WorldWideScience

Sample records for anti-schistosomal intervention targets

  1. Expression profile of the Schistosoma japonicum degradome reveals differential protease expression patterns and potential anti-schistosomal intervention targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood fluke proteases play pivotal roles in the processes of invasion, nutrition acquisition, immune evasion, and other host-parasite interactions. Hundreds of genes encoding putative proteases have been identified in the recently published schistosome genomes. However, the expression profiles of these proteases in Schistosoma species have not yet been systematically analyzed. We retrieved and culled the redundant protease sequences of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Echinococcus multilocularis, and Clonorchis sinensis from public databases utilizing bioinformatic approaches. The degradomes of the four parasitic organisms and Homo sapiens were then comparatively analyzed. A total of 262 S. japonicum protease sequences were obtained and the expression profiles generated using whole-genome microarray. Four main clusters of protease genes with different expression patterns were identified: proteases up-regulated in hepatic schistosomula and adult worms, egg-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, cercaria-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, and constantly expressed proteases. A subset of protease genes with different expression patterns were further validated using real-time quantitative PCR. The present study represents the most comprehensive analysis of a degradome in Schistosoma species to date. These results provide a firm foundation for future research on the specific function(s of individual proteases and may help to refine anti-proteolytic strategies in blood flukes.

  2. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Fajtová

    Full Text Available Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that infects over 240 million people worldwide, and for which there is a need to identify new targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. Our research is focused on Schistosoma mansoni prolyl oligopeptidase (SmPOP from the serine peptidase family S9, which has not been investigated in detail in trematodes.We demonstrate that SmPOP is expressed in adult worms and schistosomula in an enzymatically active form. By immunofluorescence microscopy, SmPOP is localized in the tegument and parenchyma of both developmental stages. Recombinant SmPOP was produced in Escherichia coli and its active site specificity investigated using synthetic substrate and inhibitor libraries, and by homology modeling. SmPOP is a true oligopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide (but not protein substrates with a strict specificity for Pro at P1. The inhibition profile is analogous to those for mammalian POPs. Both the recombinant enzyme and live worms cleave host vasoregulatory, proline-containing hormones such as angiotensin I and bradykinin. Finally, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of SmPOP that induce deleterious phenotypes in cultured schistosomes.We provide the first localization and functional analysis of SmPOP together with chemical tools for measuring its activity. We briefly discuss the notion that SmPOP, operating at the host-parasite interface to cleave host bioactive peptides, may contribute to the survival of the parasite. If substantiated, SmPOP could be a new target for the development of anti-schistosomal drugs.

  3. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  4. Anti-schistosomal drugs: observations on the mechanism of drug resistance to hycanthone, and on the involvement of host antibodies in the mode of action of praziquantel

    OpenAIRE

    Brindley, Paul J.; Alan Sher

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports recent observations from our laboratory dealing with the anti-schistosome drugs hycanthone (HC) and praziquantel (PZQ). In particular, we discuss a laboratory model of drug resistance to HC in Schistosoma mansoni and show that drug sensitive and resistant lines of the parasite can be differentiated on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms using homologous ribosomal gene probes. In addition, we summarize data demonstrating that effective chemotherapy of S. m...

  5. Anti-schistosomal drugs: observations on the mechanism of drug resistance to hycanthone, and on the involvement of host antibodies in the mode of action of praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Brindley

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports recent observations from our laboratory dealing with the anti-schistosome drugs hycanthone (HC and praziquantel (PZQ. In particular, we discuss a laboratory model of drug resistance to HC in Schistosoma mansoni and show that drug sensitive and resistant lines of the parasite can be differentiated on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms using homologous ribosomal gene probes. In addition, we summarize data demonstrating that effective chemotherapy of S. mansoni infection with PZQ in mice requires the presence of host anti-parasite antibodies. These antibodies bind to PZQ treated worms and may be involved in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity reactions which result in the clearance of worms from the vasculature.

  6. Targeting the nucleolus for cancer intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Jaclyn E; Devlin, Jennifer R; Cameron, Donald; Hannan, Kate M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D

    2014-06-01

    The contribution of the nucleolus to cancer is well established with respect to its traditional role in facilitating ribosome biogenesis and proliferative capacity. More contemporary studies however, infer that nucleoli contribute a much broader role in malignant transformation. Specifically, extra-ribosomal functions of the nucleolus position it as a central integrator of cellular proliferation and stress signaling, and are emerging as important mechanisms for modulating how oncogenes and tumor suppressors operate in normal and malignant cells. The dependence of certain tumor cells to co-opt nucleolar processes to maintain their cancer phenotypes has now clearly been demonstrated by the application of small molecule inhibitors of RNA Polymerase I to block ribosomal DNA transcription and disrupt nucleolar function (Bywater et al., 2012 [1]). These drugs, which selectively kill tumor cells in vivo while sparing normal cells, have now progressed to clinical trials. It is likely that we have only just begun to scratch the surface of the potential of the nucleolus as a new target for cancer therapy, with "suppression of nucleolar stress" representing an emerging "hallmark" of cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease.

  7. Strategic targeting of advance care planning interventions: the Goldilocks phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle

    2014-04-01

    Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions.

  8. The gut microbiome, kidney disease, and targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Ali; Raj, Dominic S

    2014-04-01

    The human gut harbors >100 trillion microbial cells, which influence the nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune function of the host. Here, we review the quantitative and qualitative changes in gut microbiota of patients with CKD that lead to disturbance of this symbiotic relationship, how this may contribute to the progression of CKD, and targeted interventions to re-establish symbiosis. Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria incites a powerful inflammatory response in the host organism. Furthermore, protein fermentation by gut microbiota generates myriad toxic metabolites, including p-cresol and indoxyl sulfate. Disruption of gut barrier function in CKD allows translocation of endotoxin and bacterial metabolites to the systemic circulation, which contributes to uremic toxicity, inflammation, progression of CKD, and associated cardiovascular disease. Several targeted interventions that aim to re-establish intestinal symbiosis, neutralize bacterial endotoxins, or adsorb gut-derived uremic toxins have been developed. Indeed, animal and human studies suggest that prebiotics and probiotics may have therapeutic roles in maintaining a metabolically-balanced gut microbiota and reducing progression of CKD and uremia-associated complications. We propose that further research should focus on using this highly efficient metabolic machinery to alleviate uremic symptoms. PMID:24231662

  9. New targets for intervention in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiecki, E Michael

    2011-09-20

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease of high bone remodeling, with an imbalance of bone resorption over bone formation, resulting in decreased bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. With our improved understanding of the molecular and cellular regulators and mediators of bone remodeling, new targets for therapeutic intervention have been identified. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is the principal regulator of osteoclast differentiation, activity, and survival; denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, inhibits bone resorption and is approved for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk of fractures. Cathepsin K is a protease produced by activated osteoclasts that degrades the protein matrix of bone. An inhibitor of cathepsin K, odanacatib, is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis; it decreases bone resorption while seeming to suppress bone formation less than other antiresorptive agents. Sclerostin is a cytokine produced by osteocytes that inhibits osteoblastic bone formation; investigational monoclonal antibodies to sclerostin, such as AMG 785, have osteoanabolic properties with the potential to improve clinical outcomes in patients with osteoporosis. These and other novel interventions that target newly recognized regulators of bone remodeling are promising agents for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. The cell's nucleolus: an emerging target for chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Amanda J; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The transient nucleolus plays a central role in the up-regulated synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to sustain ribosome biogenesis, a hallmark of aberrant cell growth. This function, in conjunction with its unique pathohistological features in malignant cells and its ability to mediate apoptosis, renders this sub-nuclear structure a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents. In this Minireview, structurally and functionally diverse small molecules are discussed that have been reported to either interact with the nucleolus directly or perturb its function indirectly by acting on its dynamic components. These molecules include all major classes of nucleic-acid-targeted agents, antimetabolites, kinase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, natural product antibiotics, oligopeptides, as well as nanoparticles. Together, these molecules are invaluable probes of structure and function of the nucleolus. They also provide a unique opportunity to develop novel strategies for more selective and therefore better-tolerated chemotherapeutic intervention. In this regard, inhibition of RNA polymerase-I-mediated rRNA synthesis appears to be a promising mechanism for killing cancer cells. The recent development of molecules targeted at G-quadruplex-forming rRNA gene sequences, which are currently undergoing clinical trials, seems to attest to the success of this approach.

  11. MicroRNA: an Emerging Therapeutic Target and Intervention Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decheng Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs with posttranscriptional regulatory functions. To date, more than 600 human miRNAs have been experimentally identified, and estimated to regulate more than one third of cellular messenger RNAs. Accumulating evidence has linked the dysregulated expression patterns of miRNAs to a variety of diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and viral infections. MiRNAs provide its particular layer of network for gene regulation, thus possessing the great potential both as a novel class of therapeutic targets and as a powerful intervention tool. In this regard, synthetic RNAs that contain the binding sites of miRNA have been shown to work as a “decoy” or “miRNA sponge” to inhibit the function of specific miRNAs. On the other hand, miRNA expression vectors have been used to restore or overexpress specific miRNAs to achieve a long-term effect. Further, double-stranded miRNA mimetics for transient replacement have been experimentally validated. Endogenous precursor miRNAs have also been used as scaffolds for the induction of RNA interference. This article reviews the recent progress on this emerging technology as a powerful tool for gene regulation studies and particularly as a rationale strategy for design of therapeutics.

  12. Neural Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Target for Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Aeson [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Kim-Fuchs, Corina [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Department of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, University Hospital Bern, Bern 3010 (Switzerland); Le, Caroline P. [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Hollande, Frédéric [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Sloan, Erica K., E-mail: erica.sloan@monash.edu [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Cousins Center for PNI, UCLA Semel Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and UCLA AIDS Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Surgery, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia)

    2015-07-17

    The tumor microenvironment is known to play a pivotal role in driving cancer progression and governing response to therapy. This is of significance in pancreatic cancer where the unique pancreatic tumor microenvironment, characterized by its pronounced desmoplasia and fibrosis, drives early stages of tumor progression and dissemination, and contributes to its associated low survival rates. Several molecular factors that regulate interactions between pancreatic tumors and their surrounding stroma are beginning to be identified. Yet broader physiological factors that influence these interactions remain unclear. Here, we discuss a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies that highlight the important role chronic stress plays as a physiological regulator of neural-tumor interactions in driving the progression of pancreatic cancer. These studies propose several approaches to target stress signaling via the β-adrenergic signaling pathway in order to slow pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. They also provide evidence to support the use of β-blockers as a novel therapeutic intervention to complement current clinical strategies to improve cancer outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer.

  13. Neural Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Target for Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumor microenvironment is known to play a pivotal role in driving cancer progression and governing response to therapy. This is of significance in pancreatic cancer where the unique pancreatic tumor microenvironment, characterized by its pronounced desmoplasia and fibrosis, drives early stages of tumor progression and dissemination, and contributes to its associated low survival rates. Several molecular factors that regulate interactions between pancreatic tumors and their surrounding stroma are beginning to be identified. Yet broader physiological factors that influence these interactions remain unclear. Here, we discuss a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies that highlight the important role chronic stress plays as a physiological regulator of neural-tumor interactions in driving the progression of pancreatic cancer. These studies propose several approaches to target stress signaling via the β-adrenergic signaling pathway in order to slow pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. They also provide evidence to support the use of β-blockers as a novel therapeutic intervention to complement current clinical strategies to improve cancer outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer

  14. Cachexia and sarcopenia: mechanisms and potential targets for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argilés, Josep M; Busquets, Silvia; Stemmler, Britta; López-Soriano, Francisco J

    2015-06-01

    Cachexia is a multi-organ syndrome associated with cancer and other chronic diseases, characterized by body weight loss, muscle and adipose tissue wasting and inflammation, being often associated with anorexia. Skeletal muscle tissue represents more than 40% of body weight and seems to be one of the main tissues involved in the wasting that occurs during cachexia. Sarcopenia is a degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with healthy ageing. The molecular mechanisms behind cachexia and sarcopenia share some common trends. Muscle wasting is the result of a combination of an imbalance between synthetic and degradative protein pathways together with increased myocyte apoptosis and decreased regenerative capacity. Oxidative pathways are also altered in skeletal muscle during muscle wasting and this seems to be a consequence of mitochondrial abnormalities that include altered morphology and function, decreased ATP synthesis and uncoupling. The aim of the present review is to analyse common molecular pathways between cachexia and sarcopenia in order to put forward potential targets for intervention.

  15. Periostin: a promising target of therapeutical intervention for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Weihong

    2011-06-01

    RNA-Periostin LNCap cells growed slowly in vitro and in vivo. The tissues of xenografts as PCa were verificated by HE staining. Additionally, the weak positive Periostin expressed tumor cells could be seen in the tissues of 6 xenografts from the group of down-regulated Periostin LNCap cells which had a significant decrease of the amount of Periostin compared to the other two group. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that sliencing Periostin could inhibit migration of LNCap cells in vitro. Conclusions Our data indicates that Periostin as an up-regulated protein in PCa may be a promising target of therapeutical intervention for PCa in future.

  16. Social communication interventions for preschoolers: targeting peer interactions during peer group entry and cooperative play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Geralyn R; Olswang, Lesley B; Coggins, Truman E

    2005-08-01

    Some preschoolers with language impairment approach and manage peer interactions less effectively than typically developing peers. This article discusses assessment and intervention strategies for targeting preschoolers' social communication skills during peer entry and cooperative play situations. Essential features of effective interventions include identification of appropriate social communication targets, addressing and facilitating children's use of these targets during small group sessions with peers, and supporting generalization of newly acquired social communication behaviors to children's peer interactions within the classroom setting. PMID:16155855

  17. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.;

    2007-01-01

    and brief intervention (SBI) in general practice. METHODS: A randomized PCT (brief counselling intervention vs no intervention) involving 39 Danish general practitioners (GPs). Systematic screening of 6897 adults led to inclusion of 906 risky drinkers, and research follow-up on 537 of these after 12......AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening......-14 months. Outcome measures focused on patients' acceptance of screening and intervention and their self-reported alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Patient acceptance of screening and intervention -10.3% (N = 794) of the target population (N = 7, 691) explicitly refused screening. All intervention group...

  18. Modelling return-to-work intervention strategies: A method to help target interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Joling; P. Janssen; W.J.N. Groot

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to investigate the relationship between the probability of receiving an intervention by the occupational physician and the probability of return-to-work (RTW) of sick workers; 2) to explore the use of simultaneous modelling of the intervention and RTW process. An

  19. Interventions Targeting Attention in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elena; Watson, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to focus and sustain one's attention is critical for learning. Children with autism demonstrate unusual characteristics of attention from infancy. It is reasonable to assume that early anomalies in attention influence a child's developmental trajectories. Therapeutic interventions for autism often focus on core features of…

  20. Effects of targeting disease and medication management interventions towards patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, J F M; Stuurman-Bieze, A G G; Hiddink, E G; Postma, M J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal adherence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients is associated with decreased clinical and economic outcomes. Intervention programs, targeted at patients with suboptimal adherence and exacerbations, offer opportunities for cost-effective COPD care. We have aim

  1. Educational Interventions Targeted at Minors in Situations of Grave Social Vulnerability and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Rojas, Isabel Bartau

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to outline and assess an educational intervention programme targeted at improving the skills of families and the personal and social development of children living in situations of grave social vulnerability. The sample comprised 10 families during the first phase of the intervention and six during the second. The…

  2. The Limerick Reading Initiative: A Reading Intervention Targeted at Struggling Readers in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Diarmuid; Olshtroon, Aoife; O'Halloran, Claire

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined the effectiveness of a reading intervention targeting a group of 24 struggling readers in ten primary schools in Ireland. The intervention consisted of two components; component one consisted of 15-20 minutes delivery of the Toe-by-Toe programme (a well established systematic synthetic phonics programme) and the second…

  3. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  4. The Unintended Consequences of Targeting: Young People's Lived Experiences of Social and Emotional Learning Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years there has been a proliferation of targeted school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. However, the lived experience of young peoples' participation is often elided, while the potential for interventions to confer unintended and even adverse effects remains under-theorised and empirically…

  5. The Use and Effectiveness of a Targeted Math Intervention for Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Gabriel M.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Carter, Deborah R.

    2013-01-01

    Students who fail to develop proficiency in math skills in the primary grades are more likely to experience difficulties in the math curriculum later on. These students may be in need of a more targeted intervention, or Tier 2 supports, in mathematic instruction. Although the instructional principles of an effective math intervention are becoming…

  6. Reactions to caregiving during an intervention targeting frailty in community living older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggar Christina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demands and consequences of caregiving are considerable. However, such outcomes are not commonly investigated in the evaluation of interventions targeting frailty. This study aims to explore family carers’ reactions to caregiving during an intervention targeting frailty in community living older people. Method A study of carers (n=119 embedded in a 12 month randomised controlled intervention targeting frailty in people 70 years or older, compared to usual care. Reactions to caregiving were measured in the domains of health, finance, self-esteem, family support and daily schedule. Anxiety and depression levels were also evaluated. Carer outcomes were measured at baseline, 6 months and 12 months and at 3 months post frailty intervention. Results Carers of frail older people in the intervention group showed a sustained improvement in health scores during the intervention targeting frailty, while health scores for carers of the frail older people in the control group, decreased and therefore their health worsened (F=2.956, p=0.034. The carers of the frail older people in the intervention group reported overall better health (F=5.303, p=0.023 and self-esteem (F=4.158, p=0.044, and co-resident carers reported higher self-esteem (F=4.088, p=0.046. Anxiety levels increased for carers in both intervention and control groups (F=2.819, p=0.04. Conclusion The inclusion of carers in trials targeting frail older people may assist in the identification of at-risk carers and facilitate the provision of information and support that will assist them to continue providing care. Further research that explores the features of frailty interventions that impact on the caregiving experience is recommended. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000565347

  7. Intervention development to reduce musculoskeletal disorders: Is the process on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Rothmore, Paul; Tappin, David

    2016-09-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders remain an intractable OHS problem. In 2002, Haslam proposed applying the stage of change model to target ergonomics interventions and other health and safety prevention activities. The stage of change model proposes that taking into account an individual's readiness for change in developing intervention strategies is likely to improve uptake and success. This paper revisits Haslam's proposal in the context of interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorders. Effective MSD interventions require a systematic approach and need to take into account a combination of measures. Research evidence suggests that in practice, those charged with the management of MSDs are not consistently adopting such an approach. Consequently, intervention development may not represent contemporary best practice. We propose a potential method of addressing this gap is the stage of change model, and use a case study to illustrate this argument in tailoring intervention development for managing MSDs. PMID:27184326

  8. Risks and Targeted Interventions: Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed.

  9. p53 as an intervention target for cancer and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hasty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available p53 is well known for suppressing tumors but could also affect other aging processes not associated with tumor suppression. As a transcription factor, p53 responds to a variety of stresses to either induce apoptosis (cell death or cell cycle arrest (cell preservation to suppress tumor development. Yet, the effect p53 has on the non-cancer aspects of aging is complicated and not well understood. On one side, p53 could induce cellular senescence or apoptosis to suppress cancer but as an unintended consequence enhance the aging process especially if these responses diminish stem and progenitor cell populations. But on the flip side, p53 could reduce growth and growth-related stress to enable cell survival and ultimately delay the aging process. A better understanding of diverse functions of p53 is essential to elucidate its influences on the aging process and the possibility of targeting p53 or p53 transcriptional targets to treat cancer and ameliorate general aging.

  10. Atrial fibrillation: what are the targets for intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Das, Mithilesh K

    2003-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a difficult and growing problem in the population. While medical therapy controls symptoms in many patients, a proportion of individuals with this common arrhythmia cannot be optimally managed with drugs alone. However, truly curative therapy for AF has always been one of the "holy grails" of electrophysiology. The surgical maze procedure was the first to offer permanent maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with AF but subjected the patient to open heart surgery; a catheter-based translation of the maze procedure served as proof of concept that a catheterization technique could be used to treat AF. Subsequent experience has narrowed the electrophysiologist's attention to ablation of triggers of AF, most often residing in the pulmonary veins, rather than requiring more extensive ablation lines to control the arrhythmia. The following discussion deals with the development and current status of techniques for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, focusing on determination of appropriate target sites for ablation.

  11. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  12. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  13. The effectiveness of a proactive coping intervention targeting self-management in diabetes patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kroese, Floor M.; Marieke A. Adriaanse; Vinkers, Charlotte D W; Van de Schoot, Rens; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study's aim was to investigate psychological, behavioral and medical long-term outcomes of an existing self-management intervention targeting the development of proactive coping skills (e.g. goal setting and identifying barriers) in type 2 diabetes patients. The study aimed to replicate prior research showing the intervention's effectiveness, and to extend it by (a) adding booster sessions and (b) prolonging the period of follow-up measurement to capture long-term effects.Desig...

  14. Flexible inflation targets, forex interventions and exchange rate volatility in emerging countries

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Berganza; Carmen Broto

    2011-01-01

    Emerging economies with inflation targets (IT) face a dilemma between fulflling the theoretical conditions of "strict IT", which implies a fully flexible exchange rate, or applying a "flexible IT", which entails a de facto managed floating exchange rate with forex interventions to moderate exchange rate volatility. Using a panel data model for 37 countries we find that, although IT lead to higher exchange rate instability than alternative regimes, forex interventions in some IT countries have...

