found only in the testes and spleen of infected animals. Our results illustrate the importance of immunoendocrine interactions during a parasitic disease and show a possible new mechanism of parasite establishment in an initially resistant host.

  17. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T

  18. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  19. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice.

  20. Molecular characterization, functional expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium fatty acid-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas, Oscar; Carrero, Julio C; Bobes, Raúl J; Flisser, Ana; Rosas, Gabriela; Laclette, Juan P

    2012-12-01

    The fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) comprise a family of proteins that are widely expressed in animal cells and perform a variety of vital functions. Here, we report the identification, characterization, recombinant expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a Taenia solium FABP (TsFABP1). The TsFABP1 primary structure showed all the conserved residues characteristic of the subfamily iv of the intracellular Lipid-Binding Proteins (iLBPs), including those involved in the binding stabilization of the fatty acid molecule. Through a competitive binding assay we found that TsFABP1 is able to bind at least six different fatty acids with preference toward palmitic and stearic acid, suggesting that TsFABP1 is a member of the iLBP subfamily iv. Immunolocalization assays carried out on larval and adult tissues of four species of taeniids using anti-TsFABP1 hyperimmune sera produced in mice and rabbit, showed intense labeling in the tegument of the spiral canal and in subtegumental cytons of the larvae. These findings suggest that the spiral canal might be a major place for FA uptake in the developing scolex. In contrast, only subtegumental cytons in the adult worms stained positive. We propose that TsFABP1 is involved in the mechanism to mobilize fatty acids between compartments in the extensive syncytial tissue of taeniids. Protection assays carried out in a murine model of cysticercosis showed that subcutaneous immunization with TsFABP1 resulted in about 45% reduction of parasite load against an intraperitoneal challenge with Taenia crassiceps cysts. This reduction in parasite load correlated with the level of cellular and humoral immune responses against TsFABP1, as determined in spleen lymphocyte proliferation and ELISA testing.

  1. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp.) eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federer, Karin; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Gori, Francesca; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in captive primates in Europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-DNA of taeniids. Each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. The samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from September to November (autumn), originating from greenhouses or fields in the Basel region in the North of Switzerland, or in April and May (spring) when fruit and vegetables are sourced from throughout Europe from various wholesalers. Each sample was washed, and the washing water sieved through mesh apertures of 50 μm and 21 μm, respectively. The debris, including taeniid eggs, collected on the 21 μm sieve were investigated by a multiplex PCR-analysis followed by direct sequencing. In 17 (18%) of the 95 samples collected in autumn, taeniid-DNA was detected (Taenia hydatigena in four, Taenia ovis in three, Taenia polyacantha in two and Hydatigera (Taenia) taeniaeformis in five cases). Similarly, in 13 (28%) of the 46 samples collected during spring taeniid-DNA was detected (Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in two, Taenia crassiceps in one, T. hydatigena in two, Taenia multiceps/Taenia serialis in two, Taenia saginata in one and H. taeniaeformis in five cases). Although DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis was not found specifically in this study, the detection of other fox taeniids reveals that vegetables and fruit fed to the primates at the Zoo Basel at different times of the year and from different origin are contaminated with carnivore's faeces and therefore act as a potential source of AE infections.

  2. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp. eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Federer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE in captive primates in Europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-DNA of taeniids. Each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. The samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from September to November (autumn, originating from greenhouses or fields in the Basel region in the North of Switzerland, or in April and May (spring when fruit and vegetables are sourced from throughout Europe from various wholesalers. Each sample was washed, and the washing water sieved through mesh apertures of 50 μm and 21 μm, respectively. The debris, including taeniid eggs, collected on the 21 μm sieve were investigated by a multiplex PCR-analysis followed by direct sequencing. In 17 (18% of the 95 samples collected in autumn, taeniid-DNA was detected (Taenia hydatigena in four, Taenia ovis in three, Taenia polyacantha in two and Hydatigera (Taenia taeniaeformis in five cases. Similarly, in 13 (28% of the 46 samples collected during spring taeniid-DNA was detected (Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in two, Taenia crassiceps in one, T. hydatigena in two, Taenia multiceps/Taenia serialis in two, Taenia saginata in one and H. taeniaeformis in five cases. Although DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis was not found specifically in this study, the detection of other fox taeniids reveals that vegetables and fruit fed to the primates at the Zoo Basel at different times of the year and from different origin are contaminated with carnivore's faeces and therefore act as a potential source of AE infections.

  3. Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections: from DNA probes to polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Sciutto, Edda; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this work was the rapid and easy differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and T. solium. First, a T. saginata size-selected genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (gDNA) library was constructed in the vector lambda gt10 using the 2-4 kb fraction from the parasite DNA digested with EcoR1, under 'star' conditions. After differential screening of the library and hybridization analysis with DNA from T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus (bovine, porcine, and human), 2 recombinant phages were selected. They were designated HDP1 and HDP2. HDP1 reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA, and HDP2 recognized DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium. The 2 DNA probes were then sequenced and further characterized. HDP1 was a repetitive sequence with a 53 bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1272 bp fragment, while the 3954 bp HDP2 was not a repetitive sequence. Using the sequencing data, oligonucleotides were designed and used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 2 selected oligonucleotides from probe HDP1 (PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified gDNA from T. saginata, but not T. solium or other related cestodes, with a sensitivity of < 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA, about the quantity of DNA in one taeniid egg. The 3 oligonucleotides selected from the HDP2 sequence (PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) allowed the differential amplification of gDNA from T. saginata, T. solium and E. granulosus in a multiplex PCR, again with a sensitivity of < 10 pg. These diagnostic tools have immediate application in the differential diagnosis of T. solium and T. saginata in humans and in the diagnosis of dubious cysts in the slaughterhouse. We also hope to apply them to epidemiological surveys of, for example, soil and water in endemic areas.

