Sample records for anti-submarine warfare

  1. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    COVERED Capstone 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) 311-124O/Team LCS...Life cycle cost LCCE Life cycle cost estimate LCS Littoral combat ship LHA Landing ship, helicopter assault LHD Landing ship, unlimited LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI- SUBMARINE WARFARE by Team LCS 311-124O June 2014 Capstone Advisors: John Green Dan

  2. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der


    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  3. Autonomous-agent based simulation of anti-submarine warfare operations with the goal of protecting a high value unit


    Akbori, Fahrettin


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The Anti-Submarine Warfare screen design simulation is a program that provides a model for operations in anti-submarine warfare (ASW). The purpose of the program is to aid ASW commanders, allowing them to configure an ASW screen, including the sonar policy, convoy speed, and the number of ships, to gain insight into how these and other factors beyond their control, such as water conditions, impact ASW effectiveness. It is also designed to...

  4. Continuous Acoustic Sensing With an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System for Anti-Submarine Warfare in a High-Threat Area (United States)


    ACOUSTIC SENSING WITH AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE SYSTEM FOR ANTI- SUBMARINE WARFARE IN A HIGH-THREAT AREA by Loney R. Cason III December 2015...13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) An unmanned aerial vehicle system called the “Aqua-Quad,” an ultra-long-endurance hybrid design, developed by...sonobuoy, unmanned aerial vehicle 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 51 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  5. Effectiveness of Unmanned Surface Vehicles in Anti-submarine Warfare with the Goal of Protecting a High Value Unit (United States)


    Surface Warfare  Special Operations Forces Support  Electronic Warfare  Maritime Interdiction Operations Support According to open online sources...Postgraduate School. These studies include maritime protection of critical infrastructure assets [30], counter- piracy escort operations in the Gulf of... Online ]. Available: [2] M. M. Graham, “Unmanned surface vehicles: An operational commander’s tool

  6. Control of Coastal Lighting in Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    to the war effort, problems of lowered morale and increase o crime are involved in reduction of lighting. On the other hand, it is obvious from past...lightinr *- should be peimitted to ’accouht ’f6 ohe-halfof.those ,brightnesses,’ the total permissible upward lumens from streetlighting may be compu.ted

  7. Improved Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Effectiveness MSSE Capstone Project (United States)


    David H. Olwell, Ph.D. Dan C. Boger , Ph.D. Department of Systems Engineering Interim Vice President and...Advisor, Mr. Mark Rhoades REVIEWED BY: ______________________________ DATE: _____________ MSSE ( DL ) Academic Associate, Dr. Cliff Whitcomb...REVIEWED BY: ______________________________ DATE: _____________ MSSE ( DL ) Program Manager, Dr. Wally Owen REVIEWED BY

  8. Trends in underwater warfare : From an underwater acoustics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.M.; Driessen, F.P.G.


    Technological developments concerning underwater systems for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Mine Counter Measures (MCM) are directed at optimally countering the underwater threat in the near future. Countering the existing underwater threat is already extremely difficult, but there are several tre

  9. Simple Detection-Performance Analysis of Multistatic Sonar for Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    report NURC -PR-2006-007 of the NATO Undersea Research Centre. [19] B.I. Incze & S.B. Dasinger (2006) ‘A Bayesian method for managing uncertainties...Conference on Information Fusion, Seattle. [39] O. Gerard, S. Coraluppi, C. Carthel & D. Grimmett (2006) ‘Benchmark analysis of NURC multi- tatic tracking

  10. Cognitive Simulation of an Anti-Submarine Warfare Commander’s Tactical Decision Process (United States)


    R.M. Shiffrin , "The Control of Short-Term Memory ," in Atkinson , R.L. and R.C. Atkinson (Eds.), Readings from Scientific American: Mind and Behavior, W.H...Term Memory At the heart of information processing, learning, and storing of informa- tion is the human’s short-term memory (STM) system ( Atkinson and... Shiffrin , *- 1980). STM processes are under the immediate control of the individual and govern the flow of information in the memory system. Moreover

  11. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... (United States)


    ... to the construction near their current pens. This project has been well advertised in the local.... Protection of Children We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from... create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children....

  12. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  13. Roman Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Saddington


    Full Text Available

    ROTH, Jonathan P 2009. Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pbk. R250. ISBN 978-0-521-53726-1.

    Jonathan Roth of San Jose State University, known as an expert on military logistics, has written this attractive Cambridge Introduction to Roman Civilization volume on Roman Warfare. The series is designed for students with no prior knowledge of Roman antiquity. The book comprises an Introduction on Sources and Methods (pp. 1-6 and 15 chapters on Roman warfare from the beginnings to the fall of the Western Empire in AD 476, using a chronological approach. There are 68 illustrations and maps, a Timeline, a Glossary, a Glossary of People, a Bibliography (which includes several websites and an Index.

  14. Development Trend and Analysis of the Anti-submarine Patrol Aircraft Technique%反潜巡逻机技术的发展动向与分析磁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    反潜巡逻机技术在现代战争中发挥着越来越重要的作用。文章介绍了反潜巡逻机技术的发展历程以及装备的研制、改进情况,指出了在现代战争中发展反潜巡逻机技术的优势和重要性,重点探讨了几种反潜巡逻机技术的性能及其特点,最后论述了反潜巡逻机技术的发展动向与分析。%Anti-submarine patrol aircraft technique plays more and more important roles in modern war .This paper in-troduces the development course of anti submarine patrol aircraft technology and equipments ,to improve the situation ,and points out the advantage and importance of developing anti submarine patrol aircraft technology in the modern war ,focuses on the performance and characteristic of several anti submarine patrol aircraft technology ,finally discusses the development trend and analysis of anti submarine patrol aircraft technology .

  15. Biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil


    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  16. 基于改进ADC法的潜艇反潜作战方案效能评估%Effectiveness Evaluation of Submarine Anti-Submarine Combat Scheme Based on Improved ADC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小小; 綦辉; 陈磊


    反潜是潜艇最富挑战性的一种任务,对潜艇的反潜作战方案进行评估是评价反潜效能的有力手段。文章对武器系统评估中常用的ADC法进行了改进,在考虑潜艇的协同能力、生存能力、作战人员素养、作战环境因素的基础上,提出了潜艇反潜作战的评估指标体系。对于假定的作战条件,分别采用潜艇的3大基本战法作为作战方案,运用改进的ADC法,评估3大基本战法在潜艇反潜作战行动方案中的效能。计算结果表明,利用改进ADC法进行潜艇反潜作战效能评估是有效可行的。%Anti-submarine is one of most challenging missions for submarine, and evaluation scheme of the anti-submarine is the strong instrument of evaluating the anti-submarine effectiveness. The common ADC method was improvedin this pa-per, and the evaluation index system of submarine anti-submarine combat was proposed, based on the consideration of sub-marine cooperative ability, survival ability, combat personnel quality and combat environment factors. Improved ADC method was performed using the three basic combat methods of submarine as combat scheme for assumed combat condi-tions, and the effectiveness of three basic combat methods was evaluation in the submarine anti-submarine combat action scheme. At last, the computation results showed that the submarine anti-submarine combat effectiveness evaluation by im-proved ADC method was effective and feasible.

  17. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  18. 无人反潜系统自主指挥控制研究%S tudy on Autonomous Command and Control of Unmanned Anti Submarine System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张起; 苏金涛


    无人反潜系统的指挥控制问题是关系其具备实际作战能力的主要问题之一。论文在分析无人反潜系统指控原理和其自主指控水平分级的基础上,采用可变自主控制结构,研究了无人反潜系统分级可变自主指控实现的方法。该方法可赋予无人反潜系统可变的指挥控制自主性,使其在工作环境中能够实时评估自身的自主能力,并主动引入人工干预。这种具备人机智能融合特性的自主指挥控制方法更适应无人反潜系统在复杂战场环境中实战化的需求。%It is a challenge to the command and control of Unmanned Anti Submarine System(UASS) which determines its actual combat capability .The autonomous command and control method which is hierarchical and adjustable is developed based on the autonomous command and control levels and the adjustable control framework .It makes the UASS momentarily evaluate its autonomous abilities and initiatively request assistance from humans which realizes man‐machine intelligence inte‐gration ,and no more adapts the actual combat demand of UASS in complex battlefield .

  19. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare (United States)


    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  20. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović


    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  1. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam


    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Roes and Development of Aerial Depth Charges in Modern Anti-Submarine Warfares%航空深弹在现代反潜战中的作用与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金立峰; 邓歌明



  3. 反潜机采用阿基米德螺旋线搜潜问题研究%Track Spacing for an Archimedes Spiral Search by a Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) in Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The ASW capabilities is very important.In this paper,according to the situation of the ASW, the recommended track spacing for an Archimedes spiral search in a datum search problem is studied. To find a recommended track spacing, three analytical approaches are explored. To find the best⁃fit parameters maximizing probability of detection and the best track interval, a simulation experiment with a NOLH ( Nearly Orthogonal Latin Hypercube) design is used, in order to provide tactical reference for the recommended track spacing for an Archimedes spiral search.%反潜机是重要的反潜力量,根据反潜机搜潜情况,建立了反潜飞机采用阿基米德螺旋线样式搜潜的数学模型和目标运动模型,讨论了螺旋线采用的三种轨迹间隔,通过仿真验证,确立了反潜机搜潜最优轨迹间隔,以达到提高发现目标潜艇概率、优化反潜效能的目的,为反潜飞机采用阿基米德巡逻线搜潜样式搜潜时提供战术参考。

  4. 基于分层贝叶斯网络的反潜编队对潜威胁估计%Method for Evaluate Threat of Anti-submarine War Fleet to Submarine Based on Hierarchical Bayesian Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小龙; 宋裕农; 丁文强


    应用贝叶斯网络模型进行威胁估计是当前研究的热点和难点。提出了应用分层贝叶斯网络模型构建威胁估计网络,用于估计反潜编队对潜威胁等级。首先,对分层贝叶斯网络模型进行了简要的阐述,并对利用该模型进行威胁估计的可行性进行了分析。其次,分析了反潜编队对潜威胁产生的原因和机理,在此基础上,构建了威胁估计网络。最后,通过算例仿真验证了威胁估计网络的有效性。%Usage of bayesian network for threat evaluation is a hot and difficult problem. The threat evaluation network is constructed by the method of the bayesian network,which uses for evaluating the threat level of the anti-submarine war fleet. First,the principle of the bayesian network is constructed,and the feasibility of using bayesian network is analyzed for threat evaluation. Second, the causes and mechanism of the anti-submarine fleet submarine threat is analyzed,on this basis,the threat evaluation network is constructed. Finally,simulation experiment is used to verify the validity of the threat evaluation network constructed.

  5. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj


    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  6. The Physics of Warfare (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo


    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  7. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  8. Research on Passive Underwater Location Tracking Precision of Anti-Submarine Torpedo%反潜鱼雷靶试水下被动跟踪定位精度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 吴鹏鹏; 高峰; 王建国


    It is very important to track and reconstruct the underwater movement for evaluating the tor⁃pedo’s status and performance. The precision of tracking location on one import anti-submarine torpe⁃do using passive sonobuoy in the test environment was studied in this paper. Based on the require⁃ment on the sonobuoy array when testing, the torpedo position was worked out through the improved algebraic equation. The precision of tracking location on the underwater torpedo was studied by the mass Monte Carlo random emulations, which would give the instructive advice for the real torpedo test.%  跟踪重构鱼雷水下运动轨迹,对准确评估鱼雷状况及性能至关重要。文章研究了靶试环境下通过被动声纳浮标阵列跟踪某反潜鱼雷的定位精度。根据靶试对被动声纳浮标阵列要求,采用改进的代数方程方法定位鱼雷目标,通过蒙特卡洛仿真,研究对水下鱼雷的跟踪定位精度,为开展鱼雷靶试工作提供指导。

  9. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik


    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  10. Airpower Support to Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    supplies to isolated mountain outposts (Trest 2000, 109). The Helio Couriers operated out of small dirt strips, referred to as lima sites, usually... rosa : The O.S.S. and American espionage. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock. AF Special Operations Command white paper. 2007. USAF irregular warfare...Symposium on the role of airpower in counterinsurgency and unconventional warfare: A brief summary of viewpoints. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND

  11. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine


    The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues, tha...

  12. Evolutionary Models of Irregular Warfare (United States)


    G. (2010) Decentralize, adapt and cooperate. Nature 465:292-293. Sagarin, R. (2012) Learning From the Octopus : How Secrets from Nature Can Help Us...because the concepts map on to important features of modern irregular warfare. For example, small-scale behaviors are increasingly thought to

  13. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsmose, Jens; Pedersen, Kenneth

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC


    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  15. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff


    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  16. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard


    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  17. Rethinking Cultural Influences on Warfare (United States)


    education system. Within military education, culture is approached as a dimension of warfare that must be operationalized at all levels of war by...capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”37 Geert Hofstede , a social psychologist, defines culture as “the collective programming...Putnam and Sons, 1920), 1. 38 Geert Hofstede , Communication Between Cultures eds. L.A. Samovar and R.E. Porter. (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1984), 51. 13

  18. Irregular Warfare: A Selected Bibliography (United States)


    Airman’s Assessment of FM 3-24 and the Case for Developing Truly Joint COIN Doctrine. Maxwell Air Force Base: U.S. Air University, 2007. 111pp. ( Pinnell , Daniel A. The Tenets of Airpower in an Insurgent Environment. Strategy Research Project. Carlisle...Non-Kinetic Capabilities for Irregular Warfare: Four Case Studies. Alexandria: Institute for Defense Analyses, Joint Advanced Warfighting Program

  19. Undersea Warfare Academic Group Home Page



    Collected from the Internet Archive "Wayback machine". The Undersea Warfare Curriculum educates officers in the engineering fundamentals, physical principles and analytical concepts that govern operational employment of undersea warfare (USW) sensors and weapons systems. Program is interdisciplinary and integrates; mathematics, physics, acoustics, electrical engineering, oceanography, operations analysis, human factors, computer science and meteorology.

  20. Airship Renaissance: Considerations for Operational Warfare (United States)


    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare 5a. CONTRACT...Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare by Daniel W. Smith III Major, United States Air Force A paper submitted...resources needed now on the battlefield…to get more intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre .” 5 Recognizing budget

  1. The Art of Aerial Warfare (United States)


    the  Strait  of  Gibraltar   from  North  Africa  during  the Spanish Civil War. 11 FAIRCHILD PAPER A Comparison of Aerial Warfare to Land... Hitler , for example, the United States cannot assume that Nazi aggression would have  evaporated  instantly. Although  Hitler himself profoundly affected


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian GHERMAN


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on changes occurred in military organizations in Information Age. During Industrial Age the military structure of forces evolved according with principles of decomposition, specialization, hierarchy, optimization, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralized execution. But now the solutions based upon Industrial Age assumptions and practices will break down and fail in the Information Age. This will happen no matter how well intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leadership and the force are. Two key force capabilities needed by Information Age militaries are interoperability and agility. Both interoperability and agility are provided by Network centric warfare theory of war.

  3. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.


    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  4. Grid architecture model of network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Tihua; Wang Baoshu


    NCW(network centric warfare) is an information warfare concentrating on network. A global network-centric warfare architecture with OGSA grid technology is put forward, which is a four levels system including the user level, the application level, the grid middleware layer and the resource level. In grid middleware layer, based on virtual hosting environment, a BEPL4WS grid service composition method is introduced. In addition, the NCW grid service model is built with the help of Eclipse-SDK-3.0.1 and Bpws4j.

  5. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results (United States)


    defense ( CND ).”7 Thus cyber warfare is distinguished from cyber criminal acts based upon its coercive nature to attain a strategic end, whereas...CNA and CND . Conceptually, CNA effects “range from disrupting the adversary’s electronic systems and what operations they enable (communications...or self-destruct.”10 The second component of cyber warfare seeks to eliminate or minimize the risk of the first. The role of CND is to defend

  6. Finding Lawrence recruiting talent for unconventional warfare


    Mourouzis, Michael G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. From Francis Marion's guerrilla war against the British to advising the resistance against the Nazis and Japanese, the United States has depended on unconventional warfare (UW) as a component of national defense. Today, the U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) is the premiere unconventional warfare unit in the U.S. military. With a smaller Army and increasing missions, SF must expand its recruiting efforts. This thesis analyzes the recruitme...

  7. A Dialectic for Network Centric Warfare (United States)


    Giffin, 2003; Borgu , 2003; Kaufman, 2004). For example, from a standpoint of Popperian methodological falsificationism (Popper, 1934), Reid and...focused term network-centric warfare has common favor ( Borgu , 2003) despite the organisational decree to use the term ‘network centric warfare...Commonwealth Department of Defence, June. Borgu , A., (2003), “The Challenges and Limitations of Network Centric Warfare”, Presented at NCW: Improving ADF

  8. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare (United States)


    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression—i.e. ‘genomic imprinting’—in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence. PMID:28228515

  9. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs? (United States)


    warfare intersect and blend to create a new form of warfare. This thesis uses the Williamson Murray and McGregor Knox definitions of Military...irregular warfare intersect and blend to create a new form of warfare. This thesis uses the Williamson Murray and McGregor Knox definitions of...understand new concepts. Douglas C Lovelace. Director Strategic Studies Institute has this insight to offer regarding the importance of

  10. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime. (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P


    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  11. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  12. Real-Time, General-Purpose, High-Speed Signal Processing Systems for Underwater Research. Proceedings of a Working Level Conference held at Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic, Anti-Submarine Warfare Research Center (SACLANTCEN) on 18-21 September 1979. Part 1. Sessions I to III. (United States)


    radar processiag (h) 8-1 to 8-6 by RKa-J~rgem Alker NARTIE - Hultiprocesser for high capacity real-time processing i 91 to 94 by TaSgvr Lumdh A modular...H * CREATE REFL. COEF. FOR RAYTRACE ........ * ...................... * * I * DISPLtA REFL. COEF FOR RAYTRACE ...IEEEEEEEEEEEEE Emlllllllllllu -EEIIIIIEEEEE -- Eh~~hh~h ALKER: Correlator for radar processing A MICRO-PROGRAMMABLE CORRELATOR FOR REAL-TIME RADAR

  13. US Army Special Warfare. Its Origins: Psychological and Unconventional Warfare, 1941-1952 (United States)


    sug- F P _ _ 6 PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE IN WORLD WAR I! gestion of a single agency which would serve as a clearinghouse for all intelligence, as well as...organizations, communications, demoli- tions, organization and training of civilians for guerrilla warfare, para- chute jumping, and amphibious...General Bolte, Director, P&O, was reluctant to endorse this latter sug- gestion , indicating, "as he had indicated from time to time at other points

  14. Modern Warfare From the Colombian Perspective (United States)


    Involved into a Fourth Generation, 1. 7 M-19 Movimiento revolucionario 19 de abril. Former insurgency group. 8 Alberto Pinzon Sanchez. En Causa Propia...a Fourth Generation. Alberto Pinzon Sanchez. En Causa Propia. Mao Tse Tung. On Guerrilla Warfare, Baltimore, Md.: Nautical

  15. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species (United States)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  16. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare (United States)


    psychological operations, and information operations. • In keeping with traditional Soviet notions of battling constant threats from abroad and within...playing a greater role in conventional Russian military operations. Although the Russian military has been slow to embrace cyber for both structural and...theorists, is a holistic concept that includes computer network operations, electronic warfare, psychological operations, and information operations.3

  17. Unconventional Warfare: A Mission Metamorphosis for the 21st Century? (United States)


    brigadier general and publish several more noted works on Mao and revolutionary warfare. See Samuel B. Giffith, Mao Tse-Tung on Guerrilla Warfare (New...and propagators of the faith. The bibles (in English translation) are Mao Tse-tung on Guerrilla Warfare by Brigadier General Samuel B. Griffith...Barnett, B. Hugh Tovar , and Richard H. Schultz eds., Special Operations in US Strategy (Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1984), 2. 58

  18. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.


    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  19. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server


    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  20. Electronic Warfare in Army Models - A Survey. (United States)



  1. Africa: Irregular Warfare on the Dark Continent (United States)


    only to the mighty Amazon for 13 Alexander, Africa: Irregular Warfare on the Dark Continent tropical forests. The demand for hardwood lumber is...were decades in the making. Prolonged drought , desertification, and overpopulation are among the primary reasons for the fighting, which breaks down...go to lengths to differentiate themselves from other indigenous people.120 General repression of the Tuaregs was exacerbated by repeated droughts

  2. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin


    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  3. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.


    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  4. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm


    The abstract has the title: “The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model” The Cycle of Warfare is an analytical model designed to illustrate the coherence between the organization, doctrine and technology of a military entity and the influence of the surrounding society as expressed...

  5. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality (United States)


    DIRTY FIGHTING: HOW TO COUNTER TOTAL WARFARE MENTALITY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command Counter Total Warfare Mentality Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair LTC Sandra J. Sanchez, MBA , Member Marlyn R. Pierce...

  6. Cyberspace Warfare: A New DoD Core Mission Area (United States)


    Century thief breaking into files, not into metal safes. The mysterious group Anonymous has struck again, with a warning, this is just the 5 Starr and...cyberspace warfare aside as science fiction hogwash, and accept the risks of the possible. The evolution of warfare has evolved over time, but the nature of

  7. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  8. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  9. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict (United States)


    Fukuyama , Francis . “At the ‘End of History’ Still Stands Democracy.” The Wall Street Journal, 6 June 2014. is cultural instead of political (in the traditional Clausewitzian sense). 15 Hoffman is referring to Francis Fukuyama’s idea of “the end of...history,” as argued in his 1989 essay and subsequent book. Fukuyama first published an essay titled “The End of History” in the National Interest in

  10. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)


    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  11. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents]. (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo


    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  12. Strategy in the Robotic Age: A Case for Autonomous Warfare (United States)


    question legal, ethical , and moral standings about lethal robotic systems. Foreign policy options may be altered because new military options become... ROBOTIC AGE: A CASE FOR AUTONOMOUS WARFARE by Barry S. Scott September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Donald Abenheim Co-Advisor: James Wirtz THIS...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STRATEGY IN THE ROBOTIC AGE: A CASE FOR AUTONOMOUS WARFARE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Barry S. Scott

  13. Helicopters in Irregular Warfare: Algeria, Vietnam, and Afghanistan (United States)


    the political group associated with the Algerian nationalist independence movement GALAT Groupement d’ Aviation Légère de l’Armée de Terre ...unique from most conflicts because the expeditionary forces’ parent country rarely perceives an existential threat.19 The lack of perceived threat...dominance rarely guarantees success in irregular warfare.22 Instead, success in irregular warfare requires synergy between government and military efforts

  14. Depth vs. breadth: talent management for special warfare


    Krebs, William K.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents recommendations for improving officer talent management for Special Warfare units. Success in this complex human domain demands that key planners and commanders of a Special Warfare campaign operate with a long-term perspective, a depth of expertise, and a strong network of relationships. However, on any given day in a U.S. Army Special Forces Group, the preponderance of field grade officers are in their first year...

  15. Fourth Generation Warfare and Its Impact on the Army (United States)


    In 1989, the authors of an article entitled, "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation ," offered a glimpse of the future rooted in the...decline of the West in a world rife with cultural conflicts and the powerful influences of a form of cultural Marxism known as political correctness...were combining in America to create conditions for a new generation of warfare. Their vision included a form of warfare that bypassed the military

  16. 潜艇作战环境及应对措施分析%Submarine Warfare Environment and Response Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许诚; 赵杰; 袁有宏; 王肖飞


    随着世界各军事强国的反潜战术技术飞速发展,探潜设备和攻潜武器的多元化已经对潜艇的生存构成严重威胁。从潜艇面临的空中威胁种类、潜艇与航空反潜平台的对抗及我国周边主要国家和地区航空反潜能力三个方面分析了潜艇所面临的作战环境,并给出了应对措施。%All military powers in the world are developing at full speed,along with the diversification of submarine detection equipments and anti-submarine weapons.Considering the types of aerial attacks to submarine,the conflicts between submarine and airborne anti-submarine platform,and the capacity of airborne anti-submarine in main countries and regions surrounding China,the military environments of submarine are analyzed and some suggests are offered.

  17. The World War Two Allied Economic Warfare: The Case of Turkish Chrome Sales


    ÖNSOY, Murat


    Economic character of "modern warfare" is too important to be underestimated. In the Economic Warfare belligerents attempt to reduce the war capacity of the enemy through various methods. In World War II crushing down the German war production and economy was the main target of the British Ministry of Economic Warfare. For Germany, one of the many ways of overcoming the British Economic Warfare was to trade with the neutral countries that had land connection to the Third Reich. Turkey was one...

  18. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development (United States)


    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and...Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  19. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi


    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  20. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism. (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G


    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  1. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center


    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  2. Ethical Considerations of Computer Network Attack in Information Warfare (United States)


    attack/destruction, and special information operations (SIO). CNA and the other methods of offensive IO represent the incorporation of information...psychological operations, electronic warfare, physical attack and/or destruction, and special information operations, and could include computer computer networks to record information sent over them. 41 special information operations. Information operations that by their sensitive nature

  3. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  4. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope. (United States)

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  5. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats (United States)


    activities” ( CEMA ), which is a combination of Cyber and Electronic Warfare.115 However, the relationship between cyber and EW must be carefully considered...generating effects by themselves, as well as serving as a delivery means for MISO. The focus of CEMA may be as much to support combat operations

  6. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.