  15. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  16. Developing Internet interventions to target the individual impact of stigma in health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of health problems are associated with significant stigma, a social phenomenon in which individuals become the object of negative stereotypes. In addition to experiencing negative reactions from others, stigmatised individuals and groups can experience harmful consequences when they internalise these negative prevailing attitudes. The objective of this paper was to consider the potential to develop Internet-based health-related interventions explicitly targeting the effects of stigma on the individual. A review of the literature was conducted to synthesise current conceptualisations of stigma and self-stigma across a number of groups, and to identify current intervention developments. Self-stigma reduction strategies developed for in-person services include cognitive reframing, myth busting, contact with other members of the stigmatised group, and disclosure promotion. The development and provision of interventions targeting self-stigma within an online environment is in its infancy. Our review considers there to be particular potential of online interventions for this target, associated with the capacity of the Internet to promote having contact with peers within one’s stigmatised group, and for user interaction and empowerment. We conclude that self-stigma is a domain in which there is significant potential for innovation with health-related interventions, and provide a number of recommendations for online intervention development.

  17. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d

  18. The Targeted Reading Intervention: Face-to-Face vs. Webcam Literacy Coaching of Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, L.; Bratsch-Hines, M.; Varghese, C.; Bean, A.; Hedrick, A.

    2015-01-01

    The targeted reading intervention (TRI) is a professional development program for rural kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers to help them provide effective reading strategies with struggling readers. In two randomized controlled trials, the TRI was delivered two ways: (1) literacy coaches provided support for classroom teachers through…

  19. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  20. Long-Term Effects of a Personality-Targeted Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of a personality-targeted intervention on drinking quantity and frequency (QF), problem drinking, and personality-specific motivations for alcohol use in early adolescence. Method: A randomized control trial was carried out with 364 adolescents (median age 14) recruited from 13 secondary schools with…

  1. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  2. A trial of an iPad™ intervention targeting social communication skills in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of developmental level, and was rated highly by parents. There were no significant group differences in parent-report measures post-intervention, nor in a measure of parent-child play at follow-up. Therefore, this intervention did not have an observable impact on real-world social communication skills and caution is recommended about the potential usefulness of iPad(™) apps for amelioration of difficulties in interaction. However, positive attitudes among participants, lack of harms and the potential of apps to deliver therapeutic content at low economic cost suggest this approach is worth pursuing further, perhaps targeting other skill domains.

  3. Effectiveness of interventions targeting frequent users of emergency departments: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus F.

    2012-01-01

    L'article publié de le cadre de cette thèse est intitulé "Effectiveness of interventions targeting frequent users of emergency departments: A systematic review." Il a été publié par les "Annals of Emergency Medicine (AEM)" en juillet 2011. Le titre en français pourrait être: "Efficacité des interventions ciblant les utilisateurs fréquents des services d'urgence: Une revue systématique." Le titre du journal américain pourrait être: "Annales de Médecine d'Urgence". Il s'agit du journal du "Coll...

  4. Targeted and anonymized smartphone-based public health interventions in a participatory sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Public health interventions comprising information dissemination to affect behavioral adjustment have long been a significant component of public health campaigns. However, there has been limited development of public health intervention systems to make use of advances in mobile computing and telecommunications technologies. Such developments pose significant challenges to privacy and security where potentially sensitive data may be collected. In our previous work we identified and demonstrated the feasibility of using mobile devices as anonymous public health data collection devices as part of a Health Participatory Sensing Network (HPSN). An advanced capability of these networks extended in this paper would be the ability to distribute, apply, report on and analyze the usage and effectiveness of targeted public health interventions in an anonymous way. In this paper we describe such a platform, its place in the HPSN and demonstrate its feasibility through an implementation. PMID:25570789

  5. Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention Targeting HIV-Infected Prisoners in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Copenhaver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia represent a critical target population for secondary HIV risk reduction interventions and care. We report on the process and outcome of our formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI designed to reduce secondary HIV risk and improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among soon-to-be-released HIV-infected prisoners. Our formative work involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders, members of the target population, and their family members. Based on all information, we adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+, an EBI, to consist of eight 2-hour sessions that cover a range of specified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to accommodate their particular substance abuse, HIV risk, and antiretroviral adherence issues. This study provides a complete example of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI—taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members and their families—for use in real world prison settings where high-risk populations are concentrated.

  6. [Integrative neuroimaging for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2010-11-01

    The editorial of the new-year issue of Nature 2010 features "A decade for psychiatric disorders". The DALY estimation clearly shows that psychiatric disorders are the top source for burden of diseases to the individual life and society. Schizophrenia is a most devastating psychiatric disorder in which the onset is usually at youth and the cognitive dysfunction persists for life-long in some patients. Schizophrenia is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. It has been unknown whether post-onset progressive pathology is also present in schizophrenia until the recent sophistication of in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies on first-episode schizophrenia have shown a progressive deterioration of structure and function of neocortical regions in the early stage of the disorder. Insult to dendritic spines through glutamatergic dysfunction may underlie this process, which may in turn be a promising molecular target for intervention to improve the functional outcome of schizophrenia. More recently, the question of whether early intervention can be targeted at prodromal stage of schizophrenia has called special attention in psychiatry. In University of Tokyo, the integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is ongoing. Through these efforts, we would like to contribute to the establishment of "youth mental health", where every youth in the community can know, prevent, and have easy access to needs- and value-based services, and pursue mental well-being and recovery. PMID:21921453

  7. Pilot evaluation of a web-based intervention targeting sexual health service access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K E; Newby, K; Caley, M; Danahay, A; Kehal, I

    2016-04-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among 13-19-year olds are reported. A pre-post questionnaire-based design was used. Matched baseline and follow-up data were identified from 148 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome measures were self-reported service access, self-reported intention to access services and beliefs about services and service access identified through needs analysis. Objective service access data provided by local sexual health services were also analyzed. Analysis suggests the intervention had a significant positive effect on psychological barriers to and antecedents of service access among females. Males, who reported greater confidence in service access compared with females, significantly increased service access by time 2 follow-up. Available objective service access data support the assertion that the intervention may have led to increases in service access. There is real promise for this novel digital intervention. Further evaluation is planned as the model is licensed to and rolled out by other local authorities in the United Kingdom. PMID:26928566

  8. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  9. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  10. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Jull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study. Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.

  11. The efficacy of targeted interventions for modifiable psychosocial risk factors of persistent nonspecific low back pain e A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kjær, Per

    2012-01-01

    of targeted psychosocial interventions. Aim: This review aimed to determine if the efficacy of interventions for psychosocial risk factors of persistent NSLBP is improved when targeted to people with particular psychosocial characteristics. Method: Bibliographic databases were searched. Inclusion criteria...... Classification targeted to people with high movement-related fear was more effective than Treatment Based Classification at reducing movement-related fear at 4 weeks. Active rehabilitation (physical exercise classes with cognitivebehavioural principles) was more effective than usual GP care at reducing activity...

  12. Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

  13. Why use of interventions targeting outdoor biting mosquitoes will be necessary to achieve malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicodem James Govella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available By definition, elimination of malaria means permanent reduction to zero of locally incidence of infections. Achieving this goal among other reasons, it requires fully understanding on where and when persons are most exposed to malaria vectors as these are fundamental for targeting interventions to achieve maximum impact. While elimination can be possible in some settings with low malaria transmission intensity and dominated with late and indoor biting of vectors using Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRs, it’s difficult and even impossible in areas with high and where majority of human exposure to transmission occurs outside human dwellings. Recently in response to wide spread use of LLIN and IRS, human risk of exposure to transmission is increasingly spread across the entire night so that much of it occurs outdoors and before bed time. This modification of vector populations and behaviour has now been reported from across Africa, Asia and from the Solomon Islands. Historical evidence shows that even in areas with intervention coverage exceeding 90% of human population it was so hard to even push prevalence down below the pre elimination threshold of 1% being compromised mainly with the outdoor residual transmission. Malaria control experts must however continue to deliver interventions that tackle indoor transmission but considerable amount of resources that target mosquitoes outside of houses and outside of sleeping hours will therefore be required to sustain and go beyond existing levels of malaria control and achieve elimination.

  14. Projecting the long-term impact of school- or community-based mass-treatment interventions for control of Schistosoma infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a significant health burden in many areas of the world. Morbidity control, focused on limiting infection intensity through periodic delivery of anti-schistosomal medicines, is the thrust of current World Health Organization guidelines (2006 for reduction of Schistosoma-related disease. A new appreciation of the lifetime impact of repeated Schistosoma infection has directed attention toward strategies for greater suppression of parasite infection per se, with the goal of transmission interruption. Variations in drug schedules involving increased population coverage and/or treatment frequency are now undergoing field trials. However, their relative effectiveness in long-term infection suppression is presently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study used available field data to calibrate advanced network models of village-level Schistosoma transmission to project outcomes of six different community- or school age-based programs, as compared to the impact of current 2006 W.H.O. recommended control strategies. We then scored the number of years each of 10 typical villages would remain below 10% infection prevalence (a practicable level associated with minimal prevalence of disease. All strategies that included four annual treatments effectively reduced community prevalence to less than 10%, while programs having yearly gaps ('holidays' failed to reach this objective in half of the communities. Effective post-program suppression of infection prevalence persisted in half of the 10 villages for 7-10 years, whereas in five high-risk villages, program effects on prevalence lasted zero to four years only. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: At typical levels of treatment adherence (60 to 70%, current WHO recommendations will likely not achieve effective suppression of Schistosoma prevalence unless implemented for ≥6 years. Following more aggressive 4 year annual intervention, some communities may be able to continue

  15. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  16. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; McGlanaghy, Edel; O’Farrelly, Christine; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children’s emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728 PMID:27253184

  17. Improving medication adherence with a targeted, technology-driven disease management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David B; Allison, Wanda; Chen, Joyce C; Demand, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Treatment adherence is critical in managing chronic disease, but achieving it remains an elusive goal across many prevalent conditions. As part of its care management strategy, BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina (BCBSSC) implemented the Longitudinal Adherence Treatment Evaluation program, a behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence among members with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes. The objectives of this study were to 1) assess the effectiveness of telephonic intervention in influencing reinitiation of medication therapy, and 2) evaluate the rate and timing of medication reinitiation. BCBSSC applied algorithms against pharmacy claims data to identify patients prescribed targeted medications who were 60 or more days overdue for refills. This information was provided to care managers to address during their next patient contact. Care managers received focused training on techniques for medication behavior change, readiness to change, motivational interviewing, and active listening. Training also addressed common barriers to adherence and available resources, including side effect management, mail order benefits, drug assistance programs, medication organizers, and reminder systems. Overdue refills were tracked for 12 months, with medication reinitiation followed for an additional 3 months. In the intervention group, 94 patients were identified with 123 instances of late medication refills. In the age- and gender-matched comparison group, 61 patients were identified with 76 late refills. The intervention group had a significantly higher rate of medication reinitiation (59.3%) than the control group (42.1%; P management intervention promoting patient behavior change increased the number of patients who reinitiated therapy after a period of nonadherence and decreased the time from nonadherence to adherence.

  18. Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: A pilot intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tan (Jingguang); R. Cai (Rui); Z. Lu (Zhongbing); J. Cheng (Jianguo); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTo apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/ AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing w

  19. JOINT MARKETING AS A FRAMEWORK FOR TARGETING MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHINA : A PILOT INTERVENTION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Jingguang; Cai, Rui; Lu, Zuxun; Cheng, Jinquan; de Vlas, Sake J.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    To apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing was carried ou

  20. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. Method: We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after…

  1. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay Uptake of Drinking and Decrease Risk of Alcohol-Related Problems when Delivered by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mackie, Clare J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Al-Khudhairy, Nadia; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This trial examined the efficacy of teacher-delivered personality-targeted interventions for alcohol-misuse over a 6-month period. Method: This randomized controlled trial randomly allocated participating schools to intervention (n = 11) or control (n = 7) conditions. A total of 2,506 (mean age, 13.7 years) were assessed for elevated…

  2. A Review of Supportive Interventions Targeting Individuals or Couples Undergoing Infertility Treatment: Directions for the Development of Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Bronya Hi-Kwan; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-08-17

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the types, content, and outcomes of different psychosocial approaches used in existing interventions for infertile individuals or couples. Relevant intervention studies published in English between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Plus. A total of 23 articles were identified and included in this review. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and counseling were the most commonly adopted psychosocial interventions for infertile individuals or couples. After reviewing the various approaches, directions are given on the development of interventions for couples suffering from infertility. PMID:26259844

  3. From orphan drugs to adopted therapies: Advancing C3-targeted intervention to the clinical stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Reis, Edimara S; Yancopoulou, Despina; Hajishengallis, George; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

    2016-10-01

    Complement dysregulation is increasingly recognized as an important pathogenic driver in a number of clinical disorders. Complement-triggered pathways intertwine with key inflammatory and tissue destructive processes that can either increase the risk of disease or exacerbate pathology in acute or chronic conditions. The launch of the first complement-targeted drugs in the clinic has undeniably stirred the field of complement therapeutic design, providing new insights into complement's contribution to disease pathogenesis and also helping to leverage a more personalized, comprehensive approach to patient management. In this regard, a rapidly expanding toolbox of complement therapeutics is being developed to address unmet clinical needs in several immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. Elegant approaches employing both surface-directed and fluid-phase inhibitors have exploited diverse components of the complement cascade as putative points of therapeutic intervention. Targeting C3, the central hub of the system, has proven to be a promising strategy for developing biologics as well as small-molecule inhibitors with clinical potential. Complement modulation at the level of C3 has recently shown promise in preclinical primate models, opening up new avenues for therapeutic intervention in both acute and chronic indications fueled by uncontrolled C3 turnover. This review highlights recent developments in the field of complement therapeutics, focusing on C3-directed inhibitors and alternative pathway (AP) regulator-based approaches. Translational perspectives and considerations are discussed, particularly with regard to the structure-guided drug optimization and clinical advancement of a new generation of C3-targeted peptidic inhibitors. PMID:27353192

  4. Complement therapeutics in inflammatory diseases: promising drug candidates for C3-targeted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellos, D C; Ricklin, D; Hajishengallis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Lambris, J D

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing appreciation that complement dysregulation lies at the heart of numerous immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders. Complement inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as new therapeutic options in various clinical translation programs and the first clinically approved complement-targeted drugs have profoundly impacted the management of certain complement-mediated diseases. Among the many members of the intricate protein network of complement, the central component C3 represents a 'hot-spot' for complement-targeted therapeutic intervention. C3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and is linked to diverse immunomodulatory systems and biological processes that affect human pathophysiology. Compelling evidence from preclinical disease models has shown that C3 interception may offer multiple benefits over existing therapies or even reveal novel therapeutic avenues in disorders that are not commonly regarded as complement-driven, such as periodontal disease. Using the clinically developed compstatin family of C3 inhibitors and periodontitis as illustrative examples, this review highlights emerging therapeutic concepts and developments in the design of C3-targeted drug candidates as novel immunotherapeutics for oral and systemic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26332138

  5. A Targeted Infection Prevention Intervention in Nursing Home Residents With Indwelling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Krein, Sarah L.; Saint, Sanjay K.; Min, Lillian C.; Montoya, Ana; Lansing, Bonnie; McNamara, Sara E.; Symons, Kathleen; Fisch, Jay; Koo, Evonne; Rye, Ruth Anne; Galecki, Andrzej; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Fitzgerald, James T.; Olmsted, Russell N.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Bradley, Suzanne F.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Indwelling devices (eg, urinary catheters and feeding tubes) are often used in nursing homes (NHs). Inadequate care of residents with these devices contributes to high rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and device-related infections in NHs. OBJECTIVE To test whether a multimodal targeted infection program (TIP) reduces the prevalence of MDROs and incident device-related infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized clinical trial at 12 community-based NHs from May 2010 to April 2013. Participants were high-risk NH residents with urinary catheters, feeding tubes, or both. INTERVENTIONS Multimodal, including preemptive barrier precautions, active surveillance for MDROs and infections, and NH staff education. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the prevalence density rate of MDROs, defined as the total number of MDROs isolated per visit averaged over the duration of a resident's participation. Secondary outcomes included new MDRO acquisitions and new clinically defined device-associated infections. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects multilevel Poisson regression model (primary outcome) and a Cox proportional hazards model (secondary outcome), adjusting for facility-level clustering and resident-level variables. RESULTS In total, 418 NH residents with indwelling devices were enrolled, with 34 174 device-days and 6557 anatomic sites sampled. Intervention NHs had a decrease in the overall MDRO prevalence density (rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62–0.94). The rate of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisitions was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (rate ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96). Hazard ratios for the first and all (including recurrent) clinically defined catheter-associated urinary tract infections were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.30–0.97) and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.49–0.99), respectively, in the intervention group and the control group. There were no reductions in new vancomycin

  6. What works with men? A systematic review of health promoting interventions targeting men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Garth

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging men to make more effective use of (preventive health services is considered one way of improving their health. The aim of this study was to appraise the available evidence of effective interventions aimed at improving men's health. Methods Systematic review of relevant studies identified through 14 electronic databases and other information resources. Results were pooled within health topic and described qualitatively. Results Of 11,749 citations screened, 338 articles were assessed and 27 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies were male sex-specific, i.e. prostate cancer screening and testicular self-examination. Other topics included alcohol, cardiovascular disease, diet and physical activity, skin cancer and smoking cessation. Twenty-three interventions were effective or partially effective and 18 studies satisfied all quality criteria. Conclusion Most of the existing evidence relates to male sex-specific health problems as opposed to general health concerns relevant to both men and women. There is little published evidence on how to improve men's uptake of services. We cannot conclude from this review that targeting men works better than providing services for all people. Large-scale studies are required to help produce evidence that is sufficiently robust to add to the small evidence base that currently exists in this field.

  7. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Zaytseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement.

  8. Children of mothers with borderline personality disorder: identifying parenting behaviors as potential targets for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Whalen, Diana J; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Levine, Michele D

    2012-01-01

    Children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be considered a high-risk group given the wide array of poor psychosocial outcomes that have been found in these children. This article describes the parenting strategies that might explain the transmission of vulnerability from mothers with BPD to their offspring, from infancy through adolescence. We conclude that oscillations between extreme forms of hostile control and passive aloofness in their interactions with their children may be unique to mothers with BPD. We provide an overview of interventions that are currently recommended for mothers and family members with BPD, namely attachment therapy and psychoeducational approaches. On the basis of an integration of the empirical findings on parenting and child outcomes, as well as from the review of current approaches to intervention, we conclude with recommendations for treatment targets. We argue that mothers with BPD need psychoeducation regarding child development and recommended parenting practices and skills for providing consistent warmth and monitoring, including mindfulness-based parenting strategies. PMID:22299065

  9. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Nidia; Gramajo Rodrigo; Escobar Maria; Arana Byron; Kroeger Axel; Manrique-Saide Pablo; Petzold Max

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster ra...

  10. Know thy student! Combining learning analytics and critical reflections to develop a targeted intervention for promoting self-regulated learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Colthorpe, Kay; Zimbardi, Kirsten; Ainscough, Louise; Anderson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that a student’s capacity to regulate his or her own learning is a key determinant of academic success, suggesting that interventions targeting improvements in self-regulation will have a positive impact on academic performance. However, to evaluate the success of such interventions, the self-regulatory characteristics of students need to be established. This paper examines the self-regulatory characteristics of a cohort of second-year allied health students, using the ...

  11. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  12. Adoption of workplaces and reach of employees for a multi-faceted intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    and work environment intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides in elderly care. METHODS: Percentage of adopters was calculated among eligible workplaces and differences between adopters and non-adopters were evaluated through workplace registrations and manager questionnaires from all...... physical exertion during work compared to non-consenters. CONCLUSIONS: Our recruitment effort yielded a population of consenters that was representative of the target population of nurses' aides with respect to demographic factors, and health. Moreover more consenters had problems like pain and high...... physical exertion during work, which fitted the scope of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered as ISRCTN78113519....