  4. THE APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF CESTODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes or tapeworms are found in vertebrate hosts worldwide. There are a great many species, but few have received much attention in biotechnologic research. Those that have been studied in any detail have been those of importance to veterinary and human medicine. The application of biotechnology to the study of taeniids has been gaining momentum in recent years. Research has been done to improve the diagnosis of larval taeniid infections, especially cysticercosis. There have been improvements in serologic testing using refined and purified antigens readily available from one species to detect antibodies of another. (Taenia hydatigena antigens are used to detect Cysticercus bovis and Cysticercus cellulosae. The use of Western blots of tapeworm antigens (T. solium, T. crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus has been shown to be effective in neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases. Studies with monoclonal antibodies have also been found to be of interest. Anti-oncospheral monoclonal antibodies have been developed to distinguish eggs of E. granulosis from other taeniid eggs. In another study, monoclonal antibodies from oncospheres of T.saginata conferred protection against oral infections with T.saginata eggs in calves. Other investigators reported vaccines against Cysticercus fasciolaris by a T. taeniaeformis antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. Studies on DNA have been gaining momentum. DNA-based techniques have been used to detect inter- and intraspecific variations in Echinococcus and to characterize isolates of E.granulosus. DNA probes in Southern blot analysis have been used to discriminate taeniid species. Taenia saginata in the Far East has become an enigma. Although the parasite is morphologically T.saginata, the definitive host for the parasite is not clear. Studies have shown the pig to be a possible intermediate host with larval development similar to T.solium, but in pig liver rather than muscle. In recent comparative studies with T

  5. Effect of Cysticercus cellulosae fractions on the respiratory burst of pig neutrophils Efeito de frações de Cysticercus cellulosae sobre a explosão respiratória de neutrófilos de suínos

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    Silvana Marina Piccoli Pugine

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages are cells that interact with invading parasites and naive hosts have been shown to have anti-parasitic activity. The initial reaction of these leukocytes is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS to play in parasite expulsion. The present work was carried out to study the effect of total extract, scolex and membrane fractions from Cysticercus cellulosae on respiratory burst by pig neutrophils. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production by neutrophils incubated with metacestode fractions from C. cellulosae showed an increase of: 190% (total extract, 120% (scolex and 44% (membrane. High antioxidant catalatic activity (33%, 28%, 28% by total extract, scolex and membrane, respectively was observed in neutrophils incubated with metacestode fractions, which could be an attempt at self-protection. Scolex and membrane fractions increased the phagocytic capacity of neutrophils (44% and 28%, respectively. On the other hand, total cysticerci did not alter the phagocytosis, possibly due to modifications in membrane function, caused by high ROS production from neutrophils in the presence of total cysticerci. Total fraction from C. cellulosae is toxic for neutrophils as shown by the decrease in phagocytic capacity, probably caused by high levels of ROS formation. The difference in toxicity of total extract, scolex and membrane fractions on neutrophils can be explained by the presence of an antigenic effect of the vesicular fluid in the total extract of C. cellulosae.Neutrófilos, eosinófilos e macrófagos são células que interagem com os parasitas no corpo do hospedeiro desenvolvendo atividade antiparasitária. A reação inicial destes leucócitos é a geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO a fim de expulsar os parasitas. No presente trabalho estudou-se o efeito da fração total, de escolex e de membrana de Cysticercus cellulosae sobre a explosão respiratória de neutrófilos de suínos. A produ

  6. Assessing Ultrasonography as a Diagnostic Tool for Porcine Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W.; Santivaňez, Saul J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz Maria; Benavides, Victor; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Taenia solium inflicts substantial neurologic disease and economic losses on rural communities in many developing nations. “Ring-strategy” is a control intervention that targets treatment of humans and pigs among clusters of households (rings) that surround pigs heavily infected with cysticerci. These pigs are typically identified by examining the animal’s tongue for cysts. However, as prevalence decreases in intervened communities, more sensitive methods may be needed to identify these animals and to maintain control pressure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ultrasonography as an alternative method to detect pigs heavily infected with T. solium cysts. Methodology/Principal Findings We purchased 152 pigs representing all seropositive animals villagers were willing to sell from eight communities (pop. 2085) in Piura, Peru, where T. solium is endemic. Tongue and ultrasound examinations of the fore and hind-limbs were performed in these animals, followed by necropsy with fine dissection as gold standard to determine cyst burden. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography with tongue examination for their ability to detect heavy infection (≥ 100 viable cysts) in pigs. Compared to tongue examination, ultrasonography was more sensitive (100% vs. 91%) but less specific (90% vs. 98%), although these differences were not statistically significant. The greater sensitivity of ultrasound resulted in detection of one additional heavily infected pig compared to tongue examination (11/11 vs. 10/11), but resulted in more false positives (14/141 vs. 3/141) due to poor specificity. Conclusions/Significance Ultrasonography was highly sensitive in detecting heavily infected pigs and may identify more rings for screening or treatment compared to tongue examination. However, the high false positive rate using ultrasound would result in substantial unnecessary treatment. If specificity can be improved with greater operator experience

  7. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  8. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies

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    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  9. Study on Hepatocyte Apoptosis of Domestic Pigs Experimentally Infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata%亚洲带绦虫和牛带绦虫实验感染乳猪后肝脏细胞凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟荣; 包怀恩; 张科; 吴家红; 郎书源