    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  7. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland


    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  8. FOA Information from the Research Institute of Swedish National Defence on Electronic Warfare (FOA Orientar om Electronic Warfare), (United States)


    modified. If it is appears as if the psychological It is hardly likely. however. known that the opponent has a warfare element involved there- that the most...34 . -roadeatla - ".-Rhdar Raa -* * - cldignsl Toi~loieey aft u comunication , ntavigation -ctionl Examples of applications Radar bands FroquaP" UMI 0.1

  9. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep


    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  12. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  13. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  14. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice (United States)


    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  15. Abraham Guillen: A Relevant Theory for Contemporary Guerrilla Warfare (United States)


    guerrilla warfare. Biography Abraham Guillén was born in Guadalajara, Spain on 13 March 1913 and grew up in a peasant family that struggled to make a...Mao’s theory failed in the Philippines in 1954, Malaysia in 1960, and Thailand by 1970.47 Insurgencies influenced by Che’s theory fared even worse...legitimate and criminal business enterprises. The internet provides access to a wealth of information useful in planning attacks, virtual

  16. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study (United States)


    unjust actions through intervention, guerrilla warfare, terrorism and other aspects of war. To analyze Michael Walzer’s theory of just and unjust ...power meld well with Walzer’s just and unjust war theory and serve a piece of postmodern equation; however, Wolff’s analysis of German foreign policy...between foreign military forces. Therefore, senior leaders must grapple with organizational considerations as well as postmodern challenges and

  17. Enterprises as Inquiring Systems with Implications for Information Warfare (United States)


    defined as the “integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military...comprehension (also explicitly included in Figure 3). The entire spectrum of deception, psychological operations, and all means to impact human-centered...with the same input data (other than ground truth) via different channels and that data must be consistent within itself. The belief in empiricism to

  18. The Enemy Below: Preparing Ground Forces for Subterranean Warfare (United States)


    can endanger the lives of U.S. forces and render mechanical breaching tools inoperable. Air blowers can be used as a hasty means to ventilate a... Penguin Books, 1996). 179 Tom Mangold, The Tunnels of Cu Chi (New York, NY: Random House, 1985). 147 6. A Historical Analysis of Tunnel Warfare and... Penguin Group, 1996. 157 Lester, W. G., & Ali, A. J. “Underground Combat: Stereophonic Blasting, tunnel Rats, and the Soviet-Afghan War.” Engineer

  19. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence



    This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United St...

  20. USMC Electronic Warfare 2025: Trading Expertise for Advanced Technology (United States)


    airborne electronic warlare during the transition period away from legacy equipment. EA-6B pilots and Electroilic Countermeasures Officers ( ECMOs ...Electronic Warfare (EW) capability. As an EA-6B Electronic Countenneasures Officer ( ECMO ), I anticipate that both the United States Marine Corps and all... ECMOs . An increased workload for Radio Battalion will have the same effect that the assumption of an additional function of Marine aviation will have on

  1. Built to Outlast: Operational Approaches to Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    this approach lies between the nature of “aggressor forces” since MACV visualized an idealized form of conventional warfare to maximize the Army’s...conventional counteroffensive, with Westmoreland claiming that Johnson “ignored the maxim that when the enemy is hurting, you don’t diminish the...something I can put into the computer. Don’t give me your poetry .”194 This trend towards linearization and uniform solutions extended to MACV and

  2. Characterizing and Exploring the Implications of Maritime Irregular Warfare (United States)


    recapture-ship-held-by-somali-pirates/19626852/ Gutman, Roy, Banana Diplomacy: The Making of American Policy in Nicaragua, 1981–1987, New York: Simon...Joint Special Operations Task Force–Philippines Public Affairs, “JSOTF-P Fact Sheet ,” April 1, 2009. Joint Warfighting Center, Irregular Warfare...Department of State, Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, “Civilian Contractors and U.S. Military Personnel Supporting Plan Colombia,” fact sheet

  3. Constitution aims to bring an end to health economy warfare. (United States)

    Harding, Mary-Louise; Martin, Daniel


    A rough new constitution is being drawn up for the NHS in a bid to prevent health economies sliding into bitter 'Bradford-style' warfare in the era of foundations trusts and payment by results. The rules of engagement are part of a package of measures designed to rescue some of the government's flagship reforms amid warnings from audit chiefs on the impact of PbR.

  4. Electronic Warfare:Issues and Challenges for Emitter Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta


    Full Text Available Electronic warfare (EW is an important capability that provides advantage to defence forces over their adversaries. Defence forces gather tactical intelligence through EW sensors, which provide the means to counter hostile actions of enemy forces. Functions of an EW system is threat detection and the area surveillance so as to determine the identity of surrounding emitters. Emitter classification system identifies possible threats by analysing intercepted signals. Problem of identifying emitters based on its intercepted signal characteristics is a challenging problem in electronic warfare studies. Major issues and challenges for emitter classification such as drifting of emitter parameters due to aging, operational characteristic of an emitter, i.e., same emitter can operate on multiple bands and multiple pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs are highlighted. A novel approach based on some well-known statistical methods, e.g., regression analysis, hypothesis testing, and discriminent analysis is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested over ELINT (Electronic Intelligence data and illustrated using simulation data. The proposed approach can play a solution for wide variety of problems in emitter classification in electronic warfare studies.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.228-234, DOI:

  5. 50 CFR 216.274 - Mitigation. (United States)


    ..., personnel shall utilize all available sensor and optical systems (such as night vision goggles) to aid in... vision goggles shall be available to all ships and air crews, for use as appropriate. (3) Navy's Measures... patrol aircraft aircrews, and Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW)/Mine Warfare (MIW) helicopter crews...

  6. Electronic Warfare: Rethinking the Importance of Its Role In Military Operations (United States)


    electronic warfare support (ES). Electronic attack utilizes the radiation or re- radiation of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, electromagnetic ... electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or anti- radiation weapons to attack enemy personnel or facilities in order to degrade or destroy his... Electromagnetic Preparedness for Advanced Combat organization. USSTRATCOM also employs electronic warfare experts in its non-kinetic operations staff. The

  7. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi


    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  8. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review. (United States)

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T


    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  9. Cyber Warfare: China’s Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space (United States)


    Revolution.‖ 64Jason Fritz, ―How China will use cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness,‖ Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East...cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness.‖ Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Culture and Economic Studies 8 no. 1

  10. Carbon Nanotubes: Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Kumar


    Full Text Available Discovery of carbon nanotubes has great impact on the development of newer methodologies and devicesuseful for the analysis of various types of chemicals. The functionalisation of CNTs with biomolecules relatedto chemical and biological warfare agents makes these useful for the detection of these agents. The detectionsensitivity can be increased manyfold. Various types of chemical and biological sensors were developed usingvarious type of carbon nanotubes as well as nano particles of different metals.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.617-625, DOI:

  11. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A


    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  12. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars


    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  13. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal


    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  14. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants (United States)

    Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.


    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

  15. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, D.E. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  16. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  17. Missed Opportunity? Was Iran s Green Movement an Unconventional Warfare Option? (United States)


    UW options. UW doctrinal research remains primarily guerrilla warfare based with less emphasis on diplomacy , information, and economics activities... French intelligence sources claim Iran produced more low-enriched uranium than previously believed. April 2009 – Iranian President Ahmadinejad

  18. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  19. ‘Lest we forget’*: a veteran and son share a ‘warfare tourism’ experience


    Fallon, Paul; Robinson, Peter


    Warfare tourism’ represents an increasingly significant dimension of contemporary tourism. This paper provides a fresh perspective on participation in ‘warfare tourism’ by investigating the behaviour and experiences of a living veteran and his son returning to two theatres of war in which the veteran had served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. Active interviews with the two family members were used to gather rich data regarding the two extended trips, which had been funded by ‘H...

  20. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL


    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  1. Book Review: Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler


    Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE


    Full Text Available The military joint operations of the future are characterized by large concentrations of forces and conventional means on the directions that permit the exploitation of the technological superiority and the manifestation of the offensive spirit of the commanders of the joint operation force groups. Having in mind the fact that the relation between the combatant forces and the logistic ones will shift more and more in favour of the latter, the aforementioned operations will be usually supported by modern flexible logistic structures. The constituted force groups will have a significant joint force character, ensuring superior quality of the troops’ combat training, both at individual level and collective level of units and large units. The current article presents innovative aspects of focused logistics, adapted for the modern warfare, which should be designed and achieved in order to increase the operational potential of the joint force groups.

  3. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad


    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:

  4. Methodology and biological monitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, M.L.; Smith, J.R.; McMonagle, J.D. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    In the past few years, our institute has developed several GC/MS methods for the detection of the breakdown products of toxic organophosphonates (soman, sarin, GF) and vesicant sulfur mustard in biological samples. Recently we developed a modified GC/MS method for VX and are continually working on the methodology for lewisite and tabun. The purpose is to have an analytical tool to verify the exposure of chemical warfare agents in humans. Analytical procedures for quantitating the hydrolyzed phosphonic acids from nerve agents in environmental samples have been reported by many analysts. For more complex matrices such as biological samples, there is not yet a method reported. To make these polar acids amenable to gas chromatographic analysis a prior derivatization is needed. We found the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives of the phosphonates are suitable for verification and pharmacokinetic studies in biological samples. This method may also serve as an alternative method for confirmation purposes in environmental samples.

  5. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian


    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  6. Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants (United States)

    Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.


    This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

  7. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick


    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  8. Technological, military and social causes for the application of cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović


    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a specific new form of military conflicts the use of which is growing rapidly in the international community. However, its nature is specific and differs from all previously known forms of warfare. For the purpose of clear understanding of the nature of cyber warfare, this paper covers the basic groups of preconditions for its broad application and fast development from technological, military and social aspects. Understanding the true nature of cyber warfare is a necessary condition for building national capacities for its application that are military justified and harmonized with the international law. The paper explores the characteristic instances of cyber warfare, ranging from information propaganda to physical destruction, with the goal to determine guidelines for the possible development of cyber capacities at the national level. Based on the analysis of previous cyber warfare cases, a prediction of future development directions is made and the necessity to apply suitable methods and techniques for defense against them is analyzed.

  9. Platform-level Distributed Warfare Model-based on Multi-Agent System Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li


    Full Text Available The multi-agent paradigm has become a useful tool in solving military problems. However, one of key challenges in multi-agent model for distributed warfare could be how to describe the microcosmic  tactical warfare platforms actions. In this paper, a platform-level distributed warfare model based on multi-agent system framework is designed to tackle this challenge. The basic ideas include:  Establishing multi-agent model by mapping from tactical warfare system’s members, i.e., warfare platforms, to respective agents; performing task decomposition and task allocation by using task-tree decomposition method and improved contract net protocol model technique; and implementing simulation by presenting battlefield terrain environment analysis algorithm based on grid approach. The  simulation demonstration results show that our model provides a feasible and effective approach to supporting the abstraction and representation of microcosmic tactical actions for complex warfare system.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.180-186, DOI:

  10. Looming Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Goel


    Full Text Available In the recent past, a dramatic shift has been observed in the strategies of warfare from conventional to non-conventional. Now-a-days, traditional power is of less importance than it used to be earlier. Weapons of mass destruction, which comprise of nuclear weapons, and chemical and biological warfare agents, are posing a great peril to the world due to their devastating potential. Though, there are several bilateral as well as multilateral treaties to control the use and proliferation of these weapons, yet the risk of use of such agents by non-state actors cannot be overlooked. Chances of use of chemical and biological agents are more likely than the nuclear weapons. A comparison of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in terms of technology, cost, signature, effectiveness on protected and un-protected troops shows that chemical and biological weapon programmes require much lower level of technology and cost than the nuclear weapon programme. Further, there is no or least distinctive and readily observable signature in biological weapon programme in comparison to nuclear and chemical weapon facilities. There can be two possibilities of use of these agents in terrorist attacks. First, there is a risk of transfer of material or know-how of these weapons to terrorists for using against the adversaries and second, the risk of these agents being pilfered due to poor security, thereby sabotaging the national security. The International Committee of Red Cross in February 1918 reckoned these agents as ‘barbarous inventions’ that can ‘only be called criminal’.

  11. Editorial: Discovery from Lake Turkana and History of Human Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor S. P. Singh, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Very interesting finds have come to light of violently killed humans from Lake Turkana in the Kenyan Rift Valley around 10000 years ago. A stunning discovery of skeletons of 27 persons who are believed to have been killed at the same time and are supposed to have suffered violent wounds has been reported recently (Nature 529, 394–398, 21 January 2016. These finds belong to a period of late Pleistocene/early Holocene of the hunter-gatherer societies from Nataruk. Among the victims were men, women and children. The individuals were killed with projectiles and blunt weapons. These skeletons were found in the lagoon and were preserved very nicely. Such type of mass killing probably could never happen as a consequence of intra-group conflict. The evidence seems to be towards warfare and aggression in ancient societies. The experts ruled out the possibility of a cemetery and ceremonial burial. This discovery of 27 skeletons points to the fact that there may have been more causalities and many individuals might have escaped death at that time. According to one of the co-authors of this research Dr. R.A. Foley, the groups were elatively more densely packed populations than the hunter gatherers and had more chances of having inter-group conflicts because of sharing the resources which would have been plentiful near the lagoons and water bodies. Violence probably has been in the instinct of early humans and that the warfare among humans has a history of 10000 years or even earlier.

  12. LIDAR for Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Veerabuthiran


    Full Text Available Remote detection of chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic gases in the atmosphere is of current interest to both the military and civilian agencies. Out of all currently available techniques, no single technique provides efficient detection against such threats at significant standoff distances. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR technologies, based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, have demonstrated impressive capabilities in remote detection of such toxic chemicals. LIDAR is a highly sensitive tool to detect the extremely low concentrations of various toxic agents present in the form of thin clouds at distances of few kilometer. The detection of these toxic clouds is based on the approach of first detecting and measuring the range of the clouds using the scattering phenomena and subsequently identifying the composition of toxic clouds using absorption and fluorescence phenomena. Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been working on the design and development of LIDAR systems for detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents. In this paper, theoretical analysis of differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL for detection of chemical agents and fluorescence LIDAR for detection of biological agents has been discussed. For some typical parametric conditions, the received power levels from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of chemical or biological clouds have been computed and discussed. The technical details of the indigenously developed backscattering LIDAR, which detects and measures the distance of cloud layers up to 5 km is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.241-250, DOI:

  13. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  14. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare (United States)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  15. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank


    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  16. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.


    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  17. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood


    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  18. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley


    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  19. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente


    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  20. Research on performance of ethernet interface in network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 张乃通


    The concept of network centric warfare (NCW) and its character, high requirement of real-time synchronization are introduced. The distributed equal-node network architecture in NCW is presented. Based on theoretical analysis on ethernet interface performance, this paper presents that forwarding latency between ethernet interface devices is a key influence factor of real-time synchronization in NCW. Ethernet fundamental is briefly introduced. The model between a switch under test (SUT) and a smartbits card is presented and used for two interconnecting switches in NCW. On condition that ignoring the latency of connecting fiber or twisted pairs and processing latency of the smartbits test system, this paper presents that clock frequency tolerance (CFT) between a SUT and a smartbits card is a leading influence factor of forwarding latency of an ethernet switch. The formulae to calculate internal forwarding latency and forwarding latency caused by its CFT are deduced. Theoretical calculation on forwarding latency of an ethernet switch based on the given CFT and test time is implemented. Experimental study on primary forwarding latency and secondary forwarding latency is implemented and forwarding latency between the SUT and the smartbits card is measured, thus testifying the accuracy of the above theoretical analysis that the CFT is a key influence factor of forwarding latency. The measures to satisfy the needs of forwarding latency in NCW are presented.

  1. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX. (United States)

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D


    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX.

  2. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand


    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  3. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea. (United States)

    Bruwer, A


    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU


    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  5. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru. (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C


    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control.

  6. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study. (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst


    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized.

  7. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL


    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester


    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  9. British Naval Aviation and the Anti-Submarine Campaign, 1917-18 (United States)


    fitting out aeroplanes with airbags , capable of keeping a ditched aeroplane afloat long enough to allow a rescue of the crew. Also, employing pilots...for Belgian Coast Patrol,’ 1 Jul 1918, ADM 137/2277, 381-92. 21Layman, Naval Aviation, 25. Chapter 2 34 aircraft itself; G. E. Livock recalls how...that contained a series of airbags . Since large ship volumes meant more hydrogen-producing lift, rigids enjoyed the highest potential for lifting

  10. Development of Longitudinal Equivalent System Models for Selected U.S. Navy Tactical Aircraft (United States)


    revaraa side II nacaaaary and Identlly by block number) Aircraft Longitudinal Flying Qualities Equivalent Systems Frequency Response a twin turbofan powered, land and carrier based, subsonic, anti- submarine warfare aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via a...based, supersonic fighter aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via an irreversible mechanical flight control system which transmits

  11. Target Localisation with Multistatic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindt, J.C.; Theije, P.A.M. de


    Submarines becoming more and more silent, the Navies have much interest in active-sonar applications for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). The overt nature of low-frequency active sonar (LFAS) operations could give to an opposing submarine the potential initiative. This risk can be significantly reduced

  12. Underwater detection, classification and localisation: Improving the capabilities of towed sonar arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colin, M.E.G.D.


    The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Warsaw pact have resulted in a change of operational theatre for the naval forces of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). In particular, the focus of Anti Submarine Warfare forces has shifted from tracking Soviet nuclear ballistic missile sub

  13. Shape and Doppler correction for a towed sonar array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.; Beerens, S.P.; Doisy, Y.


    Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) is more and more focused toward shallow water environments. Many complications have come up for ASW sonar performance as a result of this. The problem that is tackled in this article is the performance loss due to the shape and motion of the sonar during a maneuver. Stan

  14. Underwater detection, classification and localisation : Improving the capabilities of towed sonar arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colin, M.E.G.D.


    The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Warsaw pact have resulted in a change of operational theatre for the naval forces of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). In particular, the focus of Anti Submarine Warfare forces has shifted from tracking Soviet nuclear ballistic missile sub

  15. 77 FR 35317 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Revision of U.S. Munitions List... (United States)


    ... positive, but not yet tiered, proposed USML category is that it does not contain controls on all generic... a trainer. (7) Anti-submarine warfare trainers; (8) Missile launch trainers; (9) Any training device... by this category; (ii) Battle management; (iii) Military test scenarios/models; or (iv) Effects...

  16. 50 CFR 216.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical region. (United States)


    ...-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and high frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources for U.S. Navy anti-submarine warfare (ASW) training in the amounts indicated below (±10 percent): (i) AN/SQS-53 (hull-mounted sonar)—up to 6420 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 1284 hours per year) (ii) AN/SQS-56...

  17. A Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology (United States)


    and discovery ; an algorithm is a stepwise procedure for calculation of a problem solution. Heuristics and algorithms are used to express...the relevant properties, domain, range and variables simplifies production of the model and discovery model logic. In the MilShip PO, the...extensive experience in anti-submarine warfare and airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance operations in the Arctic , Atlantic

  18. A Theoretical Exploration of Lawrence of Arabia’s Inner Meanings on Guerrilla Warfare (United States)


    Asprey, Robert . War in the shadows: The Guerrilla in history, ( Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2002), 4 2 T.E. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. A...the Solow growth model and the Ricardian model of economic rent, with two classic studies of guerrilla warfare by T.E Lawrence and Mao Zedong. Four

  19. Disruption of a binary organogel by the chemical warfare agent soman (GD) and common organophosphorus simulants


    Hiscock, Jennifer R.; Sambrook, Mark R; Ede, Jayne A.; Wells, Neil J.; Philip A. Gale


    The chemical warfare agent (CWA) soman (GD) acts as a molecular stimulus for the disruption of an anthracene-based binary organogel prepared in cyclohexane. The CWA simulants dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) were also found to disrupt the binary organogel through changes in solvent polarity and reactions with the gelator.\\ud \\ud

  20. Fear as a medium of communication in asymmetric forms of warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    of fear evolves in asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric war induces fear in both parties, but in a communicative form that leads to very different experiences of fear. Fear is observed and analysed with Niklas Luhmann’s theory of self-referential systems of communication and well as his theory of risk...

  1. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.


    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused b

  2. From Douhet to drones, air warfare, and the evolution of targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, F.P.B.; Roorda, M.P.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.


    Through the prism of the experience of air warfare, this chapter identifies key factors that have shaped targeting. These include technological developments, organizational structures, and processes and inter-service competition for scarce resources. Moreover, targeting is informed by perspectives o

  3. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.


    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and s

  4. Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers (United States)


    in converting electric energy to thermal energy for the decon applications. Other conductive materials, such as polythiophenes , polypyrroles, carbon...Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers...Joule)-heating with conducting polymers. The basic concept is that electrically conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, can be used as coatings or

  5. Analysis of Urinary Metabolites of Nerve and Blister Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    Warfare Agents GA Tabun , ethyl dimethylphosphoramidate GB Sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate GD Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate...and their metabolites Agent Metabolite GA, Tabun O P O N CN Ethyl Dimethylphosphoroamidate, EDMAP, GA Acid HO P O N CN GB, Sarin P O

  6. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Chemical Warfare Agent Incident (United States)


    chemical scenario involving the release of a blister agent (mustard lewisite) would result in a waste that the State of Colorado would regulate as... Waste Management ................................................................. 24 4.3 Key Planning Factors: Recovery Planning...Planning Factors, this document presents a chemical warfare agent scenario featuring Agent Yellow, a blister agent. Agent Yellow is a mixture of

  7. (Review of) Reno, William. 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias


    Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nane Zeynalyan


    Full Text Available In the recent decades, war fields have moved into the information sphere. Today’s person has reason to “be informed”; as having information provides a sense of security. In the modern world, great effort is invested in expanding information sources, because it serves to articulate both international policies and the context of wars. The exchange of information in domestic and international platforms influences the quality of public debate and ideology, which affects social attitudes and decision-making processes. This article presents the role of information-psychological warfare as a factor in forming public opinion. It discusses the peculiarities of organizing an information-psychological warfare during military conflicts. The goal of our research is to explore how social groups might perceive peculiarities in the information-psychological warfare. The research involves methods of survey, content analysis, and free associations. The effectiveness of psychological warfare significantly depends on how people perceive information. Consequently, in the contemporary world, it is necessary to not only protect or fight on the battlefield, but also to use information weapons. This imposes requirements on psychological scientists to explore peculiarities around the perception of information to help find mechanisms that safeguard people’s lives by way of contributing to the formation of necessary attitudes and stereotypes.

  9. Detachment 101 in the CBI: An Unconventional Warfare Paradigm for Contemporary Special Operations (United States)


    American Espionage. NY: Reynal and Hitchcock , 1946. Barrett, Neil H. Chingpaw. NY: Vantage, 1962. Bartholomew-Feis, Dixee R. The O.S.S. and Ho Chi...United States Army. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990. Paddock, Alfred H. U.S. Army Special Warfare; Its Origins. Lawrence, KS

  10. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63). (United States)

    Charters, Erica


    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  11. Irregular Warfare and Future War: Strategy and Defense Planning; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 92-98. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part II: Technological and Doctrinal Innovation


    Russell, James A.


    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.10, Special issue (October 2011), 92-98. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part II: Technological and Doctrinal Innovation Approved for public display, distribution unlimited The purpose of this paper is threefold: to speculate on the role and prominence of irregular warfare in the strategic environment over the next quarter century, to comment on the impact that phenomenon may have on shaping the postulated scenarios addressed in t...

  12. 50 CFR 216.270 - Specified activity and specified geographical region. (United States)


    ... frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources for U.S. Navy anti-submarine warfare (ASW), mine warfare (MIW... below (±10 percent): (i) AN/SQS-53 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 9885 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 1977 hours per year) (ii) AN/SQS-56 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 2470...

  13. Ultrahigh Vacuum Studies of the Fundamental Interactions of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants with Amorphous Silica (United States)


    G. The Dissociative Adsorptoin of N2 on a Multiply Promoted Iron Catalyst Used for Ammonia Synthesis : A Temperature Programmed Desorption Study...where their potential use as chemical warfare agents began. The synthesis of other G-series agents, G standing for German, shortly followed. Also...warfare. The most common blister agent, sulfur mustard, was first synthesized in 1822 by Despretz. Victor Meyer developed a modified synthesis to

  14. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure. (United States)

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H


    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  15. The Military-Entertainment Complex: A New Facet of Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Muir


    Full Text Available The second Gulf War will become synonymous with the emergence of fully-fledged information warfare where the military-entertainment complex has so influenced strategic and logistic possibilities that it becomes apparent that the war was waged as entertainment. This is entertainment not as an amusement or diversion but utilising the techniques and tropes of the burgeoning entertainment industry as a means to achieve military objectives. This paper offers a short history of the military-entertainment complex as reality and simulation become fused in the practices of the US military machine. The paper then briefly explores three central aspects of this phenomenon evident in recent developments: the military function of computer games; the role of the Hollywood scenario and the blurring between news and reality TV. Finally the suggestion is made that subverting, co-opting and reconstructing the military-entertainment complex provides new possibilities for alternative strategies of information warfare.