  13. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermes, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    use experienced many benefits such as relief in stressful situations. The app was perceived as a toolkit for personal well-being that gives concrete instructions on how mindfulness can be practiced. However, many barriers to participate in the intervention were identified at the individual level, such as lack of time, lack of perceived need, and lack of perceived benefits. Conclusions The findings suggest that neither the setting nor the approach used in this study were successful in adopting new digital interventions at the target organizations. Barriers were faced at both the organizational as well as the individual level. At the organizational level, top management needs to be involved in the intervention planning for fitting into the organization policies, the existing technology infrastructure, and also targeting the organizational goals. At the individual level, concretizing the benefits of the preventive intervention and arranging time for app use at the workplace are likely to increase adoption. PMID:27170553

  14. Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jingguang; Cai, Rui; Lu, Zuxun; Cheng, Jinquan; de Vlas, Sake J; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    To apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing was carried out by the CDC in Shenzhen, China, in MSM social venues. A self-designed questionnaire of HIV knowledge, condom use, and access to HIV-related services was used before and after the pilot intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The CDC supported gatekeepers of MSM social venues in running their business and thereby increasing their respectability and income. In return, the gatekeepers cooperated with the CDC in reaching the MSM at the venues with health promotion messages and materials. Thus a win-win situation was created, bringing together two noncompetitive parties in reaching out to a shared customer, the MSM. The pilot intervention succeeded in demonstrating acceptability and feasibility of the joint marketing approach targeting MSM. HIV knowledge, the rate of condom use, and access to HIV-related services of participants in the pilot intervention increased significantly. The joint marketing intervention is an innovative way to create synergies between the gatekeepers of MSM social venues and public health officials for reaching and potentially changing HIV high-risk behaviors among MSM. PMID:23514078

  15. A semantic problem solving environment for integrative parasite research: identification of intervention targets for Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti P Parikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the biology of parasites requires a sophisticated and integrated computational platform to query and analyze large volumes of data, representing both unpublished (internal and public (external data sources. Effective analysis of an integrated data resource using knowledge discovery tools would significantly aid biologists in conducting their research, for example, through identifying various intervention targets in parasites and in deciding the future direction of ongoing as well as planned projects. A key challenge in achieving this objective is the heterogeneity between the internal lab data, usually stored as flat files, Excel spreadsheets or custom-built databases, and the external databases. Reconciling the different forms of heterogeneity and effectively integrating data from disparate sources is a nontrivial task for biologists and requires a dedicated informatics infrastructure. Thus, we developed an integrated environment using Semantic Web technologies that may provide biologists the tools for managing and analyzing their data, without the need for acquiring in-depth computer science knowledge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a semantic problem-solving environment (SPSE that uses ontologies to integrate internal lab data with external resources in a Parasite Knowledge Base (PKB, which has the ability to query across these resources in a unified manner. The SPSE includes Web Ontology Language (OWL-based ontologies, experimental data with its provenance information represented using the Resource Description Format (RDF, and a visual querying tool, Cuebee, that features integrated use of Web services. We demonstrate the use and benefit of SPSE using example queries for identifying gene knockout targets of Trypanosoma cruzi for vaccine development. Answers to these queries involve looking up multiple sources of data, linking them together and presenting the results. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The SPSE

  16. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  17. Live Webcam Coaching to Help Early Elementary Classroom Teachers Provide Effective Literacy Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…

  18. Target vessel revascularization following percutaneous coronary intervention. A 10-year report from the Danish Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Kassis, Eli;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the rate of target vessel revascularization (TVR) in a consecutive and unselected national population over 10 years. DESIGN: From 1989 to 1998 all percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) performed in Denmark were recorded in the Danish PTCA Registry. RESULTS: From 1989 to...

  19. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  20. Reported Use and Acceptability of Self-Management Interventions to Target Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.; Mahoney, Corrine

    2014-01-01

    Although self-management interventions have a long history of empirical evaluation, attention has not been paid toward understanding actual use of this class of interventions. From a nationally representative sample of school psychology practitioners, a total of 295 respondents were presented with a description of a self-management intervention as…

  1. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Nidia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using “reduction of the vector population” as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.. The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. Results At baseline (during the dry season a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae. After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed in 970 study

  2. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Lumley, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions-expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)-had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women's physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students. PMID:21660220

  3. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals.

  4. Structure-Bioactivity Relationship for Benzimidazole Thiophene Inhibitors of Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1, a Potential Drug Target in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavy Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma flatworm parasites cause schistosomiasis, a chronic and debilitating disease of poverty in developing countries. Praziquantel is employed for treatment and disease control. However, its efficacy spectrum is incomplete (less active or inactive against immature stages of the parasite and there is a concern of drug resistance. Thus, there is a need to identify new drugs and drug targets.We show that RNA interference (RNAi of the Schistosoma mansoni ortholog of human polo-like kinase (huPLK1 elicits a deleterious phenotypic alteration in post-infective larvae (schistosomula or somules. Phenotypic screening and analysis of schistosomula and adult S. mansoni with small molecule inhibitors of huPLK1 identified a number of potent anti-schistosomals. Among these was a GlaxoSmithKline (GSK benzimidazole thiophene inhibitor that has completed Phase I clinical trials for treatment of solid tumor malignancies. We then obtained GSKs Published Kinase Inhibitor Sets (PKIS 1 and 2, and phenotypically screened an expanded series of 38 benzimidazole thiophene PLK1 inhibitors. Computational analysis of controls and PLK1 inhibitor-treated populations of somules demonstrated a distinctive phenotype distribution. Using principal component analysis (PCA, the phenotypes exhibited by these populations were mapped, visualized and analyzed through projection to a low-dimensional space. The phenotype distribution was found to have a distinct shape and topology, which could be elicited using cluster analysis. A structure-activity relationship (SAR was identified for the benzimidazole thiophenes that held for both somules and adult parasites. The most potent inhibitors produced marked phenotypic alterations at 1-2 μM within 1 h. Among these were compounds previously characterized as potent inhibitors of huPLK1 in cell assays.The reverse genetic and chemical SAR data support a continued investigation of SmPLK1 as a possible drug target and/or the prosecution of

  5. Successful malaria elimination strategies require interventions that target changing vector behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Tanya L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultimate long-term goal of malaria eradication was recently placed back onto the global health agenda. When planning for this goal, it is important to remember why the original Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, conducted with DDT-based indoor residual spraying (IRS, did not achieve its goals. One of the technical reasons for the failure to eliminate malaria was over reliance on a single intervention and subsequently the mosquito vectors developed behavioural resistance so that they did not come into physical contact with the insecticide. Hypothesis and how to test it Currently, there remains a monolithic reliance on indoor vector control. It is hypothesized that an outcome of long-term, widespread control is that vector populations will change over time, either in the form of physiological resistance, changes in the relative species composition or behavioural resistance. The potential for, and consequences of, behavioural resistance was explored by reviewing the literature regarding vector behaviour in the southwest Pacific. Discussion Here, two of the primary vectors that were highly endophagic, Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, virtually disappeared from large areas where DDT was sprayed. However, high levels of transmission have been maintained by Anopheles farauti, which altered its behaviour to blood-feed early in the evening and outdoors and, thereby, avoiding exposure to the insecticides used in IRS. This example indicates that the efficacy of programmes relying on indoor vector control (IRS and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets [LLINs] will be significantly reduced if the vectors change their behaviour to avoid entering houses. Conclusions Behavioural resistance is less frequently seen compared with physiological resistance (where the mosquito contacts the insecticide but is not killed, but is potentially more challenging to control programmes because the intervention effectiveness

  6. The 'robustness' of vocabulary intervention in the public schools: targets and techniques employed in speech-language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention-in terms of targets and techniques-for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of rich vocabulary intervention. Participants were forty-eight 5-7-year-old children participating in kindergarten or the first-grade year of school, all of whom had vocabulary-specific goals on their individualized education programmes. Two therapy sessions per child were coded to determine what vocabulary words were being directly targeted and what techniques were used for each. Study findings showed that the majority of words directly targeted during therapy were lower-level basic vocabulary words (87%) and very few (1%) were academically relevant. On average, three techniques were used per word to promote deep understanding. Interpreting findings against empirical descriptions of rich vocabulary intervention indicates that children were exposed to some but not all aspects of this empirically supported practice.

  7. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  8. Enhancement of in situ biodegradation of organic compounds in groundwater by targeted pump and treat intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pumping reduces contaminant toxicity below levels which stimulate in situ biodegradation. • Pumping increases the mixing of background oxidants into the plume for anaerobic respiration. • Bacterial sulphate reduction is very sensitive to contaminant concentrations. • Stable isotope analysis confirms the contribution of different biodegradation processes. • Targeted pump and treatment can enhance the natural attenuation of complex plumes. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the value of targeted pump and treatment (PAT) to enhance the in situ biodegradation of organic contaminants in groundwater for improved restoration. The approach is illustrated for a plume of phenolic compounds in a sandstone aquifer, where PAT is used for hydraulic containment and removal of dissolved phase contaminants from specific depth intervals. Time-series analysis of the plume hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of dissolved species (δ34S-SO4, δ13C-CH4, δ13C-TDIC (TDIC = Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon)) in groundwater samples from high-resolution multilevel samplers were used to deduce changes in the relative significance of biodegradation processes and microbial activity in the plume, induced by the PAT system over 3 years. The PAT system has reduced the maximum contaminant concentrations (up to 6800 mg L−1 total phenols) in the plume by 50% to ∼70% at different locations. This intervention has (i) stimulated in situ biodegradation in general, with an approximate doubling of contaminant turnover based on TDIC concentration, which has increased from <200 mg L−1 to >350 mg L−1, (ii) enhanced the activity of SO4-reducing microorganisms (marked by a declining SO4 concentration with corresponding increase in SO4-δ34S to values >7–14‰V-CDT relative to background values of 1.9–6.5‰V-CDT), and (iii) where the TDIC increase is greatest, has changed TDIC-δ13C from values of −10 to −15‰V-PDB to ∼−20‰V-PDB. This indicates an

  9. Universality properties of school-based preventive intervention targeted at cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention. PMID:24420651

  10. Computer-tailored physical activity behavior change interventions targeting adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Leonie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity is important in the promotion of better health. Computer-tailored behavior change programs have shown promise in changing lifestyle risk factors. Purpose To provide a narrative systematic review describing the range of evidence on 'second' and 'third' generation computer-tailored primary prevention interventions for physical activity, to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Unlike previous reviews, this review used specific criteria to measure the external validity of studies, was exclusive to primary prevention interventions in which tailoring was generated through an expert system, and excluded first generation computer-tailored interventions. Methods Computer-tailored intervention studies published from January 1996–2008 were identified through a search of five databases: Medline; Embase; PsycINFO; CINAHL; and All EBM Reviews and by examining reference lists of relevant articles. Results Seventeen articles were included, describing the evaluation of 16 interventions, ten of which found significant positive effects of the computer-tailored interventions on physical activity or weight reduction outcomes. Conclusion The evidence of effectiveness for computer-tailored physical activity interventions is inconclusive. They have potential to reach large groups of people however there is uncertainty whether reported effects are generalizable and sustained.

  11. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change. PMID:26172105

  12. Targeting reperfusion injury in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of reperfusion therapy by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has resulted in improved outcomes for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Despite the obvious advantages of primary PCI, acute restoration of blood flow paradoxically also...

  13. Evaluation of an Ecological Intervention Targeting Helpers in the Aftermath of Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Yoder, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Ecological interventions hold promise for meeting the needs of post-disaster communities, yet little systematic quantitative evidence is available about such programs. This study evaluated the short-term outcomes of participants in the Strategies for Trauma Awareness and Resilience (STAR) program, a novel and exemplar ecological intervention for helpers working in post-disaster settings. It is a one week training and support program for helpers working in disaster-affected communities. Chan...

  14. Neuro-intensive treatment targeting intracranial hypertension improves outcome in severe bacterial meningitis: an intervention-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Glimåker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of early intracranial pressure (ICP-targeted treatment, compared to standard intensive care, in adults with community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (ABM and severely impaired consciousness. DESIGN: A prospectively designed intervention-control comparison study of adult cases from September 2004 to January 2012. PATIENTS: Included patients were confirmed ABM-cases, aged 16-75 years, with severely impaired mental status on admission. Fifty-two patients, given ICP-targeted treatment at the neuro-intensive care unit, and 53 control cases, treated with conventional intensive care, were included. All the patients received intensive care with mechanical ventilation, sedation, antibiotics and corticosteroids according to current guidelines. Additional ICP-treatment in the intervention group included cerebrospinal fluid drainage using external ventricular catheters (n = 48, osmotherapy (n = 21, hyperventilation (n = 13, external cooling (n = 9, gram-doses of methylprednisolone (n = 3 and deep barbiturate sedation (n = 2 aiming at ICP 50 mmHg. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was mortality at two months and secondary endpoint was Glasgow outcome score and hearing ability at follow-up at 2-6 months. OUTCOMES: The mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to controls, 5/52 (10% versus 16/53 (30%; relative risk reduction 68%; p<0.05. Furthermore, only 17 patients (32% in the control group fully recovered compared to 28 (54% in the intervention group (relative risk reduction 40%; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Early neuro-intensive care using ICP-targeted therapy, mainly cerebrospinal fluid drainage, reduces mortality and improves the overall outcome in adult patients with ABM and severely impaired mental status on admission.

  15. Cost-benefit of infection control interventions targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, L; Avni, T; Rubinovitch, B; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2013-12-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incur significant costs. We aimed to examine the cost and cost-benefit of infection control interventions against MRSA and to examine factors affecting economic estimates. We performed a systematic review of studies assessing infection control interventions aimed at preventing spread of MRSA in hospitals and reporting intervention costs, savings, cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness. We searched PubMed and references of included studies with no language restrictions up to January 2012. We used the Quality of Health Economic Studies tool to assess study quality. We report cost and savings per month in 2011 US$. We calculated the median save/cost ratio and the save-cost difference with interquartile range (IQR) range. We examined the effects of MRSA endemicity, intervention duration and hospital size on results. Thirty-six studies published between 1987 and 2011 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Fifteen of the 18 studies reporting both costs and savings reported a save/cost ratio >1. The median save/cost ratio across all 18 studies was 7.16 (IQR 1.37-16). The median cost across all studies reporting intervention costs (n = 31) was 8648 (IQR 2025-19 170) US$ per month; median savings were 38 751 (IQR 14 206-75 842) US$ per month (23 studies). Higher save/cost ratios were observed in the intermediate to high endemicity setting compared with the low endemicity setting, in hospitals with 6 months. Infection control intervention to reduce spread of MRSA in acute-care hospitals showed a favourable cost/benefit ratio. This was true also for high MRSA endemicity settings. Unresolved economic issues include rapid screening using molecular techniques and universal versus targeted screening.

  16. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM. PMID:26241373

  17. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  18. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM.

  19. Targeting persons with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins with lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that the development of cardiometabolic diseases can be partly prevented or postponed by the combination of a healthy diet and physical activity. Cardiometabolic diseases and their risk factors are particularly prevalent among individuals with low socioecono

  20. Systematic Development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored Physical Activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Prins Richard G; van Empelen Pepijn; Beenackers Marielle A; Brug Johannes; Oenema Anke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping p...

  1. Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention Targeting Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Rabin, Carolyn; Dunsiger, Shira; Ness, Kirsten K.; Marcus, Bess H

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Young adults who have been treated for cancer face several health and psychosocial risks. To minimize these risks, is it imperative that they address any modifiable risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle. Unfortunately, more than half of young adult cancer survivors remain sedentary. To facilitate the adoption of physical activity (PA) in this population—potentially reducing health and psychosocial risks—we developed and pilot tested an internet-based PA intervention for young sur...

  2. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a pharmacist-led collaborative intervention to improve statin prescribing and attainment of cholesterol targets in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Lowrie; Suzanne M Lloyd; Alex McConnachie; Jill Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Background Small trials with short term follow up suggest pharmacists’ interventions targeted at healthcare professionals can improve prescribing. In comparison with clinical guidance, contemporary statin prescribing is sub-optimal and achievement of cholesterol targets falls short of accepted standards, for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who are at highest absolute risk and who stand to obtain greatest benefit. We hypothesised that a pharmacist-led complex intervention delive...

  3. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Muuraiskangas, Salla; Harjumaa, Marja; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ermes, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital interventions have the potential to serve as cost-effective ways to manage occupational stress and well-being. However, little is known about the adoption of individual-level digital interventions at organizations. Objectives The aim of this paper is to study the effects of an unguided digital mental health intervention in occupational well-being and the factors that influence the adoption of the intervention. Methods The intervention was based on acceptance and commitment ...

  4. A person-centered intervention targeting the psychosocial needs of gynecological cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Duun-Henriksen, Anne-Katrine; Hansson, Helena;

    2016-01-01

    , depression, self-esteem, and self-reported ability to monitor and respond to symptoms of recurrence. METHODS: We randomly assigned 165 gynecological cancer survivors to usual care (UC) plus GSD-GYN-C or UC alone. Self-reported QOL-cancer survivor (QOL-CS) total score and subscale scores on physical......PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of a person-centered intervention consisting of two to four nurse-led conversations using guided self-determination tailored to gynecologic cancer (GSD-GYN-C) on gynecological cancer survivors' quality of life (QOL), impact of cancer, distress, anxiety...

  5. Predictive Malaria Risk and Uncertainty Mapping in Nchelenge District, Zambia: Evidence of Widespread, Persistent Risk and Implications for Targeted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Chaponda, Mike; Shields, Timothy; Lupiya, James; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Mulenga, Modest; Moss, William J; Curriero, Frank C

    2015-12-01

    Malaria risk maps may be used to guide policy decisions on whether vector control interventions should be targeted and, if so, where. Active surveillance for malaria was conducted through household surveys in Nchelenge District, Zambia from April 2012 through December 2014. Households were enumerated based on satellite imagery and randomly selected for study enrollment. At each visit, participants were administered a questionnaire and a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Logistic regression models were used to construct spatial prediction risk maps and maps of risk uncertainty. A total of 461 households were visited, comprising 1,725 participants, of whom 48% were RDT positive. Several environmental features were associated with increased household malaria risk in a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for seasonal variation. The model was validated using both internal and external evaluation measures to generate and assess root mean square error, as well as sensitivity and specificity for predicted risk. The final, validated model was used to predict and map malaria risk including a measure of risk uncertainty. Malaria risk in a high, perennial transmission setting is widespread but heterogeneous at a local scale, with seasonal variation. Targeting malaria control interventions may not be appropriate in this epidemiological setting.

  6. Impacts of residential heating intervention measures on air quality and progress towards targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.J.; Scarrott, C. [Environment Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2011-06-15

    Elevated wintertime particulate concentrations in the New Zealand cities of Christchurch and Timaru are mostly attributed to the burning of wood and coal for residential heating. A carrot-and-stick approach was adopted for managing air quality in Christchurch, where strict intervention measures were introduced together with a residential heater replacement programme to encourage householders to change to cleaner forms of heating. A similar approach was only recently implemented for Timaru. This paper presents the results of a partial accountability analysis, where the impact of these measures on the target source, PM10 emissions, and PM10, concentrations are quantified. A statistical model was developed to estimate trends in the concentrations, which were tested for significance after accounting for meteorological effects, and to estimate the probability of meeting air quality targets. Results for Christchurch and Timaru are compared to illustrate the impacts of differing levels of intervention on air quality. In Christchurch, approximately 34,000 (76%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced with cleaner heating technology from 2002 to 2009, and total open fires and solid fuel burner numbers decreased by 45%. Over the same time period, estimated PM10 emissions reduced by 71% and PM10 concentrations by 52% (maxima), 36% (winter mean), 26% (winter median) and 41% (meteorology-adjusted winter means). In Timaru, just 3000 (50%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced from 2001 to 2008, with total open fire and solid fuel burner numbers reduced by 24%. PM10 emissions declined by 32%, with low reductions in the PM10 concentrations (maxima decreased by 7%, winter means by 11% and winter medians by 3%). These findings indicate that the combination of stringent intervention measures and financial incentives has led to substantial air quality improvements in Christchurch.

  7. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes.

  8. HIV capsid is a tractable target for small molecule therapeutic intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade S Blair

    Full Text Available Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our data demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral activity can be achieved by targeting this new binding site and reveal HIV CA as a tractable drug target for HIV therapy.

  9. Degradable Magnetic Composites for Minimally Invasive Interventions: Device Fabrication, Targeted Drug Delivery, and Cytotoxicity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christian; Hoop, Marcus; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J; Hierold, Christofer

    2016-01-20

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a functional, degradable polymer matrix based on poly(ethylene glycol) are combined to enable fully degradable magnetic microdevices for minimally invasive biomedical applications. A bioinspired helical microrobot platform mimicking Escherichia coli bacteria is fabricated and actuated using weak rotating magnetic fields. Locomotion based on corkscrew propulsion, targeted drug delivery, and low-degradation-product cytotoxicity are demonstrated. PMID:26603856

  10. A review on pro- and anti-angiogenic factors as targets of clinical intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouis, D; Kusumanto, Y; Meijer, C; Mulder, NH; Hospers, GAP

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in physiology and pathology. It is a tightly regulated process, influenced by the microenvironment and modulated by a multitude of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. A thorough understanding of the angiogenic process may lead to novel therapies to target ischemic

  11. Targeting Noncognitive Skills to Improve Cognitive Outcomes: Evidence from a Remedial Education Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Holmlund, Helena; Silva, Olmo

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research highlights the importance of non-cognitive skills as determinants of young people's cognitive outcomes at school. However, little evidence exists about the effects of policies that specifically target students' non-cognitive skills as a way to improve educational achievements. In this paper, we shed light on this issue by studying a remedial education programme aimed at English secondary school pupils at risk of school exclusion and with worsening educational trajec...

  12. Curcumin: Updated Molecular Mechanisms and Intervention Targets in Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from Curcuma longa Linn, has attracted great interest in the research of cancer during the past decades. Extensive studies documented that curcumin attenuates cancer cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin has been demonstrated to interact with multiple molecules and signal pathways, which makes it a potential adjuvant anti-cancer agent to chemotherapy. Previous investigations focus on the mechanisms of action for curcumin, which is shown to manipulate transcription factors and induce apoptosis in various kinds of human cancer. Apart from transcription factors and apoptosis, emerging studies shed light on latent targets of curcumin against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, microRNAs (miRNA, autophagy and cancer stem cell. The present review predominantly discusses significance of EGFR, miRNA, autophagy and cancer stem cell in lung cancer therapy. Curcumin as a natural phytochemicals could communicate with these novel targets and show synergism to chemotherapy. Additionally, curcumin is well tolerated in humans. Therefore, EGFR-, miRNA-, autophagy- and cancer stem cell-based therapy in the presence of curcumin might be promising mechanisms and targets in the therapeutic strategy of lung cancer.