    2012-01-01

    . asiatica and T. saginata were collected and identified from the taeniasis patients in Dunyun and Congjiang districts, Guizhou province. Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids and prepared by washing and centrifugation. Nineteen 20-day hybrid domestic pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace strain) were randomly divided into T. asiatica group (6 pigs), T. saginata group (8 pigs) and control group (5 pigs). Each animal of experimental groups was infected with 1.5×105 eggs by stomach injection. On day 15, 32, 46 and 74 after infection, animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for further experiments. The liver tissues were sliced for glass slides and prepared for ultrathin sections. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl trans-ferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling. The morphological features of liver tissue were observed under transmission electron microscope. Results The infection rate of two experiment groups reached 100%. Better developed cysticerci were found in liver of T. asiatica group than that of T. saginata group, but the liver pathological changes caused by cysticerci were similar. On day 15 and 32 after infection, hydropic degeneration, obvious vacuolization and some balloon-like degen-eration were found in hepatocytes, and focal hepatic necrosis was observed. On day 46, spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. On day 74, main damages were granulomatous reactions surrounding cysticercus and focal liver fibrosis. On day 46, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(15.07±3.42)%] and T. saginata group [(17.13±1.62)%] was considerably higher than that in the control [(9.53±1.06)%] (P<0.05). On day 74, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(27.33±0.92)%] and T. saginata group [(34.20±0.73)%] was higher than that in the control [(13.60±2.26)%] (P<0.05), and the apoptosis index in T. saginata group was significantly higher than that of T. asiatica group (P<0.05). Simultaneously, morphological

  10. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

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    Dumas, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France)]|[Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France); Visy, J.M. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Belin, C. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Gaston, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France); Goldlust, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Dumas, M. [Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France)

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Neurocysticercosis: the effectiveness of the cysticidal treatment could be influenced by the host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Graciela; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosetti, Marcos; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Saenz, Brenda; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fleury, Agnes

    2014-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, a clinically and radiologically pleomorphic parasitic disease, is still endemic to most non-developed countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Anti-helminthic drugs (AHD) are generally effective and rapidly destroy parenchymal cysticerci. In contrast, several cycles of AHD are frequently necessary to damage extraparenchymally located parasites. The present study was designed to evaluate whether differences in the immunological profile of the patients is involved in the diversity of the response to AHD. To this end, a global gene expression microarray and a cytokine analysis were made. Responder patients were those showing a radiological reduction greater than 50 % in the parasite burden following AHD treatment. Microarray pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed that a total of eighteen immune-related genes were up-regulated in the five responder patients with respect the expression profile seen in the four non-responder subjects. The function of up-regulated genes exerted pro-inflammatory (RORγC, Sema4A, SLAMF3, SLAMF6), anti-inflammatory (TGFβ, TNFRSF25, TNFRS18, SLAMF1, ILF2), or immunomodulatory effects (CXCL2, RUNX3, SLAMF9, TGFBR3). To further explore the causes of the heterogeneity in the response to treatment, a wide ELISA cytokine analysis was performed in serum, PBMC supernatants, and CSF samples from 39 responder and 26 non-responder patients. Responder patients showed higher CSF IL-17A levels (P = 0.04) and higher supernatant IL-6 levels (P = 0.03) 60 days after treatment. These results suggest a possible influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the response to AHD as observed by radiological methods, and thus the possible participation of the host immunity in the effectiveness of AHD treatment.

  12. Neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers: report of seven cases and review of published patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2013-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers has received little attention in the literature, and little is known about the mechanisms of disease acquisition and clinical forms of presentation of the disease in this age group. All patients aged ≤3 years with neurocysticercosis evaluated at Hospital-Clínica Kennedy, Guayaquil, over a 22-year period were included in this study. Their household contacts were screened to detect Taenia solium carriers, which may represent the source of infection. A literature search on neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers was also performed to compare personal cases with those described elsewhere. A total of 25 infants and toddlers with neurocysticercosis were included (seven from our institution and 18 from the literature). All patients had seizures as the primary manifestation of the disease, and neuroimaging studies showed one or two parenchymal brain cysticerci in the colloidal stage in 88% of patients. The source of infection was investigated in 11 houses, including the seven households of the present series, and only four of the 18 reported in the literature. A Taenia carrier was found in five (45%) of these households, including three from the present series and two from the literature. A sizable proportion of infants and toddlers with neurocysticercosis have been infected at home. Compulsory search of Taenia carriers among household contacts will allow the detection of the potential source of infection and will reduce further spread of the disease. The search must not be limited to family members, but also extended to domestic employees who are in daily contact with the children.

  13. Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: Role of High Resolution Ultrasound in Diagnosis

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    Sachin Lohra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the commonest site of extraintestinal infestation with Taenia solium is brain, Subcutaneous cysticercosis is fairly common in asia. The advent of high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, and a heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated soft tissue cysticerci has probably supplanted the need for surgical intervention and excision biopsy in asymptomatic subcutaneous cysts, as cysts have high rate of spontaneous resolution. OBJECTIVES: - To observe role of high resolution ultrasound in diagnosis and need of surgical intervention in treatment of subcutaneous cysticercosis. MATERIALS and METHODS: retrospective study of seven cases of extraneural cysticercosis, all involving the subcutaneous tissues or muscles over the arms and torso. Either high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, or excision biopsy, or a combination of these were used to arrive at a diagnosis. All patients were followed up with serial ultrasounds. All patients received oral nitazoxanide for autoinfection. Surgical excision was resorted to in two patients, in whom it was possible to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis. RESULTS: of the seven cases of subcutaneous cysticercosis all have rural background, most of the patients (6 were vegetarian and one was non vegetarian. Age and gender of patient, size and duration of lesion were insignificant in establishing the diagnosis. High resolution ultrasound was highly significant in establishing the diagnosis over FNAC and histopathology. Five of the cases resolved spontaneously and surgical intervention was required only in two cases. INTERPRETATION and CONCLUSIONS: With heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated subcutaneous cysticercosis in patients with close animal contact, and the widespread availability of high resolution ultrasound and FNAC, subcutaneous cysticercosis can be diagnosed readily. Surgery can be avoided in the great majority of these patients, as the cysts mostly resolve on their own

  14. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  15. Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  16. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation.