  16. Aerospace Power in Urban Warfare: Beware the Hornet’s Nest (United States)


    Board Task Force on Military Operations in Built-Up Areas ( MOBA )," (Washington, DC: Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and...Smithsonian Institute Press, 1999), 130. 45 Vick, et al., 120. 46 Rebecca A. Grant, "The Radar Game ," Air Force Magazine, February 1999, 52-60. Grant...University Press, 1962. Grant, Rebecca A. "The Radar Game ." Air Force Magazine, February 1999, 52-60. Hawkins, William R. Putting Urban Warfare in

  17. Transition Support of Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC) Technology to the Naval Oceanographic Office Warfare Support Center (United States)


    The long-term goal of this research is to support the transition of METOC technology to the Naval Oceanographic Office Warfare Support Center...Specifically, this includes the methodology for assimilation and adaptive sampling of in-situ data, collected from gliders (oceanographic) and mobile ...and acoustic uncertainty provinces, iii) continue development of the OMAS (OASIS Mobile Acoustic Source) insitu acoustic system with application to a

  18. Let the Revolution Begin, 140 Characters at a Time: Social Media and Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    2008 and Air Command and Staff College (M.A. in Military Operational Art and Science) in 2013. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I want to thank Dr. James...Sunni and Shia Muslims in the region. Arguably, social-media enabled revolutions affected Egypt the most. Overthrown twice since the January 25...Understand Unconventional Warfare,” Small Wars, 23 October 2014, art /do-we-really-understand

  19. A Need for Systems Architecture Approach for Next Generation Mine Warfare Capability (United States)


    uncontrolled mining ultimately led to the first Hague convention where 10 Henry Petroski (1992). To Engineer is...Littoral and Mine Warfare, without which I would not have been able to participate in this program. Jon, Henry and Capt. “J” juggling between work, home...Palmer, M. (1992). Guardians of the Gulf. [Photograph], Free Press, New York. Petroski , H (1992). To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in

  20. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    phrase confronting irregular challenges (CIC) instead of the term irregular warfare. For purposes of convenience , this report continues to use the term...Tomahawk cruise missile attacks on suspected terrorist training camps and facilities , such as those reportedly conducted in Somalia on March 3 and May 1...domestic and overseas Navy bases and facilities ;  working with the Coast Guard to build maritime domain awareness (or MDA, meaning a real-time

  1. Guerrilla Operations in the Civil War: Assessing Compound Warfare During Price’s Raid (United States)


    hand, Three Years with Quantrill by O. S. Barton and Noted Guerrillas, or the Warfare on the Border by John Edwards provide alternate views described in other sources. For example, Barton relates John McCorkle’s account of the story about guerrillas who Price’s army before the Battle of...Jay Monaghan provided excellent accounts of the major operations in the Trans-Mississippi Department during the Civil War. Finally, the framework for

  2. China’s Development of Asymmetric Warfare and the Security of Taiwan, Republic of China (United States)


    thanks to my loving and devoted wife, Anita . Her patience, understanding, and remarkable ability to maintain a pleasant, comforting home during this...should arise (Bolt, Brenner , 2004, p.130). Information warfare technology can delay a United States response and commitment in the Taiwan Strait in...destruction of C4 systems by missiles, airpower, and high-energy weapons (Bolt & Brenner , 2004, p.133). Perhaps the most astonishing view of the PRC’s IW

  3. Courses of Action for Enhancing USAF ’Irregular Warfare’ Capabilities: A Functional Solutions Analysis (United States)


    Warfare Center to ensure that technological opportunities for novel IW appli- cations were explored, developed, and fielded. (See pp. 38–40...activities; transnational criminal activities, including narco -trafficking, illicit arms dealing, and illegal financial transactions, that support or...opportunities for novel IW applications are explored, devel- oped, and fielded. In fact, over time, it might be appropriate for the USAF to create a

  4. Challenges in Coalition Unconventional Warfare: The Allied Campaign in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945 (United States)


    JFQ 75, 4th Quarter 2014 Duke, Phil lips, and Conover 129 Challenges in Coalition Unconventional Warfare The Allied Campaign in Yugoslavia , 1941...resistance elements in Yugoslavia . The resistance movement effectively fixed in place 35 German and Italian divisions, consisting of roughly 660,000...mountain headquarters in Yugoslavia on May 14, 1944 (Imperial War Museum) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting

  5. Cyberspace as a Complex Adaptive System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare (United States)


    accessed 13 February 2014). 66Teresa Degenhard “Between War and Crime: The Overlap between War and Crime: Unpacking Foucault and Agamben’s Studies...Article-2-Revision- for- Foucault -and-Agamben-Degenhardt-July-2013.pdf (accessed 5 April 2014). 26... Foucault and Agamben’s Studies within the Context of the War on Terror.”, 34. 68US Department of Defense, Electronic Warfare, Joint Publication 3-13, I-2

  6. Investigating Iraq’s Chemical Warfare Program: Updated and Expanded Research Plan (United States)


    chemical warfare, chemical weapons, Conflict Records Research Center, Tabun , Sarin, UN Sepcial Commission, UN UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection...7 for tabun and sarin; and Ahmed 2 & 3 for production of precursors for tabun and sarin. The general contractor is Al Fao General Establishment that... tabun , and sarin. “mid- 1970s” Al Hazen Institute has by this time set up contacts with “30 major foreign organizations and companies” for securing

  7. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis. (United States)

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C


    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR.

  8. Management of DoD Irregular Warfare (IW) and Security Force Assistance (SFA) Capabilities (United States)


    manage DoD personnel with skills , training, education, and experience related to IW and SFA. DoDI 3000.11, May 3, 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2...DOD INSTRUCTION 3000.11 MANAGEMENT OF DOD IRREGULAR WARFARE (IW) AND SECURITY FORCE ASSISTANCE (SFA) CAPABILITIES Originating Component...well as building the security capacity and capability of U.S. partners and allies. c. IW and SFA skills , training, education, and experience must be

  9. Working on warfare-related sites. Review after 15 years and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, U. [Umweltberatung und Planung, Kassel (Germany)


    Fifteen years ago, in 1988, in connection with the Second International TNO/BMFT-Congress for the first time sites contaminated due to armaments production were mentioned, caused by the results of the first systematic investigation of a former explosives production plant in Hessisch Lichtenau. The authors referred to another 72 large chemical armament production plants in the FRG and 39 in the GDR. At the Third International TNO/BMFT-Congress in 1990 the complex of problems were substantiated and at the same time more topics were added. The Federal Government of Germany named the following areas suspected of being warfare-related contaminated sites: former production plants, ammunition depots, defusing sites, demolition areas and firing ranges, disassembly plants and intermediate and final storage plants for conventional and chemical combat agents. Soil, water and air pollution could be caused by the following products: explosives, chemical warfare agents, incendiaries, smoke agents, propellants, additives, primary and waste products and residues from the destruction of combat agents. In 1995 the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) presented the results of the national survey showing that there are 3240 suspected contaminated sites. In 1995 also began the soil clean-up at the warfare-related contaminated sites Stadtallendorf and Hessisch Lichtenau. 8 respectively 10 years after the beginning of the systematic investigations the first contaminated soil was removed and treated in a thermal plant. In the run-up several R and D projects funded by the Federal Government were carried out (Stadtallendorf: MOSAL = Model Remediation of Contaminated Sites, Hessisch Lichtenau: Joint project Biological Remediation of Warfare-Related Contamination). At these sites basics were worked out and technologies were put to the test which can be used for the remediation of other sites. (orig.)

  10. The Alpini Effect: Why the US Army Should Train Units for Mountain Warfare (United States)


    a contingent of elephants from the Spanish Ebro river over the Pyrenees , across Gaul (present day France) to the Rhone River and over the Alps into...power from disease and cold during its march over the Pyrenees and Alps.13 Switzerland quickly became a conflict zone in the early Middle Ages as... government made concessions to Prussia to resolve the conflict. Engels discussion on mountain warfare was influenced by the French Army’s success during

  11. No Compromise: Establishing Balance in the US Army’s Approach to Full-Spectrum Warfare (United States)


    also needlessly prolongs corporate acceptance for a leadership culture that appreciates the ’ fluid character of warfare in the modern era. Beyond the...of Iraq, reveals that a numl?er of tactical leaders exhibited superb situational awareness and thoughtful response to extremely dynamic security...Paul D. Batchelor , Fixing Intel: · . A B lneprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan, Center for a New American Security, Washington

  12. [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals]. (United States)

    Lehavi, Ofer; Aizenstien, Orna; Katz, Lior H; Hourvitz, Ariel


    Infection with Burkholderia mallei (formerly Pseudomonas mallei) can cause a subcutaneous infection known as "farcy" or can disseminate to condition known as Glanders. It is primarily a disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules. In humans, Glanders can produce four types of disease: localized form, pulmonary form, septicemia, and chronic form. Necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree and pustular skin lesions characterize acute infection with B. mallei. Other symptoms include febrile pneumonia, if the organism was inhaled, or signs of sepsis and multiple abscesses, if the skin was the port of entry. Glanders is endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. Glanders has low contiguous potential, but because of the efficacy of aerosolized dissemination and the lethal nature of the disease, B. mallei was considered a candidate for biological warfare. During World War I, Glanders was believed to have been spread to infect large numbers of Russian horses and mules on the Eastern front. The Japanese infected horses, civilians and prisoners of war during World War II. The USA and the Soviet Union have shown interest in B. mallei in their biological warfare program. The treatment is empiric and includes mono or poly-therapy with Ceftazidime, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazol, Gentamicin, Imipenem etc. Aggressive control measures essentially eliminated Glanders from the west. However, with the resurgent concern about biological warfare, B. mallei is now being studied in a few laboratories worldwide. This review provides an overview of the disease and presents the only case reported in the western world since 1949.

  13. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel


    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  14. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  15. Net-Centric Warfare 2.0: Cloud Computing and the New Age of War (United States)


    gets credit for its part , the mashup must be provided free of charge, etc.).27 Google even provides documentation showing the user how to build a...created a Facebook group called "Un Millon de Voces Contra las FARC" ("One Million Voices against the FARC")… In less than 12 hours the group had more...key parts of the multibillion-dollar effort teetered on the brink of cancellation.”50 Network Centric Warfare as currently envisioned by the

  16. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant (United States)


    Peroxide (HOO-) 7.8 29 26.7 ± 0.2 t-Butyl hydroperoxide ((CH3)3COO-) 7.8 9.7 39 Cumene hydroperoxide ((C6H6)C(CH3)2OO-) 7.8 9.3 22 All reactions run with...peroxymonocarbonate ion (HCO4-) as the oxidant in the catalytic oxidation reactions . For perhydrolytic cleavage of organophosphates the peroxycarbonate dianion...solubility and reaction rates for applications in chemical warfare agent decontamination. -O *C O O OH -O *C OH O HO *C OH O *CO2 HO2 - H2OHO *C O O OH pKa


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K.B. Barron


    Full Text Available Lawrence was basically an academic thrown into the hurly-burly of leading an Arab revolt against Turkish domination. It could be said that the war in the Middle East was a sideshow of the First World War and Lawrence's part was a ' ... sideshow to the sideshow'l Why then has Lawrence been remembered when greater military men have been forgotten? The romanticism of his exploits are surely the reason, and yet the fact that he is the first modern theorist and possibly the "father" of modern revolutionary warfare, tends to be forgotten.

  18. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.


    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS...

  19. New concepts and their applications in underwater acoustic warfare simulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yangze; YAO Lan


    An underwater acoustic warfare simulation system (UAWSS) with a structure of high level architecture (HLA) is studied based upon a previous research project. With the experience and lessons learned, some new concepts are adopted in the implementation of UAWSS according to the essence of simulation and the objective of the system, among which are simulation synthetic environment, signal processing at other simulation nodes, decomposition of underwater sound channel, channel varying law and rules on system and parts evaluation, etc. Applications of these new ideas show that they are effective.

  20. Three-dimensional visualization and control of electronic warfare (EW) payloads (United States)

    Kirsch, Patricia; Tremper, David; Cortesi, Roger


    The proliferation of unmanned vehicles carrying tactical payloads in the battle-space has accelerated the need for user-friendly visualization with graphical interfaces to provide remote command and control. Often these platforms and payloads receive their control functions from command centers located half a world away via satellite communications. Operators require situational awareness tools capable of graphically presenting the remote battlefield asset positions and collected sensor data. Often these systems use 2D software mapping tools in conjunction with video for real time situational awareness. The Special Projects Group (SPG) in the Tactical Electronic Warfare Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has been developing an operator control interface called the Jammer Control Station (JCS) to provide 3D battle-space visualization with built-in, remote EW payload command and control (C2) capabilities. The JCS interface presents the operator with graphic depictions of both the platforms' states and the RF environment. Text based messaging between the JCS and the EW payload reduces the impact of the system on the available bandwidth. This paper will discuss the use of the SIMDIS 3-D visualization tool as a real-time command and control interface for electronic warfare (EW) payloads.

  1. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials (United States)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.


    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  2. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J


    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  3. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers


    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  4. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico. (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice


    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced.

  5. Academic Training Lectures | Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare | 13-14 January 2016

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on 13 and 14 January 2016. The lectures will be given by Gian Piero Siroli (Università e INFN, Bologna (IT))   Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)​ on Wednesday, 13 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2) on Thursday, 14 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. at CERN, Council Chamber (503-1-001)  Description: The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran&...

  6. Ge{sup 4+} doped TiO{sub 2} for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared nanodisperse Ge{sup 4+} doped titania by a novel synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis does not involve organic solvents, organometallics nor thermal processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared materials are efficient in removal of chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ge{sup 4+} doping improves rate of removal of soman and agent VX by TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Germanium doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl{sub 4} and TiOSO{sub 4} with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge{sup 4+} doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge{sup 4+} doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  7. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff


    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  8. Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms. (United States)

    Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E


    Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds.

  9. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL


    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  10. Speed of adaptation and genomic footprints of host-parasite coevolution under arms race and trench warfare dynamics. (United States)

    Tellier, Aurélien; Moreno-Gámez, Stefany; Stephan, Wolfgang


    Coevolution between hosts and their parasites is expected to follow a range of possible dynamics, the two extreme cases being called trench warfare (or Red Queen) and arms races. Long-term stable polymorphism at the host and parasite coevolving loci is characteristic of trench warfare, and is expected to promote molecular signatures of balancing selection, while the recurrent allele fixation in arms races should generate selective sweeps. We compare these two scenarios using a finite size haploid gene-for-gene model that includes both mutation and genetic drift. We first show that trench warfare do not necessarily display larger numbers of coevolutionary cycles per unit of time than arms races. We subsequently perform coalescent simulations under these dynamics to generate sequences at both host and parasite loci. Genomic footprints of recurrent selective sweeps are often found, whereas trench warfare yield signatures of balancing selection only in parasite sequences, and only in a limited parameter space. Our results suggest that deterministic models of coevolution with infinite population sizes do not predict reliably the observed genomic signatures, and it may be best to study parasite rather than host populations to find genomic signatures of coevolution, such as selective sweeps or balancing selection.

  11. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, July 2015 (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.


    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision for the site.

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de


    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’ targe

  16. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training for Newly Commissioned Surface Warfare Division Officers (United States)


    Chief of Naval Operations Surface Warfare Directorate. (2002, June 15). Navigation, seamanship and shiphandling training requirements document...unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training...Stephen Mehay, Professor With the assistance of Carol Stoker and Robert Paynter Naval Postgraduate School Naval Postgraduate School

  17. Global Survey of Research and Capabilities in Genetically Engineered Organisms That Could be Used in Biological Warfare or Bioterrorism (United States)


    advances (summarized in Section 4) that could facilitate or at least inspire the pursuit of biological warfare capabilities. We share the opinion that...a) Infectious Diseases Control Unit of the Direction de la sante publique , Montreal Chest Institute, Montreal Division of Infectious and

  18. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone (United States)


    ... and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... danger zone in the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County, Virginia..., and expands the boundaries of a portion of the danger zone. The amendment is necessary to protect...

  19. The Venus "Shell-over-Star" hieroglyph and Maya warfare: An examination of the interpretation of a Mayan symbol (United States)

    Voit, Claudia Ann

    For decades, Maya scholars have associated the Mayan "Shell-Star" (also referred to as "Star-War") hieroglyph with Maya warfare. Put forward by scholars such as Floyd Lounsbury and David Kelley, and later advanced by Linda Schele, David Freidel, Ian Graham, Peter Matthews, Anthony Aveni and others, there are now dozens of published articles and chapters relating the hieroglyph to Venus and warfare. Venus is one of the most notable celestial objects outside of the Sun and Moon and was highly visible to the inhabitants of the Maya world. The Dresden Codex (an astronomical almanac) contains important information about the planet Venus, and the calendar section was deciphered by the librarian and mathematician, Ernst Förstemann in the late 1800s. In his decipherment, he deduced that the numbers contained in the tables must be connected to the orbital period of the planet. There is no other planet with the same orbital period 3 as Venus. Förstemann suggested that the decoded astronomy tables were used by the Maya to determine when to wage war. This interpretation, along with others, like Floyd Lounsbury`s study of Venus and the Long Count date at Bonampak were the seeds that have led to methodological errors that first began to take root in Maya research. The idea of the Venus association with warfare took hold and continues to propagate. Many scholars continue to assert that the "shell-star" glyph is related to warfare events. Others, like Gerardo Aldana, and Stanley Guenter, have recently come forward to reexamine and question the hieroglyph and its relationship, if any, to Maya warfare. I suggest, further, that methodological errors may have occurred along the way. I propose that these errors include data lost in translation, and inaccurate translations. In addition, the statistical analysis of Venus cycles has weak points. If this identification of the errors is correct, we need to re-evaluate the weakened foundation on which we are building our assertions about

  20. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography


    Liu Yang; Qiang Han; Shuya Cao; Feng Huang; Molin Qin; Chenghai Guo; Mingyu Ding


    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical an...

  1. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen


    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  2. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  3. A war psychiatry approach to warfare in the Middle Byzantine period. (United States)

    Ntafoulis, Pavlos


    Combat stress cases were traced in historical texts and military manuals on warfare from the Middle Byzantine period; they were mainly labelled as cowardice. Soldiers suffered from nostalgia or exhaustion; officers looked stunned, or could not speak during the battle. Cruel punishments were often enforced. Suicide and alcohol abuse were rarely mentioned. The Byzantines' evacuation system for battle casualties was well organized. Psychological operations were conducted and prisoners-of-war were usually part of them. The Byzantine army had 'parakletores', officers assigned to encourage soldiers before combat. The leaders dealt with combat stress by using their rhetoric skills and emphasizing religious faith in eternal life. The treatment of the 'cowards' was rather similar to modern war psychiatry principles of treatment. No description of PTSD was found.

  4. The art of antibacterial warfare: Deception through interference with quorum sensing-mediated communication. (United States)

    Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia; Williams, Paul


    Almost a century on from the discovery of penicillin, the war against bacterial infection still rages compounded by the emergence of strains resistant to virtually every clinically approved antibiotic and the dearth of new antibacterial agents entering the clinic. Consequently there is renewed interest in drugs which attenuate virulence rather than bacterial growth. Since the metaphors of warfare are often used to describe the battle between pathogen and host, we will describe in such a context, the molecular communication (quorum sensing) mechanisms used by bacteria to co-ordinate virulence at the population level. Recent progress in exploiting this information through the design of anti-virulence deception strategies that disrupt quorum sensing through signal molecule inactivation, inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis or the blockade of signal transduction and their advantages and disadvantages are considered.

  5. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.

  6. Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Riazi


    Full Text Available Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs. Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05. The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor JALBĂ


    Full Text Available Within the framework of the current revolution in military affairs, at the End of the Cold War a new concept was born: the concept of War Based on Computer Networking or NCW Network Centric-Warfare which was established as a central element of modern military operations. Determined by theprogress recorded in the field of communication systems of all types, technology of information (HI-Tech, IT, war based on computer networking brings a change in the war paradigm and its inherent components In this respect, logistics based on computer networking represents one of the ways in which the reality of the battlefield is preserved which enhances the joint perspective upon the military forces.

  8. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal


    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  9. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal


    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232

  10. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions. (United States)

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay


    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  11. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui


    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  12. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen


    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  13. Research on Electronic Warfare Operational Simulation Experiment Design%电子对抗作战仿真实验设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉; 耿松涛; 王枭犇


      针对目前电子对抗作战仿真实验设计中存在的突出问题,对电子对抗作战仿真实验设计进行研究。介绍我军电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的发展现状,分析电子对抗作战仿真实验设计中存在的问题,提出结合实验目的规范电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的思路。该研究为实现电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的规范化、标准化做出了有益探索。%Aiming at the problems existed in designing electronic warfare operational simulation experiment, electronic warfare operational simulation experiment design is researched. It introduces the development situation of PLA’s electronic warfare operational simulation experiment firstly, analyses the problems in designing electronic warfare operational simulation experiment, and brings a design idea that combines it with experiment goals for electronic warfare operational simulation experiment. The research can offer reference for realize the normalization and standardization of electronic warfare campaign simulation experimental design.

  14. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki


    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  15. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility (United States)

    Lançon, F.


    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  16. Electronic Warfare (United States)


    2) The use of the EMS is essential to control the OE during all military operations. The transfer of information from the collectors to the...frequencies used for satellite communications (SATCOM); the effects of solar activities such as sunspots, solar flares, and atmospheric fluctuations, alteration, suppression, absorption , denial, enhancement, or reflection of EM energy in a manner intended to convey misleading

  17. Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    failed Strategic Hamlet program,125 expanded advisory efforts,126 and prompt- ing the Diem regime in Saigon to invest in paramilitary Territorial...acceleration of resources guided by CORDS’s contentious Hamlet Evaluation System.175 The effect of the APC is that Communist forces began to rely on...138; Fall, Street Without Joy, 363. The Strategic Hamlet program was an effort to extend governance to the countryside and provide a local counter

  18. Nuclear warfare

    CERN Multimedia



    Le Prof.Broda a étudié à Vienne et Berlin et a travaillé pendant la dernière guerre mondiale en Grande Bretagne pour le conseil de la recherche médicale, notamment sur la chimie de la vision. Il est maintenant Prof. de la chimie, physique et radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, où il concentre ses travaux sur les méchanisme de transport d'énergie à travers les cellules de membranes.

  19. Mobile Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ In 1984, US computer manufacturer Apple spent almost USD 1.5 million on a lavish, Ridley Scott-directed commercial for its new Macintosh 128k personal computer. A year later, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows for IBM PC, signaling the start of the battle for domi-nation of the personal computer market which has waged ever since.

  20. Air Warfare (United States)


    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)


    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  4. China’s Three Warfares Strategy Mitigates Fallout From Cyber Espionage Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello


    Full Text Available China is engaged in longstanding cyber espionage against the U.S., as well as other nations, to collect sensitive public and private information in support of national objectives laid out in its 12th Five Year Plan. Foreign governments citing China’s malfeasance have rebuked these activities, a claim vehemently denied by Beijing. In response, China is leveraging the “Three Warfares” an integrated three-prong information warfare strategy to combat these accusations by leveraging Media, Legal, and Psychological components designed to influence the international community. While the United States has threatened the imposition of economic sanctions, Beijing has successfully parried consequential actions by arresting U.S.-identified hackers, thereby demonstrating its commitment toward preserving a stable and peaceful cyberspace. These interrelated “Three Warfares” disciplines have targeted the cognitive processes of the U.S. leadership, as well as the international public’s perception of China as a global threat, thereby having successfully forestalled the implementation of any effective punitive or economic deterrence strategy to include the imposition of cyber sanctions.

  5. Extraordinary Measures: Drone Warfare, Securitization, and the “War on Terror”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Scott Nicholas


    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles or “drones,” as part of the United States’ (US targeted killing (TK program dramatically increased after the War on Terror (WoT was declared. With the ambiguous nature and parameters of the WoT, and stemming from the postulation of numerous low-level, niche-, and other securitizations producing a monolithic threat, US drone operations now constitute a vital stitch in the extensive fabric of US counterterrorism policy. This article employs the theories of securitization and macrosecuritization as discussed by Buzan (1991, 2006, and Buzan and Wæver (2009 to understand targeted killing, by means of weaponized drones, as an extraordinary measure according to the Copenhagen School’s interpretation. An overarching securitization and the use of the “security” label warrants the emergency action of targeted killing through the use of drones as an extraordinary measure. We argue that the WoT serves as a means of securitizing global terrorism as a threat significant enough to warrant the use of drone warfare as an extraordinary use of force. By accepting the WoT as a securitization process we can reasonably accept that the US’ response(s against that threat are also securitized and therefore become extraordinary measures.

  6. Nanowire-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for chemical warfare simulants (United States)

    Hoffmann, J. A.; Miragliotta, J. A.; Wang, J.; Tyagi, P.; Maddanimath, T.; Gracias, D. H.; Papadakis, S. J.


    Hand-held instruments capable of spectroscopic identification of chemical warfare agents (CWA) would find extensive use in the field. Because CWA can be toxic at very low concentrations compared to typical background levels of commonly-used compounds (flame retardants, pesticides) that are chemically similar, spectroscopic measurements have the potential to reduce false alarms by distinguishing between dangerous and benign compounds. Unfortunately, most true spectroscopic instruments (infrared spectrometers, mass spectrometers, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers) are bench-top instruments. Surface-acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are commercially available in hand-held form, but rely on a handful of functionalized surfaces to achieve specificity. Here, we consider the potential for a hand-held device based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using templated nanowires as enhancing substrates. We examine the magnitude of enhancement generated by the nanowires and the specificity achieved in measurements of a range of CWA simulants. We predict the ultimate sensitivity of a device based on a nanowire-based SERS core to be 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than a comparable SAW system, with a detection limit of approximately 0.01 mg m-3.

  7. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.204-209, DOI:

  8. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces. (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen


    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  9. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard. (United States)

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K


    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  10. The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Eisenkraft


    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against OPs include the peripheral anticholinergic drug atropine and an oxime that reactivates the inhibited cholinesterase. Benzodiazepines are used to stop organophosphate-induced seizures. Despite these approved drugs, efforts have been made to introduce other medical countermeasures in order to attenuate both the short-term and long-term clinical effects following exposure. Currently, there is no antidote against sulfur mustard poisoning. Intravenous lipid emulsions are used as a source of calories in parenteral nutrition. In recent years, efficacy of lipid emulsions has been shown in the treatment of poisoning by fat-soluble compounds in animal models as well as clinically in humans. In this review we discuss the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsions as an adjunct to the in-hospital treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning.

  11. Ultra-Fast Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents Using MOF-Nanofiber Kebabs. (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Lee, Dennis T; Yaga, Robert W; Hall, Morgan G; Barton, Heather F; Woodward, Ian R; Oldham, Christopher J; Walls, Howard J; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N


    The threat associated with chemical warfare agents (CWAs) motivates the development of new materials to provide enhanced protection with a reduced burden. Metal-organic frame-works (MOFs) have recently been shown as highly effective catalysts for detoxifying CWAs, but challenges still remain for integrating MOFs into functional filter media and/or protective garments. Herein, we report a series of MOF-nanofiber kebab structures for fast degradation of CWAs. We found TiO2 coatings deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto polyamide-6 nanofibers enable the formation of conformal Zr-based MOF thin films including UiO-66, UiO-66-NH2 , and UiO-67. Cross-sectional TEM images show that these MOF crystals nucleate and grow directly on and around the nanofibers, with strong attachment to the substrates. These MOF-functionalized nanofibers exhibit excellent reactivity for detoxifying CWAs. The half-lives of a CWA simulant compound and nerve agent soman (GD) are as short as 7.3 min and 2.3 min, respectively. These results therefore provide the earliest report of MOF-nanofiber textile composites capable of ultra-fast degradation of CWAs.

  12. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection. (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha


    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  13. Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.