  13. Influence of the Target Vessel on the Location and Area of Maximum Skin Dose during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: A number of cases involving radiation-associated patient skin injury attributable to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been reported. Knowledge of the location and area of the patient's maximum skin dose (MSD) in PCI is necessary to reduce the risk of skin injury. Purpose: To determine the location and area of the MSD in PCI, and separately analyze the effects of different target vessels. Material and Methods: 197 consecutive PCI procedures were studied, and the location and area of the MSD were calculated by a skin-dose mapping software program: Caregraph. The target vessels of the PCI procedures were divided into four groups based on the American Heart Association (AHA) classification. Results: The sites of the MSD for AHA no.1-3, AHA no.4, and AHA no.11-15 were located mainly on the right back skin, the lower right or center back skin, and the upper back skin areas, respectively, whereas the MSD sites for the AHA no. 5-10 PCI were widely spread. The MSD area for the AHA no. 4 PCI was larger than that for the AHA no. 11-15 PCI (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although the radiation associated with PCI can be widely spread and variable, we observed a tendency regarding the location and area of the MSD when we separately analyzed the data for different target vessels. We recommend the use of a smaller radiation field size and the elimination of overlapping fields during PCI

  14. Androgen-targeted therapy induced epithelial mesenchymal plasticity and neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer: an opportunity for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannan eNouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens regulate biological pathways to promote proliferation, differentiation and survival of benign and malignant prostate tissue. Androgen receptor targeted therapies exploit this dependence and are used in advanced prostate cancer to control disease progression. Contemporary treatment regimens involve sequential use of inhibitors of androgen synthesis or androgen receptor function. Although targeting the androgen axis has clear therapeutic benefit, its effectiveness is temporary, as prostate tumor cells adapt to survive and grow. The removal of androgens (androgen deprivation has been shown to activate both epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and neuroendocrine transdifferentiation programs. EMT has established roles in promoting biological phenotypes associated with tumor progression (migration/invasion, tumor cell survival, cancer stem cell-like properties, resistance to radiation and chemotherapy in multiple human cancer types. Neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer is associated with resistance to therapy, visceral metastasis and aggressive disease. Thus, activation of these programs via inhibition of the androgen axis provides a mechanism by which tumor cells can adapt to promote disease recurrence and progression. Brachyury, Axl, MEK and aurora kinase A are molecular drivers of these programs, and inhibitors are currently in clinical trials to determine therapeutic applications. Understanding tumor cell plasticity will be important in further defining the rational use of androgen targeted therapies clinically and provides an opportunity for intervention to prolong survival of men with metastatic prostate cancer.

  15. Influence of the Target Vessel on the Location and Area of Maximum Skin Dose during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chida, K.; Fuda, K.; Kagaya, Y.; Saito, H.; Takai, Y.; Kohzuki, M.; Takahash i, S.; Yamada, S.; Zuguchi, M. [Dept. of Radiological Technology, School of Heal th Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Background: A number of cases involving radiation-associated patient skin injury attributable to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been reported. Knowledge of the location and area of the patient's maximum skin dose (MSD) in PCI is necessary to reduce the risk of skin injury. Purpose: To determine the location and area of the MSD in PCI, and separately analyze the effects of different target vessels. Material and Methods: 197 consecutive PCI procedures were studied, and the location and area of the MSD were calculated by a skin-dose mapping software program: Caregraph. The target vessels of the PCI procedures were divided into four groups based on the American Heart Association (AHA) classification. Results: The sites of the MSD for AHA no.1-3, AHA no.4, and AHA no.11-15 were located mainly on the right back skin, the lower right or center back skin, and the upper back skin areas, respectively, whereas the MSD sites for the AHA no. 5-10 PCI were widely spread. The MSD area for the AHA no. 4 PCI was larger than that for the AHA no. 11-15 PCI (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although the radiation associated with PCI can be widely spread and variable, we observed a tendency regarding the location and area of the MSD when we separately analyzed the data for different target vessels. We recommend the use of a smaller radiation field size and the elimination of overlapping fields during PCI.

  16. Impacts of residential heating intervention measures on air quality and progress towards targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angelique J.; Scarrott, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Elevated wintertime particulate concentrations in the New Zealand cities of Christchurch and Timaru are mostly attributed to the burning of wood and coal for residential heating. A carrot-and-stick approach was adopted for managing air quality in Christchurch, where strict intervention measures were introduced together with a residential heater replacement programme to encourage householders to change to cleaner forms of heating. A similar approach was only recently implemented for Timaru. This paper presents the results of a partial accountability analysis, where the impact of these measures on the target source, PM 10 emissions, and PM 10 concentrations are quantified. A statistical model was developed to estimate trends in the concentrations, which were tested for significance after accounting for meteorological effects, and to estimate the probability of meeting air quality targets. Results for Christchurch and Timaru are compared to illustrate the impacts of differing levels of intervention on air quality. In Christchurch, approximately 34,000 (76%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced with cleaner heating technology from 2002 to 2009, and total open fires and solid fuel burner numbers decreased by 45%. Over the same time period, estimated PM 10 emissions reduced by 71% and PM 10 concentrations by 52% (maxima), 36% (winter mean), 26% (winter median) and 41% (meteorology-adjusted winter means). In Timaru, just 3000 (50%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced from 2001 to 2008, with total open fire and solid fuel burner numbers reduced by 24%. PM 10 emissions declined by 32%, with low reductions in the PM 10 concentrations (maxima decreased by 7%, winter means by 11% and winter medians by 3%). These findings, supported by the results of the meteorology corrected trend analysis for Christchurch, strongly indicate that the combination of stringent intervention measures and financial incentives has led to substantial air quality

  17. Inequities in utilization of maternal health interventions in Namibia: implications for progress towards MDG 5 targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequities in the utilization of maternal health services impede progress towards the MDG 5 target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015. In Namibia, despite increasing investments in the health sector, the maternal mortality ratio has increased from 271 per 100,000 live births in the period 1991-2000 to 449 per 100,000 live births in 1998-2007. Monitoring equity in the use of maternal health services is important to target scarce resources to those with more need and expedite the progress towards the MDG 5 target. The objective of this study is to measure socio-economic inequalities in access to maternal health services and propose recommendations relevant for policy and planning. Methods Data from the Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07 are analyzed for inequities in the utilization of maternal health. In measuring the inequities, rate-ratios, concentration curves and concentration indices are used. Results Regions with relatively high human development index have the highest rates of delivery by skilled health service providers. The rate of caesarean section in women with post secondary education is about seven times that of women with no education. Women in urban areas are delivered by skilled providers 30% more than their rural counterparts. The rich use the public health facilities 30% more than the poor for child delivery. Conclusion Most of the indicators such as delivery by trained health providers, delivery by caesarean section and postnatal care show inequities favoring the most educated, urban areas, regions with high human development indices and the wealthy. In the presence of inequities, it is difficult to achieve a significant reduction in the maternal mortality ratio needed to realize the MDG 5 targets so long as a large segment of society has inadequate access to essential maternal health services and other basic social services. Addressing inequities in

  18. Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Targeting Accuracy and Procedure Duration between 1.5-and 3-Tesla Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems: An Initial 12-Month Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Southwell, DG; Narvid, JA; Martin, AJ; Qasim, SE; Starr, PA; Larson, PS

    2016-01-01

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) allows deep brain stimulator lead placement under general anesthesia. While the accuracy of lead targeting has been described for iMRI systems utilizing 1.5-tesla magnets, a similar assessment of 3-tesla iMRI procedures has not been performed.To compare targeting accuracy, the number of lead targeting attempts, and surgical duration between procedures performed on 1.5- and 3-tesla iMRI systems.Radial targeting error, the number of targeting att...

  19. Adherence to the Obesity-related Lifestyle Intervention Targets in the IDEFICS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Eva; Siani, Alfonso; Konstabel, Kenn;

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: To address behaviours associated with childhood obesity, certain target values are recommended that should be met to improve children’s health. In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study.......5% of the cohort was classified in the highest category of water consumption, only 8.8% met the target of an intake of fruits/vegetables five times a day. The prevalence of children adhering to the recommendation regarding total screen time—below 1 h for pre-school children and 2 h for school children—was 51.......1%. The recommended amount of at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day was fulfilled by 15.2%. Family life of the child measured by various indicators was considered as satisfactory in 22.8%. Nocturnal sleep duration of 11 (10) hours or more in pre-school (school) children was achieved by 37...

  20. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J

    2013-08-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages.

  1. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community.

  2. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  3. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  4. Modulation of heat shock transcription factor 1 as a therapeutic target for small molecule intervention in neurodegenerative disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Neef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington disease are devastating disorders with no therapeutic approaches to ameliorate the underlying protein misfolding defect inherent to poly-glutamine (polyQ proteins. Given the mounting evidence that elevated levels of protein chaperones suppress polyQ protein misfolding, the master regulator of protein chaperone gene transcription, HSF1, is an attractive target for small molecule intervention. We describe a humanized yeast-based high-throughput screen to identify small molecule activators of human HSF1. This screen is insensitive to previously characterized activators of the heat shock response that have undesirable proteotoxic activity or that inhibit Hsp90, the central chaperone for cellular signaling and proliferation. A molecule identified in this screen, HSF1A, is structurally distinct from other characterized small molecule human HSF1 activators, activates HSF1 in mammalian and fly cells, elevates protein chaperone expression, ameliorates protein misfolding and cell death in polyQ-expressing neuronal precursor cells and protects against cytotoxicity in a fly model of polyQ-mediated neurodegeneration. In addition, we show that HSF1A interacts with components of the TRiC/CCT complex, suggesting a potentially novel regulatory role for this complex in modulating HSF1 activity. These studies describe a novel approach for the identification of new classes of pharmacological interventions for protein misfolding that underlies devastating neurodegenerative disease.

  5. Connexins in neurons and glia:targets for intervention in disease and injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith B Moore; John OBrien

    2015-01-01

    Both neurons and glia throughout the central nervous system are organized into networks by gap junctions. Among glia, gap junctions facilitate metabolic homeostasis and intercellular communication. Among neurons, gap junctions form electrical synapses that function pri-marily for communication. However, in neurodegenerative states due to disease or injury gap junctions may be detrimental to survival. Electrical synapses may facilitate hyperactivity and bystander killing among neurons, while gap junction hemichannels in glia may facilitate in-lfammatory signaling and scar formation. Advances in understanding mechanisms of plasticity of electrical synapses and development of molecular therapeutics to target glial gap junctions and hemichannels offer new hope to pharmacologically limit neuronal degeneration and en-hance recovery.

  6. BRCA1 and miRNAs: An Emerging Therapeutic Target and Intervention Tool in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintu Pal*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced BRCA1 activity, either by germ-line mutations in inherited breast cancer or by epigenetic down-regulation in sporadic cancers,represents a key pathway in tumour development and progression. Although best known for its role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity, BRCA1 has recently been found to play a role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation, as well as in mammary epithelial stem cell differentiation or mammary stem cell fate decision. While BRCA1 potentially plays a significant role in both mammary tumour development and malignant progression, its function connection to tumor development is poorly understood. Recent studies have uncovered a new role of BRCA1 in the regulation of small (~19-25 nucleotides non-coding microRNA (miRNA expression in breast cancer cells. Several studies have also shown that aggressive breast cancers and breast cancer stem cells exhibit distinctive profiles of miRNA expression, suggesting that BRCA1 associated differential expression of miRNAs can regulate important cellular functions facilitating the maintenance of breast cancer stem cells and/or promoting breast cancer aggression. In this context, we will review recent progress in the understanding of the BRCA1 function, with emphasis on the implication of the development and progression of breast cancer via differential expression of miRNAs and discuss how these studies can improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis. We will also discuss the perspectives of BRCA1 function through miRNAs and the role of miRNAs in regulating BRCA1 in breast cancer, more specifically tumor suppressor, miR-125 and oncogene, mir-155 as diagnostic and prognostic tools in clinical practice, and as new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

  7. Identification of BIRC6 as a novel intervention target for neuroblastoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroblastoma are pediatric tumors of the sympathetic nervous system with a poor prognosis. Apoptosis is often deregulated in cancer cells, but only a few defects in apoptotic routes have been identified in neuroblastoma. Here we investigated genomic aberrations affecting genes of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in neuroblastoma. We analyzed DNA profiling data (CGH and SNP arrays) and mRNA expression data of 31 genes of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dataset of 88 neuroblastoma tumors using the R2 bioinformatic platform. BIRC6 was selected for further analysis as a tumor driving gene. Knockdown experiments were performed using BIRC6 lentiviral shRNA and phenotype responses were analyzed by Western blot and MTT-assays. In addition, DIABLO levels and interactions were investigated with immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. We observed frequent gain of the BIRC6 gene on chromosome 2, which resulted in increased mRNA expression. BIRC6 is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), that can bind and degrade the cytoplasmic fraction of the pro-apoptotic protein DIABLO. DIABLO mRNA expression was exceptionally high in neuroblastoma but the protein was only detected in the mitochondria. Upon silencing of BIRC6 by shRNA, DIABLO protein levels increased and cells went into apoptosis. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed direct interaction between DIABLO and BIRC6 in neuroblastoma cell lines. Our findings indicate that BIRC6 may have a potential oncogenic role in neuroblastoma by inactivating cytoplasmic DIABLO. BIRC6 inhibition may therefore provide a means for therapeutic intervention in neuroblastoma

  8. HOW DO THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTEXT INFLUENCE THE WORK OF FACILITATORS WHEN IMPLEMENTING A STANDARDISED EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION TARGETING NURSING HOME STAFF TO REDUCE RESTRAINT IN DEMENTIA CARE?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This research is part of a larger study - a sequential mixed method education intervention targeting staff in 24 Nursing Homes (NHs) in Norway to reduce use of restraint and psychotropic drugs. Building on a previous successful intervention, we used the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) prospectively to combine cluster randomized controlled trial, participatory action research (PAR) and ethnography to design and evaluate the effectiveness of 2 day staff e...

  9. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  10. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Malaria in Urban Ahmedabad (Gujarat), India: Identification of Hot Spots and Risk Factors for Targeted Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizo, Justin; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Dhiman, Ramesh C; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The world population, especially in developing countries, has experienced a rapid progression of urbanization over the last half century. Urbanization has been accompanied by a rise in cases of urban infectious diseases, such as malaria. The complexity and heterogeneity of the urban environment has made study of specific urban centers vital for urban malaria control programs, whereas more generalizable risk factor identification also remains essential. Ahmedabad city, India, is a large urban center located in the state of Gujarat, which has experienced a significant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum disease burden. Therefore, a targeted analysis of malaria in Ahmedabad city was undertaken to identify spatiotemporal patterns of malaria, risk factors, and methods of predicting future malaria cases. Malaria incidence in Ahmedabad city was found to be spatially heterogeneous, but temporally stable, with high spatial correlation between species. Because of this stability, a prediction method utilizing historic cases from prior years and seasons was used successfully to predict which areas of Ahmedabad city would experience the highest malaria burden and could be used to prospectively target interventions. Finally, spatial analysis showed that normalized difference vegetation index, proximity to water sources, and location within Ahmedabad city relative to the dense urban core were the best predictors of malaria incidence. Because of the heterogeneity of urban environments and urban malaria itself, the study of specific large urban centers is vital to assist in allocating resources and informing future urban planning. PMID:27382081

  11. Controlling the angiogenic switch in developing atherosclerotic plaques: Possible targets for therapeutic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slevin Mark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plaque angiogenesis may have an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis and medial infiltration provides nutrients to the developing and expanding intima and therefore, may prevent cellular death and contribute to plaque growth and stabilization in early lesions. However in more advanced plaques, inflammatory cell infiltration, and concomitant production of numerous pro-angiogenic cytokines may be responsible for induction of uncontrolled neointimal microvessel proliferation resulting in production of immature and fragile neovessels similar to that seen in tumour development. These could contribute to development of an unstable haemorrhagic rupture-prone environment. Increasing evidence has suggested that the expression of intimal neovessels is directly related to the stage of plaque development, the risk of plaque rupture, and subsequently, the presence of symptomatic disease, the timing of ischemic neurological events and myocardial/cerebral infarction. Despite this, there is conflicting evidence regarding the causal relationship between neovessel expression and plaque thrombosis with some in vivo experimental models suggesting the contrary and as yet, few direct mediators of angiogenesis have been identified and associated with plaque instability in vivo. In recent years, an increasing number of angiogenic therapeutic targets have been proposed in order to facilitate modulation of neovascularization and its consequences in diseases such as cancer and macular degeneration. A complete knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for initiation of adventitial vessel proliferation, their extension into the intimal regions and possible de-novo synthesis of neovessels following differentiation of bone-marrow-derived stem cells is required in order to contemplate potential single or combinational anti-angiogenic therapies. In this review, we will examine the importance of angiogenesis in complicated plaque

  12. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mariel; Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-12-01

    Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management-relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs should be

  13. Nuclear export mediated regulation of microRNAs: potential target for drug intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqbil, Irfana; Bao, Bin; Abou-Samra, Abdul Badi; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Azmi, Asfar S

    2013-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that have been recognized to regulate the expression of uncountable number of genes. Their aberrant expression has been found to be linked to the pathology of many diseases including cancer. There is a drive to develop miRNA targeted therapeutics for different diseases especially cancer. Nevertheless, reining in these short non-coding RNAs is not as straightforward as originally thought. This is in view of the recent discoveries that miRNAs are under epigenetic regulations at multiple levels. Exportin 5 protein (XPO5) nuclear export mediated regulation of miRNAs is one such important epigenetic mechanism. XPO5 is responsible for exporting precursor miRNAs through the nuclear membrane to the cytoplasm, and is thus a critical step in miRNA biogenesis. A number of studies have shown that variations in components of the miRNA biogenesis pathways, particularly the aberrant expression of XPO5, increase the risk of developing cancer. In addition to XPO5, the Exportin 1 protein (XPO1) or chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) can also carry miRNA export function. These findings are supported by pathway analyses that reveal certain miRNAs as direct interaction partners of CRM1. An in depth understanding of miRNA export mediated regulatory mechanisms is important for the successful design of clinically viable therapeutics. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the mechanisms of miRNA nuclear transport mediated regulation and propose strategies to selectively block this important mechanism in cancer. PMID:23834155

  14. Increasing obesity in treated female HIV patients from Sub-Saharan Africa: Potential causes and possible targets for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMcCormick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate changing nutritional demographics of treated HIV-1-infected patients and explore causes of obesity, particularly in women of African origin.Methods We prospectively reviewed nutritional demographics of clinic attenders at an urban European HIV clinic during four one-month periods at 3-yearly intervals (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010 and in two consecutive whole-year reviews (2010-11 and 2011-12. Risk-factors for obesity were assessed by multiple linear regression. A sub-study of 50 HIV-positive African female patients investigated body-size/shape perception using numerical, verbal and pictorial cues. Results We found a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, from 8.5% (2001 to 28% (2011-12 for all clinic attenders, of whom 86% were on antiretroviral treatment. Women of African origin were most affected, 49% being obese, with a further 32% overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2, in 2012. Clinical factors strongly associated with obesity included female gender, black African ethnicity, non-smoking, age and CD4 count (all P<0.001; greater duration of cART did not predict obesity. Individual weight-time trends mostly showed slow long-term progressive weight gain. Investigating body weight perception, we found that weight and adiposity were underestimated by obese subjects, who showed a greater disparity between perceived and actual adiposity (P<0.001. Obese subjects targeted more obese target ideal body shapes (P<0.01, but were less satisfied with their body shape overall (P=0.02. Conclusions Seropositive African women on antiretroviral treatment are at heightened risk of obesity. Although multifactorial, bodyweight perception represents a potential target for intervention.

  15. Gender-associated genes in filarial nematodes are important for reproduction and potential intervention targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    also striking gender differences in environmental information processing and cell communication pathways. Many proteins encoded by GA genes are secreted by Brugia malayi, and these encode immunomodulatory molecules such as antioxidants and host cytokine mimics. Expression of many GA genes has been recently reported to be suppressed by tetracycline, which blocks reproduction in female Brugia malayi. Our localization of GA transcripts in filarial reproductive organs supports the hypothesis that these genes encode proteins involved in reproduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genome-wide expression profiling coupled with a robust bioinformatics analysis has greatly expanded our understanding of the molecular biology of reproduction in filarial nematodes. This study has highlighted key molecules and pathways associated with reproductive and other biological processes and identified numerous potential candidates for rational drug design to target reproductive processes.

  16. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target goal attainment rate and related factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)target goal attainment rate and related factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS)after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI).Methods From March 2011 to March 2012,a total of832 ACS patients were retrospectively evaluated in the Cardiology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University.The target goal attainment

  17. A model of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and its implications for targeting environmental interventions by genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Helen M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis, gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Method A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918 assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction. Conclusion The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis

  18. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Moore (Laurence); M. Chersich (Matthew); R. Steen (Richard); S. Reza-Paul (Sushena); A. Dhana (Ashar); B. Vuylsteke (Bea); Y. Lafort (Yves); F. Scorgie (Fiona)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little

  19. Effect of a comprehensive intervention program targeting general practice staff on quality of life in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo, C.M.; Frijling, B.D.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Bernsen, M.R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Prins, A.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We implemented a comprehensive intervention program targeting general practice staff, that proved successful in optimizing practice organization and clinical decision-making. In this paper, health-related quality of life (HRQL) is investigated as a clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluat

  20. The Targeted Reading Intervention: A Classroom Teacher Professional Development Program to Promote Effective Teaching for Struggling Readers in Kindergarten and First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the overall Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI) was to help the classroom teacher acquire the key reading diagnostic strategies (e.g., Cooter, 2003; Desimone, 2009; Garet et al., 2001; Timperley & Phillips, 2003) relevant to K-1 struggling readers (e.g., Desimone, 2009; Garet et al., 2001; Guskey, 2002; Joyce & Showers, 2002;…

  1. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.

  2. HIV-testing among female sex workers on the border between Brazil and French Guiana: the need for targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Rogier, Stéphanie; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly.