  17. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Paul Nava-Luna, Alfonso Olivos, Armando Pérez-Torres, Sonia Leon-Cabrera, J.C. Carrero, Jorge Morales-Montor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  18. Cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana no município de Barbalha, Ceará Porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis in municipal district of Barbalha, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Em Barbalha, Ceará, foram realizados levantamentos de casos de cisticercose suína, teníase e neurocisticercose humana causadas por Taenia solium, e realizou-se uma pesquisa quanto aos sistemas de criação de suínos na região. De 85 suínos abatidos em abatedouro local 4,7% apresentavam cisticercose, a maioria dos cisticercos localizava-se na língua e coração. Entre 2001 e 2004, das 302 criações de suínos denunciadas à vigilância sanitária, 96,6% eram chiqueiros. A teníase, entre 1998 e 2003, correspondeu a 1,1% das verminoses diagnosticadas pela Secretária de Saúde Municipal. Entre 2001 e 2003, os casos de neurocisticercose humana corresponderam a 5% das tomografias de crânio requisitadas nos hospitais da região.In Barbalha, municipal district of Ceará state, an assessment of cases of porcine cysticercosis, taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis caused by the Taenia solium was performed in order to evaluate the situation of these diseases. It was also carried out a research about the types of swine farms registered in the area. Considering the 85 swine slaughtered at the slaughterhouse of Barbalha, 4.7% presented cysticercosis. Most cysticerci were located in the tongue and in the heart. Between 2001 and 2004, from 302 swine farms denounced to the Sanitary Surveillance, 9.6% were pigsties. Taeniasis, between 1998 and 2003, corresponded to 1.1% of the helminthes diagnosed by the Municipal Health Office. From 2001 to 2003, the cases of human neurocysticercosis corresponded to 5% of the skull tomographies requested in the hospitals of the area.

  19. Re-evaluation of porcine cysticercosis in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria

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    Idika Kalu Idika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To re-evaluate the status of Taenia solium (T. solium cysticercosis in slaughter pigs due to the great economic and public health implication of the parasite and the increasing pig production and pork consumption in the area. Methods: The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria was evaluated using structured questionnaires and postmortem examination of pigs slaughtered in three major slaughter slabs in the area, namely, Orba, Ibagwa and Nsukka slaughter slabs. Questionnaires were distributed to willing butchers and pig marketers and completed copies were retrieved and analysed. The slabs were visited every other week during which a total of 379 pigs were examined. Pig carcasses were examined in accordance with standard meat inspection procedures. Briefly, carcasses were examined visually under natural light and palpated before longitudinal incisions were made in the heart, tongue, masseter, neck, intercostal, shoulder and thigh muscles. Carcasses containing cysticerci were recorded as positive for cysticercosis. The sex, age and breed of all animals examined were recorded. Results: T. solium cysticercosis prevalence of 3.3% (4/120, 4.3% (5/117 and 0% (0/142 were recorded for Ibagwa, Orba and Nsukka slaughter slabs respectively with an overall prevalence of 2.4% in the three study areas. The type of pig husbandry practiced was the most important factor influencing the prevalence of the infection. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that the majority of the respondents were not aware of the zoonotic implication of porcine cysticercosis irrespective of their educational background nor were they aware that epilepsy in the family could be associated with the infection in man. Conclusions: T. solium cysticercosis remains endemic in Nsukka area and is a potential major health hazard that must be addressed by an expanded and coordinated study, and control programs.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans and pigs in a village in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Plancarte, A; Wilson, M; Gutierrez, I O; Lopez, A S; Roberts, J; Flisser, A

    1992-06-01

    In a Mexican village in which Taenia solium infection was known to be endemic, we selected a cluster sample of 368 households (21% of the total) for demographic, environmental, and diagnostic surveys, and medical histories for taeniasis and cysticercosis. Coproparasitologic studies of 1,531 participants revealed infection by Taenia sp. in four (0.3%) individuals; however, 5.8% of the respondents reported a history of having passed tapeworm proglottids in feces. Of 1,552 human serum specimens, 10.8% tested positive in the cysticercosis immunoblot assay. Seropositivity increased with age and reached a maximum in subjects ages 46-55 years. Risk factors associated with seropositivity included a history of passing tapeworm proglottids, frequent consumption of pork, and poor personal and household hygiene (P less than 0.05). A history of seizures was also significantly associated with seropositivity (P less than 0.05); approximately one-third of persons with such histories were seropositive. Of 571 pigs examined by tongue inspection, 23 (4.0%) had cysticerci; infection rates increased with the age of pigs, and were higher in pigs that habitually ran loose or were fed human feces (P less than 0.05). Goodness of fit analysis confirmed that seropositive persons (but not infected pigs) were significantly clustered within households, particularly, in households in which a member reported a history of having passed tapeworm proglottids. The results of this study have identified community behavioral and environmental practices that must be modified to prevent continued transmission of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

  1. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  2. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2010-01-01

    One of the best-characterized tests for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay, developed at the CDC, which uses lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci. The purification of the LLGP antigens has been difficult to standardize, and the polyacrylamide gel system used for the immunoblot assay is not easily transferable to other laboratories. In this study, we developed a multiantigen printing immunoassay (MAPIA) to compare the performance of multiple recombinant Taenia solium proteins with the potential for the detection of cysticercosis and taeniasis. We prepared MAPIA strips using six cysticercosis and two taeniasis diagnostic proteins and compared the performance of the proteins with sera collected from defined cysticercosis and taeniasis cases. Of the six cysticercosis antigens, rT24H performed well in detecting cases with two or more viable cysts in the brain (sensitivity and specificity, 97% and 99.4%, respectively); the use of a combination of cysticercosis antigens did not improve the sensitivity of the test and decreased the specificity. None of the antigens could differentiate the different clinical presentations of cysticercosis. Both of the taeniasis antigens (rES33 and rES38) had the same sensitivity of 99.4% and specificities of 93.9% and 94.5%, respectively. Some cross-reactivity against rES33 and rES38 was found, especially with sera from cases infected with Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that MAPIA is a simple and effective tool that may be used to compare antibody responses to different cysticercosis and taeniasis antigens and, in this case, may be useful for the rapid detection of T. solium cases.