    The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 μl were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome in Chemical Warfare Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad M. Lari


    Full Text Available   Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM, a toxic alkylating gas, can cause serious long-term pulmonary complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the important comorbidities of COPD. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome in Iranian chemical warfare patients (CWPs with COPD. Materials and Methods: Thirty CWPs with a mean age of 46.93± 6.8 were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were studied in: complete pulmonary function tests, health-related quality of life, serum triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels. Additionally, 32 COPD patients and 56 healthy persons were considered as control groups who were matched to CWPs. Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the frequency of MetS between the COPD patients and the healthy control group (p=0.04. Additionally, we observed a statistically significant difference in the mean HDL levels among these groups (p=

  15. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hurst


    Full Text Available Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons is a matter of conjecture. The unpredictable and indiscriminate devastation caused by natural epidemics and hazardous chemicals during wartime without medical treatment should warn humans of the dangers of employing them as weapons. This study argues rapid detection techniques may dissuade future use. Many agents are far less toxic to treatment. A quick response time to most attacks will decrease the chances of serious health issues. The agent will be less effective and discourage the attacker from using the weapon. Fortunately, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention (CWCIBWC allows defensive work in the area of biological and chemical weapons. Consequently, the review will discuss history, delivery/dispersal systems and specific agents of the warfare. The study presents current developments in biosensors for toxic materials of defense interest. It concludes with future directions for biosensor development.

  16. Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia. (United States)

    Nord, Catharina


    In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic.

  17. Toxicogenomic studies of human neural cells following exposure to organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent VX. (United States)

    Gao, Xiugong; Lin, Hsiuling; Ray, Radharaman; Ray, Prabhati


    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds represent an important group of chemical warfare nerve agents that remains a significant and constant military and civilian threat. OP compounds are considered acting primarily via cholinergic pathways by binding irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase, an important regulator of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Many studies over the past years have suggested that other mechanisms of OP toxicity exist, which need to be unraveled by a comprehensive and systematic approach such as genome-wide gene expression analysis. Here we performed a microarray study in which cultured human neural cells were exposed to 0.1 or 10 μM of VX for 1 h. Global gene expression changes were analyzed 6, 24, and 72 h post exposure. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes has revealed many genes, networks and canonical pathways that are related to nervous system development and function, or to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In particular, the neuregulin pathway impacted by VX exposure has important implications in many nervous system diseases including schizophrenia. These results provide useful information valuable in developing suitable antidotes for more effective prevention and treatment of, as well as in developing biomarkers for, VX-induced chronic neurotoxicity.

  18. Global physics: from percolation to terrorism, guerilla warfare and clandestine activities (United States)

    Galam, Serge


    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism with worldwide range of destruction. It is argued to result from the first worldwide percolation of passive supporters. They are people sympathetic to the terrorism cause but without being involved with it. They just do not oppose it in case they could. This scheme puts suppression of the percolation as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Acting on the population is shown to be useless. Instead a new strategic scheme is suggested to increase the terrorism percolation threshold and in turn suppress the percolation. The relevant associated space is identified as a multi-dimensional social space including both the ground earth surface and all various independent flags displayed by the terrorist group. Some hints are given on how to shrink the geographical spreading of terrorism threat. The model apply to a large spectrum of clandestine activities including guerilla warfare as well as tax evasion, corruption, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution and black markets.

  19. 竞技排球运动心理战理论模型的构建%Theoretical Models of Psychological Warfare Built in Competitive Volleyball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过对军事心理学中心理战思想的精心研读,结合竞技排球运动与战场心理战的共通之处,从理论建设、专业人才建设、规章制度建设、谋略创新建设以及球队心理素质建设五个方面构建了竞技排球运动心理战的理论模型。%This article through the study of thoughts of psychological warfare in military psychology carefully, combined with the commons of volleyball and psychological warfare, from five aspects that construction of theory, construction of professional, and construction of rules and regulations, construction of counsel innovation and construction of team psychological quality to construct the theoretical model of psychological warfare of volleyball.

  20. Underwater Acoustics and the U.S. Navy: A Preliminary Historical Bibliography. Volume 1. 1917-1946 (United States)


    correspondence and administrative records. 2.4. Inter-War Frxn l199-l939. a. Harold G. Bowen Papers, Manuscripts Div., LoC. b. Bureau of Ships, records of...Records of the Submarine Warfare Division, 1915-1952. 2.4. World War II Era, 1939-1945. a. Harold G. 3owen Papers, Manuscripts Div., Library of Congress. b...number and are limited to the works of Hackmann (a professional historian), Lasky "(a former Navy specialist in anti-submarine warfare policy and

  1. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang


    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  2. Research on the interaction of hydrogen-bond acidic polymer sensitive sensor materials with chemical warfare agents simulants by inverse gas chromatography. (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu


    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  3. The Effect of the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act on Surface Warfare Officer Career Paths. (United States)


    OF THE GOLDWATER-NIaIS DEARnhmr OF DESE REOFGANIZATION ACr ON SURFACE WARFARE OFFICER CAREER PATHS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Steward, Thomas F. these levels. The stocks at tour 12D increase 160o by the 5 %i year of the simulation. This is depicted graphically in Figure -4.2. The stocks of...with Datj B.,e Management ,DB.MI and graphics software to provide a powerful decisIon sUpporT " for the manpower analyst. e.r5 dt r APPENDIX A FLOW

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning. (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai


    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  7. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshiri Mohammd


    Full Text Available Abstract Organophosphorous (OP Nerve agents (NAs are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I AChE activity measurement, (II Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning.

  8. Mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in support of a chemical terrorist event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, J.R.; D' Agostino, P.A.; Chenier, C.L. [Defence R and D Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada)


    Chemical warfare (CW) agents are considered to be any chemicals which, through their chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals. In Canada, the probability of a CW terrorist attack is low despite the catastrophic consequences that would result from such an attack. The three levels of government would be responding to such an event. CW agent response training for all levels of government is offered at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Appropriate samples must be collected for analysis in a laboratory, as such an event would lead to a criminal investigation. Research into new methods for the identification of CW agents is being conducted by the analytical laboratory at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are being used extensively to separate and characterize CW agents in organic extracts. In the case of aqueous samples, another method might be more appropriate, since additional sample handling is required before GC-MS analysis can be performed. Minimal sample handling is required when using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) for direct analysis of CW agents. The authors demonstrated the use of LC-ESI-MS for analyzing CW agents and their hydrolysis products in aqueous samples. For the analysis of nerve agents and phosphonic acids in soil, comparable or superior results to organic extraction and GC-MS were obtained for aqueous extractions followed by LC-ESI-MS. The combination of GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS for the analysis of mustard related compounds in soil extracts from a former mustard storage area showed that the two methods are complementary in this situation. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills. (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter


    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Garima; Singh, Pawan K.; Boopathi, M., E-mail:; Kamboj, D.V.; Singh, Beer; Vijayaraghavan, R.


    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 {mu}g/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, K{sub D} (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  11. Determination of contamination of a chemical warfare-proof operating theatre with volatile anaesthetic agents and assessment of anaesthetic gas scavenging systems. (United States)

    Yoganathan, S; Johnston, I G; Parnell, C J; Houghton, I T; Restall, J


    Three types of anaesthetic waste scavenging systems (active antipollution system, Papworth Block passive system and activated charcoal absorber system) were compared with a non-scavenging control to assess their effectiveness in reducing waste halothane concentrations in a chemical warfare-proof operating theatre. All three systems were found to reduce the level of pollution significantly.

  12. Mechanism of injury and microbiological flora of the geographical location are essential for the prognosis in soldiers with serious warfare injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Mik; Rose-Larsen, Katrine; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob


    has been and remains a substantial part of warfare, and this review has showed us that the knowledge of the mechanism of injury is indeed essential, and that intelligence on the microbiological flora of the geographical location of the conflict is essential. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  13. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran


    disease, interleukin-6, inflammation, chemical warfare

  14. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science. (United States)

    Bud, Robert


    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  15. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.


    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  16. Dual-Function Metal-Organic Framework as a Versatile Catalyst for Detoxifying Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants. (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Moon, Su-Young; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    The nanocrystals of a porphyrin-based zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) are used as a dual-function catalyst for the simultaneous detoxification of two chemical warfare agent simulants at room temperature. Simulants of nerve agent (such as GD, VX) and mustard gas, dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, have been hydrolyzed and oxidized, respectively, to nontoxic products via a pair of pathways catalyzed by the same MOF. Phosphotriesterase-like activity of the Zr6-containing node combined with photoactivity of the porphyrin linker gives rise to a versatile MOF catalyst. In addition, bringing the MOF crystals down to the nanoregime leads to acceleration of the catalysis.

  17. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)

    Jung, Heesoo; Seo, Jin Ah; Choi, Seungki


    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design—wearable APP (WAPP)—that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode. The plasma fabric is flexible and lightweight, and it can be scaled up for larger areas, making it attractive for wearable APP applications. Here, we report the various plasma properties of the WAPP device and successful test results showing the decontamination of toxic chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard (HD), soman (GD), and nerve (VX) agents.

  18. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products (United States)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon


    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 μg/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 μg/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  19. 网络电磁空间作战威胁分析%Analysis of Cyber Electromagnetic Space Warfare Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    提出了网电空间作战几个需要关注的问题以及解决方案,使得部队可以根据战场具体环境,进行适应性的应用。首先陈述了网电空间作战的特点,接着阐述了在网电空间中军队所要面临、应对的现实威胁。然后针对这些威胁进行了进一步分析,并且确定了战场环境下所需要的基础安全条件。最后从四个层面阐述了网电空间的脆弱性,同时给出了防御措施。该工作可以对确立可实施的网电空间战术以及有效地组织网电空间行动形成支撑。%A cyber warfare scenario is shown ,which is applicable on the basis of modern battlefield situations .The sce-nario removes misconceptions about present cyber warfare properties and defines actual dangers that should be prepared for in the background of the cyberspace .The dangers are analyzed further and the basic security prerequisites are determined . Technologies are proposed that offer the basic necessary for achieving these prerequisites .An organization of cyberspace weaknesses and the correlative defenses in four levels is shown .Conclusions are drawn that demonstrate the manner in which cyber threats should be determined ,their likelihood assessed and averted .This knowledge leads to the determination of im-plementable cyber tactics and effective organization of cyber operations .


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO


    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  1. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1984-29 September 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.


    This report summarizes work accomplished in the second year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and performance that wil be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. Performance scores on three operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are presented and correlations between the social and performance variables are examined. The effects of atropines on several of the social and performance measures are reported as are data from plasma hormone assays for cortisol and prolactin.

  2. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.


    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  3. Toxin warfare agents:recognition molecules and drugs for control%生物毒素战剂:检测识别分子与防治药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are various types of toxins in nature. However, these toxins. which are characterized by the ready availability, easy production and high toxicity, are likely biological warfare agents. Toxin warfare agents are different from traditional bacterial and viral agents or from chemical warfare agents in that they pose a great threat because of their diverse potency and the lack of efficacious drugs. Therefore, it is quite important to develop specific. sensitive recognition molecules for detection of toxins and drugs against intoxication caused by toxin agents. This review focuses on advances in recognition molecules of toxins and some drugs used as prevention and treatment hased on the characteristics of toxin warfare agents .%自然界中存在着种类繁多的毒素物质,但最有可能用作战剂的是那些获取方便、制备容易、毒性强、施放后可致人死亡或失能的毒素.毒素战剂既不同于传统的细菌、病毒战剂,也不同于化学毒剂,其最大的威胁来自它的高毒性及缺乏有效的治疗手段.因此,发展毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物就显得尤为重要.本文讨论了生物毒素战剂相关概念、特征,重点综述了毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物研究进展.

  4. Introduction: Envisioning Future War; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 1-6. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare


    Moran, Daniel


    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.10, Special issue (October 2011), 1-6. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare Approved for public display, distribution unlimited The workshop whose proceedings are presented here was convened to provide the National Intelligence Council (NIC) with insight into the way war in the intermediate future, meaning the next twenty years or so, is viewed from the perspective of America's allies, partners, and potential adversaries. The group took ...

  5. Acoustic Warfare of Submarine and Its Development Tendency%潜艇水声对抗及其发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 单广超; 李晖


    The acoustic warfare of submarine,that can effectively improve the ability to survive in the com-bat of submarine,is the main content of submarine active defense operations.With the development of an-ti-sub equipment and technology,the acoustic countermeasure equipment will truly have the ability of un-derwater acoustic warfare.The paper analyses the type of modern acoustic warfare operation and mainly studies the type of the acoustic countermeasure equipment of operation in the future.%潜艇水声对抗是潜艇积极防御作战的主要内容,实施水声对抗能够有效提高潜艇在作战中的生存能力。根据反潜装备和技术的发展,分析了现代潜艇水声对抗作战样式,并重点对未来潜艇水声对抗装备作战样式的发展趋势进行了研究。

  6. 大数据在现代战争中的价值探析%Research on the Big Data’s Value in Modern Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Modern warfare is information-dominated. Information penetrates the all aspects of the warfare and becomes one of the key factors which influence the success of the warfare. Effective acquisition, storage, processing and distribution of military in-formation via big data technology can promote the ability of intelligence acquisition and command decision-making, handle the choke point of information flow, advance the integration of operational system, and strengthen the information security and pro-tection.%现代战争是“信息主导”的战争,信息渗透到战争的方方面面,成为影响战争胜负的重要因素之一,利用大数据技术对军事信息进行高效获取、存储、处理和分发,能够有效提升情报获取、指挥决策能力,疏通信息流瓶颈,推进作战体系融合,增强信息安全防护能力。

  7. Interpretation of a New Found Japanese Biological Warfare File%对一份新发现日本细菌战档案的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Unit 731 focused on the research of Biological Warfare theory in the plan of biological warfare , But be-cause? of lack of evidence chain , this research is relatively backward .Entry Hojo who was the core member of Unit 731 , his speech draft On Biological Warfareis the recently found materials and evidences , has great academic research value.Through the interpretation of the Biological Warfare , analyzing the biological warfare is the vital criterion to e-valuate the research level and research competence , which is also an effective supplement to the evidences for the Jap-anese biological warfare war of aggression against China .%七三一部队在细菌战谋划中注重对细菌战理论的研究,但囿于相关证据链的缺失,致使此项研究相对滞后。七三一部队核心成员北条圆了的演讲稿《关于细菌战》作为新资料、新证据,具有重大的学术研究价值,是对国内所藏相关资料的重要补充,有助于丰富学术界对于日本细菌战理论问题的认知。《关于细菌战》是北条圆了在长期实践基础上积累形成的细菌战理论,可以在一定程度上还原战时日本细菌战的研究情况。通过对北条圆了其人及《关于细菌战》的梳理和解读,进而剖析日本细菌战理论是评估二战时期日本细菌战研究水平和研究能力的重要尺度,也是对日本侵华细菌战证据链的有效补充。

  8. Warfare and Socio-political hierarchies: reflections on non-State societies of the predynastic Nile Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayubas, Augusto


    Full Text Available In a recent article, anthropologist Robert L. Carneiro reassessed his most debated hypothesis about the emergence of chiefdoms and the State as a result of environmental or social circumscription, theorized for a series of historical contexts including that of the Predynastic Nile Valley. The problem of the origin of the State is beyond our scope, but regarding the emergence of institutionalized leadership and chiefdoms in the Nile Valley, Carneiro’s ideas about warfare as a main factor in the process of social change remain interesting, even when his insistence in circumscription is still debatable. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review the available archaeological evidence of warfare among non-State societies of the Predynastic Nile Valley, and to evaluate its possible relation to the emergence of socio-political hierarchies, in turn refering to and criticizing some of Carneiro’s recent ideas about the issue.En un artículo reciente, Robert L. Carneiro presentó una reconsideración de su muy debatida hipótesis acerca de la emergencia de sociedades de jefatura y del Estado como resultado de un contexto de circunscripción ambiental, teorizada para una serie de situaciones históricas, entre ellas el valle del Nilo predinástico. El problema del origen del Estado excede las posibilidades de este trabajo, pero en lo que respecta al surgimiento de jefaturas, consideramos que las ideas de Carneiro acerca de la guerra como factor de importancia en el proceso revisten cierto interés, aun cuando su insistencia en la circunscripción continúa siendo discutible. El objetivo del presente artículo es considerar la evidencia arqueológica de guerra disponible para las sociedades no estatales del valle del Nilo predinástico y evaluar la posible relación entre dichos testimonios y la emergencia de jerarquías sociopolíticas, refiriendo y criticando algunas de las ideas recientes de Carneiro sobre el problema.

  9. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naghibi


    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  10. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.; Balboa, Alex; Troya, Diego; Guo, Weiwei; Sharp, Conor H.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Morris, John R.; Hill, Craig L.; Frenkel, Anatoly I.


    Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination of DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. These experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.

  11. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.


    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  12. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia (United States)

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.


    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  13. The application of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of high explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle (~1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  14. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal


    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Extraordinary Adaptive Plasticity of Colorado Potato Beetle: “Ten-Striped Spearman” in the Era of Biotechnological Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cingel


    Full Text Available Expanding from remote areas of Mexico to a worldwide scale, the ten-striped insect, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, has risen from being an innocuous beetle to a prominent global pest. A diverse life cycle, phenotypic plasticity, adaptation to adverse conditions, and capability to detoxify or tolerate toxins make this insect appear to be virtually “indestructible”. With increasing advances in molecular biology, tools of biotechnological warfare were deployed to combat CPB. In the last three decades, genetically modified potato has created a new challenge for the beetle. After reviewing hundreds of scientific papers dealing with CPB control, it became clear that even biotechnological means of control, if used alone, would not defeat the Colorado potato beetle. This control measure once again appears to be provoking the potato beetle to exhibit its remarkable adaptability. Nonetheless, the potential for adaptation to these techniques has increased our knowledge of this pest and thus opened possibilities for devising more sustainable CPB management programs.

  16. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti


    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  17. Express analysis of explosives, chemical warfare agents and drugs with multicapillary column gas chromatography and ion mobility increment spectrometry. (United States)

    Buryakov, Igor A


    Description of a gas chromatograph designed for express analysis of explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate), chemical warfare agents (mustard gas, lewisite, sarin) and drugs (heroin, cocaine hydrochloride, crack) is given. The devices comprises a multicapillary chromatographic column and an ion mobility increment spectrometer (MCC-IMIS). The main analytical characteristics of an IMIS (estimated detection limit (DL), linear dynamic range (LDR), speed of response) and a chromatographic column (separation power, degree of separation, a number of possible peaks at a chromatogram section, divided by analysis time) are determined. The maximum value of DL equal to 5 pg/ml was registered for cis-alpha-LW, and the lowest one of 0.001 pg/ml was for cocaine. The maximum value of LDR equal to 1000 was registered for sarin and the lowest one of 150 was for the ions of lewisite. Speed of response of one compound detection with the IMIS was 0.7 s.

  18. Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase 1. (United States)

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Biggemann, Lionel; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P


    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been described as an efficient catalytic bioscavenger due to its ability to hydrolyze organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). It is the future most promising candidate as prophylactic medical countermeasure against highly toxic OPs and CWNAs. Most of the studies conducted so far have been focused on the hydrolyzing potential of PON1 against nerve agents, sarin, soman, and VX. Here, we investigated the hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ∼25-40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80-250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ∼30-60 times and ∼200-260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure.

  19. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.


    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  20. Decomposition of 2-chloroethylethylsulfide on copper oxides to detoxify polymer-based spherical activated carbons from chemical warfare agents. (United States)

    Fichtner, S; Hofmann, J; Möller, A; Schrage, C; Giebelhausen, J M; Böhringer, B; Gläser, R


    For the decomposition of chemical warfare agents, a hybrid material concept was applied. This consists of a copper oxide-containing phase as a component with reactive functionality supported on polymer-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) as a component with adsorptive functionality. A corresponding hybrid material was prepared by impregnation of PBSAC with copper(II)nitrate and subsequent calcination at 673K. The copper phase exists predominantly as copper(I)oxide which is homogeneously distributed over the PBSAC particles. The hybrid material containing 16 wt.% copper on PBSAC is capable of self-detoxifying the mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES) at room temperature. The decomposition is related to the breakthrough behavior of the reactant CEES, which displaces the reaction product ethylvinylsulfide (EVS). This leads to a combined breakthrough of CEES and EVS. The decomposition of CEES is shown to occur catalytically over the copper-containing PBSAC material. Thus, the hybrid material can even be considered to be self-cleaning.

  1. Continuum Model for Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent from a Rubbery Polymer using the Maxwell-Stefan Formulation (United States)

    Varady, Mark; Bringuier, Stefan; Pearl, Thomas; Stevenson, Shawn; Mantooth, Brent

    Decontamination of polymers exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) often proceeds by application of a liquid solution. Absorption of some decontaminant components proceed concurrently with extraction of the CWA, resulting in multicomponent diffusion in the polymer. In this work, the Maxwell-Stefan equations were used with the Flory-Huggins model of species activity to mathematically describe the transport of two species within a polymer. This model was used to predict the extraction of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) from a silicone elastomer into both water and methanol. Comparisons with experimental results show good agreement with minimal fitting of model parameters from pure component uptake data. Reaction of the extracted VX with sodium hydroxide in the liquid-phase was also modeled and used to predict the overall rate of destruction of VX. Although the reaction proceeds more slowly in the methanol-based solution compared to the aqueous solution, the extraction rate is faster due to increasing VX mobility as methanol absorbs into the silicone, resulting in an overall faster rate of VX destruction.

  2. 反潜直升机装备技术与发展*%Equipment Technique and Development of the Anti-Submarine Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    反潜直升机技术在现代战争中发挥着越来越重要的作用。文章介绍了反潜直升机技术的发展历程以及装备的研制、改进情况,指出了在现代战争中发展反潜直升机技术的优势和重要性,重点探讨了几种反潜直升机技术的性能及其特点,最后论述了反潜直升机技术的发展动向与分析。%Anti‐submarine helicopter technique plays more and more important roles in the war today .The process of development of the anti‐submarine helicopter abroad and equipment in some countries in the world and its modification are de‐scribed .The technique performance and properties of several anti‐submarine helicopter technique seekers are analyzed ,and development trend and analysis of anti‐submarine helicopter technique are discussed .

  3. Bibliography--Unclassified Technical Reports, Special Reports, and Technical Notes: FY 1982. (United States)


    the Navy: An Evaluation. TR 82-35. February 1982. L. M. Doherty and S. F. Bacon . (AD-A 112 716) This project was conducted to evaluate the...AUTHOR INDEX Author Page Number Abrahams, N.M. 5, 7 Abrams, M. L. 16, 21 Alf, E. F. 6 Atwater, D. M. I Backman, R. 14 Bacon , S. F. 11 Baker, M.S. 15...Commanding Officer, Fleet Anti-Submarine Warfare Training Center, Pacific 55 Comndn Oficr Fle Comba Trainin Cetr Atlanti Commanding Officer, Fleet Combat

  4. Koncepcija partizanskoj vojny v Litve v 1920— 1930-e gody [The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas


    Full Text Available This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development of the guerrilla war concept in the Union periodicals. The author retraces a change in the intensity of the guerrilla warfare concept propagation amongst Lithuanian population and riflemen, in particular, through publications in the Trimitas — a periodical of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union. The author also identifies the narratives associated with the guerrilla matters employed for propaganda purposes in order to create an image of a guerrilla as a defender of the Homeland — Lithuania. Additionally, the structure and numbers of the Union are analysed through a comparison with similar organisations of the other «small nations» of the Baltic North-East. The author addresses the issue of military missions planned by the Lithuanian Army, as well as the way riflemen implemented them. Since the Union did not only offer military training, but was also engaged in the patriotic propaganda, the article focuses on the network of cultural institutions, homes of riflemen, orchestras, libraries, choirs, and athletic clubs used by the Union. The article sets out to establish whether the loss of Lithuanian sovereignty could have been possible without giving rise to a protracted guerrilla war.

  5. Formalization Modeling on VV&A Process for Warfare Simulation by UML%基于UML的作战仿真VV&A过程形式化建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐见兵; 查亚兵


    可信性是作战仿真的生命线,对作战仿真的全生命周期进行校核、验证与确认(Verification,Validation and Accreditation,VV&A)是确保其可信性的重要途径.建立合适的VV&A过程形式化模型是开展作战仿真VV&A过程研究的前提和基础.基于统一建模语言(Unified Modeling Language,UML)分别从用例、静态结构、动态行为及交互等方面对VV&A过程进行形式化建模,建立了作战仿真VV&A过程的用例、类图、活动图及顺序图模型,并给出相应的形式化定义.实践表明:作战仿真VV&A过程形式化建模可以使VV&A的描述规范化、标准化及形式化,便于不同领域人员的相互沟通与交流,以及VV&A工程化应用,促进了VV&A工作顺利开展.%The credibility is the lifeline of warfare simulation. To execute verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) is an important approach to insure the credibility of warfare simulation system through out the life circle. It is the precondition and foundation to make the right formal model of VV&A process for warfare simulation. In this paper,the formal models of VV&A process is carried out,in which the details of use case,static construction,dynamic activities and interactions are modeled based on UML, and their formalization definitions are put forward. The practice shows that the formalization modeling on VV&A process for warfare simulation by UML can make it standardization, regularization and formalization,which can help the researchers in different domains to communicate with each other. The research of VV&A can be used in engineering,which help the job of VV&A is developed expediently.

  6. More Effective Warfare: Warfare Waged Psychologically (United States)


    Brotherhood’s Hamas wing. The wave of new members resulted in a more heterogeneous and expansive constituency for Hamas, who by now had surpassed the...utilized. They often possess a large appeal to people’s sense of nationalism through the use of songs, poetry , and stories rich with vivid imagery

  7. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  8. Facile hydrolysis-based chemical destruction of the warfare agents VX, GB, and HD by alumina-supported fluoride reagents. (United States)

    Gershonov, E; Columbus, I; Zafrani, Y


    A facile solvent-free hydrolysis (chemical destruction) of the warfare agents VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GB (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate or sarin), and HD (2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide or sulfur mustard) upon reaction with various solid-supported fluoride reagents is described. These solid reagents include different alumina-based powders such as KF/Al(2)O(3), AgF/KF/Al(2)O(3), and KF/Al(2)O(3) enriched by so-called coordinatively unsaturated fluoride ions (termed by us as ECUF-KF/Al(2)O(3)). When adsorbed on these sorbents, the nerve agent VX quickly hydrolyzed (t(1/2) range between 0.1-6.3 h) to the corresponding nontoxic phosphonic acid EMPA as a major product (>90%) and to the relatively toxic desethyl-VX (<10%). The latter byproduct was further hydrolyzed to the nontoxic MPA product (t(1/2) range between 2.2-161 h). The reaction rates and the product distribution were found to be strongly dependent on the nature of the fluoride ions in the KF/Al(2)O(3) matrix and on its water content. All variations of the alumina-supported fluoride reagents studied caused an immediate hydrolysis of the highly toxic GB (t(1/2) < 10 min) to form the corresponding nontoxic phosphonic acid IMPA. A preliminary study of the detoxification of HD on these catalyst supports showed the formation of the nontoxic 1,4-thioxane as a major product together with minor amounts of TDG and vinylic compounds within a few days. The mechanisms and the efficiency of these processes were successfully studied by solid-state (31)P, (13)C, and (19)F MAS NMR.