  3. Poor Perception of Body Weight Category amongst the Overweight and Obese with Chronic Hepatitis C: A Target for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venessa Pattullo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in chronic hepatitis C (CHC is associated with adverse hepatic and metabolic outcomes. This prospective study evaluates the agreement between self-perceived body weight (BW status and measured body mass index (BMI category and factors associated with its underestimation in CHC. Body size perception was measured with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale. Two hundred and seventy-three patients with CHC (overweight 45%, obese 18% participated in this study. Although both overweight and obese demonstrated good body size perception, agreement between perceived BW and measured BMI categories was poor (κ=0.315, 95% CI 0.231–0.399; 33% of overweight/obese respondents considered themselves normal or underweight. Male gender (OR 2.84 and overweight (OR 2.42 or obese BMI (OR 14.19 were associated with underestimation of BW category. Targeted interventions are needed to improve body weight perception, thereby enhancing the uptake of health advice on management of excess body weight in CHC.

  4. Identification of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 as a possible novel target for renal cell carcinoma intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fandong; Li, Yan; Tian, Xin; Fu, Liye; Yin, Yuanqin; Sui, Chengguang; Ma, Ping; Jiang, Youhong, E-mail: youyuanhongyeah@yeah.net

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Inhibition of TAK1 kinase activity suppresses NF-κB activation and RCC cell survival. • TAK1 inhibitors induces apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells. • RCC cells with TAK1 depletion show reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis. • TAK1 and p-NF-κB are both over-expressed in human RCC tissues. • Inhibition or depletion of TAK1 enhances the activity of vinblastine sulfate. - Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is common renal malignancy within poor prognosis. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays vital roles in cell survival, apoptosis-resistance and carcinogenesis through regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and other cancer-related pathways. Here we found that TAK1 inhibitors (LYTAK1, 5Z-7-oxozeanol (5Z) and NG-25) suppressed NF-κB activation and RCC cell (786-O and A489 lines) survival. TAK1 inhibitors induced apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells, which was largely inhibited by the broad or specific caspase inhibitors. Further, shRNA-mediated partial depletion of TAK1 reduced 786-O cell viability whiling activating apoptosis. Significantly, TAK1 was over-expressed in human RCC tissues, and its level was correlated with phosphorylated NF-κB. Finally, kinase inhibition or genetic depletion of TAK1 enhanced the activity of vinblastine sulfate (VLB) in RCC cells. Together, these results suggest that TAK1 may be an important oncogene or an effective target for RCC intervention.

  5. Targeted interventions of the Avahan program and their association with intermediate outcomes among female sex workers in Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainkar Mandar M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative has been a partner supporting targeted interventions of high risk populations under India’s National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO since 2004 in the state of Maharashtra. This paper presents an assessment of the Avahan program among female sex workers (FSWs in Maharashtra, its coverage, outcomes achieved and their association with Avahan program. Methods An analytical framework based on the Avahan evaluation design was used, addressing assessment questions on program implementation, intermediate outcomes and association of outcomes with Avahan. Data from routine program monitoring, two rounds of cross-sectional Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessments (IBBAs conducted in 2006 (Round 1- R1 and 2009 (Round 2 – R2 and quality assessments of program clinics were used. Bi-variate and multivariate analysis were conducted using the complex samples module in SPSS 15® (IBM, Somers NY. Results The Avahan program achieved coverage of over 66% of FSWs within four years of implementation. The IBBA data showed increased contact by peers in R2 compared to R1 (AOR:2.34; p=0.001. Reported condom use with clients increased in R2 and number of FSWs reporting zero unprotected sex acts increased from 76.2% (R1 to 94.6% (R2 [AOR: 5.1, p=0.001]. Significant declines were observed in prevalence of syphilis (RPR (15.8% to 10.8%; AOR:0.54; p=0.001, chlamydia (8% to 6.2%; AOR:.0.65; p=0.010 and gonorrohoea (7.4% to 3.9; AOR:.0.60; p=0.026 between R1 and R2. HIV prevalence increased (25.8% to 27.5%; AOR:1.29; p=0.04. District-wise analysis showed decline in three districts and increase in Mumbai and Thane districts. FSWs exposed to Avahan had higher consistent condom use with occasional (94.3% vs. 90.6%; AOR: 1.55; p=0.04 and regular clients (92.5% vs. 86.0%; AOR: 1.95, p=0.001 compared to FSWs unexposed to Avahan. Decline in high titre syphilis was associated with Avahan exposure. Conclusion The Avahan

  6. A family-based intervention targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity: conceptual framework and study design of LOOPS- Lund overweight and obesity preschool study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önnerfält Jenny

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the rate of overweight among children is rising there is a need for evidence-based research that will clarify what the best interventional strategies to normalize weight development are. The overall aim of the Lund Overweight and Obesity Preschool Study (LOOPS is to evaluate if a family-based intervention, targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity, has a long-term positive effect on weight development of the children. The hypothesis is that preschool children with overweight and obesity, whose parents participate in a one-year intervention, both at completion of the one-year intervention and at long term follow up (2-, 3- and 5-years will have reduced their BMI-for-age z-score. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial, including overweight (n=160 and obese (n=80 children 4-6-years-old. The intervention is targeting the parents, who get general information about nutrition and exercise recommendations through a website and are invited to participate in a group intervention with the purpose of supporting them to accomplish preferred lifestyle changes, both in the short and long term. To evaluate the effect of various supports, the parents are randomized to different interventions with the main focus of: 1 supporting the parents in limit setting by emphasizing the importance of positive interactions between parents and children and 2 influencing the patterns of daily activities to induce alterations of everyday life that will lead to healthier lifestyle. The primary outcome variable, child BMI-for-age z-score will be measured at referral, inclusion, after 6 months, at the end of intervention and at 2-, 3- and 5-years post intervention. Secondary outcome variables, measured at inclusion and at the end of intervention, are child activity pattern, eating habits and biochemical markers as well as parent BMI, exercise habits, perception of health, experience of parenthood and level of

  7. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: A study protocol of a quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Markus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome, patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome, together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Discussion Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that

  8. Effectiveness of mHealth Interventions Targeting Health Care Workers to Improve Pregnancy Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstein, Alexander Berend-Jan; Sondaal, Stephanie FV; Grobbee, Diederick E; Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Verwijs, Mirjam; Ansah, Evelyn K; Browne, Joyce L; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face the highest burden of maternal and neonatal deaths. Concurrently, they have the lowest number of physicians. Innovative methods such as the exchange of health-related information using mobile devices (mHealth) may support health care workers in the provision of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in LMICs. Objective We conducted a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of mHealth interventions targeting health care workers to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in LMIC. Methods The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health Library, and Popline were searched using predetermined search and indexing terms. Quality assessment was performed using an adapted Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat analysis was performed for each included paper. Results A total of 19 studies were included for this systematic review, 10 intervention and 9 descriptive studies. mHealth interventions were used as communication, data collection, or educational tool by health care providers primarily at the community level in the provision of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. Interventions were used to track pregnant women to improve antenatal and delivery care, as well as facilitate referrals. None of the studies directly assessed the effect of mHealth on maternal and neonatal mortality. Challenges of mHealth interventions to assist health care workers consisted mainly of technical problems, such as mobile network coverage, internet access, electricity access, and maintenance of mobile phones. Conclusions mHealth interventions targeting health care workers have the potential to improve maternal and neonatal health services in LMICs. However, there is a gap in the knowledge whether mHealth interventions directly affect maternal and neonatal outcomes and future research should employ experimental designs with relevant outcome measures to

  9. Barriers and Facilitators for Teachers' Implementation of the Curricular Component of the Boost Intervention Targeting Adolescents' Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Krølner, Rikke; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine;

    2014-01-01

    in school-based interventions may be supported by a predefined teaching schedule, detailed teacher manuals, clear learning objectives, and a pre-intervention workshop to enhance motivation. Situational Analysis may contribute to future implementation studies by highlighting the importance of contextual...

  10. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a pharmacist-led collaborative intervention to improve statin prescribing and attainment of cholesterol targets in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowrie

    Full Text Available Small trials with short term follow up suggest pharmacists' interventions targeted at healthcare professionals can improve prescribing. In comparison with clinical guidance, contemporary statin prescribing is sub-optimal and achievement of cholesterol targets falls short of accepted standards, for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who are at highest absolute risk and who stand to obtain greatest benefit. We hypothesised that a pharmacist-led complex intervention delivered to doctors and nurses in primary care, would improve statin prescribing and achievement of cholesterol targets for incident and prevalent patients with vascular disease, beyond one year.We allocated general practices to a 12-month Statin Outreach Support (SOS intervention or usual care. SOS was delivered by one of 11 pharmacists who had received additional training. SOS comprised academic detailing and practical support to identify patients with vascular disease who were not prescribed a statin at optimal dose or did not have cholesterol at target, followed by individualised recommendations for changes to management. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving cholesterol targets. Secondary outcomes were: the proportion of patients prescribed simvastatin 40 mg with target cholesterol achieved; cholesterol levels; prescribing of simvastatin 40 mg; prescribing of any statin and the proportion of patients with cholesterol tested. Outcomes were assessed after an average of 1.7 years (range 1.4-2.2 years, and practice level simvastatin 40 mg prescribing was assessed after 10 years.We randomised 31 practices (72 General Practitioners (GPs, 40 nurses. Prior to randomisation a subset of eligible patients were identified to characterise practices; 40% had cholesterol levels below the target threshold. Improvements in data collection procedures allowed identification of all eligible patients (n = 7586 at follow up. Patients in practices allocated to SOS were

  11. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  12. A computer-assisted protocol for endovascular target interventions using a clinical MRI system for controlling untethered microdevices and future nanorobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Chanu, Arnaud; Aboussouan, Eric; Tamaz, Samer; Pouponneau, Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine; Beaudoin, Gilles; Soulez, Gilles; Mankiewicz, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The possibility of automatically navigating untethered microdevices or future nanorobots to conduct target endovascular interventions has been demonstrated by our group with the computer-controlled displacement of a magnetic sphere along a pre-planned path inside the carotid artery of a living swine. However, although the feasibility of propelling, tracking and performing real-time closed-loop control of an untethered ferromagnetic object inside a living animal model with a relatively close similarity to human anatomical conditions has been validated using a standard clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system, little information has been published so far concerning the medical and technical protocol used. In fact, such a protocol developed within technological and physiological constraints was a key element in the success of the experiment. More precisely, special software modules were developed within the MRI software environment to offer an effective tool for experimenters interested in conducting such novel interventions. These additional software modules were also designed to assist an interventional radiologist in all critical real-time aspects that are executed at a speed beyond human capability, and include tracking, propulsion, event timing and closed-loop position control. These real-time tasks were necessary to avoid a loss of navigation control that could result in serious injury to the patient. Here, additional simulation and experimental results for microdevices designed to be targeted more towards the microvasculature have also been considered in the identification, validation and description of a specific sequence of events defining a new computer-assisted interventional protocol that provides the framework for future target interventions conducted in humans.

  13. Systematic Development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored Physical Activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Richard G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity (PA among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, in order to define clear program objectives, theoretical methods and practical strategies, ensure systematic program planning and pilot-testing, and anticipate on implementation and evaluation. Two versions of YouRAction were developed: one that targets individual determinants and an extended version that also provides feedback on opportunities to be active in the neighbourhood. Key determinants that were targeted included: knowledge and awareness, attitudes, self-efficacy and subjective norms. The extended version also addressed perceived availability of neighbourhood PA facilities. Both versions aimed to increase levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA among adolescents. The intervention structure was based on self-regulation theory, comprising of five steps in the process of successful goal pursuit. Monitoring of PA behaviour and behavioural and normative feedback were used to increase awareness of PA behaviour; motivation was enhanced by targeting self-efficacy and attitudes, by means of various interactive strategies, such as web movies; the perceived environment was targeted by visualizing opportunities to be active in an interactive geographical map of the home environment; in the goal setting phase, the adolescents were guided in setting a goal and developing an action plan to achieve this goal; in the phase of active goal pursuit adolescents try to achieve their goal and in the evaluation phase the achievements are evaluated. Based on the results

  14. Targeted prevention of common mental health disorders in university students: randomised controlled trial of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Musiat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large proportion of university students show symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, substance use disorders and eating disorders. Novel interventions are required that target underlying factors of multiple disorders. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic trait-focused web-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of common mental disorders in university students. METHOD: Students were recruited online (n=1047, age: M=21.8, SD=4.2 and categorised into being at high or low risk for mental disorders based on their personality traits. Participants were allocated to a cognitive-behavioural trait-focused (n=519 or a control intervention (n=528 using computerised simple randomisation. Both interventions were fully automated and delivered online (trial registration: ISRCTN14342225. Participants were blinded and outcomes were self-assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks after registration. Primary outcomes were current depression and anxiety, assessed on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9 and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7. Secondary outcome measures focused on alcohol use, disordered eating, and other outcomes. RESULTS: Students at high risk were successfully identified using personality indicators and reported poorer mental health. A total of 520 students completed the 6-week follow-up and 401 students completed the 12-week follow-up. Attrition was high across intervention groups, but comparable to other web-based interventions. Mixed effects analyses revealed that at 12-week follow up the trait-focused intervention reduced depression scores by 3.58 (p<.001, 95%CI [5.19, 1.98] and anxiety scores by 2.87 (p=.018, 95%CI [1.31, 4.43] in students at high risk. In high-risk students, between group effect sizes were 0.58 (depression and 0.42 (anxiety. In addition, self-esteem was improved. No changes were observed regarding the use of alcohol or disordered eating. CONCLUSIONS

  15. Use of GIS Technology in Surface Water Monitoring fro Targeted Policy Intervention in a Mountainous Catchment in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giali, Gabriela; Schneider, Petra

    2015-04-01

    USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGY IN SURFACE WATER MONITORING FOR TARGETED POLICY INTERVENTION IN A MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENT IN ROMANIA The collection of information on surface water quality is a specific activity that takes place systematically and regularly at regional and national scale, and it is important for the assessment of the water quality as well as for water management policy-making. A data base information management using a Geographical Information System (GIS) forms an important aspect of environmental management, which provides the frame for processing and visualisation of water monitoring data and information as well as for the optimisation of monitoring concepts. This paper presents an architecture performed by a GIS which provides a grafic database and attributes the nesessary measurements of the water quality to different sections of the mountainous catchment of the Suceava river in the north of Romania. With this approach the location of the water sampling points can be optimised in terms of the selection and setting of the river sections. To facilitate the setting of the sampling locations in the various sections of water sampling in the river, the presented GIS system provides to the user different information layers with combined or isolated data according to the objectives. In the frame of the research were created 5 layers of information in the basin under study, underlying the determination of a new information layer, namely the "Hydrografic Network Graded to Hydrographic Sections". Practically, in the studied basin were established 8 sections for water sampling locations, and the water quality characterization was done by the consideration of 15 quality indicators. The GIS system presented in this research is a valuable, useful and adaptable to land use changes data base that can be exploited by any number of combinations, its capabilities justify it's role as "tool to support decision making." With this characteristics it supports the policy-making of

  16. Targeting the specific vocabulary needs of at-risk preschoolers: a randomized study of the effectiveness of an educator-implemented intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuattoux, Delphine; Japel, Christa; Dion, Eric; Dupéré, Véronique

    2014-04-01

    This randomized study examined the effectiveness of a preschool stimulation program created to teach words that had been selected by considering the needs of the target population of children. Twenty-two educators and their group of at-risk preschoolers (N = 222, M age = 4.27 years) were assigned to one of two conditions: control or intervention. In the latter condition, educators had to read specifically developed storybooks to their group and conduct stimulation activities. Despite the training and support they received, educators implemented the intervention with varying degrees of fidelity. Nonetheless, intent-to-treat comparison of the two conditions indicates that children in the intervention condition learned the meaning of a much greater number of words than their peers in the control condition. In addition, efficacy subset analyses that took into account fidelity of implementation show that the greatest gains were made by children who had an educator who had implemented the intervention reliably. Strategies for scaling up the intervention and optimizing its implementation are discussed.

  17. The Effect of a Pro-Breastfeeding and Healthy Complementary Feeding Intervention Targeting Adolescent Mothers and Grandmothers on Growth and Prevalence of Overweight of Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schwartz

    Full Text Available The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood.To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding.This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants' maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery. When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis.BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318. There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits.Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377.

  18. Healthy Weight Regulation and Eating Disorder Prevention in High School Students: A Universal and Targeted Web-Based Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Megan; Taylor Lynch, Katherine; Kass, Andrea E.; Burrows, Amanda; Williams, Joanne; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rising rates of obesity in children and adolescents, developing evidence-based weight loss or weight maintenance interventions that can be widely disseminated, well implemented, and are highly scalable is a public health necessity. Such interventions should ensure that adolescents establish healthy weight regulation practices while also reducing eating disorder risk. Objective This study describes an online program, StayingFit, which has two tracks for universal and targe...

  19. MRI-based Medical Nanorobotic Platform for the Control of Magnetic Nanoparticles and Flagellated Bacteria for Target Interventions in Human Capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste; Chanu, Arnaud; Tamaz, Samer; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Mankiewicz, Martin; Tabatabaei, Nasr

    2009-09-01

    Medical nanorobotics exploits nanometer-scale components and phenomena with robotics to provide new medical diagnostic and interventional tools. Here, the architecture and main specifications of a novel medical interventional platform based on nanorobotics and nanomedicine, and suited to target regions inaccessible to catheterization are described. The robotic platform uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for feeding back information to a controller responsible for the real-time control and navigation along pre-planned paths in the blood vessels of untethered magnetic carriers, nanorobots, and/or magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) loaded with sensory or therapeutic agents acting like a wireless robotic arm, manipulator, or other extensions necessary to perform specific remote tasks. Unlike known magnetic targeting methods, the present platform allows us to reach locations deep in the human body while enhancing targeting efficacy using real-time navigational or trajectory control. The paper describes several versions of the platform upgraded through additional software and hardware modules allowing enhanced targeting efficacy and operations in very difficult locations such as tumoral lesions only accessible through complex microvasculature networks.

  20. Who to target in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy prevention and how? Risk factors, biomarkers, and intervention study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Surges, Rainer; Delamont, Robert; Haywood, Serena; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying suddenly and unexpectedly is increased 24- to 28-fold among young people with epilepsy compared to the general population, but the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) varies markedly depending on the epilepsy population. This article first reviews risk factors and biomarkers for SUDEP with the overall aim of enabling identification of epilepsy populations with different risk levels as a background for a discussion of possible intervention strategies. The by far most important clinical risk factor is frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), but nocturnal seizures, early age at onset, and long duration of epilepsy have been identified as additional risk factors. Lack of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment or, in the context of clinical trials, adjunctive placebo versus active treatment is associated with increased risks. Despite considerable research, reliable electrophysiologic (electrocardiography [ECG] or electroencephalography [EEG]) biomarkers of SUDEP risk remain to be established. This is an important limitation for prevention strategies and intervention studies. There is a lack of biomarkers for SUDEP, and until validated biomarkers are found, the endpoint of interventions to prevent SUDEP must be SUDEP itself. These interventions, be they pharmacologic, seizure-detection devices, or nocturnal supervision, require large numbers. Possible methods for assessing prevention measures include public health community interventions, self-management, and more traditional (and much more expensive) randomized clinical trials.

  1. Who to target in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy prevention and how? Risk factors, biomarkers, and intervention study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Surges, Rainer; Delamont, Robert; Haywood, Serena; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying suddenly and unexpectedly is increased 24- to 28-fold among young people with epilepsy compared to the general population, but the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) varies markedly depending on the epilepsy population. This article first reviews risk factors and biomarkers for SUDEP with the overall aim of enabling identification of epilepsy populations with different risk levels as a background for a discussion of possible intervention strategies. The by far most important clinical risk factor is frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), but nocturnal seizures, early age at onset, and long duration of epilepsy have been identified as additional risk factors. Lack of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment or, in the context of clinical trials, adjunctive placebo versus active treatment is associated with increased risks. Despite considerable research, reliable electrophysiologic (electrocardiography [ECG] or electroencephalography [EEG]) biomarkers of SUDEP risk remain to be established. This is an important limitation for prevention strategies and intervention studies. There is a lack of biomarkers for SUDEP, and until validated biomarkers are found, the endpoint of interventions to prevent SUDEP must be SUDEP itself. These interventions, be they pharmacologic, seizure-detection devices, or nocturnal supervision, require large numbers. Possible methods for assessing prevention measures include public health community interventions, self-management, and more traditional (and much more expensive) randomized clinical trials. PMID:26749012

  2. Is targeted fortification of human breast milk an optimal nutrition strategy for preterm infants? An interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Morlacchi, Laura; Mallardi, Domenica; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Amato, Orsola; Piemontese, Pasqua; Consonni, Dario; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortifying human milk contributes to the prevention of postnatal growth failure in preterm infants. Because of the natural variability of human milk, targeted fortification of human milk has been advocated. However, data regarding the efficacy and safety of prolonged targeted fortification are scarce. We aimed to assess the safety of targeted fortification of human milk in preterm infants compared with standard fortification, as well as the effects on infant growth. Methods We cond...