  3. Survey of Obstetrician-Gynecologists in the United States About Taeniasis and Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rebecca L; Anderson, Britta; Schulkin, Jay; Cantey, Paul T; Montgomery, Susan P; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-11

    An estimated 50 million persons worldwide are infected with cysticerci, the larval forms of the Taenia solium tapeworm. Neurocysticercosis can cause seizures, epilepsy, and hydrocephalus, and fatal cases have been reported in the United States in immigrants and in travelers returning from endemic countries. Pregnant women with symptomatic neurocysticercosis present treatment challenges, whereas those with the adult tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis) can put their infants and other family members, as well as obstetrician-gynecologists and their staff, at risk for cysticercosis. A questionnaire developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists was sent to a representative sample of 1,000 physicians to assess their awareness of T. solium infection and the potential for it to be encountered in an obstetrics and gynecology setting. In total, 31.4% of respondents correctly answered that taeniasis is caused by eating undercooked pork containing T. solium cysts (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.6-36.5). While only 14.5% (95% CI = 11.0-18.6) of respondents correctly answered that cysticercosis is acquired by ingesting tapeworm eggs shed in human stools, twice that number (30.3%; 95% CI = 25.5-35.3) correctly answered that a mother with taeniasis can cause cysticercosis in her infant. Practicing in a state in which cysticercosis was reportable at the time of the survey was not significantly associated with answering any of the 12 knowledge questions correctly. Overall, knowledge of T. solium infection among U.S. obstetricians-gynecologists is limited. This may result in missed opportunities to diagnose and treat pregnant women with taeniasis, which may put family members and obstetrics clinical staff at risk for cysticercosis.

  4. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  5. 脑囊虫病的软性神经内镜治疗%Flexible Neuroendoscopic Management of Cerebral Cysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆; 陈国强; 郑佳平; 郭宇鹏; 梁晖; 黄乙洋; 左焕琮

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨应用软性神经内镜治疗脑囊虫病的疗效. 方法 2007年10月~2011年1月,应用软性神经内镜(主机为FUJINON EPX - 2200电子视频内镜系统;镜体为FUJINON EB - 270P超细软性内镜,外径3.8 mm,工作通道直径1.2mm,观察视野120°,工作长度365 mm)治疗脑囊虫病15例,其中7例为院外脑室-腹腔分流术后分流故障.术中经额部钻孔,内镜下先行透明隔及第三脑室底造瘘,导水管闭塞者加行导水管成形,对脑室及基底池全面探查,摘除所见囊虫囊泡,灌洗清洁脑室. 结果 15例顺利完成手术,摘除脑室或基底池内所见囊虫囊泡,7例脑室-腹腔分流术后均成功摆脱了分流依赖.镜下手术时间15 ~40 min,(26±8)min.出血量15~50 ml,(27±6)ml.除2例术后出现高热延迟出院外,其余13例均于术后6d出院.15例术后随访8~ 46个月,平均29.8月,术前症状缓解,无复发及其他不良反应,磁共振检查示脑积水缓解,导水管区、第四脑室正中孔及第三脑室底瘘口脑脊液流动良好. 结论 电子神经内镜下经单侧额部钻孔侧脑室入路可对整个脑室系统及基底池进行探查,寻找并摘除囊虫囊泡,手术操作简便,创伤小,恢复快.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of flexible neuroendoscopic management for cerebral cysticercosis. Methods A total of IS cases of cerebral cysticercosis, including 7 cases of shunt malfunction, were treated by flexible neuroendoscope (FUJINON EPX-2200 and FUJINON EB-270P, outer diameter 3. 8 mm, operational channel 1.2 mm, observation field 120°, operational length 365 mm) through a frontal keyhole in our hospital from October 2007 to January 2011. Endoscopic septostomy and third ventriculostomy were carried out on the patients, and then followed by aqueductoplasty in those with occlusive aqueduct so that to make a thorough exploration and remove all the vesicae and cysticerci in the whole ventricular system and basal cisterna

  6. Novel Treatment of Melanoma: Combined Parasite-Derived Peptide GK-1 and Anti-Programmed Death Ligand 1 Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Aguilera, Jesus; Perez-Torres, Armando; Beltran, Diego; Villanueva-Ramos, Cynthia; Wachtel, Mitchell; Moreno-Aguilera, Eduardo; Vera-Aguilera, Carlos; Ventolini, Gary; Martínez-Zaguilán, Raul; Sennoune, Souad R

    2017-03-01

    Recent successes in the development of new therapies for metastatic melanoma, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors, anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, and programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway-blocking antibodies, as well as combination strategies, all yielded promising results, changing the continually evolving landscape of therapeutic options for patients with melanoma. One promising new treatment modality is based on the use of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies that enhance the function of components of the antitumor immune response such as T cells or block immunologic checkpoints that restrain effective antitumor immunity. Program death-1 receptor and its ligand, PD-L1, is a major mechanism by which a tumor suppresses T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses. Studies in mice have shown that GK-1, an 18 amino acid peptide from Taenia crassiceps cisticerci, has the potential to be used as a primary or adjuvant component for the treatment of cancers by stimulating proinflammatory cytokines. The authors hypothesized that treatment with GK-1 in combination with anti-PD-L1 will increase survival in mice bearing melanoma tumors. C57BL/6 mice were injected with B16-F10-luc2 cells and separated into four groups: control, GK-1, anti-PD-L1, and GK-1/anti-PD-L1. The tumor sizes were measured and monitored using calipers and bioluminescence. The GK-1 peptide in combination with anti-PD-L1 showed significantly longer survival (34 days) compared with the other groups (23-27 days). This means an increase; survival increased 47.82% in the mice treated with GK-1+anti-PD-L1, 21.7% in mice treated with GK-1 alone, and 6.08% in those mice treated with anti-PD-L1 only. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 14, and at euthanization or end of the experiment and monitored for cytokines using mouse-specific V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel. A decrease in TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels

  7. 动态检测特异性免疫复合物在脑囊虫病治疗过程的意义%DYNAMIC MONITORING OF THE SPECIFIC IMMUNE COMPLEX DURING TREATMENT IN NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明霞; 林尔昕; 王淑民; 崔琢

    2001-01-01

    目的 了解特异性免疫复合物在脑囊虫病治疗过程中的意义。方法 用双单抗夹心ELISA法检测特异性免疫复合物:采用抗人IgG、IgM单抗包板,来捕获由血清提取的免疫复合物中的特异性IgG、IgM型免疫复合物,通过酶标抗囊虫单抗结合物显色,测其OD值。结果 IgG型免疫复合物在1疗程后含量较治疗前明显升高(P<0.05)以后各疗程则显著下降(P<0.01);IgM型免疫复合物的含量治疗前与1疗程后相比差别不显著,但随着疗程增加其含量逐渐下降(P<0.01);各疗程的临床反应加重发生率以第1疗程最高(P<0.005)。结论 IgG型免疫复合物可以作为治疗反应、疗效考核的依据。%Aim To observe the dynamic changes of specific immune complexover all courses of drug administration of patients with neurocysticercosis. Methods By using a double mono-cloned antibody sandwich ELISA assay the specific immune complex was detected.Employed anti-human IgG, IgM McAb as coated material, and HRP labeled anti-cysticerci McAb as recognizing system, specific immune complexes that extracted in sera were monitored. Results The immune complex level of IgG class rose significantly after the 1st course (P<0.05), and then gradually dropped off (P<0.01). On the other hand, that of IgM class did not change significantly after 1st course of treatment. It gradually declined with advancing course of drug administration (P<0.01). The incidence rate of clinical worsening after 1st course of treatment was the highest one among all courses (P<0.005).Conclusion This study indicates that immune complex level of IgG class is associated with the clinical worsening and the efficacy of therapy.

  8. The detection of specific immune complex by using double McAb sandwich ELISA in sera of patients with neurocysticercosis%双单抗夹心ELISA法检测脑囊尾蚴病血清特异性免疫复合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明霞; 林尔昕; 王淑民; 崔琢

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To develop a double monoclonal an tibody sandwich ELISA assay for detecting specific immune complex(IC) in sera of patients with neurocysticercosis.Methods:Anti-human IgG McAb was employed as coat,and HRP labeled an ti-cysticerci McAb as recognizing system to detect antibody specific IC.Results:The IC positive rate was found in 53.3% of patients(P <0.005).By using the new method to detect three different kinds of serological markers,the results showed the IC positive rates for group of CAg(-) and CAb(-) was 50%(P<0.005).The IC detection rate was higher than CAg's(P<0. 005).Conclusions:It suggests that detection of IC is of significance in i mproving diagnosis in neurocysticercosis,especially with CAg(-) and CAb(-).%目的:建立双单抗夹心酶联免疫吸附试验法检测脑囊尾蚴病患者血清中特异性免疫复合物。方法:用抗人IgG单抗包被,捕获血清中特异性IgG型免疫复合物,通过酶标抗囊尾蚴单抗结合物显色,测其OD值。结果:用本方法测得患者特异性免疫复合物阳性率为53.3%,明显高于正常对照组(P<0.005);循环抗原、抗体皆阴性患者,免疫复合物的阳性率为50%,与各组相比差异有显著性(P<0.005);且免疫复合物的检出率明显高于循环抗原的检出率( P<0.005)。结论:本法对囊尾蚴病的诊断有重要的临床价值,尤其对抗原、抗体皆阴性患者意义更大。

  9. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    that Em18 (18 kDa component of crude antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis protoscolex) and glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci are highly specific or unique to alveolar echinococcosis and cysticercosis, respectively. The fourth topic is discussion on miscellaneous prospects including laboratory animal models for echinococcosis and cysticercosis.

  10. Detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies in cerbrospinal fluid of patients with chronic meningitis Detecção de antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus em fluido cerebrospinal de pacientes com meningite crônica

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    Subhash Chandra Parija

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic meningitism is a less frequent manifestation of neurocysticercosis caused by Taenia solium cysticerci. In the present study we used Co-agglutination (Co-A, a simple and rapid slide agglutination test to detect specific Cysticercus antigen in the 67 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with chronic meningitis of unknown etiology. The results were compared with that of ELISA for detection of antibodies. Among these samples four (5.97% were positive for Cysticercus antigen by Co-A test and six (8.95% were positive for antibodies by ELISA. Two samples were positive by both Co-A and ELISA, two were positive only by Co-A and four were positive only by ELISA. In the present study, although Cysticercus antigen and antibodies were present in CSF samples from eight (11.94% patients, we cannot affirm that all the cases of chronic meningitis are due to cysticercosis, but for any case of chronic meningitis of unknown origin, it would be useful to consider the possibility of cysticercal meningitis.Meningite crônica é manifestação pouco freqüente de neurocisticercose causada por cisticerco de Taenia solium. No presente estudo utilizamos co-aglutinação (Co-A um teste simples e rápido de aglutinação para detectar antígeno específico de Cysticercus nas 67 amostras de fluido cerebrospinal (CSF de pacientes com meningite crônica de etiologia desconhecida. Os resultados foram comparados com os de ELISA para detecção de anticorpos. Dentre estas amostras quatro (5,97% foram positivas para antígenos de Cysticercus pelo teste Co-A e seis (8,95% foram positivas para anticorpos por ELISA. Duas amostras foram positivas por ambos Co-A e ELISA, duas foram positivas somente por Co-A e quatro foram positivas somente por ELISA. No presente estudo embora antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus estivessem presentes nas amostras de CSF de oito pacientes (11,94%, não podemos afirmar que todos os casos de meningite crônica sejam devidos

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with human Taenia solium infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