  9. 信息化条件下计划制定与行动实施的关系%Relationship between planning and execution in information warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田仲; 李加祥


    信息化条件下的作战引发了作战指挥方式等一系列的变化,对作战计划制定与作战行动实施的关系也产生了深刻的影响.以信息化条件下“以行动为中心”的作战需求为牵引,以提升作战指挥的适应性和时效性为目的,对不同方式的计划制定与行动实施的关系进行对比分析和研究,提出了适应行动中心方式下的计划制定与行动实施关系,为深入开展信息化条件下的作战指挥研究提供了有益的参考.%Command approaches changes in information operation impact relationship between planning and execution. With the purpose to meet the demands of " operation -centric" in information warfare, and to improve the agility and timeliness for command, different approaches of planning and execution are analyzed and researched, the relationship between planning and execution suit for operation-centric approach is advanced. Therefore,it has reference value for study the command in information warfare.

  10. 中国共产党领导的抗日心理战%Anti-Japanese Psychological Warfare Led by the Chinese Communist Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the Anti-Japanese War ,the Chinese Communist Party creatively applied the ancient Chinese mili-tary’s psychological warfare and developed psychological tactics .By conducting political psychological attacking and im-plementing POW policy and other measures to constantly shake ,lax and abate enemy psychological defense ,our Party achieved remarkable success because with the development of the war ,the psychological defense of the Japanese invaders gradually collapsed ,and the Chinese people finally won the victory in the Anti-Japanese psychological warfare .%抗日战争中,我党继承和发扬了中国古代兵家的心战思想,创造性地运用和发展了心理战术,取得了举世瞩目的战果。我军民通过开展政治攻心和实施俘虏政策等措施,不断动摇、涣散、消减敌军的士气军心,使日本侵略者的军心随着战争的发展而日渐动摇和瓦解,我国人民最终赢得了抗日心理战的胜利。

  11. Isolated iliotibial band rupture after corticosteroid injection as a cause of subjective instability and knee pain in a military special warfare trainee. (United States)

    Pandit, Sandeep R; Solomon, Daniel J; Gross, Daniel J; Golijanin, Petar; Provencher, Matthew T


    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) of the knee is a common overuse injury in athletes, especially in runners. The syndrome occurs when the ITB, a lateral thickening of the fascia lata of the thigh moves repetitively over the lateral femoral condyle. A variety of nonoperative measures are used for ITBFS treatment, including stretching, core strengthening, and therapeutic injection. Isolated distal ITB rupture is a rare entity and has never yet to be reported in the orthopedic literature. We present a case of isolated ITB rupture as a cause of varus instability and knee pain in a Naval Special Warfare candidate diagnosed with ITBFS and previously treated with several local corticosteroid injections before ITB rupture. Because of continued knee pain and a sense of instability, along with an inability to return to his military special warfare duties, the ITB was surgically repaired. This case highlights the presentation and management of isolated distal ITB rupture and discusses some of the potential risk factors for rupture, including prior local corticosteroid injection.

  12. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R


    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues.

  13. Application of Antibiotic on Sea Warfare Wound in Marine Environment%抗生素在海上环境下海战伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贞良; 贺顺龙; 谢培增; 汪先兵


    Objective To study an appropriate anti-inflammation treatment strategy on sea warfare wound in ma-rine environment Methods Animal model of combined sea warfare wound in marine environment was established in 40 mongrel dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into control group and treatment group. The control group accepted rou-tine cefodizime treatment, and the treatment group accepted cefodizime plus levofloxacin treatment The treatment on sea warfare wound was the same in both groups. The gross condition was observed and bacteriological strains in the wound were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity was tested at 2 and 4 days after the wound. Wound infection rate and mortality were observed at the sixth day. Results The infection rate within six days was 50% in the control group, and 10% in treatment group, and the mortality was 60% and 20% respectively. These rates were significantly lower in the treatment group than those in the control group (P<0. 01). The constituent ratio of vibrion in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion There are many species of bacteria with wide distribution in South China Sea which mainly includes vibrionaceaes, staphylococcus and escherichia. These bacteria are the main causes leading to sea warfare wound infection. To deal with the sea warfare wound in marine environment, the early and complete debride-ment, and the early application of broadspectrum and anti-vibrion antibiotics should be emphasized.%目的 探讨抗生素在海上环境下海战伤中的有效应用.方法 选取40只成年杂种犬,制作海上环境下海水浸泡复合火器伤动物模型.随机将动物分成对照组和治疗组,每组20只犬.对照组采用头孢地嗪治疗,治疗组头孢地嗪加左氧氟沙星治疗.海战伤的其他处理方法相同.在伤后第2和第4天进行细菌培养与药敏试验,观察6天伤口感染率、死亡率.结果 伤后6天,对照组的伤口感染率为500,治疗组为10

  14. 基于组件技术的分布式潜艇作战仿真系统%Research of Distributed Submarine Warfare Simulation System Based on Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永洁; 陆铭华; 史扬


    提出采用JavaEE/EJB组件技术开发分布式潜艇作战仿真系统,根据潜艇作战机理,建立了分布式潜艇作战仿真模型体系结构,设计了分布式潜艇作战仿真系统的软件架构,分析了系统开发过程中采用的技术协议,并研究了基于组件技术的分布式潜艇作战仿真系统实现方法。%This paper puts forward to develop distributed submarine warfare simulation system with Java EE/EJB component technology. Model component architecture is compartmentalized according to submarine warfare logic. The paper designs software structure of distributed submarine warfare simulation system,analyzes technology protocol of the system, and researches realization way of distributed submarine warfare simulation system.

  15. Geopolitical Trends and Security Challenges across the Indian Ocean and Asia-Pacific Regions; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 28-35. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part I: Alternative Perspectives: Traditional Powers, Rising Powers, and the Developing World


    Parthasarathy, G.


    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.10, Special issue (October 2011), 28-35. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part I: Alternative Perspectives: Traditional Powers, Rising Powers, and the Developing World Approved for public display, distribution unlimited

  16. Distribution-mode Logistical Support in Modern Warfare%现代战争条件下的配送式后勤保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆东; 朱江浩


    The distribution-mode logistical support is the product of the warfare in the information era and has become a basic form of the modern logistical practices. In this paper, in connection with the characteristics of military distribution and transportation, we analyzed the logistical support mode of the U.S. army in the war in Iraq and then proposed some thoughts on building the distribution-mode logistical support system by the Chinese army.%配送式后勤保障是信息化条件下的战争产物,已成为现代后勤保障的基本形式.结合军事物流配送的特点,分析了伊拉克战争中美军这种后勤保障模式的特点,提出关于我军配送式后勤保障建设的思考.

  17. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants. (United States)

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar


    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO.

  18. Çanakkale Savaşlarına Sualtından Bir Bakış A Look From Underwater to The Çanakkale Warfares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Barış ÖZALP


    Full Text Available Çanakkale Naval Warfares can basically be defined as a historic moment that tells of the campaign for liberation of its country and the state of defence of a nation’s capital. The importance of all battles taken place in Çanakkale surely are not ignored in winning the war, but the attacks occured around the coastal waters of Çanakkale Strait and Gallipoli Peninsula and sinking of the opposer’s ships and submarines can be evaluated as a significant information which is a proof that the strait can not be surpassed. If the enemy naval forces could not kept down and as a result of this, their willing to arrive at østanbul had come true, the success in Gallipoli campaign was not able to obtain. That can be stated that all arrangements planned by the Entente Powers on succeeding in war are primarily about the passing the Çanakkale Strait. Since the enemy forces and submarines have been stopped with severe damage or sunk, there have achieved success in naval battles and it was accepted by all the enemy forces that the strait was impassable. In this success, the powerfull emplacements deployed on both sides of the strait and our submarines and besides the mines laid by the Minelayer Nusret had a great effect. In Naval Warfares, many battleships and submarines owned by Entente Powers were sunk in the Çanakkale Strait and not allowed to drive into the sea of Marmara. Thus, all the plans of Entente Powers aim for conquering østanbul were interrupted and their will on winning in naval battle has been obstructed.

  19. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo


    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  20. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?]. (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto


    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  1. Counterworking to UAN in Underwater Acoustic Warfare%水声对抗中的水声网络及其对抗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董阳泽; 许肖梅; 刘平香


    水声对抗系统和技术的不断发展是和相关技术的发展分不开的.一方面,传统威胁目标的智能化程度的提高,使得水声对抗技术必须在纵深方向做出应对;另一方面,威胁目标种类的扩展,使得水声对抗技术必须面临新的挑战,开阔思路,寻求应对方法.其中,水声网络的出现对于水声对抗的影响将是革命性的.分析了网络化条件下水声对抗技术发展的思路,特别是针对水声网络的对抗进行了分析和思考.%Development of Underwater Acoustic Warfare (UAW) system and technologies is tightly associated with relevant progresses. On one hand, traditional threats such as torpedoes have greatly improved their intelligence, which makes countermeasures must be deeply studied. On the other hand, types of threats have been extended largely, so new measures must be taken to confront such threats. Thereinto, Underwater Acoustic Networks (UAN) is a completely new concept in UAW, which is introduced under the background of Network-Centric Warfare (NCW). As to the recent cognition, the influence of UAN to UAW is revolutionary. This report analyzes the development considerations of UAW under conditions of NCW, and special thoughts are focused on the countermeasures to UAN.

  2. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation. (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo


    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  3. Truth about the Consequence of Bacteriological Warfare of Disseminating Plague Bacteria%散布鼠疫菌(PX)细菌战“战果”之真相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莇昭三[日](著); 韩慧光(译)


    日本军在中国实施细菌战的事实,随着中日学者的研究逐渐被揭示,在研究中所用材料大部分都是加害者(当事人)和受害者的口述史,缺乏日本军当时实施细菌战后对被害地的全面详细的疫学调查。731部队细菌战研究人员金子顺一论文《鼠疫效果略算法》,揭示了1940年农安、新京鼠疫流行事件是731部队实施的细菌战的事实。《陆军军医学校防疫研究报告第2部》中的高桥正彦论文中关于农安、新京鼠疫流行事件的论文,是731部队细菌战后对被害地进行的疫学调查。达格威文件Q报告中的部分数据来自“农安细菌战”受害者的病理解剖,其中不仅有中国人,也有日本人。%Facts about bacteriological warfare conducted by Japanese Army in China have been gradually re-vealed by related Chinese and Japanese researchers. However, the majority of materials used in the research are oral history orally accounted by offenders and victims, hence the lack of epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare by Japanese army. The thesis paper by Jun-Ichi Kaneko (bacterial warfare researcher of U-nit 731) namedBubonicPlagueAlgorithmunveiled the fact that plague epidemics which struck Nong’an and Changchun were caused by the Unit 731’s bacteriological warfare. Takahashi’s thesis paper inArmyMedicalCol-legeEpidemicPreventionResearchReport(VolumeⅡ)on plague epidemics that hit Nong’an and Changchun is in connection with the epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare carried out by the U-nit 731. Some data of the Report of“Q”from Dugway Proving Ground Documents came from pathological anatomy of victims of Nong’an bacteriological warfare, some of whom were Chinese and Japanese.

  4. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2011 (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.; Frans, L.M.


    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with ongoing natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the U.S. Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 20-22, 2011, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. In 2011, groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for redox sensitive constituents and dissolved gases, and samples from 5 of 13 wells and all piezometers also were analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of redox sensitive constituents measured in 2011 were consistent with previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.4 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. The reductive declorination byproducts - methane, ethane, and ethene - were either not detected in samples collected from the upgradient wells in the landfill and the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation or were detected at concentrations less than those measured in 2010. Chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations in 2011 at most piezometers

  5. Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.


    "Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which

  6. Changing Face of Warfare (United States)


    work, Operations of War, stressed the importance of the offensive to the " suicidal in the defender.Ŝ Hamley’s work became a text at West Point in...Sanders attended the University of Georgia during the academic year of 1857·1858. He applied for, passed the required entrance exam and was...however, the acceptance of the offensive was stressed . 5 Perry D. Jamieson, Crossing the Deadly Ground: United States Army Tactics, 1865-1899

  7. Sustaining Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    establishment of a similar organization, the Special Project Operations Center ( SPOC ). SPOC adopted SOE’s practice of consolidating requirements and...That success depended largely on coordination between SFHQ personnel and a multitude of conventional force units. SPOC provided a unique capability

  8. Cyber warfare: critical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.; Osinga, F.; Soeters, J.


    Next to sea, land, air and space, ‘cyber space’ appears to be the fifth operational domain for the military. This manmade and virtual sphere brings along opportunities and threats. In this book, academics of the Netherlands Defence Academy as well as specialists and military professionals from other

  9. Unconventional Warfare in Cyberspace (United States)


    and social networking sites , including Facebook, he reached thousands.31 Al Qaeda’s 15 contact with possible recruits was done personally in three years. DARPA noted that operations are rapidly changing with the spread of blogs, social networking sites , and media-sharing technology

  10. Dehumanization and Irregular Warfare (United States)


    severe distrust between the locals and U.S. troops in the area. To rebuild trust, Bell promulgated a new policy for his officers that opposed carte ...and resulted in the assassination of the Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi , in retaliation for Operation Blue Star. The shift in tactics

  11. Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems (United States)


    Barracuda ) Lightweight Torpedo." 6 May 2010. 1 May 2011 < 50 ( Barracuda ) Lightweight Torpedo." 6 May 2010. 1 May 2011 < docId

  12. Preventing Space Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The international community should join forces to avoid possible conflicts in space Military competition and conflict in outer space can be divided into three stages:militarization,wea- ponization and the space battle- field. Space militarization has become a thing of the past.Now,many countries are re- searching more advanced space weaponry technology,which means space weapon- ization is becoming a growing reality.The process of space competition is astonishingly

  13. Air Power and Warfare (United States)


    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  14. Countermobilization: Unconventional Social Warfare (United States)


    and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites, opponents and authorities.” 2 Social movements can encompass broad objectives such as...instructed to locally screen all personnel associated with SOI. Additionally, SOI personnel took oaths and were recorded into biometric databases

  15. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  16. On Winter Warfare (United States)


    in Latin (Puffendorf zen water bodies had been recognized long before Charles. 1685: Historia Germanico-Sveviae), are authoritative and The Mongols...declaration of war and crossing of the Roma - in the theater of operations, the armies on both sides suf- nian border on 24 April 1877. The war was

  17. Warfare and Social Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo


    -related symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies were carried out in 1994, 2000 and 2005. The study population included men and women from ages 25 to 44 years (n (1994) = 1,781, n (2000) = 5,819, n (2005) = 4,831). The surveys were conducted by face-to-face interviews and the outcome measure was OTCA use...

  18. Intelligent Evaluation for Aerial Warfare Efficiency of Fighter-plane Based on Rough Set and Support Vector Machine%粗集支持向量机的战斗机空战效能智能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚胜科; 徐浩军; 林敏


    根据现代空战特点,选取了战斗机的空战效能评估指标集,并采用粗糙集理论对指标体系进行约简,提取对空战效能影响起关键作用的特征参数,消除冗余信息,减少了支持向量的维效.支持向量机( SVM)具有结构简单、全局最优、泛化能力强的优点.根据所提取的特征参数,文中提出采用回归型支持向量机(SVR)建立空战效能智能评估模型,并通过实例与指数法和BP神经网络法计算结果进行了比较,验证了该模型的可行性和有效性.%According to the characteristic of modern aerial warfare. the index set of aerial warfare efficiency evaluation is selected in this paper. Reduction is performed on index systems based on rough set theory to extract characteristic parameters which affect aerial warfare efficiency crucially, which is to remove redundant information and reduce the dimension of support vector. Support vector machine (SVM) has the advantages of simple structure, global optimum and high generalization ability. With the characteristic parameters, intelligent evaluation model for aerial warfare efficiency of fighter-plane is establish by using Support Vector Regression (SVR), and we compare the SVR with index method and BP network method by a case study, which verified the feasibility and validity of the model.

  19. Analysis on Joint Operational Capability in the Condition of Information and Psychological Warfares%信息心理对抗条件下联合作战能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫家传; 秦伟; 陈璐; 张仁友


    In the information age, operational capabilities of troops include firepower, defense power, maintainance power, information power and many other factors, and the warfares between the opponents represent force confrontation, psychological confrontation, information warfares and many other complex forms. Based on the quantity analysis of joint operational capability, mutual functional mechanism of information, psychology and combat power is analyzed, and three feedback loops of operational confrontation, information warfares and psychological warfares are educed, and then system dynamical models are established, and effects on joint operational capability by information, psychology and other factors are deduced in the prospect of quantity.%信息化条件下作战,部队的作战能力表现为包括火力、防护力、保障力、信息力等多种因素的联合作战能力,作战双方的对抗表现为兵力对抗,心理对抗,信息对抗等多种复杂的形式.在联合作战能力量化分析基础上,分析了信息、心理和战斗力相互作用机制,得出了战斗对抗、信息对抗、心理对抗3个反馈回路环,并据此建立了系统动力学模型,从定量的角度分析了信息、心理等因素对联合作战能力的影响.

  20. Framework of Shipboard UAV Coordinated Surface to Sea Attack Based on Target-Centric Warfare Theory%基于目标中心战的舰载UAV协同对海突击作战构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉龙; 严建钢; 陈榕


    Aiming at the characteristics of shipboard UAV formationcoordinated surface to sea attack,absorbing target-centric warfare theory,a framework of shipboard UAV formationcoordinated surface to sea attack is put forward and the application feasibility of the theory is demonstrated. Then the conception and characteristics of shipboard UAV formationcoordinated surface to sea attack based on target-centric warfare theory are advanced. Moreover,this paper reconstructs the’Reconnaissance-Regulation-Attack-Evaluation’operation flow of target-centric warfare theory and establishes five steps for shipboard UAV coordinated surface to sea attack based on target-centric warfare theory, including situation evaluation, target selection and allocation, path planning and effectiveness evaluation.%针对舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战的特点,在充分吸收目标中心战理论的基础上,提出了基于目标中心战的舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战构想,论证了目标中心战应用于舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战的可行性,并对其概念和特征进行了界定和分析,着重对目标中心战理论中的“侦-控-打-评”作战过程进行适应性改造,提出了基于目标中心战的舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战的主要环节,包括态势评估,目标选择与分配,航路规划,协同打击和效能评估等。

  1. Influence of Psychological Warfare Information on College Students and Educational Countermeasures%心理战信息对大学生的影响及其教育对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the psychological warfare of information under the background of the Internet, television, language, religious, and academic and cultural exchanges, visits and other activities for the psychological warfare of information carrier of long term effect on the students, had different effect on the students' ideological consciousness, emotion attitude, values education, the national consciousness, cultural identity education, national education measures in a timely manner, improve the ability of college students' psychological warfare defense.%在信息心理战的背景下,以互联网、语言、影视、宗教,以及学术文化交流、参观访问等活动为载体的心理战信息长期作用于大学生,对大学生的思想意识、情感态度产生了不同程度的影响,应及时通过价值观教育、国家意识教育、文化认同教育、国情国力教育等教育对策,提高大学生的心理战防御能力。

  2. The Challenges of Cyber Warfare to International Law:From Perspective of The Tallinn Manual on The International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare%从《塔林手册》看网络战争对国际法的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Tallinn Manual on The International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare results from an expert -driven process designed to produce a non -binding document applying existing law to cyber warfare .It encompasses both jus ad bellum and jus in bello , as well as related bodies of general international law , such as the law of State re-sponsibility etc .It is believed that how the Manual elaborates on current international law applicable to cyber war -fare reflects the current development of international law about cyber warfare .However , it is also arguable about the methodology used to ascertain rules and the composition of the International Group of Experts .Additionally , the Manual contains several flaws in the formulation of the rules and the relevant comments .Given to all these reasons , how much the Manual could affect states and international law still remains uncertain and need to be proven in the future.%《适用于网络战争的国际法塔林手册》(以下简称“《塔林手册》”)分别讨论了一般国际法和国际人道法如何适用于网络空间和网络战争中的重要问题。《塔林手册》对适用于网络战争的国际法进行的系统归纳和总结,将会影响国际社会对网络战争的认识。但是《塔林手册》在编纂方式和国际专家组的人员构成方面存在先天不足,而且其中的若干具体规则也与现今国际法有些许出入。《塔林手册》究竟能在什么程度上影响国家实践和国际法的发展,还有待检验。

  3. Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods. (United States)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K; Du, Gaixin; Satinsky, Victoria A; Swarts, Steven G; Williams, Benjamin B; Demidenko, Eugene; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M


    The aim of this paper is to delineate characteristics of biodosimetry most suitable for assessing individuals who have potentially been exposed to significant radiation from a nuclear device explosion when the primary population targeted by the explosion and needing rapid assessment for triage is civilians vs. deployed military personnel. The authors first carry out a systematic analysis of the requirements for biodosimetry to meet the military's needs to assess deployed troops in a warfare situation, which include accomplishing the military mission. Then the military's special capabilities to respond and carry out biodosimetry for deployed troops in warfare are compared and contrasted systematically, in contrast to those available to respond and conduct biodosimetry for civilians who have been targeted by terrorists, for example. Then the effectiveness of different biodosimetry methods to address military vs. civilian needs and capabilities in these scenarios was compared and, using five representative types of biodosimetry with sufficient published data to be useful for the simulations, the number of individuals are estimated who could be assessed by military vs. civilian responders within the timeframe needed for triage decisions. Analyses based on these scenarios indicate that, in comparison to responses for a civilian population, a wartime military response for deployed troops has both more complex requirements for and greater capabilities to use different types of biodosimetry to evaluate radiation exposure in a very short timeframe after the exposure occurs. Greater complexity for the deployed military is based on factors such as a greater likelihood of partial or whole body exposure, conditions that include exposure to neutrons, and a greater likelihood of combined injury. These simulations showed, for both the military and civilian response, that a very fast rate of initiating the processing (24,000 d) is needed to have at least some methods capable of

  4. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples. (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek


    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment.

  5. Identification of water-bearing fractures by the use of geophysical logs, May to July 1998, former Naval Air Warfare Center, Bucks County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.


    Between May and July 1998, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground water in shallow and intermediate water-bearing fractures. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources. Three boreholes were drilled on the property at 960 Jacksonville Road, at the northwestern side of NAWC, along strike from Area A; seven boreholes were drilled in Area B in the southeastern corner of NAWC. Depths range from 40.5 to 150 feet below land surface. Borehole geophysical logging and video surveys were used to identify water-bearing fractures so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Video surveys were obtained at three monitor wells in the southeastern corner of the NAWC property. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures. Inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing fractures in each monitor well.

  6. Research on Command Information System Invulnerability in Network-Centric Warfare%网络中心战指挥信息系统抗毁性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 姚佩阳; 周翔翔; 张杰勇; 万路军


    An evaluation method of command information system invulnerability based on service capability in Network-Centric Warfare(NCW)is proposed. The service mechanism of command information system in NCW is analyzed, and the concept of service functional chain is given for system service capability evaluation. The evaluations of system invulnerability and node significance are derived from thc influences of both network topology and service relations between nodes. An instance is designed, and the method's feasibility is verified by the simulation results.%分析网络中心战下指挥信息系统为作战服务的机理,给出服务功能链的概念,用服务能力作为衡量系统服务能力的基准.兼顾网络拓扑结构和节点服务关系两方面因素对系统抗毁性的影响,设计基于服务能力的网络中心战指挥信息系统抗毁性评价方法,并给出节点重要度的综合计算方法.以指挥信息系统网络为实例进行仿真,结果表明该方法的可行性.

  7. Strategic Political Work and Strategic Psychological Warfare%战时政治工作与战略心理作战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Wartime political work refers to the ideological and organizational work undertaken by the armed forces while performing combat tasks. Strategic psychological warfare means the strategic confrontational activities in which psychological offensives are launched according to the principles of psychology in order to undermine the morale of both the enemy troops and its civilians or to eliminate the consequences of the enemy's deceptive propaganda, and it is a component part of wartime political work. Conducting thoroughgoing wartime political work is a unique political advantage of the PLA and an important guarantee for preserving the true political qualities of the people's army, arousing the fighting will, increasing the cohesion of our soldiers' morale, keeping internal unity against the enemy,and winning the war.%战时政治工作是军队履行作战任务期间进行的思想工作和组织工作,是发挥我军独特的政治优势的重要途径.战略心理作战是运用心理学原理,开展心理攻势,从精神上瓦解敌方军民斗志或消除敌欺骗宣传后果而进行的战略对抗活动,在战时它是战时政治工作的组成部分.

  8. Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants in Gamble’s Fluid: Is the Fluid Toxic? Can It Be Made Safer by Inclusion of Solid Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Karote


    Full Text Available The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP, in fluids have been investigated. Data analyses confirm the major degradation pathway to be hydrolysis of 2-CEES to 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, along with minor self-condensation products. Among the three fluids examined, 2-CEES degradation was the fastest in Gamble’s fluid during a 96 h period. Upon addition of Exceptional Hazard Attenuation Materials (EHAMs to 2-CEES containing Gamble’s fluid, degradation was generally improved during the first 24 h period. The 96 h outcome was similar for fluid samples with or without EHAM 2 and EHAM 4. EHAM 1-added fluid contained only one degradation product, 2-nitroethyl ethyl sulfide. DFP degradation was the slowest in Gamble’s fluid, but was enhanced by the addition of EHAMs. FTIR and solid state 31P NMR confirm the destructive adsorption of 2-CEES and DFP by the EHAMs. The results collectively demonstrate that 2-CEES and DFP decompose to various extents in Gamble’s fluid over a 96 h period but the fluid still contains a considerable amount of intact simulant. EHAM 1 appears to be promising for 2-CEES and DFP mitigation while EHAM 2 and EHAM 4 work well for early on concentration reduction of 2-CEES and DFP.