  3. Design of a randomized controlled study of a multi-professional and multidimensional intervention targeting frail elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosman-Hedström Gunilla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frail elderly people need an integrated and coordinated care. The two-armed study "Continuum of care for frail elderly people" is a multi-professional and multidimensional intervention for frail community-dwelling elderly people. It was designed to evaluate whether the intervention programme for frail elderly people can reduce the number of visits to hospital, increase satisfaction with health and social care and maintain functional abilities. The implementation process is explored and analysed along with the intervention. In this paper we present the study design, the intervention and the outcome measures as well as the baseline characteristics of the study participants. Methods/design The study is a randomised two-armed controlled trial with follow ups at 3, 6 and 12 months. The study group includes elderly people who sought care at the emergency ward and discharged to their own homes in the community. Inclusion criteria were 80 years and older or 65 to 79 years with at least one chronic disease and dependent in at least one activity of daily living. Exclusion criteria were acute severely illness with an immediate need of the assessment and treatment by a physician, severe cognitive impairment and palliative care. The intention was that the study group should comprise a representative sample of frail elderly people at a high risk of future health care consumption. The intervention includes an early geriatric assessment, early family support, a case manager in the community with a multi-professional team and the involvement of the elderly people and their relatives in the planning process. Discussion The design of the study, the randomisation procedure and the protocol meetings were intended to ensure the quality of the study. The implementation of the intervention programme is followed and analysed throughout the whole study, which enables us to generate knowledge on the process of implementing complex interventions. The

  4. Reducing High-Risk Drinking among Student-Athletes: The Effects of a Targeted Athlete-Specific Brief Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Monserrat, Joseph M.; Sokolowski, Karen L.; Dewitt-Parker, Joyce Y.; Rivero, Estela M.; McElroy, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of a single-session motivational interviewing--based in-person brief alcohol intervention that contained student-athlete-specific personalized drinking feedback. Participants: Participants were 170 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes meeting screening criteria for heavy…

  5. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Alaa M.; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Lumley, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study (Tavakoli "et al. Journal of Counseling Psychology 56":590-596, "2009"), the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions--expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)--had…

  6. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Emily A. Myers; Wen You; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-base...

  7. Interventional procedure based on nanorobots propelled and steered by flagellated magnetotactic bacteria for direct targeting of tumors in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste

    2008-01-01

    Flagellated bacteria used as bio-actuators may prove to be efficient propulsion mechanisms for future hybrid medical nanorobots when operating in the microvasculature. Here, we briefly describe a medical interventional procedure where flagellated bacteria and more specifically MC-1 Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB) can be used to propel and steer micro-devices and nanorobots under computer control to reach remote locations in the human body. In particular, we show through experimental results the potential of using MTB-tagged robots to deliver therapeutic agents to tumors even the ones located in deep regions of the human body. We also show that such bacterial nanorobots can be tracked inside the human body for enhanced targeting under computer guidance using MRI as imaging modality. MTB can not only be guided and controlled directly towards a specific target, but we also show experimentally that these flagellated bacterial nanorobots can be propelled and steered in vivo deeply through the interstitial region of a tumor. The targeting efficacy is increased when combined with larger ferromagnetic micro-carriers being propelled by magnetic gradients generated by a MRI platform to carry and release nanorobots propelled by a single flagellated bacterium near the arteriocapillar entry. Based on the experimental data obtained and the experience gathered during several experiments conducted in vivo with this new approach, a general medical interventional procedure is briefly described here in a biomedical engineering context.

  8. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-04

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  9. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valisa E. Hedrick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories, yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER or a physical activity group (MoveMore. Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149 (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7, p ≤ 0.001 and MoveMore (n = 143 (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2, p ≤ 0.001 participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05, over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01. Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  10. Healthy babies through infant-centered feeding protocol: an intervention targeting early childhood obesity in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodynski Mildred A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor feeding practices during infancy contribute to obesity risk. As infants transition from human milk and/or formula-based diets to solid foods, these practices interfere with infant feeding self-regulation and healthy growth patterns. Compared with other socioeconomic groups, lower-income mothers are more likely to experience difficulty feeding their infants. This may include misinterpreting feeding cues and using less-than-optimal feeding styles and practices, such as pressuring infants during mealtimes and prematurely introducing solid food and sweetened beverages. The Healthy Babies trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-infant dyads. The educational intervention is being conducted during the infant's first 6 months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year and is based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods/Design We will describe our study protocol for a multisite randomized control trial being conducted in Colorado and Michigan with an anticipated sample of 372 economically and educationally disadvantaged African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian mothers with infants. Participants are being recruited by county community agency staff. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention consists of six in-home visits by a trained paraprofessional instructor followed by three reinforcement telephone contacts when the baby is 6, 8, and 10 months old. Main maternal outcomes include a maternal responsiveness, b feeding style, and c feeding practices. Main infant outcome is infant growth pattern. All measures occur at baseline and when the infant is 6 and 12 months old. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes will address whether the home-based early nutrition education intervention is effective

  11. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihuoma U. Eneli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI, an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1, development of the FDI content (Study 2, and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3. Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges’ g greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57% of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges’ g≥0.8 occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child’s intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p<0.01 and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p<0.001. The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child’s eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  12. Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgers Jako

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing quality-indicator prioritisation with and without public involvement. In preparation for the trial, we developed a 'menu' of quality indicators, based on a systematic review of existing validated indicator sets. Participants (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will be recruited from six participating sites. In intervention sites, public representatives will be involved through direct participation (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will deliberate together to agree on quality-indicator choice and use and consultation (individual public recommendations for improvement will be collected and presented to decision makers. In control sites, only clinicians and managers will take part in the prioritisation process. Data on quality-indicator choice and intended use will be collected. Our primary outcome will compare quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities between intervention and control groups. A process evaluation based on direct observation, videorecording, and participants' assessment will be conducted to help explain the study's results. The marginal cost of public involvement will also be assessed. Discussion We identified 801 quality indicators that met our inclusion criteria. An expert panel agreed on a final set of 37 items containing validated quality indicators relevant for chronic disease prevention and management in primary care. We pilot tested our public-involvement intervention with 27

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mind-Body Interventions Targeting Sleep on Salivary Oxytocin Levels in Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Grewen, Karen; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2015-07-01

    Cancer survivors experience high levels of distress, associated with a host of negative psychological states, including anxiety, depression, and fear of recurrence, which often lead to sleep problems and reduction in quality of life (QOL) and well-being. As a neuropeptide hormone associated with affiliation, calmness, and well-being, oxytocin may be a useful biological measure of changes in health outcomes in cancer survivors. In this exploratory study, which comprised a subset of participants from a larger study, we evaluated (a) the feasibility and reliability of salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels in cancer survivors and (b) the effects of 2 sleep-focused mind-body interventions, mind-body bridging (MBB) and mindfulness meditation (MM), compared with a sleep hygiene education (SHE) control, on changes in sOT levels in 30 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance. Interventions were conducted in 3 sessions, once per week for 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, postintervention (~1 week after the last session), and at the 2-month follow-up. In this cancer survivor group, we found that intra-individual sOT levels were fairly stable across the 3 time points, of about 3 months' duration, and mean baseline sOT levels did not differ between females and males and were not correlated with age. Correlations between baseline sOT and self-report measures were weak; however, several of these relationships were in the predicted direction, in which sOT levels were negatively associated with sleep problems and depression and positively associated with cancer-related QOL and well-being. Regarding intervention effects on sOT, baseline-subtracted sOT levels were significantly larger at postintervention in the MBB group as compared with those in SHE. In this sample of cancer survivors assessed for sOT, at postintervention, greater reductions in sleep problems were noted for MBB and MM compared with that of SHE, and increases in mindfulness and self

  14. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dele Abegunde

    Full Text Available Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR and infant mortality rate (IMR are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5.At baseline (2012 and then at follow-up (2013, we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated.For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up.Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic

  15. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, C. A.; Blanchard, W. R.; Kozub, T. A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-14

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber

  16. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber

  17. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  18. Targeting poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase1 in neurological diseases: A promising trove for new pharmacological interventions to enter clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Chandra Shekhar; Jangra, Ashok; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The highly conserved abundant nuclear protein poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase1 (PARP1) functions at the center of cellular stress response and is mainly implied in DNA damage repair mechanism. Apart from its involvement in DNA damage repair, it does sway multiple vital cellular processes such as cell death pathways, cell aging, insulator function, chromatin modification, transcription and mitotic apparatus function. Since brain is the principal organ vulnerable to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, upon stress encounters robust DNA damage can occur and intense PARP1 activation may result that will lead to various CNS diseases. In the context of soaring interest towards PARP1 as a therapeutic target for newer pharmacological interventions, here in the present review, we are attempting to give a silhouette of the role of PARP1 in the neurological diseases and the potential of its inhibitors to enter clinical translation, along with its structural and functional aspects. PMID:25049175

  19. Caspase dependent programmed cell death in developing embryos: a potential target for therapeutic intervention against pathogenic nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Das Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    developing embryos can be a potential approach for therapeutic intervention against pathogenic nematodes and flow cytometry can be used to address different issues of biological importance during embryogenesis of parasitic worms.

  20. The practice characterization model: the importance of organizational life cycles and targeted interventions in general medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, E M; Duffy, M C; Bain, D J

    2001-01-01

    In response to a climate of constant change and increasing demand for services, general practice in the UK has undergone significant modification over the last 10 years. It has become a multi-disciplinary organisation encouraged by funding bodies to plan for service delivery using a more structured team based approach. In Tayside in 1996, practices were charged with producing formal Practice Development Plans (PDPs) which would focus on priority areas aligned with the Health Boards own strategic plan--those were teamwork, information management and technology, and clinical service delivery. The University of Dundee's Department of General Practice successfully applied for funding to develop ways of facilitating practices so that they could a) identify their own development priorities, and b) plan and implement action and learning to see these priorities through. Using action research methodology, the project attempted to create a climate for change, provide support and training to see the changes implemented, and ensure commitment to the changes from all members of the practice team. The Facilitator adopted a flexible style varying her role between expert, guide and support. Analysis of progress made by different practices, coupled with the Facilitator's in depth knowledge of them, suggested the importance of certain key aspects of practice organisation and culture. A practice characterisation model identified practices which were stable, currently coping, proactive and ready to face the challenge of change as best placed to engage in a full scale development programme. Other profiles suggested a range of alternative interventions as more likely to be acceptable and productive. PMID:11499046

  1. Dynamics of p53 and NF-κB regulation in response to DNA damage and identification of target proteins suitable for therapeutic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poltz Rainer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome is continuously attacked by a variety of agents that cause DNA damage. Recognition of DNA lesions activates the cellular DNA damage response (DDR, which comprises a network of signal transduction pathways to maintain genome integrity. In response to severe DNA damage, cells undergo apoptosis to avoid transformation into tumour cells, or alternatively, the cells enter permanent cell cycle arrest, called senescence. Most tumour cells have defects in pathways leading to DNA repair or apoptosis. In addition, apoptosis could be counteracted by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, the main anti-apoptotic transcription factor in the DDR. Despite the high clinical relevance, the interplay of the DDR pathways is poorly understood. For therapeutic purposes DNA damage signalling processes are induced to induce apoptosis in tumour cells. However, the efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy is strongly hampered by cell survival pathways in tumour cells. In this study logical modelling was performed to facilitate understanding of the complexity of the signal transduction networks in the DDR and to provide cancer treatment options. Results Our comprehensive discrete logical model provided new insights into the dynamics of the DDR in human epithelial tumours. We identified new mechanisms by which the cell regulates the dynamics of the activation of the tumour suppressor p53 and NF-κB. Simulating therapeutic intervention by agents causing DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs or DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs we identified candidate target proteins for sensitization of carcinomas to therapeutic intervention. Further, we enlightened the DDR in different genetic diseases, and by failure mode analysis we defined molecular defects putatively contributing to carcinogenesis. Conclusion By logic modelling we identified candidate target proteins that could be suitable for radio- and chemotherapy, and contributes to the design of more effective

  2. Neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing effects of a multi-targeted food intervention in an animal model of neurodegeneration and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borre, Yuliya E; Panagaki, Theodora; Koelink, Pim J; Morgan, Mary E; Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-04-01

    Rising neurodegenerative and depressive disease prevalence combined with the lack of effective pharmaceutical treatments and dangerous side effects, has created an urgent need for the development of effective therapies. Considering that these disorders are multifactorial in origin, treatments designed to interfere at different mechanistic levels may be more effective than the traditional single-targeted pharmacological concepts. To that end, an experimental diet composed of zinc, melatonin, curcumin, piperine, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), uridine, and choline was formulated. This diet was tested on the olfactory bulbectomized rat (OBX), an established animal model of depression and cognitive decline. The ingredients of the diet have been individually shown to attenuate glutamate excitoxicity, exert potent anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, and improve synaptogenesis; processes that all have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and in the cognitive deficits following OBX in rodents. Dietary treatment started 2 weeks before OBX surgery, continuing for 6 weeks in total. The diet attenuated OBX-induced cognitive and behavioral deficits, except long-term spatial memory. Ameliorating effects of the diet extended to the control animals. Furthermore, the experimental diet reduced hippocampal atrophy and decreased the peripheral immune activation in the OBX rats. The ameliorating effects of the diet on the OBX-induced changes were comparable to those of the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, a drug used for the management of Alzheimer's disease. This proof-of-concept study suggests that a diet, which simultaneously targets multiple disease etiologies, can prevent/impede the development of a neurodegenerative and depressive disorders and the concomitant cognitive deficits.

  3. Widespread inequalities in smoking & smokeless tobacco consumption across wealth quintiles in States of India: Need for targeted interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    2015-01-01

    indicate that tobacco control policy and public health interventions need to consider widespread socio-economic inequities in tobacco consumption across the States in India.

  4. Automated tracking of tumor-stroma morphology in microtissues identifies functional targets within the tumor microenvironment for therapeutic intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerfelt, Malin; Bayramoglu, Neslihan; Robinson, Sean; Toriseva, Mervi; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Härmä, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Sormunen, Raija; Kaakinen, Mika; Kannala, Juho; Eklund, Lauri; Heikkilä, Janne; Nees, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment and promote invasion via paracrine functions and physical impact on the tumor. Although the importance of including CAFs into three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures has been acknowledged, computational support for quantitative live-cell measurements of complex cell cultures has been lacking. Here, we have developed a novel automated pipeline to model tumor-stroma interplay, track motility and quantify morphological changes of 3D co-cultures, in real-time live-cell settings. The platform consists of microtissues from prostate cancer cells, combined with CAFs in extracellular matrix that allows biochemical perturbation. Tracking of fibroblast dynamics revealed that CAFs guided the way for tumor cells to invade and increased the growth and invasiveness of tumor organoids. We utilized the platform to determine the efficacy of inhibitors in prostate cancer and the associated tumor microenvironment as a functional unit. Interestingly, certain inhibitors selectively disrupted tumor-CAF interactions, e.g. focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors specifically blocked tumor growth and invasion concurrently with fibroblast spreading and motility. This complex phenotype was not detected in other standard in vitro models. These results highlight the advantage of our approach, which recapitulates tumor histology and can significantly improve cancer target validation in vitro. PMID:26375443

  5. Logical network of genotoxic stress-induced NF-kappaB signal transduction predicts putative target structures for therapeutic intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Poltz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainer Poltz1, Raimo Franke1,#, Katrin Schweitzer1, Steffen Klamt2, Ernst-Dieter Gilles2, Michael Naumann11Institute of Experimental Internal Medicine, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; 2Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Magdeburg, Germany; #Present address: Department of Chemical Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, GermanyAbstract: Genotoxic stress is induced by a broad range of DNA-damaging agents and could lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. DNA damage is also therapeutically induced for cancer treatment with the aim to eliminate tumor cells. However, the effectiveness of radio- and chemotherapy is strongly hampered by tumor cell resistance. A major reason for radio- and chemotherapeutic resistances is the simultaneous activation of cell survival pathways resulting in the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB. Here, we present a Boolean network model of the NF-κB signal transduction induced by genotoxic stress in epithelial cells. For the representation and analysis of the model, we used the formalism of logical interaction hypergraphs. Model reconstruction was based on a careful meta-analysis of published data. By calculating minimal intervention sets, we identified p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD, receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1, and protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy as putative therapeutic targets to abrogate NF-κB activation resulting in apoptosis. Targeting these structures therapeutically may potentiate the effectiveness of radio- and chemotherapy. Thus, the presented model allows a better understanding of the signal transduction in tumor cells and provides candidates as new therapeutic target structures.Keywords: apoptosis, Boolean network, cancer therapy, DNA-damage response, NF-κB

  6. A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors for prostate cancer patients from the RADAR trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen deprivation therapy leads to a number of adverse effects including deterioration of the musculoskeletal system and increased risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects, efficacy, retention and compliance of a physical exercise intervention in a large established cohort of prostate cancer patients from the Randomised Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy (RADAR) study. Specifically, we aim to compare short- and long-term effects of a prostate cancer-specific supervised exercise program to a standard public health physical activity strategy utilizing printed resources on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Our primary outcomes are cardiorespiratory capacity, abdominal obesity, and lipid and glycemic control, while secondary outcomes include self-reported physical activity, quality of life and psychological distress. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 370 men from the RADAR study cohort undergoing treatment or previously treated for prostate cancer involving androgen deprivation therapy in the cities of Perth and Newcastle (Australia), and Wellington (New Zealand). Participants will be randomized to (1) supervised resistance/aerobic exercise or (2) printed material comprising general physical activity recommendations. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 6 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), and at 6 months follow-up. This study uses a large existent cohort of patients and will generate valuable information as to the continuing effects of exercise specifically targeting cardiovascular function and disease risk, insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, physical function, quality of life and psychological distress. We expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce risk factors for the development of co-morbid diseases commonly associated with androgen

  7. Overviews and Advances in Studies of Target Concentration Intervention%目标浓度干预概况及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌静; 焦正; 钟明康

    2013-01-01

    目的 综述目标浓度干预(target concentration intervention,TCI)理论,为临床个体化给药提供依据.方法 查阅国内外相关文献和实践案例,进行分析、归纳、总结及评述.结果 20世纪60年代,治疗药物监测(therapeutic drug monitoring,TDM)进入临床实践,并协助个体化用药.但随着治疗药物监测实践的发展,逐渐显现出一些局限性,如忽视个体间变异及药效,因此不能达到安全有效使用药物的目的.目标浓度干预理论利用患者和疾病的所有相关信息,综合药动学、药效学原理,可分析和解释体内药物浓度和药物效应之间的关系及相关影响因素,克服了治疗药物监测的缺陷,为个体化给药提供了一个完整的方法和策略.结论 目标浓度干预理论是在治疗药物监测基础上的进一步延伸与发展,对临床个体化给药具有重要意义.%OBJECTIVE To review the target concentration intervention (TCI) theory and provide reliable evidences for the optimization of drug treatment in clinical practice.METHODS Relevant literatures were extensively and comprehensively reviewed.RESULTS Since 1960s,therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) had been applied in clinical practice to realize individualized drug administration.Due to some potential limitations of TDM such as neglecting inter-individual variability and failure to take drug effects into account,more and more scholars proposed a new theory which is called TCI as an alternative of TDM.The TCI approach takes advantage of known patient variables,pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to interpret drug effect and concentration observations.It not only overcomes the defects of TDM,but also provides a complete strategy for individual administration.CONCLUSION TCI is an extension of TDM,which has clinical significance for individualized therapy.

  8. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Irene

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR% for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%, first birth (32%, bottom four quintiles of average income (14%, oligohydramnios (7%, underweight or hypertension, (6% each, smoking (3% and placental disorder (1%. Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative

  9. A home-visiting intervention targeting determinants of infant mental health: the study protocol for the CAPEDP randomized controlled trial in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubach Florence

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. Method and design The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child’s father, and 3 low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child’s second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. Discussion The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by

  10. The CareWell-primary care program: design of a cluster controlled trial and process evaluation of a complex intervention targeting community-dwelling frail elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruikes Franca GH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing age and longevity, the rising number of frail elders with complex and numerous health-related needs demands a coordinated health care delivery system integrating cure, care and welfare. Studies on the effectiveness of such comprehensive chronic care models targeting frail elders show inconclusive results. The CareWell-primary care program is a complex intervention targeting community-dwelling frail elderly people, that aims to prevent functional decline, improve quality of life, and reduce or postpone hospital and nursing home admissions of community dwelling frail elderly. Methods/design The CareWell-primary care study includes a (cost- effectiveness study and a comprehensive process evaluation. In a one-year pragmatic, cluster controlled trial, six general practices are non-randomly recruited to adopt the CareWell-primary care program and six control practices will deliver ‘care as usual’. Each practice includes a random sample of fifty frail elders aged 70 years or above in the cost-effectiveness study. A sample of patients and informal caregivers and all health care professionals participating in the CareWell-primary care program are included in the process evaluation. In the cost-effectiveness study, the primary outcome is the level of functional abilities as measured with the Katz-15 index. Hierarchical mixed-effects regression models / multilevel modeling approach will be used, since the study participants are nested within the general practices. Furthermore, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated as costs per QALY gained and as costs weighed against functional abilities. In the process evaluation, mixed methods will be used to provide insight in the implementation degree of the program, patients’ and professionals’ approval of the program, and the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Discussion The CareWell-primary care study will provide new insights into the (cost

  11. Discovery of New Anti-Schistosomal Hits by Integration of QSAR-Based Virtual Screening and High Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bruno J; Dantas, Rafael F; Senger, Mario R; Melo-Filho, Cleber C; Valente, Walter C G; de Almeida, Ana C M; Rezende-Neto, João M; Lima, Elid F C; Paveley, Ross; Furnham, Nicholas; Muratov, Eugene; Kamentsky, Lee; Carpenter, Anne E; Braga, Rodolpho C; Silva-Junior, Floriano P; Andrade, Carolina Horta

    2016-08-11

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease, caused by flatworms of Schistosoma genus. The treatment relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), making the discovery of new compounds extremely urgent. In this work, we integrated QSAR-based virtual screening (VS) of Schistosoma mansoni thioredoxin glutathione reductase (SmTGR) inhibitors and high content screening (HCS) aiming to discover new antischistosomal agents. Initially, binary QSAR models for inhibition of SmTGR were developed and validated using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidance. Using these models, we prioritized 29 compounds for further testing in two HCS platforms based on image analysis of assay plates. Among them, 2-[2-(3-methyl-4-nitro-5-isoxazolyl)vinyl]pyridine and 2-(benzylsulfonyl)-1,3-benzothiazole, two compounds representing new chemical scaffolds have activity against schistosomula and adult worms at low micromolar concentrations and therefore represent promising antischistosomal hits for further hit-to-lead optimization. PMID:27396732

  12. Pertinence of the recent school-based nutrition interventions targeting fruit and vegetable consumption in the United States:a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Aloia; Taylor A. Shockey; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Knight, Kathy B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are the major locations for implementing children’s dietary behavior related educational or interventional programs. Recently, there has been an increase in school-based nutrition interventions. The objective of this systematic review was to overview the evidence for the effectiveness of school-based nutrition intervention on fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: PubMed was used to search for articles on school-based nutrition interventions that measured students’ f...