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    Gloria Mwanjali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD; 43% females were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA and antibody (Ab-ELISA. A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38. A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7% persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3% persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6% were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2% stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1% stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38 indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  12. Estudo da cisticercose em pacientes portadores de epilepsia residentes em municípios do Cariri paraibano Cysticercosis research in epileptic patients dwelling in towns of the western Cariri in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Inês de Sousa Freitas

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo contou com uma amostra de 110 pacientes epilépticos residentes no Cariri paraibano, tendo sido desenvolvido em três etapas sucessivas. Durante a primeira etapa, aplicou-se a ficha epidemiológica visando identificar fatores de risco associados ao complexo teníase-cisticercose na etiologia da epilepsia dos pacientes. A segunda etapa consistiu em exames imunológicos dos 110 pacientes com a utilização da técnica EITB para a identificação de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticercos, e da técnica ELISA para a presença de antígenos circulantes. Na terceira etapa, treze pacientes com sorologia considerada positiva foram submetidos a exames tomográficos. A partir da aplicação do questionário, foram detectados alguns fatores de risco. A soroprevalência constatada foi 118,2/1000 habitantes. Dos 13 pacientes com sorologia positiva para cisticercose, 46,1% têm lesões sugestivas de cisticercose de localização parenquimatosa. Conclui-se que os municípios estudados apresentam perfil epidemiológico compatível com a ocorrência do complexo teníase-cisticercose e que a cisticercose possivelmente desempenhe papel importante no surgimento da epilepsia nesses pacientes.This research involved a sample of 110 epileptic patients from western Cariri, Paraíba, Brazil and it has been developed in three successive phases. During the first one, an epidemiological form was applied with the aim of identifying risk factors related to the taeniasis cysticercosis complex in the etiology of the patients' epilepsy. The second phase consisted of immunological exams of 110 patients, by means of the EITB technique to identify the anti-cysticerci serum antibodies, whereas the presence of circulating antigens was verified through the ELISA technique. In the third phase, thirteen patients who were seropositive, were submitted to brain CT scan. Applying the questionnaire enabled us to know some risk factors. The seroprevalence detected was 118

  13. Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia solium, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Polman, Katja; Kanobana, Kirezi; van Lieshout, Lisette; Brienen, Eric; Praet, Nicolas; Kabwe, Constantin; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-01

    Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community-based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), T. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. Overall, 240 (72.7%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR=2 (95%CI=1.1-5), p=0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR=3.8 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR=3.2 (95%CI=1.1-7.8), p=0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americanus (OR=2.2 (95%CI=1.2-3.8), p<0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR=2.7 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.02). These findings show that co

  14. 多头带绦虫硫氧还蛋白过氧化物酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Thioredoxin Peroxidase Gene from Taenia multiceps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永光; 李文卉; 盖文燕; 姚菊霞; 曲自刚; 贾万忠; Radu Blaga; 付宝权

    2011-01-01

    从自然感染的羊脑内采集脑多头蚴原头节,提取总RNA.根据亚洲牛带绦虫的TaHc2-D11 mRNA序列设计特异引物,采用RT-PCR技术扩增多头带绦虫硫氧还蛋白过氧化物酶(TmTPx)基因.PCR产物连接到pMD18-T载体构建重组质粒pMD-TmTPx,转化大肠埃希菌DH5α后筛选阳性克隆,经限制性酶切及测序鉴定后进行序列分析.扩增获得大小为614 bp的TmTPx基因cDNA,该基因的完整开放阅读框架(ORF,591 bp)编码196个氨基酸,编码蛋白的相对分子质量为Mr 21 690,等电点为7.61.生物信息学分析结果表明TmTPx具有一个典型的2-Cys Prx保守功能结构域.绦虫已知TPx的分子进化分析发现,多头带绦虫与亚洲牛带绦虫的亲缘关系最近,与猪带绦虫和肥头绦虫的亲缘关系次之,与细粒棘球绦虫和多房棘球绦虫的亲缘关系最远.%Protoscoleces of Taenia multiceps were collected from the naturally infected sheep and total RNA was extracted.Specific primers were designed according to TaHc2-D11 mRNA sequence and T.multiceps thioredoxin peroxidase gene (TmTPx) was amplified by RT-PCR.PCR products were ligated into pMD18-T vector and transformed to E.coli DH5α.The recombinant plasmids were identified by restriction digestion and sequencing.A 614 bp cDNA was amplified.The TmTPx open reading frame (591 bp) encoded a 196-amino acid protein with Mr 21 690, pI 7.61.Bioinformatics analysis indicated that TmTPx had a typical 2-Cys Prx conserved domain.Phylogenetic tree revealed that T.multiceps had the closest relationship to T.asiatica, followed by T.solium and T.crassiceps, E.granulosus and E.multilocularis.

  15. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2

  16. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2

  17. Taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence in a small village from Northeastern Brazil Prevalência de teníase e sorologia positiva para cisticercose em Mulungu do Morro, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenio Gomes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Although not considered as an endemic region, the Northeast of Brazil has the necessary conditions for the development of taeniasis-cysticercosis complex. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that Mulungu do Morro municipality, in the State of Bahia, has a high seroprevalence to cysticercosis in epileptic patients. OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of taeniasis and positive cysticercosis serology in the population of Mulungu do Morro. METHOD: blood and stool samples were collected from a random sampling of the population, by family. The identification of antibodies against T. solium cysticerci was made by EITB and T. solium antigens were identified using a polyclonal antibody-capture ELISA. RESULTS: the cysticercosis seroprevalence was 1.6% (C.I. = 0.8 to 2.8% and the taeniasis prevalence 4.5% (C.I. = 3.0 to 6.5%. Seropositivity to cysticercosis was higher among those who lived in a house of a person testing positive for coproantigen, p=0.017. CONCLUSION: our results demonstrate that the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is endemic in Mulungu do Morro. We believe that all areas in the world with the same socio-economic and sanitary characteristics are likely to have high prevalence of this parasite.Embora alguns autores não a considerem uma região endêmica, existem no Nordeste do Brasil as condições necessárias para o desenvolvimento do complexo teníase/ cisticercose. Em uma publicação prévia demosntramos no município de Mulungu do Morro, Bahia, alta soroprevalência para cisticercose em pacientes epilépticos. OBJETIVO: determinar a prevalência de teníase e sorologia positiva para cisticercose na população de Mulungu do Morro. MÉTODO: foram coletadas amostras de sangue e fezes em 175 famílias definidas aleatoriamente. A identificação de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco foi feita através do método de EITB e a presença de teníase foi verificada através de ELISA de captura para identificação de antígenos do