  9. Casual Tracing Analysis of the Warfare Simulation Based on Elements of Discrete Events Simulation%基于离散事件仿真要素的军事仿真因果追溯方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Warfare simulation system based on discrete events modeling plays a very important role in the military planning stage. The traceability and analysis of causality is a significant strategy in warfare simulation, which could explore the devel⁃opment of the battle and the causality of it, in order to reveal the sequential relationship from large volumes of data and com⁃plex interaction relationships and then help the researchers to identify certain key objects and events. This paper would first introduce the causal analysis in the field of warfare simulation, and then propose a particular kind of causal analysis, based on the simulation elements of discrete events. This method, known for its universality and practicability, could analyze the causal relationships in warfare simulation.%基于离散事件系统建模与仿真的军事仿真系统在军事筹划阶段扮演着至关重要的作用。因果追溯与分析是军事仿真中重要的技术,它可以在大量的数据与复杂的交互关系中找出时序上的关联关系,帮助研究人员确定作战行动中的一些关键实体或事件,用于探究战争的发展脉络与蕴含其中的因果关系。首先对作战仿真领域的因果追溯分析做了简要介绍,然后提出了一种基于离散事件仿真要素的因果追溯分析方法,这种方法可以分析军事仿真中的因果关系,并且有很高的通用性和良好的实用性。

  10. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DNA damage in rats. (United States)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki


    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies.

  11. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail:


    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

  12. Sensitive monitoring of volatile chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counter-flow introduction. (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Tsuge, Koichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Iura, Kazumitsu; Itoi, Teruo; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Koji; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Nagano, Hisashi; Waki, Izumi; Ezawa, Naoya; Tanimoto, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Shigeru; Fukano, Masumi; Okada, Hidehiro


    A new method for sensitively and selectively detecting chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in air was developed using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Four volatile and highly toxic CWAs were examined, including the nerve gases sarin and tabun, and the blister agents mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1). Soft ionization was performed using corona discharge to form reactant ions, and the ions were sent in the direction opposite to the airflow by an electric field to eliminate the interfering neutral molecules such as ozone and nitrogen oxide. This resulted in efficient ionization of the target CWAs, especially in the negative ionization mode. Quadrupole MS (QMS) and ion trap tandem MS (ITMS) instruments were developed and investigated, which were movable on the building floor. For sarin, tabun, and HD, the protonated molecular ions and their fragment ions were observed in the positive ion mode. For L1, the chloride adduct ions of L1 hydrolysis products were observed in negative ion mode. The limit of detection (LOD) values in real-time or for a 1 s measurement monitoring the characteristic ions were between 1 and 8 μg/m(3) in QMS instrument. Collision-induced fragmentation patterns for the CWAs were observed in an ITMS instrument, and optimized combinations of the parent and daughter ion pairs were selected to achieve real-time detection with LOD values of around 1 μg/m(3). This is a first demonstration of sensitive and specific real-time detection of both positively and negatively ionizable CWAs by MS instruments used for field monitoring.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since the Eurozone’s Effilochement has become a fact and European integration theories, as defined in existing theories, falls short of offering a hope for the salvation of EU’s monetary integrity, the logic of geo-economy is prevailing among the European states. In particular, it means that the Eurozone has introduced currency warfare against the currencies of EU states that do not use the euro. The argument is that a paradigm shift away from solidarity towards quite narrow-minded policy has occurred; different from what has been understood by European integration thus far. This paper outlines a two - level geo-economic approach to analyse how and why the current Eurozone’s Effilochement - structural and political - are solved by means of currency wars. On a theoretical level, the paper argues that such behaviour systematically undermines the status of the euro as a currency of public trust and reframes the economic benefits and international importance of the EU. The empirical tier of the work shows that the euro is perceived as a differentiation tool to impede the tempo of the real enlargement process of the EU that began in 2004. The Eurozone’s efforts to adopt its exclusive institutional and governance structure despite the potential risks involved, provide all the elements of this demonstration. The conclusion leads to the thesis that we need to be think more about geo-economics, this specific example being currency wars, to discern whether this paradigm of IPE became either a hindrance or a vehicle of the European integration ‘game’.

  14. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Willison, Stuart A


    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  15. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces. (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D


    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%.

  16. Design and simulation of ex-range gliding wing of high altitude air-launched autonomous underwater vehicles based on SIMULINK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Changjun; Guo Yingqing


    High altitude air-launched autonomous underwater vehicle (AL-AUV) is a new anti-submarine field,which is designed on the Lockheed Martin's high altitude anti-submarine warfare weapons concept (HAAWC) and conducts the basic aerodynamic feasibility in a series of wind tunnel trials.The AL-AUV is composed of a traditional torpedo-like AUV,an additional ex-range gliding wings unit and a descending parachute unit.In order to accurately and conveniently investigate the dynamic and static characteristic of high altitude AL-AUV,a simulation platform is established based on MATLAB/SIMULINK and an AUV 6DOF (Degree of Freedom) dynamic model.Executing the simulation platform for different wing's parameters and initial fixing angle,a set of AUV gliding data is generated.Analyzing the recorded simulation result,the velocity and pitch characteristics of AL-AUV deployed at varying wing areas and initial setting angle,the optimal wing area is selected for specific AUV model.Then the comparative simulations of AL-AUV with the selected wings are completed,which simulate the AUV gliding through idealized windless air environment and gliding with Dryden wind influence.The result indicates that the method of wing design and simulation with the simulation platform based on SIMULINK is accurately effective and suitable to be widely employed.

  17. Analysis of Professional Warfare in Medical Field Depicted in the Rappaccini' s Daughter%霍桑短篇小说《拉帕西尼之女》中的医学流派之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Taking into account of medical and historical contexts in Rappaccini' s Daughter, this essay contends that by depic-ting the professional warfare between different Homeopathy and Allopathy represented by Rappaccini and Baglioni respectively, Hawthorne wants to present an accurate portrayal of disputes which divided the medical profession in the first part of 19th century in Massachusetts and to indicate how this competition endangered public and individual's health and to voice writer's conservative at-titude and concern about such warfare.%《拉帕西尼之女》通过两个医生拉帕西尼和巴格奥尼分别代表的新兴顺势疗法与正统对抗疗法之间的冲突描写,体现出19世纪上半叶医学改革和流派之争给普通人带来的危害及霍桑对此的担忧和保守态度.

  18. “海上狼群”分布式电子战系统构想%Design of "Wolf Group at Sea" Distributed Electronic Warfare System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀锦; 王强; 杨帆


    In modern war,the sense and detection to the electromagnetic situation of enemy attack battle group at sea is the important precondition to obtain the initiative of war.As the important complementarity of ground-based early warning radar and air-based early warning aircraft,"wolf group at sea" distributed electronic warfare system can play an important role in electromagnetic environment reconnaissance and electronic attack domain,according to which,this paper expatiates the basic component and operation principle of "wolf group at sea" distributed electronic warfare system in detail.%现代战争中,对敌方海上攻击战斗群的电磁态势感知探测是获取战争主动权的重要前提条件。作为岸基警戒雷达和空中预警机的重要补充,"海上狼群"分布式电子战系统可以在电磁环境侦察和电子进攻领域中发挥重要的作用。据此详细阐述了"海上狼群"分布式电子战系统的基本组成和工作原理。

  19. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination. (United States)

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R


    procedures and analytical methods suitable for investigating accelerant and decontaminant-soaked soil samples are presented. VX and its degradation products and/or impurities were detected under all the conditions studied, demonstrating that accelerant-based fire and liquid-based decontamination and then fire are unlikely to prevent the retrieval of evidence of chemical warfare agent (CWA) testing. This is the first published study of the effects of an accelerant-based fire on a CWA in environmental samples. The results will inform defence and security-based organisations worldwide and support the verification activities of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), winner of the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons.

  20. Development of a gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system for on-site detection of chemical warfare agents. (United States)

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kakegawa, Ken; Aida, Mari; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Seto, Yasuo; Okino, Akitoshi


    A gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system was developed to realize a mobile on-site analytical device for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this system, the plasma source was directly connected to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The plasma can be generated with ambient air, which is drawn into the discharge region by negative pressure in the mass spectrometer. High-power density pulsed plasma of 100 kW could be generated by using a microhollow cathode and a laboratory-built high-intensity pulsed power supply (pulse width: 10-20 μs; repetition frequency: 50 Hz). CWAs were desorbed and protonated in the enclosed space adjacent to the plasma source. Protonated sample molecules were introduced to the mass spectrometer by airflow through the discharge region. To evaluate the analytical performance of this device, helium and air plasma were directly irradiated to CWAs in the gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system and the protonated molecules were analyzed by using an ion-trap mass spectrometer. A blister agent (nitrogen mustard 3) and nerve gases [cyclohexylsarin (GF), tabun (GA), and O-ethyl S-2-N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)] in solution in n-hexane were applied to the Teflon rod and used as test samples, after solvent evaporation. As a result, protonated molecules of CWAs were successfully observed as the characteristic ion peaks at m/z 204, 181, 163, and 268, respectively. In air plasma, the limits of detection were estimated to be 22, 20, 4.8, and 1.0 pmol, respectively, which were lower than those obtained with helium plasma. To achieve quantitative analysis, calibration curves were made by using CWA stimulant dipinacolyl methylphosphonate as an internal standard; straight correlation lines (R(2) = 0.9998) of the peak intensity ratios (target per internal standard) were obtained. Remarkably, GA and GF gave protonated dimer ions, and the ratios of the protonated dimer ions to the protonated

  1. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention. (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar


    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  2. Effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents mediated by trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Leif, Roald N; Alcaraz, Armando


    The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1)). Due to its insolubility in methylene chloride, TMO·BF4 conveniently settles to the bottom during the reaction and does not produce additional interfering by-products that may further complicate the GC-MS analysis. The method was demonstrated to successfully methylate a variety of Schedule 2 phosphonic acids, including their half esters, resulting in derivatives that were readily detected and identified using the instrument's spectral library. Most importantly, the method was shown to simultaneously methylate a mixture of the organophosphorus-based nerve agent hydrolysis products: pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA), cyclohexyl methylphosphonate (CyMPA) and ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA) (at a 10 μg mL(-1) concentration each) in a fatty acid ester-rich organic matrix (OPCW-PT-O3) featured in the 38th Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test. In addition, the protocol was found to effectively methylate N,N-diethylamino ethanesulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropylamino ethanesulfonic acid that are products arising from the oxidative degradation of the V-series agents VR and VX respectively. The

  3. Study on Optimal Attack Position of Anti-Submarine Helicopter in Flight Pickle%反潜直升机飞行投雷最佳阵位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏飞; 王光源; 赵轩坤


    为了获得反潜直升机飞行投雷最佳阵位,在分析直升机飞行投雷攻击过程的基础上,建立了投放参数解算模型和鱼雷捕获潜艇概率模型,利用蒙特卡罗法仿真分析了目标舷角和初始距离对鱼雷捕获概率的影响。仿真结果给出了直升机飞行投雷的最佳阵位,对直升机飞行投雷攻潜具有参考意义。%To obtain the optimal attack position of anti-helicopter in flight pickle,the attacking course of flight pickle is analysed in this paper,and a model to calculate airdrop parameters of flight pickle is built,following the model to calculate the capture probability of aerial torpedo. Then it simulated the effect of hull angle and initial distance on the capture probability of aerial torpedo. The results determine the optimal attack position,which has reference significance for flight pickle.

  4. Fleet research the power of the media in the information warfare and the relative counter-measures%浅论媒体力量在信息战争中的作用及防范措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article describes the change of the modern media.By analyzing the power and the method of the modern media,the article found that the modern media is widely used by information warfare.Besides of it,the modern media produced amazing results in past sorts of military conflicts and political conflicts.In the end,the article sums up some information security measures for our country to prevent and reduce the bad effect maybe brought by modern media which is used by hostile entities.%本文通过描述现代媒体的转变,着重分析了媒体在近期网络战中的力量、发挥的作用以及取得的惊人效果。最后提出了我国在网络战中需要加强的安全防范措施和手段。

  5. Unconventional Cyber Warfare: Cyber Opportunities in Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    1–2, http:// orfeu - 2 E. CENTRAL CLAIM The central...connectivity had not equated to a free exchange of ideas or information. In the summer of 2010, digital activist, Global Voices and Readwriteweb...Table 1. Top 20 countries of mobile phones per 100 people206 206 “List of Countries by Number of Mobile Phones in Use,” Wikipedia, the Free


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    characters and slow story. In 2011, An Zhanjun's Harsh Sand based on Tough Battle at Linze (Ku Zhan Lin Ze) and developed the narration of the West Route Army in a "most common allegory". The vivid characters, clean actions and proper rhythm in this work resemble what makes a warfare classic.

  7. Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    a rival governmental system through the creation of ‘parallel hierarchies.’51 Insurgency groups such as the Tamil Tigers , Taliban, Viet Cong, which members served as surrogate mothers to the younger members of the guerrilla forces who were away from home. Second, the WLA encouraged

  8. Irregular Warfare Stability Model (IWSMod) (United States)


    soldiers killed by the time the conflict was ended. In the graphs in Figure 3 above, the blue columns show the actual killed in action ( KIA ) frequency...The left graph is for fiscal year (FY) 1951. The red line is the generalized power law equation based on the total KIAs . There were 9,427 KIAs in FY...the graph shows that the actual KIA distribution depicted in the blue columns is very close to the generalized distribution shown in the red line

  9. The Analysis of Societal Warfare. (United States)


    Transform operators that are characterized as reflexive decisions systems do not require ’real-time" cognition in the processing of the system...stimuli. Rather, these operators could use pre-real-time (PRT) cognition that has been performed in anticipation of the arrival of certain stimuli. An...of the most noteable of which are listed below: I. Maximin, Maximax, Lexicography ; . 2.. Additive Weighting and Effectiveness Indexing; 3. Cost

  10. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations (United States)


    states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. FM 34-1 CHAPTER 1 I N T E L L I G E N C E A N D E L E C T R O N I...improves as HUMINT refocuses its efforts on the AO. Interrogation and document exploitation are examples of HUMINT operations. HUMINT collection may also...and CA support for rear operations. MDCI personnel and interrogators provide HUMINT to identify and help neutralize enemy agents, sympathizers, and

  11. Air Power in Irregular Warfare (United States)


    bombardment attacks with fighter offense for the control of the air.”57 Douhet commonly bucked the theory of fighter offense, relying solely on “a...morale booster as well. Now patrols could cut a landing zone with chain saws and explosives to receive a medevac chopper rather than face an extended

  12. The American Way of Warfare (United States)


    Military Experience: History and Learning,” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1971), 208. 19 Jerome S. Bruner , Jacqueline... Bruner , Jerome S., Goodnow, Jacqueline J, and Austin, George A. A Study of Thinking. New York: Wiley, 1956. Bruscino, Thomas A, “Our American

  13. The Strategy of Drone Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Fowler


    Full Text Available There is a budding controversy with the combat use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA. Also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, there is a growing literature critiquing the use of RPAs, often using the pejorative term “drone.” RPAs seem to get the blame for a variety of complaints about policy and employment that have little to do with the airframe or its processes. While all of the military functions of an RPA can and are done by manned aircraft, the RPAs must endure additional scrutiny. The decision to employ RPAs requires additional considerations at both the strategic and operational levels of war. This article explores the strategic issues that govern the decisions to employ RPAs in combat. The decision to employ RPAs involves a variety of strategic and operational concerns involving legal issues, technological constraints, operational efficiency, and an interdependency upon information operations.

  14. Compound Warfare: That Fatal Knot (United States)


    that America had no “Romulus and Remus, Aeneas, Charlemagne , Boadicea, St. Joan” or other legendary figures to draw upon from its relatively more important than fighting.” Obviously, political as well as military action was important. After Emperor Bao Dai abdicated as head of state,”7 In 1949, the French reinstalled Bao Dai as the emperor of a “united” Vietnam within the French union. For the next five years, while they

  15. Information Warfare and International Law (United States)


    terrorists, or even enemy nations. Perhaps the most dramatic example occurred on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, when the AT&T long distance network failed...state of the law on such topics as the use of nuclear weapons, seabed mining, or the equation of Zionism with racism . 208 There is no reason...International Telecommunications Agreements 67-69 (1986). 35 Harold M. White, Jr . & Rita Lauria, The Impact of New Communication Technologies on

  16. 2024 Unmanned Undersea Warfare Concept (United States)


    University APL LTV38P UUV. • Hotel load power consumption – An average value of 1 kW is assumed for navigation, system, and mission electronics. This is...Fitzgerald, R. 1985. “Comments on ‘Position, Velocity and Acceleration Estimates from the Noisy Radar Measurements.” IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 132, Pt. F

  17. Knowledge Centric Warfare: An Introduction (United States)


    around them while building on knowledge previously acquired. Immanuel Kant, Jean Piaget , and Lev Vygotsky are among important contributors to the...Development Piaget Cognition develops in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal Private Multiple Intelligences Theory Gardner

  18. Air Power and Maneuver Warfare (United States)


    der Luftwaffe, Wehrwissenschaftliche Abteilung, "Der Einsatz der Operativen Luftwaffe gegen Polen ," ibid., T-971J19/000877ff./25-9. 40. Richard...1968), 140; Herhudt von Rohden, "Die Plannung and Vorbereitung des Luftkriegs gegen Polen 1939," Luftkrieg, no. 5, appendix 6, 1946. 41 . Ibid., 49...Kriegswissenschaftliche) Abteilung, "Vortrag ueber der Luftkrieg in Polen 1939: 23 July 1944," GMR, T-971/18/00264/21 . 46 . "Der Einsatz der Operativen

  19. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio


    innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  20. Operational Design and Irregular Warfare (United States)


    AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Joint Military Operations Department Naval War College 686 Cushing Road...need to know, 2) of the things we do know, our brains are only capable of performing an extremely small number of possible computations, and 3) we

  1. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples....

  2. Intelligent methods for cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Reformat, Marek; Alajlan, Naif


    Cyberwarfare has become an important concern for governmental agencies as well businesses of various types.  This timely volume, with contributions from some of the internationally recognized, leaders in the field, gives readers a glimpse of the new and emerging ways that Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning methods can be applied to address problems related to cyberwarfare. The book includes a number of chapters that can be conceptually divided into three topics: chapters describing different data analysis methodologies with their applications to cyberwarfare, chapters presenting a number of intrusion detection approaches, and chapters dedicated to analysis of possible cyber attacks and their impact. The book provides the readers with a variety of methods and techniques, based on computational intelligence, which can be applied to the broad domain of cyberwarfare.

  3. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics (United States)


    CPM) model developed by Dough McAdams, Charles Tilly, and Sydney Tarrow. The CPM model pertains to a political environment wherein competing funding a kidnap attempt, using a DOD contact to pass weapons and money to indicated U.S. support. The kidnap attempt turned sour , resulting in

  4. German Views of Irregular Warfare (United States)


    Germany’s concentration camps, but were also employed in other roles such as policing newly occupied areas within the Reich. George H. Stein, The Waffen...Operation Oak: Psychological Disarmament ..................................70  2.  Panzerfaust: Strength through Restraint...and feared irregular warriors of recent times. Best known for his leadership role in the rescue of Benito Mussolini, German Waffen-SS and Amt VI-S

  5. Postmodern Warfare: Beyond the Horizon (United States)


    social contract today in the form of government: local, state, and federal. The emergence of the Tea Party brand of Republican politics provides...Competing brands vied for the membership of the most prestigious universities. Stanford, Duke, and dozens of other major colleges chose to join the...Participants participating in those efforts. This requirement is reflected in the Composite Share Ratio ( CSR ) formula, S=(A/B)C, where: 5.6.1 “S

  6. Post-heroic warfare revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Kristian


    killed during World War II (1940-1945) and the military campaign in Afghanistan (2002-2014), the paper shows that a ‘good’ military death is no longer conceived of as a patriotic sacrifice, but instead legitimised by an appeal to the unique moral worth, humanitarian goals and high professionalism...... of the fallen. The paper concludes that fatalities in transnational military interventions have invoked a sense of post-patriotic heroism instead of a post-heroic crisis, and argues that the social order of modern society has underpinned, rather than undermined, ideals of military self-sacrifice and heroism...

  7. Post-heroic warfare revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Kristian


    killed during World War II (1940-1945) and the military campaign in Afghanistan (2002-2014), the paper shows that a ‘good’ military death is no longer conceived of as a patriotic sacrifice, but instead legitimised by an appeal to the unique moral worth, humanitarian goals and high professionalism...... of the fallen. The paper concludes that fatalities in transnational military interventions have invoked a sense of post-patriotic heroism instead of a post-heroic crisis, and argues that the social order of modern society has underpinned, rather than undermined, ideals of military self-sacrifice and heroism...

  8. Communications, radar and electronic warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Adrian


    A practical guide to the principles of radio communications for both civilian and military applications In this book, the author covers both the civilian and military uses of technology, focusing particularly on the applications of radio propagation and prediction. Divided into two parts, the author introduces the basic theory of radio prediction before providing a step-by-step explanation of how this theory can be translated into real-life applications. In addition, the book presents up-to-date systems and methods to illustrate how these applications work in practice. This includes s

  9. Joint Doctrine for Electronic Warfare (United States)


    German operators to observe the TAXABLE and GLIMMER spoofs. Beneath the orbiting aircraft and their falling clouds of Rope, the small flotilla of...Eighteen characters (e.g., AN/ GRC -103), if known. 14. COMMENTS: Forty characters (provided for user remarks), optional entry. 15. CEOI NAME: Ten characters

  10. Innovative Practices for Special Warfare (United States)


    original location in Menlo Park they became accustomed to the amenities and conveniences of working from a residence. Having a shower and kitchen in the...innovation through understanding market demand can be seen in the fast casual concept of the restaurant industry. Fast casual restaurants , a hybrid of the...quick service and casual restaurant concepts, provide customizable, freshly prepared, and higher quality food from a counter service platform.239 The

  11. Research on the Electronic Warfare System of Upgraded Taiwan Air Force F-16A/B(Block 20)%台军F-16A/B(Block 20)升级后的电子战系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 毛毅; 吴微露


    近年来,台湾强调以“非对称”、“资电优势”的思想推动建军,投入巨资进行作战飞机的升级改造,以加强空中作战力量和电子战建设。通过对2012年7月美台签订的台军F-16A/B战斗机升级案的背景、进展以及升级前后机载电子战系统的对比研究,进而分析升级后台军F-16A/B战斗机在电子战系统的性能。%In recent years, Taiwan develops military based on the dissymmetric and advantage information viewpoint, and upgrades bat- tle-planes putting into a large amount of money to enhance the air attack strength and the electronic warfare. The paper explains the perform- ance of the electronic warfare system of upgraded Taiwan' s F-16A/B by analyzing the background and proceeding of Taiwan air force F-16A/ B modernization plan signed on July 2012 and contrasting the electronic warfare system of F-16A/B and upgraded F-16A/B.

  12. Electronic Warfare Target Location Methods, Second Edition. Edited by Richard A. Poisel, Artech House, 2012; 422 pages. Price: £99.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-523-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin


    Full Text Available Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a launch point for further algorithm development. You gain an in-depth understanding of key target location methods that you can effectively apply to your work in the field. You discover triangulation algorithms that offer a highly efficient way to geolocate targets when the real estate on the sensor systems is adequate to support an antenna array. The book also presents quadratic geolocation techniques that can be implemented with extremely modest antennas — frequently a single dipole or monopole. Moreover, this authoritative volume details methods for geolocating the source of high frequency signals with a single sensor site.

  13. Identification of water-bearing zones by the use of geophysical logs and borehole television surveys, collected February to September 1997, at the Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.


    Between February 1997 and September 1997, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground-water contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected contaminant sources. Four wells were drilled north of the property adjacent to Area A, three wells along strike located on Lewis Drive, and three wells directly down dip on Ivyland Road. Well depths range from 69 feet to 300 feet below land surface. Borehole-geophysical logging and television surveys were used to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Borehole television surveys were obtained at the four monitor wells adjacent to Area A. Caliper and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluidtemperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse- flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  14. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller's earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure. (United States)

    Taysse, L; Dorandeu, F; Daulon, S; Foquin, A; Perrier, N; Lallement, G; Breton, P


    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper(1) the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller's earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to either 2 µL of neat sulphur mustard or 50 µ of diluted VX, mice were decontaminated. Both systems were able to reduce blisters 3 days after SM exposure. However, RSDL was found to be more efficient than FE in reducing the necrosis of the epidermis and erosion. In the case of VX exposure, RSDL, whatever the ratio of decontaminant to toxicant used (RSDL 10, 20, 50), was not able to sufficiently prevent the inhibition of plasma cholinesterases taken as a surrogate marker of exposure and toxicity. Only FE reduced significantly the ChE inhibition. Some of these observations are different from our previous results obtained in domestic swine and these changes are thus discussed in the perspective of using SKH-1 hairless mice for the initial in vivo screening of decontaminants.

  15. 非战争军事行动中装备维修保障资源需求计算模型%A Requirement Computing Model of Equipment Maintance Resource in Non-Warfare Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Non-warfare action is one of the important fields for navy forces dispatching ,and it is necessary to provide effective maintenance for equipment in action. To address this issue, a computing model of quantitated demand for maintenance resource was presented, such as maintenance instruments, backup equipment parts,sup⁃port specialist, and so on, based on a series of theories in decision-making, statistical inference and queuing. The model was proven to be effective and practical with lots of real-world instances.%  精确、高效、稳定、可靠的维修保障是海军非战争军事行动顺利实施的必要条件。文章建立了维修设施设备、备品备件、保障专业人员等维修保障资源的需求量化计算模型,并结合实例说明了模型的实际应用。

  16. On the Training of Commanders' Psychological Quality under the Conditions of Information Warfare%信息化战争条件下指挥员良好心理素质培养探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is an urgent need to strengthen the training of commanders' good psychological quality to win the future information warfare. In order to achieve this, we should not only grasp the connotation of the development of commanders' good psychological quality, but also make strict psychological selection, practice extensive psychological education of the involved personnel, carry out a wide range of psychological training and establish corresponding sound and perfect support system.%加强指挥员良好心理素质的培养是打赢未来信息化战争的迫切需要。着眼培养指挥员良好的心理素质,我们不仅要科学把握其良好心理素质培养的主要内涵,还要对预提对象进行认真的心理选拔和广泛的心理教育,并开展多方面的心理训练和建立健全完善的训练支持系统。

  17. 生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术国外相关专利分析%Analysis of Bio-aerosol Warfare Agent Detection and Identification Technology Based on Foreign Patent Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 王运斗


    Patent information is the latest achievement of scientific research program which can reflect the last orientation of technology. This paper chooses SOOPAT as the patent data source, studies retrieval patent data, then obtains the current situation of bio - aerosol detection and identification technology, key areas and trends. Next, the article proposes reflections on the domestic development of biological warfare agents aerosol detect technology. The results have significant guidance for the development of related biological detectors.%专利信息作为科研活动的最新成果,能反映技术的最新动态.选择SOOPAT作为专利数据检索源,通过对检索到的专利数据进行分析研究,得出生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术现状、关键领域和发展趋势,然后对国内发展生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术提出几点思考.研究结果对于指导相关生物侦检装备的发展具有一定的指导意义.