  13. Transcriptional profiling of the oesophageal gland region of male worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaratna, Sujeevi S K; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Willis, Charlene; Chuah, Candy; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal tract of schistosomes opens at the mouth and leads into the foregut or oesophageal region that is lined with syncytium continuous with the apical cytoplasm of the tegument. The oesophagus is surrounded by a specialised gland, the oesophageal gland. This gland releases materials into the lumen of the oesophagus and the region is thought to initiate the lysis of erythrocytes and neutralisation of immune effectors of the host. The oesophageal region is present in the early invasive schistosomulum, a stage potentially targetable by anti-schistosome vaccines. We used a 44k oligonucleotide microarray to identify highly up-regulated genes in microdissected frozen sections of the oesophageal gland of male worms of S. mansoni. We show that 122 genes were up-regulated 2-fold or higher in the oesophageal gland compared with a whole male worm tissue control. The enriched genes included several associated with lipid metabolism and transmembrane transport as well as some micro-exon genes. Since the oesophageal gland is important in the initiation of digestion and the fact that it develops early after invasion of the mammalian host, further study of selected highly up-regulated functionally important genes in this tissue may reveal new anti-schistosome intervention targets for schistosomiasis control. PMID:25149559

  14. A multimodal approach to investigate biomarkers for psychosis in a clinical setting: the integrative neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia targeting for early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Suga, Motomu; Nagai, Tatsuya; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Tada, Mariko; Nishimura, Yukika; Yamasaki, Syudo; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical investigations and biological measurements have determined not only progressive brain volumetric and functional changes especially around the onset of psychosis but also the abnormality of developmental pathways based on gene-environment interaction model. However, these studies have contributed little to clinical decisions on their diagnosis and therapeutic choices because of subtle differences between patients and healthy controls. A multi-modal approach may resolve this limitation and is favorable to explore the pathophysiology of psychosis. The integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is a research project aimed at exploring the pathophysiological features of the onset of psychosis and investigating possible predictive biomarkers for the clinical treatment of psychosis. Since 2008, we have adopted blood sampling, neurocognitive batteries, neurophysiological assessment, structural imaging, and functional imaging longitudinally for help-seeking ultra-high-risk (UHR) individuals and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Here, we intend to introduce the IN-STEP research study protocol and present preliminary clinical findings. Thirty-seven UHR individuals and 30 patients with FEP participated in this study. Six months later, there was no difference in objective and subjective scores between the groups, which suggests that young people having symptoms and functional deficits should be cared for regardless of their history of psychosis according to their clinical stages. The rate of transition to psychosis was 7.1%, 8.0%, and 35.3% (at 6, 12, and 24months, respectively). Through this research project, we expect to clarify the pathophysiological features around the onset of psychosis and improve the prognosis of psychosis through clinical application. PMID:23219075

  15. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  16. Efficacy and use of an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle intervention, targeting saturated fat intake, physical activity and smoking cessation : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; Dijkstra, Arie; de Weerdt, Inge; de Vries, Hein

    2008-01-01

    Background Although experts claim that computer-tailored interventions provided over the Internet have great potential to promote health behavior change, few studies have tested the efficacy of computer-tailored lifestyle interventions online-delivered over the Internet. Purpose To evaluate the shor

  17. A Parent-Mediated Intervention that Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  18. A mobile phone app intervention targeting fruit and vegetable consumption : The efficacy of textual and auditory tailored health information tested in a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. Objective: In a randomized controlled

  19. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E.; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set ...

  20. A multi-faceted workplace intervention targeting low back pain was effective for physical work demands and maladaptive pain behaviours, but not for work ability and sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2016-01-01

    from management, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain were measured every 3 months. Before and after the intervention we measured physical capacity, kinesiophobia and need for recovery. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline values of the outcome were used to estimate the effect......Aims: The aims of this study were to test whether a multi-faceted intervention effective for low back pain was effective for physical capacity, work demands, maladaptive pain behaviours, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain. Methods: A stepped wedge cluster randomised, controlled....... Results: Significant reduction in occupational lifting (-0.35 (95% confidence interval -0.61 to -0.08)), and improvement in two measures of fear avoidance ((-0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.05 to -0.45) and -0.45 (95% confidence interval -0.80 to -0.11)) were found for the intervention group compared...

  1. Parent Inclusion in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: The Influence of Parental Stress, Parent Treatment Fidelity and Parent-Mediated Generalization of Behavior Targets on Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kristin; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Fava, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Although early intensive behavior interventions have been efficient in producing positive behavior outcome in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, there is a considerable variety in the children's progress. Research has suggested that parental and treatment factors are likely to affect children's response to treatment. The purpose of the…

  2. 病耻感心理护理对抑郁症患者的康复效果%The effect of psychological nursing intervention targeted stigma on the rehabilitation of patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石锦娟; 邢博

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究病耻感心理护理干预对抑郁症患者康复的效果.方法:将40例有病耻感的抑郁症患者随机分组,分为干预组和对照组各20例,对照组参加常规的康复治疗,如工娱治疗、体育治疗、手工治疗等,干预组则在此基础上给予8周针对病耻感的心理护理干预,以促进患者康复.以抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、90项症状清单(SCL-90)、社交回避及苦恼量表为评定指标,对两组的康复效果进行评价.结果:干预组的焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表、90项症状清单、社交回避及苦恼量表与对照组比较,差别有统计意义(P<0.05).结论:病耻感会严重影响抑郁症患者的康复效果,针对病耻感进行心理护理干预,对于抑郁症患者的康复具有一定效果.%Objective: To observe the effect of psychological nursing intervention targeted stigma on rehabilitation of patients with depression. Methods :40 cases of stigma of depression were divided into intervention and control groups that each were 20. Patients in the control group attended regular rehabilitation therapy, such as entertainment therapy, physical therapy, manual therapy. The intervention group in which were given psychological nursing intervention targeted stigma for 8 weeks to promote patient recovery. To evaluate the effect of rehabilitation of the two groups through SAS, SDS, SAD, SCL -90. Results: To compare the score of SDS,SAS ,SAD, SCL - 90 between the two groups,the difference was statistically significant( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion:Stigma can seriously influence the rehabilitation of patients with depression. Psychological nursing intervention targeted stigma for the rehabilitation of patients with depression have a certain effect.

  3. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacMahon Tone, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  4. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bélanger-Gravel; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of c...

  5. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  6. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. Objective In a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a 6-month intervention delivered via a mobile phone app that communicated either textual or auditory tailored health information aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable intake. A control condition in which no health information was given was added. Perceived own health and health literacy were included as moderators to assess for which groups the interventions could possibly lead to health behavior change. Methods After downloading the mobile phone app, respondents were exposed monthly to either text-based or audio-based tailored health information and feedback over a period of 6 months via the mobile phone app. In addition, respondents in the control condition only completed the baseline and posttest measures. Within a community sample (online recruitment), self-reported fruit and vegetable intake at 6-month follow-up was our primary outcome measure. Results In total, 146 respondents (ranging from 40 to 58 per condition) completed the study (attrition rate 55%). A significant main effect of condition was found on fruit intake (P=.049, partial η2=0.04). A higher fruit intake was found after exposure to the auditory information, especially in recipients with a poor perceived own health (P=.003, partial η2=0.08). In addition, health literacy moderated the effect of condition on vegetable intake 6 months later (Pbehaviors. Based on our results, it seems worthwhile to investigate additional ways to increase fruit and vegetable intake in recipients with low health literacy. ClinicalTrial International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 23466915; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN23466915 (Archived by WebCite at http

  7. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Beecham, David; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  8. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, A.; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of children's physical activity were intention and self-identity. Determinants of intention were self-efficacy, self-identity, and attitude. Parental variables were mediated through cognitions. Among girls, practicing sedentary activities was an additional negative determinant of intention. Key beliefs of boys and girls were related to time management and difficulties associated with physical activity. For girls, social identification as an active girl was another important belief related to positive intention. This study provides theory-based information for the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among children. PMID:20652005

  9. Australian governments' spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae.

  10. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Brown

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU’s Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE, this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities.

  11. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bélanger-Gravel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of children's physical activity were intention and self-identity. Determinants of intention were self-efficacy, self-identity, and attitude. Parental variables were mediated through cognitions. Among girls, practicing sedentary activities was an additional negative determinant of intention. Key beliefs of boys and girls were related to time management and difficulties associated with physical activity. For girls, social identification as an active girl was another important belief related to positive intention. This study provides theory-based information for the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among children.

  12. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A community-based intervention targeting type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in a First Nations community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Elizabeth Kakekagumick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the twenty-two year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners.

  13. Intracoronary Compared to Intravenous Bolus Abciximab during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients Reduces 30-day Mortality and Target Vessel Revascularization: A Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan; Abildgaard, Ulrik; Galloe, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Abciximab is beneficial in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). However, the optimal administration route of the initial bolus of abciximab, that is, intravenous (IV) versus intracoronary (IC), has...... been questioned. Preliminary studies suggest that IC-bolus is superior, probably due to high local concentration. In this study, we assess the short-term efficacy and safety of IC compared to IV bolus of abciximab in patients with STEMI during pPCI. Methods: In 2006-2008, we randomized 355 STEMI...... patients who underwent pPCI and had indication for abciximab to either IV or IC bolus followed by a 12-hour IV infusion. Primary end-points at 30 days were target vessel revascularization (TVR), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or death, and the composite of the three. Secondary end-points were...

  14. The State of Educational Intervention Research as Viewed through the Lens of Literacy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of educational intervention research are reviewed: Educational intervention research is inspired by diverse theories, targeted at a variety of simple to very complex interventions, and includes a variety of methods and measurements. Some interventions have been studied much more than others, with the more studied ones often…

  15. Cooperative regulation of non-small cell lung carcinoma by nicotinic and beta-adrenergic receptors: a novel target for intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A N Al-Wadei

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death; 80-85% of lung cancer cases are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Smoking is a documented risk factor for the development of this cancer. Although nicotine does not have the ability to initiate carcinogenic events, recent studies have implicated nicotine in growth stimulation of NSCLC. Using three NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H322, NCI-H441 and NCI-H1299, we identified the cooperation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs as principal regulators of these effects. Proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation and MTT assays, and Western blots were used to monitor the upregulation of the nAChRs and activation of signaling molecules. Noradrenaline and GABA were measured by immunoassays. Nicotine-treated NSCLC cells showed significant induction of the α7nAChR and α4nAChR, along with significant inductions of p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 accompanied by increases in the stress neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which in turn led to the observed increase in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Effects on cell proliferation and signaling proteins were reversed by the α7nAChR antagonist α-BTX or the β-blocker propranolol. Nicotine treatment also down-regulated expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD 65 and the level of endogenous GABA, while treatment of NSCLC cells with GABA inhibited cell proliferation. Interestingly, GABA acts by reducing β-adrenergic activated cAMP signaling. Our findings suggest that nicotine-induced activation of this autocrine noradrenaline-initiated signaling cascade and concomitant deficiency in inhibitory GABA, similar to modulation of these neurotransmitters in the nicotine-addicted brain, may contribute to the development of NSCLC in smokers. Our data suggest that exposure to nicotine either by tobacco smoke or nicotine supplements facilitates growth and progression of NSCLC and that pharmacological intervention by β blocker may

  16. Targeted surveillance on nosocomial infection and analysis on intervention effect in integrated ICU%综合ICU医院感染目标性监测及干预效果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 王光明; 焦婕英; 秦彩玲; 葛敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过开展目标性检测,了解ICU医院感染发生情况、危险因素及干预效果.方法 采用前瞻性目标性监测的方法,对2011年7月—2012年6月兵器工业五二一医院ICU患者进行医院感染监测,同时运用PDCA循环的方法进行干预.结果 监测338例患者,发生医院感染52例次,例次感染发病率为15.38%,调整例次感染发病率为4.13%;呼吸机相关性肺炎42.58‰,导尿管相关性尿路感染4.33‰,导管相关性血流感染4.94‰.结论 ICU患者导管使用多,呼吸机相关性肺炎发生率高,应加强监测,并针对危险因素运用PDCA循环的方法进行干预,效果良好.%[Objective]To carry out the targeted surveillance, understand the incidence rate, risk factors .and intervention effect of nosocomial infection in ICU. [Methods] By using prospective targeted surveillance, patients in ICU of No. 521 Hospital ( Ordnance Industry Health Institute) were monitored for f nosocomial infection from July 2011 to June 2012, and the intervention was conducted by PDCA circulation method. [Results] Among 338 patients, there were 52 cases-times of nosoeomial infection with the incidence rate of 15.38% , and adjusted incidence rate was 4.13%. The rate of ventilator associated pneumonia was 42.58%e, the rate of catheter associated urinary tract infection was 4. 33%., and the rate of catheter related bloodstream infection was 4. 94%e. [ Conclusion] ICU patients are treated with catheter more frequently, and the incidence rate of ventilator associated pneumonia is high. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and implement the effective intervention of PDCA circulation method according to risk factors, which has good effect.

  17. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a

  18. 针对性体重管理干预对新生儿出生体重及分娩结局的影响%Effect of the targeted intervention on the birth weight of newborn and delivery outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝华春

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨针对性体重管理干预对新生儿出生体重及分娩结局的影响。方法:选取2013年1月~2014年1月124例孕妇作为观察组,选取2012年12月~2013年12月128例孕妇作为对照组,对照组给予常规的定期产前检查、围产期保健及相关健康教育,观察组实施针对性体重管理干预,比较两组干预效果。结果:两组孕妇体重增长情况比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05, P <0.01);两组体重及巨大儿、低体重儿发生率比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);观察组正常分娩率高于对照组(P <0.05),产后抑郁发生率低于对照组(P <0.05)。结论:针对性体重管理干预可有效控制孕妇及新生儿体重,减少并发症。%Objective:To investigate the effect of the targeted intervention on the birth weight of newborn and delivery outcome. Meth-ods:124 pregnant women(from January 2013 to January 2014)were selected as the observation group and other 128 pregnant women (from December 2012 to December 2013)were taken as the control group. The pregnant women in the control group were given regular prenatal examination,perinatal care and related health education and the pregnant women in the observation group were provided the targe-ted intervention on weight management,the intervention effect was compared between the two groups. Results:There was statistically signifi-cant difference in the comparison of the weight growth of the pregnant women between the two groups(P < 0. 05,P < 0. 01);the difference in the comparison of the incidence of huge weight and low birth weight of the infants was statistically significant(P < 0. 05);the normal delivery rate in the observation group was higher than the control group(P < 0. 05);the incidence of postpartum depression was lower in the observation group than the control group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion:The targeted intervention on weight management can effectively con-trol the weight of pregnant

  19. Recruiting Hard-to-Reach Subjects for Exercise Interventions: A Multi-Centre and Multi-Stage Approach Targeting General Practitioners and Their Community-Dwelling and Mobility-Limited Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The general practitioner (GP’s practice appears to be an ideal venue for recruiting community-dwelling older adults with limited mobility. This study (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17727272 aimed at evaluating the recruiting process used for a multi-centre exercise intervention (HOMEfit. Each of six steps resulted in an absolute number of patients (N1–N6. Sex and age (for N4–N6 and reasons for dropping out were assessed. Patient database screening (N1–N3 at 15 GP practices yielded N1 = 5,990 patients aged 70 and above who had visited their GP within the past 6 months, N2 = 5,467 after exclusion of institutionalised patients, N3 = 1,545 patients eligible. Using a pre-defined limitation algorithm in order to conserve the practices’ resources resulted in N4 = 1,214 patients (80.3 ± 5.6 years, 68% female, who were then officially invited to the final assessment of eligibility at the GP’s practice. N5 = 434 patients (79.5 ± 5.4 years, 69% female attended the practice screening (n = 13 of whom had not received an official invitation. Finally, N6 = 209 (79.8 ± 5.2 years, 74% female were randomised after they were judged eligible and had given their written informed consent to participate in the randomised controlled trial (overall recruitment rate: 4.4%. The general strategy of utilising a GP’s practice to recruit the target group proved beneficial. The data and experiences presented here can help planners of future exercise-intervention studies.

  20. 某院妇科手术部位感染目标性监测及干预%Targeted monitor and intervention strategies on surgical site infection following gynecological surgical procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚军; 孙庆芬; 顾彩霞; 李曼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To realize surgical site infection (SSI) following gynecological surgical procedure, analyze the possible risk factors, and explore effective measures on reducing the incidence of SSI. Methods From January 1 to December 31 ,2011 , patients receiving abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, and laparoscopic hysterectomy in two gynecological departments of a hospital were monitored, SSI rates before intervention(from January 1 to June 30,2011 , control group) and after intervention (from July 1 to December 31 ,2011 , intervention group) were analyzed and compared. Results A total of 1 120 patients were in control group, including 648 cases of abdominal hysterectomy, SSI rate was 4. 94%; 212 vaginal hysterectomy, SSI rate was 9. 43%; 260 laparoscopic hysterectomy, there was no SSI; the average SSI rate in two departments was 4. 64% (52/1 120), SSI rate between two departments was not significantly different(5. 38% vs 4. 00%, x2 = 1. 206, P>0. 05), the average SSI rate in intervention group was significantly lower than control group (1. 57%[20/1 272] vs 4. 64% ,x2 = 19. 23,P<0. 001). Conclusion Through targeted monitor, risk factors are analyzed, intervention measures are performed,and SSI can be reduced.%目的 了解某院妇科手术部位感染(SSI)现状,分析可能的危险因素,探讨降低SSI发病率的有效措施.方法 2011年1月1日-12月31日,对该院两个妇科病区行剖腹子宫切除术、阴式子宫切除术、腹腔镜下子宫切除术的所有患者进行监测,定期汇总分析,比较采取干预措施前(2011年1月1日-6月30日监测的病例,设为对照组)和干预措施落实后(2011年7月1日-12月31日监测的病例,设为干预组)的SSI率.结果 对照组共1 120例患者,其中剖腹子宫切除术648例,SSI率为4.94%;阴式子宫切除术212例,SSI率为9.43%;腹腔镜下子宫切除术260例,未发生SSI.干预前妇科病区平均SSI率为4.64%(52/1 120),两个妇科病区平均SSI率( 5.38% vs 4

  1. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity and Targets for Drug Intervention%对乙酰氨基酚肝毒性机理及药物干预靶点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪倩; 徐瑞娟; 杨劲

    2011-01-01

    Because of the wide use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acetaminophen, its hepatotoxicity is paid more and more attention. This review introduces its metabolism, disposition in liver and endogenous regulation mechanism related to Keap1-Nrf2 pathway; explains its mechanisms of hepatotoxicity involving two theories: metabolic injury and oxidative stress injury. Important of all, we focus on its intervention targets related to absorption, metabolism and transport of drugs. Recent studies are interested in the relationships between acetaminophen toxicity and Keap1-Nrf2 detoxffying pathway especially hepatobiliary transporters, which is expected to search for new therapeutic targets and effective drugs.%由于对乙酰氨基酚用药普遍性和广泛性,其肝毒性问题日益引起人们的关注.本文介绍对乙酰氨基酚肝脏代谢、转运以及与Keap1-Nrf2通路有关的生理性调控机制,阐述对乙酰氨基酚的肝毒性机理,包括代谢损伤和氧化应激损伤两大理论.并以此为基础从吸收、代谢、转运等方面对其治疗靶点及干预药物加以综述.其中,Keap1-Nrf2抗氧化解毒通路和转运蛋白环节与对乙酰氨基酚肝毒性关系的研究在近几年逐渐增多,有望发现新的治疗靶点和对乙酰氨基酚肝毒性的有效治疗药物.