  18. Pathological analysis of hepatic fibrosis in pigs infected with Taenia solium%猪带绦虫虫卵感染家猪致肝纤维化相关病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓青; 宁燕; 李溥; 沈振华; 娄磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe liver fibrosis caused by experimentally infecting an intermediate host, i.e. pigs, with Taenia solium eggs and to quantitatively analyze the severity of that cysticercosis. Methods Three groups of pigs with 2 pigs each were directly fed a large dose of Asian Taenia solium eggs (60 000 eggs/ml), a medium dose, (40 000 eggs/ml), or a small dose (10 000 eggs/ml). Two healthy pigs served as the control group. Pigs were sacrificed after 30 days.The liver was removed and sectioned, and HE and Cason staining were performed. Pathological changes in tissue and collagen fiber content were analyzed. Results Compared to the control group, pigs fed large, medium, and small doses of eggs had varying degrees of liver tissue degeneration and necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and an increased liver and spleen index (P<0.05, P<0.01). Liver fibrosis was apparent, the total area of collagen fibers and total optical density increased, and collagen fiber content also increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion Pigs infected with Taenia solium eggs had a greater number of cysticerci in the liver and a greater incidence of pathological changes and more severe damage primarily in the form of granulomas and fibrosis.%目的 观察猪带绦虫虫卵实验感染中间宿主家猪后囊尾蚴致肝纤维化作用,并对病变程度进行定量分析.方法 实验猪分成3组,将亚洲猪带绦虫虫卵以高剂量(60 000个/ml)、中剂量(40 000个/ml)和低剂量(10 000个/ml)分别灌服感染家猪,每种剂量感染2头.健康家猪2头为对照组.30 d后剖杀,取肝脏,制作病理切片,HE和Cason染色,对实验猪肝脏病变组织进行病理变化观察及胶原纤维含量分析.结果 与健康对照组比较,实验组家猪肝组织发生不同程度的变性、坏死、炎细胞侵润,肝、脾指数增加(P<0.05或P<0.01);肝纤维化改变明显,胶原纤维总面积和总吸光度值增加,胶原纤维含量显著增加(P<0.05或P<0

  19. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

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    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. Chapter 3 reports the investigations that were undertaken to characterise whether the principal antibody specificities raised by TSOL18 in pigs were against linear or conformational determinants. TSOL18 was expressed in two truncated forms representing either the amino terminal portion or the carboxy terminal portion, with the two truncations overlapping in sequence by 25 amino acids. The original protein (designated TSOL18N— and the two truncations (TSOL18N—-1 and TSOL18N—-2 were used in inhibition ELISA to determine their ability to inhibit the binding of protective pig antibodies to TSOL18. TSOL18N— was shown to be capable of completely inhibiting the binding of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies to TSOL18N— in ELISA. However, neither TSOL18N—-1 nor TSOL18N—-2, either alone or combined, was capable of inhibiting any detectable amount of reactivity of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies with TSOL18N—. It is concluded that the dominant antibody specificities, and likely the host-protective specificities, of TSOL18 are conformational epitopes. Chapter 4 describes the development of an antibody detection test for the specific diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. A fraction with a major band of 14 kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid (CF of T. solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration was purified using an anion exchange column on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3 was carried out in an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3 using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica

  20. Neurocisticercose: incidência, diagnóstico e formas clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio M. Canelas

    1962-03-01

    cases prevailed in the Emergency Service (85.1 percent of cases, while in the Out-patient Department the convulsive forms were more frequent (87.8 percent. In 85 hypertensive cases the site of cerebrospinal fluid block was investigated either by X-ray, surgery or autopsy, and was determined to be ventricular in 23 cases, and cisternal in 46 cases. Racemous cysticerci more often cause obstructive forms. Seizures were present in 148 patients (53.6 percent, 79 of which having not intracranial hypertension. The incidence of generalized and focal seizures was approximately the same. Psychomotor epilepsy was clinically diagnosed in 5 cases, 2 of which presented temporal foci in the EEG examination. The electroencephalograms of 148 cases were analyzed regarding to topography of findings and clinical manifestations. Diffuse alterations and bilateral occipital foci were more common with intracranial hypertension, while isolated foci were more frequent with purely convulsive cases. Normal readings were also common with the latter (44.0 percent. Focal or diffuse neurologic manifestations were associated to intracranial hypertension and/or convulsions in 74 patients (26.8 percent, but were found as single symptomatology in only 24 patients (8.7 percent. In this group ataxia was the main finding, being cerebellar (33 cases or mixed (3 cases. Central paralytic forms (monoplegia, hemiplegia and tetraplegia were observed in 24 cases, sometimes starting as a vascular ictus. Cranial nerve involvement was noted in 12 patients, usually as a cerebello-pontine syndrome. Spinal cord manifestations characterized 8 cases. Paralysis of vertical gaze was observed in 5 instances. Extrapyramidal forms were rare (4 cases, as well as neuralgias of the trigeminal or glossopharyngeal nerves (3 cases and infundibulo-hypophyseal syndromes (2 cases. Difuse cerebrospinal symptomatology was observed in 2 cases. Psychic disturbances were evident in 63 patients (22.8 percent, usually associated to