  18. Identification of the factors that govern the ability of therapeutic antibodies to provide postchallenge protection against botulinum toxin: a model for assessing postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against agents of bioterrorism and biological warfare. (United States)

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M; Cao, Linsen; Simpson, Lance L


    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare.

  19. 信息化条件下作战军民一体化应急物流保障研究%Study on Military-Civil Integrated Emergency Logistics Support for Information-Based Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚男; 李雄; 王树礼; 陈康柱


    Aiming at the problem of how to organize rationally emergency logistics support system, this paper proposes the essential requirements, system, mechanisms and methods of military-civil integrated emergency logistics support for infor- mation-based warfare. The research result can give direction for constructing " integration support system" with Chinese characteristics to improve force system support capability.%针对未来信息化每件下作战中如何科学合理地组织应急物流保障体系的问题,分析了信息化条件下作战军民一体化应急物流保障的基本要求,研究了军民一体化应急物流保障体系和机制,提出了军民一体化应急物流保障的主要方法,为构建具有我军特色的“大保障”体制,从而加快提升部队体系保障能力提供理论指导。

  20. Analysis of Modeling Method of Network Centric Warfare Superiority Value Chain%网络中心战优势价值链的建模方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛福亮; 张耀中; 吕迎迎


    The reason that distinguishes network centric warfare (NCW) from other combat patterns is the information network,which fulfills interoperability among all combat forces with the advantage of robustness, and will ultimately result in improved mission effectiveness. For sake of quantitative assessment about the influence that networked command and control information system has on operational effect,the influencing factors attached to superiority transformation are analyzed. The approach to modeling the value chain of NCW is put forward. In this vein,a simulation is carried out, as well as the corresponding analysis,which demonstrates that method aforementioned is feasible to assess complex military information system.%网络中心战强大的威力来自于其鲁棒性的信息网络,通过网络使所有作战力量互联互通,最终使作战任务高效完成。为了定量评估网络化指挥控制信息系统对作战效果的影响,以网络中心战优势转移为切入点,对影响优势转移的因素进行了分析,给出了一种网络中心战优势价值链的建模方法,并结合作战背景进行了相应的仿真计算分析,从而验证了采用该方法分析复杂军事信息系统的可行性。

  1. Evaluation on the capability of a skin decontaminatant PF2009 to inactivate chemical warfare agents%皮肤洗消剂PF2009对化学毒剂的消毒作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红岩; 刘艳芹; 应莺; 林京玉; 王伊文; 左国民; 朱海燕; 钟玉绪


    Objective To evaluate the capability of skin decontamination lotion PF2009 to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. Methods The remnant of chemical warfare agents, soman (GD), VX or sulfur mustard(HD), was measured with gas phase chromatography or T-135 method after being mixed with PF2009 for indicated time. The mixtures of PF2009 with GD, VX at a molar ratio of 10:1 was measured by the main agent were administered to rabbits through intraperitoneal injection. 6 days later, the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in animal blood was determined with the method of DTNB. The survival rate was calculated after counting the living and died rabbits. The mixtures of PF2009 with HD were administered to rabbit skin. The area of injured skin was measured. Histochemical method was employed to observe the pathological change in the injured skin. Results Remnant of GD or VX could not be detected after being mixed with PF2009 at a volume ratio of 150 for 10 min. Under the same mixing condition, decontaminated HD increased from 80% to 94% when prolonging the incubation time from 10 to 60 min. Rabbits were intraperitoneally administered with the mixture of PF2009 with GD at a dose of 454 or 9.00 mg/kg or VX at a dose 3.34 mg/kg. No animals died in PF2009 group. In contrast, all rabbits died in lotion matrix control group during the 6 days' observation. 90% activity of AChE in blood was maintained for PF2009 group when compared with that for un-administered normal animals. The mixture of PF2009 with HD was administered to the rabbit skin at a dose of 1 mg/ cm2. The damage of skin was much lighter in PF2009 group than in lotion matrix control group when being evaluated with the area value of injured skin and histochemical staining. Conclusion The skin decontamination lotion PF2009 is effective in inactivating chemical warfare agents in vitro.%目的 通过检测皮肤洗消剂PF2009对化学毒剂的体外消毒效率,对皮肤洗消剂PF2009的消毒效果进行评价.方法

  2. 基于地面目标群的陆战武器火力指数模型%Firepower Index Models of Land Warfare Weapons Based on Ground Target Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占宽; 王永良; 常利胜


    给出了基于地面目标群的陆战武器火力指数模型,该模型与作战时节(持续的时间)、所要达成的作战目的、火力打击距离(射程)、发射的弹药量、目标性质(重要性)及毁伤效能有关,便于计算陆军参战武器的个体火力指数和战役总火力指数,并且能够计算对应于战场目标分布、重要目标分布的相应距离上的火力指数分布,从而便于武器对目标分配的战役估算;另外,还尝试了将模型在更大作战领域内的推广.火力指数模型所涉及的诸多综合因素是现行常见的火力指数模型所不具有的,它不仅体现了火力指数的宏观性,而且能较为精细地评估火力打击能力.%This paper gives firepower index models of land warfare weapons based on ground target group and the models are closely relative to operation stage, war goal,firing distances, firing ammunition's quantities, target nature, firing efficiency and so on. It is convenient for counting indices of individual weapon and all weapons in the operation and counting distributions of indices in same distances corresponding with the distributions of battlefield targets and important targets, so it is convenient for estimating weapons in the operation to assign battlefield targets. And extending the models to more large operation fields is also tried in the paper. The complex factors that are related to firepower index models in the paper are distinctive, which are distinguishable from the common firepower index models. With the firepower index models, the macro-scale of firepower index can be reflected and the capacity of fire attack can be finely evaluated.

  3. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo


    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  4. Engineering Construction of Military Supply Chain on the Basis of Informatization Warfare%基于信息化战争的军事供应链工程建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      The modern warfare is more dependent on the war energy. It is not only focus on the use of high-tech, including information technology and other tools, to increase the efficiency in the use of war energy in the battlefield, but also work on the conversion efficiency and quality from the economy energy to the war energy. In this regard, we shall pay particular attention to military acquisition which is acting as a bridge in the process of transition from economy energy to war energy. The acquisition department will be in close contact with other functionalities, e.g.: logistics, technology support and other services departments to display the supporting function of the military supply chain in future battlefield. The modern information warfare is becoming to be more and more stereoscopic with a high speed pattern which is in depth and excluding the line operation. It is driving the war movement into a multi-dimensional area. The original line-operation model, i.e. working on the front line, did not exist any more. The joint service on war is much more preferred. The recent practice showed that the logistics support is expected to play a very special role in the future war. No matter how advanced the weaponry will come to be, as long as there is no immediate, sufficient and precise support from logistics side, the tactical arrangements/operations as well as the combat effectiveness cannot be commenced smoothly. The information technology as a philosophy, which is influencing and infiltrating the various fields of this era, is maturing itself in a dynamic development. In the field of logistics support, the application of information technology is an enhanced technology to develop the resource space, improve the efficiency of allocation and to ensure an effective materials transportation and resource usage. The main focus and further development of information technology is aiming at achieving the optimal efficiency in military economy by constructively settling

  5. 信息化条件下海上局部战争减员影响因素指标体系构建%Construction of Index System for Factors Influencing Combat Attrition during Near Shore Zone Sea War-fare under Conditions of Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维佳; 陈国良


    目的:建立一套科学、全面适应信息化条件下海战减员影响因素指标体系,为未来打赢信息化条件下海上局部战争,准确合理地预计海战减员人数奠定理论基础。方法运用文献归纳法、专家咨询法、模糊综合判断法,并通过3轮20名专家咨询确定信息化条件下海战减员影响因素及权重。结果经过3轮专家咨询,确立信息化条件下海战减员影响因素指标框架,包括一级指标3个,二级指标10个,三级指标42个。3轮专家咨询的积极系数分别是0.85、0.94、1,可操作性系数0.3342,敏感性系数0.2795,熟悉系数0.79。结论经过专家删除、修改各项指标,构建信息化条件下海战减员影响因素指标体系,可信度较高。%Objective To establish a scientific and comprehensive index system for factors influencing combat attrition during near shore zone sea warfare under conditions of informatization , so as to provide evidence to predict combat attrition during near shore zone sea warfare and win victory .Methods Literature inductive meth-od, Delphi method, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process were used in this research .20 experts were selected to help complete 3 rounds of consultation to determine factors and weights of each index .Results The finally determined indicators were 3 as primary,10 as the second level and 42 as the third.The recovery rates in 3 rounds of question-naire consultation were 85%,94% and 100%, operational coefficient was 0.3342, sensitivity coefficient was 0.2795, familiar coefficient was 0.79.Conclusion The index system for factors influencing combat attrition dur -ing near shore zone sea warfare under conditions of informatization was established after factors were deleted and modified, and the system was reliable.

  6. Irregular Warfare: One Nature, Many Characters (United States)


    remarkable trinity of “ primordial violence, hatred, and enmity”; “chance and probability”; and “reason”; his identification of war’s...Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, March 2006). 26. Mockaitis, Iraq War, 52. 27. John A. Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife

  7. Electronic Warfare and Radar Systems Engineering Handbook (United States)


    nuclear engineering, signal and image processing (including fingerprinting), neurophysiology , music, magnetic resonance imaging, speech discrimination...and the second could have been made in the near field. 3-5.6 Care must be exercised in using the 2d 2 /λ far field measurement criterion. For...material indices of refraction and the light ray’s angle of incidence. Some benefits of fiber optic fiber include low losses, bandwidth

  8. Finding Lawrence: Recruiting Talent for Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    in child marketing to ―establish awareness among young boys.‖125 The SEALs even developed their own extreme sporting event open to the public: the...nationals with the proper credentials. Many foreign nationals speak multiple languages, and bilingualism appears to assist in adapting to different cross

  9. Cyber-Warfare: Jus Post Bellum (United States)


    POST BELLUM by Maribel Cisneros March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Neil C. Rowe Second Reader: Wade L. Huntley THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...Author: Maribel Cisneros Approved by: Neil C. Rowe Thesis Advisor Wade L. Huntley Second Reader Cynthia E. Irvine Chair, Cyber...srv/WPcap/1999–11/08/011r-110899- idx.html Grama, J. L. (2010). Legal issues in information security. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Hae-in

  10. Transforming USMC Intelligence to Address Irregular Warfare (United States)


    influence rriy conclusions. I must also recognize the contributions of Dr. Donald F. Bittner, LtCol James Herrera, and Maj Randy Pugh in transforming...unit ISR requirement and next generation technology should expand to include modular s, ensors . Blending multiple-intelligence sensors on the same...Heye, Maj, USMC J.D. Company Level Intelligence Cell Overview Brief December 18, 2008. Higgins, USMC LtCol James B. "Culture Shock: Overhauling the

  11. Mountain Warfare and Cold Weather Operations (United States)


    or job specialty. This manual is designed to work in conjunction with and complement Training Circular on military mountaineering (TC) 3-97.61 and...cold demands. While Soldiers can train on some base skills and knowledge in the classroom or through self-study, experiential-based training in the...Additionally, risk management considerations are introduced. Chapter 4 focuses on how complex and compartmentalized terrain, the time of year, weather

  12. The Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare (United States)


    Research John T. Ackerman , PhD, Series Editor Donald MacCuish, EdD, Essay Advisor Air University Press Terry L. Hawkins, Interim Director Bessie E...James A. Nathan claims that since the end of the Cold War, “trade has been displacing security worldwide as a means of determining priorities and... Nathan , Soldiers, Statecraft, and History, xi–xii. . Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, 8. 6. Ibid., 3. 7. UN Statistics Division

  13. Social Media Applications for Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    cause” (Petit 2012, 25). This decentralized underground is less vulnerable to attack due to its ability to further decentralize, mutate, and reform ...protests much like Khalifa with violent repression, but also abolished the unpopular supreme court, cut taxes , and offered citizenship to the Kurds...Republican Army (IRA) ideologies and exploits appear throughout YouTube. Shining Path of Peru uses Twitter as well as Facebook among their recruitment

  14. Information Management and the Biological Warfare Threat (United States)


    information-sharing paradigm is best illustrated in the fierce competition for gene patenting in the biotechnology industry . In 1992 Agracetus (an consider the ramifications of business decisions in the biotechnology industry . The bottom-line for any corporation in a capitalist environment...patenting. The business requirement for the patenting of genes is vital from the perspective of the biotechnology industry . Companies argue that

  15. Cyber warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup? (United States)


    parking fees were collected via mobile networks (Link 2009, 8). 33 Estonia was rapidly increasing its information interconnectivity up through 2007...President Saakashvili stated in 2008 that his “major vision (is) to turn Georgia into the Dubai and Singapore of this region (Caucuses/Black Sea)” (Cornell...October 2009). Catignani, Sergio. “Variation on a theme : Israel’s operation cast lead and the Caza strip missile conundrum.” Small Wars Journal. http

  16. Biological Warfare and American Strategic Risk (United States)


    anthracis V9. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus B2. Brucella abortus V10. Machupo virus B3. Brucella melitensis V11. Marburg virus B4. Brucella suis...Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae) AV5. Goat pox virus PF3. Microcyclus ulei (syn. Dothidella ulei) AV6. Herpes virus (Aujeszky’s disease) PF4

  17. The Mongols: Early Practitioners of Maneuver Warfare (United States)


    years prior. It would be ten more years before the signing of the Magna Carta and some two and a half centuries before the start of the Renaissance...the outset of actual combat operations while simultaneously obviating the need for the Mongols to feed their horses from a centralized logistics

  18. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine (United States)


    psychological, or political benefits or rights. The Sudan Liberation Army in Darfur and Zapatistas in Mexico are e xamples of these groups (O’Neill:2005...contribu fa image adorns T-shirts, placards, banners, watches, and murals still being produced throughout Cuba, Mexico , and other parts of Latin...superiority has forced its enemies for the foreseeable future to fight it unconventionally, mixing modern technolo occurred among military historia u tial

  19. Targeting: the challenges of modern warfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.


    This book offers a multidisciplinary treatment of targeting. It is intended for use by the military, government legal advisers and academics. The book is suitable for use in both military training and educational programs and in Bachelor and Master degree level courses on such topics as War Studies

  20. Swarming and the Future of Warfare (United States)


    World, Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1987, p. 149. 20 It should be noted that even though the majority of historians agree with this somewhat...against Cortes and his small army at the battles of La Noche Triste and Otumba (1520) was not included because the Aztecs were undisciplined and...Institute, 1995. Jones, Archer. The Art of War in the Western World. Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1987. Kaegi, Walter Emil Jr. "The Contribution of

  1. Asymmetric Warfare: M31 and its Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Fardal, Mark A


    Photometric surveys of M31's halo vividly illustrate the wreckage caused by hierarchical galaxy formation. Several of M31's satellites are being disrupted by M31's tidal field, among them M33 and And I, while other tidal structures are the corpses of satellites already destroyed. The extent to which M31's satellites have left battle scars upon it is unknown; to answer this we need accurate orbits and masses of the perturbers. I focus here on M31's 150-kpc-long Giant Southern Stream (GSS) as an example of how these can be determined even in the absence of a visible progenitor. Comparing N-body models to photometric and spectroscopic data, I find this stream resulted from the disruption of a large satellite galaxy by a close passage about 750 Myr ago. The GSS is connected to several other debris structures in M31's halo. Bayesian sampling of the simulations estimates the progenitor's initial mass as log(Mstar/Msun) = 9.5 +- 0.2, showing it was one of the most massive Local Group galaxies until quite recently. T...

  2. Land Mine Warfare - Applying the Principles. (United States)


    Conflicto Malvinas Tom: I I. (Buen,s Aries, 7 July 1983): seccion IV and Anexo 70. 12. Department of Defense, ICS Publication I Dictionary of Military an...Trends No. 3. Washington. 26 August. 1943. 4: MANUSCRIPTS . I. Ejercitc Argentine. Conflicto Malvinas, Tomo I, II. F.uenos Ari4es 7 July 1933. 2

  3. Warfare facial trauma: who will treat? (United States)

    Holmes, D K


    Most of the facial trauma in the United States is treated in trauma centers in large urban or university medical centers, with limited trauma care taking place in our military medical treatment facilities. In many cases, active duty facial trauma surgeons may lack the current experience necessary for the optimal care of facial wounds of our inquired military personnel in the early stages of the conflict. Consequently, the skills of the reservist trauma surgeons who staff our civilian trauma centers and who care for facial trauma victims daily will be critical in caring for our wounded. These "trauma-current" reservists may act as a cadre of practiced surgeons to aid those with less experience. A plan for refresher training of active duty facial trauma surgeons is presented.

  4. Evaluating the Claims of Network Centric Warfare (United States)


    three factors – Psychoticism, Neuroticism, and Extroversion/Introversion ( Eysenck , 1960) and as many as 16 factors (i.e., Cattell’s Sixteen...Version 1.0, prepared for John Garstka, Office of Force Transformation. Eysenck , H.J. (1960). The structure of human personality. Methuen: Wiley

  5. Encircled Forces: The Neglected Phenomenon of Warfare. (United States)


    reported that he could not get through to the pocket. Manstein had reached the conclusion earlier that day. He told Wohler that Stemmermann would...hen fla 1-11 R Al) INSTRUCTI[ONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE IWOR (OMjP’LETINCG FOCRM I REPORT NUMBER 2.GOVT ACC1$5,ION N, C PFN-. -AT A-j,!, NUMBiER 4 TI...WORK UNIT NUMBE 1 School of Advanced Military Studies * Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 66027 I I, CON~TROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADIDRESS 12. REPORT DATE US Army

  6. Black Jack Pershing: Partnerships in Warfare (United States)


    In less than three weeks, the war was over. PARTNERING AND TRUST Partnership has become something of an en vogue term in the realm of military...proclaimed itself an “associate” rather than a full ally of France and Britain , a move which made both Pershing and his doughboys easier targets for the

  7. Globalization and Asymmetrical Warfare: Operation Athena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clep


    Full Text Available Since 2003, Operation Athena represents Canada’s contribution to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF in Afghanistan. This article explains the Canadian role as an international security provider in general and a closer look on the background, the rationale and the structure of Operation Athena - how it supports the Canadian priorities and objectives in Afghanistan toward 2011.

  8. Transforming the Surface Warfare Officer Training Curriculum (United States)


    Structures. Additionally, students were introduced to Staff Planning , Operational Security, Damage Control, Firefighting, Message Drafting, and...Union Nacional de Instituciones Para El Trabajo de Acci6n Social] UNIT AS exercise, in the darkness and fog, LA MOURE COUNTY drove ashore on a small

  9. Cyber warfare: Unity in defence / John Kennedy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kennedy, John


    Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves räägib Eestit tabanud küberrünnakutest 2007. a., NATO küberkaitsekeskuse tegevusest Tallinnas, e-riigi kiirest arengust, NATO ja Euroopa Liidu koostöö olulisusest küberjulgeoleku valdkonnas, küberkaitseliidust

  10. Maritime Trade Warfare Against a Modern Power (United States)


    right of visit and search. A true blockade is set to stop all merchant traffic to and from the opposing nation. While some provisions are oil embargo from a distant chokepoint. 21 A distant “blockade” would be legally defined as visit and search for contraband applied to merchant ...performing below expectations. Measures of effectiveness to evaluate popular unrest, motor traffic, and supply to retail stores would need to be

  11. Entomological Terrorism: A Tactic in Asymmetrical Warfare (United States)


    Fruits High High High Metallic  beetle , Oak  splendor  beetle : Agrilus  biguttatus 67% US ( eastern  and  western states) High High Medium Oak  Beech... beetle :  Trogoderma granarium 67% US ( eastern  and  western states) High Low High Stored grain High Medium High Arrowhead scale: Unaspis  yanonensis...Europe20 (Figure 3). Numerous mosquito species transmit the virus that causes RVF, including those inhabiting North America and the United States.21

  12. Refining Intelligence Support to Irregular Warfare (United States)


    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Joint Military Operations Department Naval War College 686 Cushing Road...and John Burning. How to Break a Terrorist: The U.S. Interrogators Who Used Brains , Not Brutality to Take Down the Deadliest Man in Iraq. New York

  13. A short history of biological warfare. (United States)

    Metcalfe, Neil


    Biological weapons have been used in war from the start of recorded history. This article reviews the history of the subject, including the outbreak of the Black Death and the use of smallpox against American Indians. The new science of microbiology was misused from soon after its start and, despite the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the Japanese experimented extensively on prisoners in China. The Allies carried out extensive research during the Second World War, notably the United Kingdom into anthrax on Gruinard Island and the United States into a variety of agents. Despite the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), a major programme continued in the former Soviet Union (leading to an accidental outbreak of anthrax). Most recently Iraq was revealed as having an extensive programme, with weaponization of large amounts of various agents, and several terrorists groups have attempted to use biological agents as weapons. Modern developments in biotechnology could lead to even more serious developments, and effective preventive measures, including strengthening of the BWC, are imperative.

  14. Physical Readiness Testing of Surface Warfare Officers (United States)


    choose to perform the 500- yard swim. Diving starts are not permitted, but swimmers may push off from the ends of the pool with their hands and feet at...alcohol, and caffeine [Ref. 57]. c. Skin-fold Caliper The skin-fold caliper method involves measuring the thickness of skin and underlying subcutaneous fat

  15. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare (United States)


    in the Transcarpa- thian Military District, an article in a Soviet military journal states: A model of a populated point of a city type with a center...guns designated for firing by direct lay and also firn of motorized rifle pndraelLaniy*E lay passages in enemy obstacles. (s p. 43) Thi attached

  16. The Civil Side of Irregular Warfare (United States)


    operational environment; identify and mitigate underlying causes of instability within civil society ; or involve the application of functional...Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya, the Islamic Resistance Movement, seeks an Islamic state within Palestine . Unique to HAMAS as compared to embodiment of the Muslim Brotherhood’s missionary work in Palestine , established schools and social safety nets within Gaza. This social safety

  17. Irregular Warfare Centric Foreign Internal Defense (United States)


    B Specials85) and in response to the marauding mobs , Catholics barricaded themselves into ―no-go‖ areas to keep the security forces out, allowing...ransacking homes, humiliating automobile occupants during searches and harassment of pedestrians on the streets.87 The Commission of Human Rights ruled...the surface often appears reactive and inconsistent, both Labour and Conservative governments have consistently adhered to a set of basic principles

  18. Preparing the British Army for Future Warfare (United States)


    46Leslie Sklair, “From International Relations to Alternative Globalisations ,” Journal of Critical......might export terror.58 Recognizing failing states as the root cause of potential conflict is widely accepted by other sources too, including the Joint

  19. Brave New Warfare: Autonomy in Lethal UAVs (United States)


    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am especially grateful to my wife, Elissa, and our sons, Isaac and Asher , for their... Jay Strawser, “Moral Predators: The Duty to Employ Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles,” Journal of Military Ethics 9 (2010): 349. 53 James E. Drennan, “How

  20. Soviet Partisan Warfare: Integral to the Whole, (United States)


    Ageyev. 16 Ageyev, p. 67. 19 Leon Trotsky . The Trotsk3E Pnpers 1A17-1.922. Ed. Jan M. Meijer. London: Mouton & Co., p. 601. * 20 Ageyev p. 70. 21...Deep Battle: The Brainchild of Marshal *Tukhaahevskii. New York: Brassey’s Defense Publishers, 1987. Trotsky , Leon . The Trotsky Pavers 1917-1922. Ed...Although Lenin did not see value in these organizations, Trotsky found them to be of service in furthering the goals of the Bolsheviks. They acted as the

  1. Guerrilla Warfare in Nicaragua, 1975-1979 (United States)


    faction, known as the Prolonged Popular WarK Tenenc (tendenia guerra popuZar prolongada or GPP), prolected victory after a decades-long struggle in... Paz Centro on the Managua-Le6n route. On the following day., it was reported that advanced elements of the FSLN guerrillas had returned to Managua and...combat at La Paz Centro. On 16 July, the Sandinista guerrillas finally destroyed the National Guard garrison in Estell which had been under siege for

  2. Recent Trends in Thinking about Warfare (United States)


    Borda of Uruguay, Presi- dentJos6 Maria Reina Barrios of Guatemala, King Umberto I of Italy, and President William McKinley. Anarchists almost killed...Bosnia and Kosovo the U.S. leveraged highly selective use of air power, eco - nomic sanctions, and information operations, to secure a "victory" with...will, eco - nomic infrastructure, and so forth. In the Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.), Hannibal initially sought to defeat the Romans in open battle

  3. Historical Bibliography of Sea Mine Warfare (United States)


    r.) Pier Filippo Lupinacoi, 1966; Roma . 487 p. 11. Marine Mines (Their Purpose: How They Are. Planted and How Destroyed); Scientific American...Yale University Press, Vol. II 1914; New Haven. 14. Stokes, Donald; Lee Mines Magnetiquee Auraient pu Faire Perdue Za Guerre aux Allies; " Historia

  4. Tribal Warfare: The Society of Modern Airmen (United States)


    fear that the effort will never entirely succeed. Regulations cannot do what emotion and the power of human responses can. Cyber warriors, drone refer to them pretty much universally as “ drones .” It is noteworthy that the Air Force made an early, albeit futile, attempt to call them...exploiting the third dimension. Whatever the name, it seems abundantly clear that drones will play an increasingly important, if not dom- inant, role in

  5. Network Centric Warfare and Joint Force 2020 (United States)


    target enemy networks as opposed to just enemy belligerents. The approach believed that a belligerent could be replaced , whereas damage to an integral...enabled moving map programs, unified communications, and every other bell and whistle a smart phone or tablet provides a user. The early adopters who...Joseph Menn, “ Smartphone Shipments Surpass PCs,” Financial Times, February 8, 2011.

  6. Transformation: A Bold Case for Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    raid to rescue American hostages UW? Although it may be “special” it certainly is not unconventional in the terms we have described. Therefore, we...9 Special Operations Command ( JSOC ) in 1982, and subsequently, the US Special Operations Command

  7. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare (United States)

    doctrinal term meaning the execution of activities that involve a combinationof lethal and nonlethal actions taken by a specially trained and educated ...indigenous combat formations in a permissive, uncertain , or hostile environment. It includes special operations forces conducting combinations of

  8. Olfaction Warfare: Odor as Sword and Shield (United States)


    first indicators that a patient has such a disease (Doty, 2001). Interestingly, olfactory impairment is also associated with psychopathy (Mahmut and...Alington, VA: Richer Resources Publications. Mahmut, M. K.; Stevenson, R. J. Olfactory Abilities and Psychopathy : Higher Psychopathy Scores are

  9. Organizing the Army for Information Warfare (United States)


    phishing attacks. Social engineering also can provide physical access to restricted information systems or other critical humans-in-the loop.47 Additionally...Ranking of America’s Largest Corporations.” 7 David F. Carr, Information Week, January 25, 2012, “ Facebook : The Database Of Wealth And Power,” http

  10. Russian Political Warfare: Origin, Evolution, and Application (United States)


    absolute states of being, but rather, exist on a continuum. This idea has been explored by a diverse group of thinkers: from Mao, “Politics is war...These measures played a role in the Christian Democrats emerging with an absolute parliamentary majority in the elections.266 Whether or not the...local news not covered in state-controlled domestic media as well as religion, science, sports, Western music and locally banned literature and music

  11. Technology and Development Trend of Surface Ship Anti-Submarine and Anti-Torpedo Weapons Launch Control%舰载反潜反鱼雷武器发射控制的技术特点及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the technology present situation and the common characteristics of anti⁃submarine and anti⁃torpedo weapons launch control for surface ship,such as rocket poised depth charge,rocket acoustic decoy,tubes of torpedo and rocket⁃assisted torpedo, etc. According to the demand of anti⁃submarine and anti⁃torpedo weapons launch control commom⁃frame launch and comprehensive launch control, it puts forward some developing direction of launch control in the future.%分析了火箭助飞式悬浮深弹、火箭助飞式声诱饵、管装鱼雷和火箭助飞鱼雷等舰载反潜反鱼雷武器发射控制的技术现状和共有的技术特点,并针对反潜反鱼雷武器共架发射、综合发控的需求,提出了反潜反鱼雷武器发射控制未来的发展方向。

  12. 水面无人艇发展与应用%Development and Application of Unmanned Surface Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) is a motion platform, which can navigate autonomously in the marine environment and complete various tasks. The current development of USV is introduced. The basic technology characteristics of USV are presented in the thesis. The applications of USV include anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures, ISR, unconventional combat domains and etc. Key technologies in USV development are analyzed. Along with the requirements of unmanned combat systems in future war, USV become one important component part of unmanned systems at sea. The USV are developing towards the directions of intelligence, systematism and standardization.%水面无人艇是一种能够在海洋环境下自主航行,并完成各种任务的小型水面运动平台.介绍了当前无人艇的发展现状,对无人艇的基本技术特点进行了总结,对其在反潜战、反水雷战、信息战、非常规作战等领域的应用以及需要解决的关键技术进行了分析.随着未来战争对发晨无人作战平台的需求,无人艇成为海上无人系统的重要组成部分,并向着智能化、体系化、标准化的方向发展.

  13. Sonar technology in entering 21 century%进入21世纪的声纳技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    海洋开发和反潜战的需求是推动声纳技术发展的巨大动力.水声物理、水声信号处理及相关学科的进步又促使声纳设计日趋完善.本文介绍声纳技术在进入21世纪时所面临的机遇和挑战;水声信号处理领域近期研究的热点问题以及声纳系统设计中的技术创新课题.%The requirement of ocean exploring and anti-submarine warfare is the main motivation of sonar technology development. The advances in the field of underwater acoustic physics, underwater acoustic signal processing and other related sciences and technology considerably improve the sonar design. The development opportunities and challenges, which sonar technology faced in enter 21 century are described in this paper. Some recent hot topics in underwater signal processing and technical innovation problem in sonar design are presented.

  14. US-Japan relationship in the 1980s: achievements, challenges, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The critical importance for the political economic, and security interests of the two countries is stressed. A healthy and productive association between them contributes in fundamental ways to the security and economic growth of the Asian region. And it provides the basis for more rapid restructuring of the world's two most dynamic and advanced economies. The military power of the Soviet Union has grown inexorably over the past decade, as have Moscow's deployments in Asia of naval, air, and ground forces. These developments increase the need to strengthen and broaden the coordination of long-term US and Japanese strategic policy toward the Soviet Union and especially the US-Japan defense relationship within the context of the Mutual Security Treaty. The United States and Japan must remain sensitive to the increasing strains within the Soviet empire, while pursuing political, economic, and military policies toward the Soviet Union consistent with unified and firm resistance to Soviet expansionism. Of particular concern in providing for the joint defense of US and Japanese mutual interests is the need to expand Japan's role in such fields as surveillance, air defense, and anti-submarine warfare that contribute to the security of the Japanese home islands and the sea lanes in the waters surrounding Japan. Japanese and US leadership in militarily relevant fields of technology provide an important asset for needed improvements in their joint defense capabilities.

  15. The Folds of War: Blake’s Meaning of Warfare and Warfare of Meaning (United States)


    Utopia predicated on change, a heaven pulsing with life, contracting and expanding, allowing for love and wrath, individuality and unity . . . [where...Saviour’s coming, saying: I feel my Spectre rising upon me! Albion! arouze thyself Thou wilt certainly provoke my Spectre against thine in fury! He has a

  16. Surface Warfare Center Contributions for Addressing Warfare System Development Challenges and Goals (United States)


    during IOT &E"." "there was a loss of a large number of the most experienced management and technical personnel ...without an adequate replacement...Project Management IPT Lead Government Leadership and Development Oversight: Technical Direction Activity Dev Team Management IPT Dev Org’s Project

  17. Does the Economy or Surface Warfare Officer Career Pay Affect Surface Warfare Officer Retention? (United States)


    Table 13.  OLS coefficients and T-stat for female data set .................................. 35  Table 14.  Summary of expected and observed...retention to the economy, SWO career pay (SWOCP), and an interaction of the economy and SWOCP. B. EXPECTED BENEFITS A better understanding of...insufficient evidence to support H2, that career pay positively affects the female SWO population. 36 (3) Female Data Set—H3 The female data set is

  18. Statistical Analysis of Warfare: Identification of Winning Factors with a Focus on Irregular Warfare (United States)


    which we have two variables, age and sex , which predict whether a person will sign up at a gym . Our training data reflect that 85% of the persons who...provided by Noel Yucuis of the Graduate Writing Center, who meticulously helped me to improve the quality and content of the thesis. I am also...Victory in War: Foundations of Modern Strategy. Revised and Expanded Edition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011). 14 rest of his life

  19. Cyber-Enabled Unconventional Warfare: The Convergence of Cyberspace, Social Mobilization, and Special Warfare (United States)

    2015-12-01 ebooks /political%20 science/International%20relation%20Theory.pdf. 42 “transnational issues” including terrorism, drugs, the...the Cold War. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1996. ebooks /political%20science/International%20relation%20 Theory.pdf. Lee

  20. 国民党新军阀混战与工农武装割据--以井冈山和中央革命根据地的成功开创为例%Tangled Warfare among the KMT New Warlords and the Armed IndePendent Regimes of Workers and Peasants---For An ExamPle of the Successful Creation of the Jinggangshan and Central Revolutionary Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Mao Zedong once pointed out that,“the long - term split and warfare among white regimes provided a condition which made it possible that a small piece or some pieces of red areas under the CPC’s leadership came into being and survived in the surrounding of white regimes. ”This paper,taking examples of the success-ful creation of the Jinggangshan and Central Revolutionary Bases,elaborates the development process of the armed independent regimes of workers and peasants,i. e. ,the Red Army and rural revolutionary bases,led by Chinese communists represented by Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the clearances of tangled warfare among the KMT new warlords around the 1930s. The realization of armed independent regimes based on the tangled warfare of the KMT new warlords embodies the CPC leaders’strategic thinking of seeking for proper development oppor-tunities.%毛泽东曾指出:“因为有了白色政权间的长期的分裂和战争,便给了一种条件,使一小块或若干小块的共产党领导的红色区域,能够在四围白色政权包围的中间发生和坚持下来。”本文以井冈山和中央革命根据地的成功开创为例,阐述在上世纪30年代前后的国民党新军阀混战的空隙中,中国共产党通过以毛泽东、朱德为代表领导的工农武装割据,实现红军和农村革命根据地发展壮大的历程。借国民党新军阀混战之机实现工农武装割据,体现了中国共产党领导人审时度势寻找发展机遇的高超战略思维。

  1. Developing the Information Warfare Defense: A DISA Perspective (United States)


    for 12/04/1995 065 , ..::>>_, ““.’ :,:.. ,: !’.,i: ,:. ,:j:j:: ‘>:j._ ‘. Secure critica , ‘mi,itary~~applications: ” .:~~$:il~:~:: .A. ::..:.. ,A...5 Nominal Cbntrgl Center.. Routine vs ‘ Crisis Operational...:~;Modes...Operations ii; ,.:::: ‘i:: (’..).:::::.’ y ::,.:::‘I ? .G ,,;:::::..$y ;:y .,;::..,.‘.. .:?: ‘Y::. ,,:i;. .: ,, 1:; . . . . ..:.. :j, /_. Critica ,ity of

  2. Operational Risk and the American Way of Warfare (United States)


    Korea, 1950-1953) (Nashville: Battery Press Inc., 1987), 142-150. 55Shu Guang Zhang, Mao’s Military Romanticism : China and the Korean War, 1950-1953...Military Romanticism : China and the Korean War 1950-1953. Lawrence KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1995.

  3. Electronic Warfare and Radar Systems Engineering Handbook. 4th Edition (United States)


    DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None. 14 . ABSTRACT (U) This handbook is designed to aid...etc. excluding WRAs) ALC Air Logistics Center AM Amplitude Modulation AMD Aircraft Maintenance Department AMES Advanced Multiple Environment...VDC Volts Direct Current VDT Video Display Terminal VECP Value Engineering Change Proposal VF Prefix for Navy fighter squadron VFO Variable

  4. Scenario-Based Systems Engineering Application to Mine Warfare (United States)


    collects and provides reporting of historical O&S costs data for the Navy and Marine Corps weapon systems. Available cost information was...Hunting System as well as the legacy MCM 1 and CH-53E. The Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) utilized were Area Clearance Rate Sustained and...process was utilized to analyze input variables for relationships to the MOEs and compare resulting MOEs from the various configurations. A cost analysis

  5. Maneuver Warfare Theory: Creating a Tactically Unbalanced Fleet Marine Force (United States)


    through the cumulative destruction of the enemy’s material assets by superior firepower and technology . This distinction first appeared after the...impasse that produced the stalemate and resulting attricion of the Western Front of WWI -. The common theme of these officers was to return 7 mobLility

  6. The DTIC Review, Urban Warfare. Volume 4, Number 4 (United States)


    water shortages, under/unemployment, crime , and infrastructure deficiencies caused by uncontrolled growth.5 * That U.S. military forces shall...These characteristics include streetlights , cars parked on the streets, traffic, windows in buildings, and normal urban activity (people walking down...Military Urban Transnational Crime . Robot Using Working Model. DESCRIPTIVE NOTE: Master’s thesis DESCRIPTIVE NOTE: Final rept. Oct 97-Mar 98 DEC 1998 113

  7. The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and Information Warfare (United States)


    upcoming confer- ences sponsored by the Institute. Each newsletter also provides a strategic commentary by one of our research analysts. If you, academia, and the pol- icy community on these issues, with near - theological disputes taking place on issues of nuclear testing and ballistic...of ground forces in achieving national security objectives. The Strategic Studies Institute publishes national security and strategic research and

  8. Proceedings of 1981 Western Region Technical Symposium on Electronic Warfare (United States)


    oiintokrgfle’t 5saefle i nter’roga tor/r’elay stations consist of a tower’, var’ious winch truosito te r’r’i’sin fither siteo (i stire filtr ’’ft...CS, the errors in the aircraft states and forward. If a 435 MHz system were required, only ISA are estimated in a 15-state Kalman Filter. the RF

  9. Naval Surface Warfare Center Domestic Technology Transfer Report (FY89) (United States)


    disciplines as well as programming. 10 Main Advantages. Present methods would require manual extraction of data by desk checking and software audit reports...Tnvsrj,. Tmpnor~p,. ni;orm nftI-u lF0rrtg, Pni Crr rzermi! rsrrn TrS~nr’r,,u 1 r, PP ’l’rqan~sr rtonn~ wn pfe Vol. 25. No 3, May 1989. pp 2639-2645 1

  10. The IDF, The PLO and Urban Warfare: Lebanon 1982 (United States)


    Hamad, 1984), p. 29. 4. Avigdor Kahalani, Derekh Lohem [A Warrior’s Way], (Tel Aviv: Steinmatzky, 1989), p. 311. 5. Vollman , p. 29. 6. Schiff and...Prest, 1992. Sofer, Sasson. Begin. New York: Basil Blackwell Inc., 1988. Vollman , Israel ed. Alon Basoofa [An Oak in the Storm] Jerusalem: Hamad, 1984

  11. Trench warfare!: fitting photons for fine-feature fabrication (United States)

    Kuijten, Jan P.; Conley, Will; Socha, Robert J.; van de Goor, Stephan; Hsu, Stephen; Smith, Dave; Oliveras, Marc; Strozenski, Kirk


    The challenge is developing imaging solutions for 180 nm trench lithography that provides maximum overlapping process windows for imaging through pitch. The issue has been addressed first; through simulation to optimize illumination, secondly; with experimentation and the collection of data through dose and focus for a number of pitch sequences with several illumination conditions for each CD. Our problem is how to handle the comparison of many ED windows and still be able to determine which set of conditions provide the best result, the POP factor (Pitch Optimization Process) was determined. The authors will review the POP factor to demonstrate a possible new technique in the calculation of multiple pitch ED windows.

  12. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare. (United States)

    Hviid, Pernille


    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future.

  13. Beyond Mission Command: Maneuver Warfare for Cyber Command and Control (United States)


    and a cyber- persona .12 Cyberspace is often only taken at the face value of the physical and logical layers, even though it is the human element of...the cyber- persona that creates the most complexity. The scientific, zeros and ones foundation of computer systems may lead people to think that...decentralized manner will each type of cyber team develop the best methods of supporting their assigned mission. Decentralization of command and control

  14. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 4. Operational Plans. (United States)


    backyards , parks, and other open areas will be covered by fire, mined, or prepared as explosive flame traps. Defenses will be prepared in depth, and...Economic Affairs (1) Food and Agriculture. Farm crop, livestock, and poultry supplies are not expected to be available within SYN City after the advancing...North and South River in the southern sector. d. Resource Availability (1) An undetermined but minimal quantity of food, livestock and poultry is

  15. Improving Capabilities for Irregular Warfare. Volume 2. Capabilities Analysis (United States)


    ranged from the Israelis and other Jews buying up all the land in Iraq, to the Coca - Cola logo (sup- posedly owned by Jews) as saying “No Mecca, patience of the population. A population will stand only so many mistakes and so much time before branding a non-indigenous force as an...who still might occasionally help the Viet Cong either because of threats or promises of re- ward, or out of loyalty .” West, The Village, pp. 102-104

  16. Out of Bounds. Transnational Sanctuary in Irregular Warfare (United States)


    frontiers. Frontiers which, because of the great length, ill-defi ned boundaries, and the nature of the terrain coupled with the political failure of...Ted Daley, “Afghani- stan and Gorbachev’s Global Foreign Policy,” Asian Survey, 29 (May 1989), 496-513; Richard K. Herrmann , “Soviet Behavior in...November 1965,” in America’s First Battles, 1776-1965. eds. Charles E. Heller and William A. Stofft. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1986. Herrmann

  17. Assessing Irregular Warfare: A Framework for Intelligence Analysis (United States)


    Rebellion (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985); and Sidney Tar- row’s Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics (Cambridge...Model, MR-1188-A, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2000. As of October 30, 2007: Tarrow ... Sidney , Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Tilly, Charles, From Mobilization to

  18. Fourth Generation Warfare in Chile: Illicit Drug Trafficking Threats (United States)


    Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile – PDI). Carabineros de Chile is the uniformed Chilean national police force created in...Chile also has an investigative police force, the Investigations Police of Chile (Policia de Investigaciones de Chile, PDI). This is the civil police... Investigaciones de Chile Homepage, (accessed February 20, 2011). 56 CONACE Homepage

  19. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 3. Operational Plans. (United States)


    cite the following field dental support missions: general dentistry support, care of maxillofacial injuries , assistance with the initial treatment of...on the treatment of maxillofacial injuries (MFI) and the assistance provided in the care of non-MFI casualties. Dental support was ship-based at the...accomplish the general dentistry workload. V-106 * ..*.* -. . * -*..The incidence of maxillofacial injuries (MFI) among WIA during the Korean and

  20. Simulation of Operations in the Underwater Warfare Testbed (UWT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, D.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Grootendorst, H.J.


    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Several studies have shown the benefits of multi-platform and multi-static operations. To facilitate torpedo defence system studies and the development of future tactics, TNO Defence, Security and Safety start

  1. Multi-platform operations in the Underwater Warfare Testbed (UWT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, D; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Grootendorst, H.J.


    More than a decade ago, the long-term NATO scientific study “Maritime Operations in 2015” (MO 2015) identified the so-called multi-platform and co-operative multi-static Low Frequency Active Sonar (LFAS) concept, involving co-operative sonar data exchange between surface ships and submarines. Severa

  2. Netcentric underwater warfare; The Remedy for 'Silent Subs'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.M.; Beerens, S.P.; Theije, P.A.M. de


    Although in most recent crises around the world it would appear from a superficial glance that there was no imminent underwater threat, a closer look shows differently. In the War on Iraq, for instance, a large allied effort was spent on eliminating the very real mine threat that endangered the supp

  3. Fighting Networks: The Defining Challenge of Irregular Warfare (United States)


    Social Network Analysis, 180. 129 Figure originally depicted in Bernice A. Pescosolido and Sharon Georgianna, “ Durkheim , Suicide, and Religion...25, 2011. Pescosolido, Bernice A., and Sharon Georgianna. “ Durkheim , Suicide, and Religion: Toward a Network Theory

  4. Heat Production and Optimal Cooling for Navy Special Warfare Divers (United States)


    respiratory response of trained underwater swimmers using a modified self- contained underwater breathing apparatus. J ARRl Physiol 10:376-382. Sterba JA (1990...1973). Handbook for Professional Divers, J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA, pp. 206-208. Waligora JM, Michel EL (1968). Application of conductive

  5. Collaborative Core Research Program for Chemical-Biological Warfare Defense (United States)


    Research Center (UC-DDRC, part of UC-MDI). Using an EvoTec robot , single point (10 μM final solution test chemical concentration) 2 measurements...assay on neuroblastoma cell lines. We performed this method, as well as incorporated a novel method developed at US Army Medical Research Institute of...formulations chemists to determine the optimal dose methods. These new CWA countermeasures will be transitioned to the Chemical Biological Medical Systems for

  6. The Role of Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    FOR A DAY…GIVE HIM 2,000 FISH, HE WILL EAT FOR GENERATIONS Pop sought to improve the dietary habits of the refugees he worked with. Protein scarcity...guerrillas. As an example of how Pop tackled problems more specifically related to protein, take the black razorback pig that is native to Laos. Despite...its small size, boney frame, and lack of meat and fat, it had been for centuries the only pig that the people raised and consumed. Although people

  7. Irregular Warfare in the American West: The Geronimo Campaign (United States)


    sustain the fight. Crook’s protege , Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood, located and convinced Geronimo to surrender in the summer of 1886, a task many...escaped en route to the United States from Mexico in January 1886. Eight i:nonths later, Crook’s protege , Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood, of the few Army officers known to every Apache in Geronimo’s band. The lieutenant was a protege of Crook with a special aptitude for dealing

  8. Air Force Cyber Warfare: Now and the Future (United States)


    keystrokes or to fend off adversaries with a smartphone, a pa- per clip, and an ingenious plan. These socially awkward heroes and heroines fill pro- visioning ( dynamic construction), hardening, and configuration management. Twenty-Fourth Air Force manages the AFNet—the Air Force’s por

  9. Next-Generation Undersea Warfare and Undersea Distributed Networked Systems (United States)


    driving the United States to sea-based force options, both nearshore and offshore , that can seize and sustain battlespace access and project lethal and...shield, and FORCEnet. 1. Sea Basing - requires strategic positioning of the joint assets afloat nearshore and offshore , offensive and defensive power...34* Energy storage, including high charging rates to break (at least in part) the " umbilical cord," providing greater autonomy and freedom of

  10. Towards a Semiotic Information Position Framework for Network Centric Warfare (United States)


    study of anything which stands for something else [10]. Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and American logician and philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce...are considered as the founders of semiotics [10]. As a linguist, Saussure was interested in the relationships between words (or signs) and he Eco, Saussure “did not define the signified any too clearly, leaving it half way between a mental image, a concept and a psychological reality

  11. EW 101 a first course in electronic warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Adamy, David L


    This popular series of tutorials, featured over a period of years in the Journal of Electronic Defense, is now available in a single volume. Organized into chapters with new introductory and supplementary material from the author, you get clear, concise and well-illustrated examinations of critical topics such as antenna parameters, receiver sensitivity, processing tasks, and search strategies, LPI signals, jamming, communication links, and simulation. The chapters define key terms and explain how and why particular technologies are relevant to electronic defense. Detailed charts, diagrams and

  12. Network Warfare Operations: Unleashing the Potential. Part 1 (United States)


    Operations SIO Special Information Operations USAF United States Air Force 39 Definitions computer network attack (CNA). Operations to disrupt, deny... special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access while denying...offensive information operations, and special information operations. (JP 3- 13) 2. The integrated employment of the core capabilities of

  13. Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Technical Digest (United States)


    two vehi- cles. CUTTHROAT will be delivered to the Navy early in FY02. The vehicle names are taken from species of fish indigenous to Lake Pend Oreille...on the use of an active magnetic regenerator to produce chilled water efficiently. • Thermoacoustic Cooling - This employs sound waves to main loop system, a copper nickel pipe test section, segregation gate valve to configure the system for Zebra (battle) condition, isolation

  14. Survey and Analysis of Surface Warfare Officer Career Path Issues (United States)


    this specialization alternative are discussed in Swinger [Ref. 2:pp. 98-100]. 1. Hypothesis 1 The null hypothesis states that each specialization...Maior Career Path Change (NPRDC TN 89-5), Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, October 1988. 2. Swinger , A., "Talent at Sea," U. S. Naval

  15. Maritime Trade Warfare in the 21st Century (United States)


    2009, UNCTAD/ RMT /2009, Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat, 2009, 53. 24 Michael C. Grubb, "Merchant Shipping...Maritime Transport 2009. UNCTAD/ RMT /2009, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat, 2009. U. S

  16. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J


    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  17. Electronic Warfare - Electromagnetic Threat Analysis System, (EW-ETAS). (United States)


    POINTS Routines, Part No. 09825-10000 (INTDAR) Carnahan, Luther and Wilkies, Applied Numerical Methods Pages 70-74 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Assumption...UNI) Applied Numerical Methods Pages 546-549 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Assumptions: The variable IODD is an odd integer number less than 32767. 11...STATISTICAL TESTS, Carnahan, Luther and Wilkies CHI-SQUARE TEST OF Applied Numerical Methods EXPECTED DISTRIBUTION Pages 562-566 (TESCHI) John Wiley and

  18. The Role of the Propagation Environment in HF Electronic Warfare. (United States)


    pacing item. 5.1 The Jamming Problem The objective of Jamming is to deny communication, radar coverage, or navigation services to the intended customer...NOSC in conjunction with the PROPHET terminal (Rose, 1982; Argo and Rothmuller, 1981]. The work of Hayden was based upon raytracing through idealized...SIGSEC, and related areas as well as communication frequency management. In addition it may have application in the OTH- Radar arena but this discipline has

  19. The Effect of Shipboard Design Decisions in Amphibious Warfare (United States)


    stowage area is 10,328 square feet; the cargo stowage area is 160,000 cubic 38 feet; number of helicopter spots expressed as CH-46 equivalents is...these categories: troop berthing, vehicle square footage, and LCAC spots. Troop berthing is the amount of racks , or beds, on board the ship which...corresponds to the number of Marines that can be embarked on board at a given time. The Tarawa class has roughly a 130 to 150 rack advantage over that of

  20. Imperialism, ANZAC nationalism and the Aboriginal experience of warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic John Gibson


    Full Text Available Aboriginal protest played a key role in undermining the celebratory settler-nationalism of the bicentennial in 1988. In the lead up to another major nationalist mobilisation, the centenary of the Gallipoli invasion on ANZAC Day 2015, extensive official efforts are being made to incorporate Aboriginal experiences into the day, through celebration of the role of Aboriginal people who served in Australia’s armed forces.   This article provides a critical analysis of the 2014 NAIDOC theme as a way of exploring some of the tensions in this process. The NAIDOC theme, ‘Serving Country: Centenary and Beyond’, presented a continuity between Aboriginal soldiers in WW1 and Aboriginal warriors who fought in defence of their land during the 19th Century Frontier Wars.   In contrast, this article argues that the real historical continuity is between the massacres on the frontier, which often involved Aboriginal troopers fighting for the colonial powers, and the invasions undertaken by Australian soldiers in WW1. New research documenting the horrific scale on which Aboriginal people were killed by Native Police in Queensland in the second half of the 19th Century is integrated with studies of the political economy of Australian settler-capitalism in this period. This analysis is used to demonstrate how capitalist class interests drove both the Frontier Wars and the development of an Australian regional empire, which was consolidated by the mobilisation of Australian troops in WW1.