  2. Effect of on-site intervention on targeted monitoring of surgical site infections%现场干预在外科手术部位感染目标性监测中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金娜; 王宁宁; 刘芳菲; 段艳霞; 赵丽燕; 白小龙; 秦变妮

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the risk factors of surgical site infections (SSI) and provide basis for reducing the SSI. METHODS A prospective study and interventional methods were performed on surgical site in patients undergoing six surgeries in the hospital. Both single and multiple regression logistic analysis were executed with SPSS on the 10 factors including , on-site intervention in the risk factors. RESULTS Among 519 patients undergoing surgeries, the incidence rate of SSI was 1. 9%; the insulation measure and the surgical drainage had the most significant correlation with the SSI (P<0. 01) ;after the on-site intervention, the incidence rates of the SSI caused by colorectal surgery and gallbladder bile duct surgery decreased to 7. 1% and 6. 3% , respectively, the simple cholecystectomy decreased to 1. 6%; the utilization rale of the prophylactic antibiotics of the patients undergoing thyroidectomy or high ligation of the great saphenous vein decreased from 100. 0% to below 30. 0%. CONCLUSION The intraoperative low temperature,drainage,hospital stay are the high-risk factors for SSI, and the on-site intervention in the target monitoring is an powerful way to control the high-risk factors.%目的 探讨现场干预对外科手术部位感染(SSI)目标性监测的作用,降低SSI发生率.方法 采用干预性研究方法,对6种手术患者的手术部位感染及相关因素进行了目标性监测,对危险因素进行现场干预.结果 共监测手术患者519例,SSI发生率为1.9%;手术部位感染与年龄、保温措施、ASA评分、住院天数、是否引流有关(P<0.05);其中保温措施、外科引流与手术部位感染有显著关系(P<0.01);经过现场干预,直肠、结肠手术及胆囊、胆管手术的手术部位感染率分别下降至7.1%及6.3%,单纯胆囊切除术下降至1.6%;甲状腺切除术及大隐静脉高位结扎术患者预防性抗菌药物使用率从100.0%降至<30.0%.结论 术中低体温、

  3. Interventions Targeting HIV-Infected Risky Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Samet, Jeffrey H.; Walley, Alexander Y.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is common among people infected with HIV and may contribute to adverse consequences such as reduced adherence to treatment regimens and increased likelihood of risky sexual behaviors. Therefore, researchers and clinicians are looking for treatment approaches to reduce harmful alcohol consumption in this population. However, clinical trials of existing treatment models are scarce. A literature review identified only 11 studies that included HIV-infected patients with past or curren...

  4. Will Interventions Targeting Conscientiousness Improve Aging Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging. Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes. We argue that even though it…

  5. 缺血性脑血管病神经介入治疗的阶段式目标教学法%Staged target teaching method of neural interventional therapy for ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦力群; 高鹏; 宋庆斌; 牛香美; 宋刚; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To strengthen the training effect of the neuro-interventional surgeons using staged target teaching method. Methods A total of 39 neurosurgeons from all over the country were trained at the Department of Interventional Radiology,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March 2012 to March 2013. In the one-year training period,the training was divided into 4 stages (each stage for 3 months). All the learning contents were phased to focus on teaching and set the target at each stage,which had a clear purpose. Questionnaires were sent to the refresher doctors at 6 months and 12 months after they returned to their original work in order to obtain the conditions about their independent work after training. Results All the 39 neurosurgeons achieved their desired goal from theory to practical operation. They mastered the holistic treatment principles of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and were familiar with and mastered the whole brain DSA and stenting techniques. At the fourth stage,as an operator, everyone had finished at least 5 extracranial artery stentings. The recovered questionnaires after the end of training showed that 95. 8%(23/24)neurosurgeons were able to perform whole brain DSA independently and held≥5 surgeries monthly;87. 5%(21/24)neurosurgeons could complete stenting independently (1 patient/month). Conclusion The staged target teaching method is a practical and effective teaching means for special technical training of neurointervention.%目的:采用阶段式目标教学法加强对神经介入医师的培训效果。方法2012年3月至2015年3月,首都医科大学宣武医院介入放射科共培训39名来自全国各地的医师,培训方法为将1年的进修期按每3个月划分为4个阶段,并将学习内容分阶段进行重点教学并设置目标,使其具有明确的目的性。进修医师期满回到原工作单位后6、12个月,分别发放调查问卷,以获得进修医师独立工作的

  6. Early intervention and early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, C T; Ramey, S L

    1998-02-01

    For 4 decades, vigorous efforts have been based on the premise that early intervention for children of poverty and, more recently, for children with developmental disabilities can yield significant improvements in cognitive, academic, and social outcomes. The history of these efforts is briefly summarized and a conceptual framework presented to understand the design, research, and policy relevance of these early interventions. This framework, biosocial developmental contextualism, derives from social ecology, developmental systems theory, developmental epidemiology, and developmental neurobiology. This integrative perspective predicts that fragmented, weak efforts in early intervention are not likely to succeed, whereas intensive, high-quality, ecologically pervasive interventions can and do. Relevant evidence is summarized in 6 principles about efficacy of early intervention. The public policy challenge in early intervention is to contain costs by more precisely targeting early interventions to those who most need and benefit from these interventions. The empirical evidence on biobehavioral effects of early experience and early intervention has direct relevance to federal and state policy development and resource allocation. PMID:9491742

  7. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  8. The effect of targeted nursing intervention on reducing shivering for patients after cesarean section%针对性护理降低剖宫产患者术后寒颤的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of targeted nursing intervention on reducing shivering for patients after cesarean section.Methods Fifty patients receiving cesarean section between December 2012 and December 2014 were selected as a control group and given conventional nursing.Another fifty patients undergoing the operation in the following year were chosen as the observation group and provided with targeted nursing on basis of conventional nursing.The axillary temperatures were measured while entering the operation room,at the end of anesthesia,at the skin incision,after the delivery of fetus,when the operation was over,and compared between the two groups.Patients'satisfaction degree of nursing care and occurrence rate of postoperative shivering were also compared.Results In the control group,the axillary temperatures were (36.5±0.16)℃,(36.5 ±0.27)℃,(36.4±0.07)℃,(35.8±0.54)℃ and (35.6±0.47 )℃ at five different time points,while in the observation group the values were(36.6± 0.24)℃,(36.4 ±0.25)℃,(36.3 ±0.19)℃,(36.4±0.27)℃ and(36.2±0.37)℃ accordingly.There were significant differences at the same time points between the two groups(F =11.53,P 0.05),but the temperatures were decreased in the control group(t =6.12,P 0.05),而对照组腋温降低(t =6.12,P <0.05)。对照组寒颤发生率为64%,观察组寒颤发生率为14%,观察组低于对照组(χ2=26.27,P <0.01)。对照组总满意度为78%,观察组总满意度为98%,观察组高于对照组(Z =-4.581,P <0.01)。结论针对性护理能有效减小围手术期患者体温波动,降低剖宫产患者术后寒颤发生率,提高护理质量,增加剖宫产患者对剖宫产围手术期护理的满意度。

  9. "It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

  10. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  11. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  12. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  13. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  14. Effect evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people

    OpenAIRE

    Honigh-de Vlaming, R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Heinrich, J.; Veer, van 't, L.J.; De Groot,, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript distinguishes itself from others by including multiple intervention components and targeting individuals and their environment. Intervention components included a mass media campaign, information mee...

  15. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults: Evaluating Their Utility for Designing Culturally-Appropriate Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Rushing, Stephanie Nicole

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by high rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy, heightening their need for sexual health interventions that are aligned to their unique culture and social context. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new…

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 3 Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Target Vessel Revascularization after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Is There Still Room for Determining Genetic Variation of MMPs for Assessment of an Increased Risk of Restenosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.W. Verschuren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mixed results have been reported of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and their association with restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The current study examines whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, covering the full genomic region of MMP2 and MMP3, were associated with restenosis in the GENDER study population.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 gene polymorphisms and the risk of target vessel revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention : Is there still room for determining genetic variation of MMPs for assessment of an increased risk of restenosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, J. J. W.; Sampietro, M. L.; Pons, D.; Trompet, S.; Ewing, M. M.; Quax, P. H. A.; de Knijff, P.; Zwinderman, A. H.; de Winter, R. J.; Tio, R. A.; de Maat, M. P.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Jukema, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Mixed results have been reported of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their association with restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The current study examines whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), covering the full genomic region of MMP2 and MMP3,

  18. Application of C-arm CT-guided targeted puncturing technique in performing non-vascular interventional procedures%C臂CT引导经皮靶向穿刺术在非血管介入诊疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉圣; 周春泽; 吕维富

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of C-arm CT-guided targeted puncturing technique in performing non-vascular interventional procedures.Methods DSA-guided percutaneous puncturing biopsy or interventional therapy was performed in 33 patients, and the clinical effect and complication were observed and analyzed.Results Percutaneous puncturing interventional therapy was performed successfully in 15 patients,and percutaneous puncturing biopsy was performed in 18 patients and pathological results were obtained in 17 pa-tients.Conclusion The percutaneous targeted puncturing technique with C-arm CT-guidance combines the advantages of both CT and X-ray,which can meet the need of accuracy,efficiency and safety in non-vascular interventional therapy.%目的:探讨C臂CT引导下靶向穿刺技术在非血管介入诊疗中的应用价值。方法33例患者在DSA引导下行经皮穿刺活检术或经皮穿刺介入治疗,观察分析临床效果、并发症等。结果经皮穿刺介入治疗15例,均取得成功,另外18例为经皮穿刺病理活检,17例取得明确病理结果。结论 C臂CT引导下靶向穿刺技术实现了CT和X线透视优势互补,达到精确、高效、安全的非血管介入诊疗要求,值得推广应用。

  19. Hungry for an intervention? Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Vet, de Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; Wit, de J.B.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of eating-relate

  20. Aortoiliac interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Atheromatosis is a systemic disease that involves various vascular beds. The most known risk factors are smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipedemia, hypertension, advanced age, black gender and male sex. Occlusive aortoiliac disease is due to atheromatosis in the vast majority of cases and is a common distribution of that pathology. Historically aortoiliac occlusions were treated with surgery. Nowadays, the endovascular minimally invasive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of such lesions. The success rate is extremely high with a technical success of 96%. Long term (5 years) patency of the diseased vessel can be as high as 71%. These results combined to the advent of new materials and techniques have set the new standards for treating aortoiliac occlusive disease. The first TASC recommendations (TASC I) were recently revised (TASC II) and the new guidelines (TASC III) will be shortly published. On the other hand endovascular techniques are not always successful. Technical failure (inability to cross the lesion) is estimated to be approximately 5% in single short iliac occlusions and can rise up to 15- 20% in complex long or multiple occlusive lesions. Possible, although not very frequent, complications are dissection, rupture and distal embolization. In the case of total occlusions we can use different materials and techniques. For example in an acute or subacute total occlusion chemical (urokinase or rtPA), mechanical or aspiration thrombolysis can be implemented. These minimally invasive techniques are of the outmost importance if we consider that the majority of the patients are old with a high rate of cardiac and other co-morbidities and therefore cannot go into surgery. That is the reason why the risk of morbidity and mortality following open surgical intervention remains high (5 - 20%). In chronic lesions we can use rentry catheters, glidewires, laser or thrombolysis/thrombectomy (if the clot is not very 'old'). Nevertheless, it should

  1. Identification of novel drug targets in HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470, HpSJM180 strains of Helicobacter pylori : an in silico approach for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Pavani, T

    2013-05-01

    Helicobacter species colonizes the stomach and are associated with the development of gastritis disease. Drugs for treatment of Helicobacter infection relieve pain or gastritis symptoms but they are not targeted specifically to Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, there is dire need for discovery of new drug targets and drugs for the treatment of H. pylori. The main objective of this study is to screen the potential drug targets by in silico analysis for the potent strains of H. pylori which include HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470 and HpSJM180. Genome and metabolic pathways of pathogen H. pylori and the host Homosapien sapiens are compared and genes which were unique to H. pylori were filtered and catalogued. These unique genes were subjected to gene property analysis to identify the potentiality of the drug targets. Among the total number of genes analysed in different strains of H. pylori nearly 558, 569, 539, 569, 567 number of genes in HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470 and HpSJM180 found qualified as unique molecules and among them 17 qualified as potential drug targets. Membrane fusion protein of hefABC efflux system, 50 S ribosomal protein L33, Hydrogenase expression protein/formation of HypD, Cag pathogenecity island protein X, Apolipoprotein N acyl transferase, DNA methyalse, Histone like binding protein, Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein OprL were found to be critical drug targets to H. pylori. Three (hefABC efflux system, Hydrogenase expression protein/formation of HypD, Cag pathogenecity island protein X) of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lending credence to our unique approach. PMID:23410125

  2. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  3. Operational Interventions to Maintenance Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Walter, Diane; Dulchinos, VIcki

    1997-01-01

    A significant proportion of aviation accidents and incidents are known to be tied to human error. However, research of flight operational errors has shown that so-called pilot error often involves a variety of human factors issues and not a simple lack of individual technical skills. In aircraft maintenance operations, there is similar concern that maintenance errors which may lead to incidents and accidents are related to a large variety of human factors issues. Although maintenance error data and research are limited, industry initiatives involving human factors training in maintenance have become increasingly accepted as one type of maintenance error intervention. Conscientious efforts have been made in re-inventing the team7 concept for maintenance operations and in tailoring programs to fit the needs of technical opeRAtions. Nevertheless, there remains a dual challenge: 1) to develop human factors interventions which are directly supported by reliable human error data, and 2) to integrate human factors concepts into the procedures and practices of everyday technical tasks. In this paper, we describe several varieties of human factors interventions and focus on two specific alternatives which target problems related to procedures and practices; namely, 1) structured on-the-job training and 2) procedure re-design. We hope to demonstrate that the key to leveraging the impact of these solutions comes from focused interventions; that is, interventions which are derived from a clear understanding of specific maintenance errors, their operational context and human factors components.

  4. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  5. Evaluation on the effect of health interventions for under-five children in targeted rural areas of Shaanxi province%陕西省部分地区5岁以下儿童健康干预的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧雅; 刘芬; 李涛; 任珊珊; 鞠丽荣

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To evaluate the effect of integrated health-care interventions for children under 5 years old in target rural counties of Shaanxi Province and to provide experiences and lessons for following projects.[Methods]From 2007 to 2010, a project focusing on maternal and child health care was launched in targeted rural areas of Shaanxi Province,with integrated interventions.Together with using multistage, stratified, randomly, non-probability sampling, two crosssectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2010, and a before/after intervention design was used to assess the effectiveness of the integrated interventions by changes in children's growth and development, health outcome, guardians' health-related knowledge and behavior.[Results]The decrease in the stunting rate was more than 50% after intervention(6.9%to 3.4%, P<0.01).The rate of anemia was still high and also little effect had been shown in reduction of both two-week prevalence of suspected pneumonia and two-week prevalence of diarrhea (P> 0.05).However, there was significant improvement in health awareness and behavior among caregivers, especially the rate of professional care-seeking when either of the disease occurred increased dramatically to more than 85%.[Conclusions]This project, to some extent, has promoted the health of children under 5 and the level of health care, but little effect showed in the reduction of anemia, suspected pneumonia and diarrhea.So it is still urgent to seek more specific and targeted interventions fighting against such problems and to improve intensity of interventions as well.%[目的]对陕西省部分地区5岁以下儿童健康干预的效果进行评价,为后续项目提供经验.[方法]于2007-2010年间开展包括"母子系统保健项目",采用不等概率抽样方法,分别在2006年和2010年开展基线和终末两次横断面调查,通过对干预前后5岁以下儿童生长发育、健康结局、看护人保健认知与行为指标进行

  6. MRI and interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Blanco Sequeiros

    2002-01-01

    @@ Interventional radiology was started not long after the discovery of X - rays. Interventions started as image guided biopsies and angiographies early this century, later emerged computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound-guided interventions in the 1970s and ultimately the magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) guided interventions at the 1980s.

  7. Design and methods of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), a multicomponent targeted intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients: efficacy and cost-effectiveness in Dutch health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, Marije; Steunenberg, Bas; Mast, Roos van der; Inouye, Sharon; Schuurmans, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) has been shown to be highly efficient and (cost-)effective in reducing delirium incidence in the USA. HELP provides multicomponent protocols targeted at specific risk factors for delirium and introduces a different view on care organization, with trained volunt

  8. 分子网络多靶标筛选的粒子群数值模拟法%Multiple target optimal intervention using particle swarm optimization in molecular network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福家; 张宏伟; 李卫国

    2015-01-01

    The therapy of disease‐related molecular network is usually based on the multiple target drug therapy .The multiple target drug therapy can be divided into two steps .First ,filtering the potential drug targets .Second ,making use of them to compose ,in order to find the effective inhibition scheme . However ,the present algorithm takes too much time .This article used the Arachidonic acid inflammation metabolic network as a concrete example ,and also used the improved parallel particle swarm optimization to optimize the multiple targets .As a result ,it can not only compose the drug targets effectively ,but also save more time than the present algorithm according to the number of processes .%当前对于疾病分子网络的治疗多采用多靶标药物治疗。多靶标药物治疗共分为两步,首先是筛选潜在的药物靶标,其次利用筛选出的药物靶标进行组合,进而得到有效的抑制方案。但现有算法耗时太多,本文使用花生四烯酸(Arachidonic acid)炎症代谢网络作为一个具体算例,使用改进并行的粒子群算法进行多靶标筛选优化,不仅能够得到药物靶标的有效组合,而且根据进程的个数可以使计算时间达到数倍的提高。

  9. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...

  10. Media Literacy Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Se-Hoon; Cho, Hyunyi; Hwang, Yoori

    2012-06-01

    Although numerous media literacy interventions have been developed and delivered over the past 3 decades, a comprehensive meta-analytic assessment of their effects has not been available. This study investigates the average effect size and moderators of 51 media literacy interventions. Media literacy interventions had positive effects (d=.37) on outcomes including media knowledge, criticism, perceived realism, influence, behavioral beliefs, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior. Moderator analyses indicated that interventions with more sessions were more effective, but those with more components were less effective. Intervention effects did not vary by the agent, target age, the setting, audience involvement, the topic, the country, or publication status.

  11. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  12. Analysis of related factors of adolescent myopia and targeted nursing intervention measures%青少年近视的相关因素分析与针对性护理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪新

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析青少年近视的影响因素,为近视的防治提供科学依据与防治措施。方法肥城矿业中心医院2011年1月至2014年2月期间就诊的青少年近视患者155例,进行视力异常相关因素问卷调查,应用Lo-gistic回归模型进行危险因素分析。随机分为两组,对照组75例接受常规治疗;观察组80例在常规治疗基础上给予健康教育护理干预。随访半年,观察两组的视力变化。结果学习压力、每天户外活动时间、每天看电脑电视时间、每天睡眠时间和营养平衡等因素影响青少年的视力。采取针对性护理措施能够显著改善患者视力。结论眼科医护人员与家长应重视青少年保健工作,着力培养青少年良好的生活学习习惯,同时强化健康教育,多方面采取综合干预措施控制青少年近视的发生。%Objective:To investigate and analyze the influence factors of adolescent myopia,and provide scientific basis for the prevention and control measures of myopia. Methods:A questionnaire survey and relative factors of abnormal vision of 155 cases with juvenile myopia was conducted by Feicheng Mining Center Hospital during the period from January 2011 to February 2014,using Logistic regression for the analysis of risk factors. The patients were randomly divided into two groups,75 cases in the control group received routine treatment,and 80 cases in observation group received health educa-tion and nursing intervention. In half a year of follow-up,visual acuity change was observed in the two groups. Results:The everyday pressure of learning,the every day outdoor activity time,every day computer playing and TV watching time, and sleep and nutrition balance factors affected the vision of young people. Taking pertinent nursing measures significantly improved visual acuity. Conclusion:Staff in ophthalmology and parents should pay attention to adolescent health work,and focus on cultivating the

  13. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  14. Interventional MRI: update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lufkin, R.B. [Department of Radiology, University of California Los Angeles, School of Medicine, 10 833 Le Comte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1721 (United States); Gronemeyer, D.H.W.; Seibel, R.M.M. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Computerscience, University Witten/Herdecke (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Interventional MRI is in its early stages of development. Nevertheless, the design of new interventional MRI scanners that allow maximum direct access to the patient combined with the development of new interventional MRI pulse sequences and localization systems, means that the archetypal operating rooms of the 21st century may well contain dedicated interventional MRI units for combined radiological and surgical procedures. The present article looks at the state of interventional MRI today and looks ahead to what may be forthcoming in the not-too-distant future. After briefly discussing the instrumentation necessary for practical interventional MRI, the article will go on to describe a number of different approaches to, and clinical applications for, interventional MRI. The use of MRI in guiding and controlling tumor ablation, aspiration cytology and surgical biopsy of different body parts is described. (orig.) With 13 figs., 1 tab., 114 refs.

  15. Designing Performance Interventions for the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Steven; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic Online Performance Support Systems (DOPSS) are a new class of intervention that can meet the needs of a quickly changing work force in an information age environment. These systems are customized for the target population, with unique meta tags, unique function sets, and dynamic growth for and by users in use. These unique tag sets allow…

  16. The experiment of interventional pulmonary lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the feasibility of interventional pulmonary lobectomy by animal experiment. Methods: Twelve healthy dogs were divided into three groups randomly, with 4 in each. Group A: the target bronchus and alveoli were filled with emulsion of lipiodol and alveolar cells damage liquors and then the target bronchus was occluded with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) . Group B: The target bronchus was only occluded with PMMA. Group C: Pulmonary lobe was resected surgically. Arterial blood gases were measured at the time of pre-procedure and post-procedure and then 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week after the procedure respectively. Chest radiography histology and bacterial culture of tissue of target lung lobe were made after 4 weeks. Results: There was a significant difference in arterial blood-gas among 3 groups pre-procedure in comparison with those of post-procedure immediately (P0.05) in comparing with 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week after the procedure. Atelectasis was shown radiologically with histological formation of fibrosis of target lung lobe but no bacteria grew in target tissue 4th week after the procedure. There were two cases of lung atelectasis but no pulmonary fibrosis occluded in group B. Conclusions: Interventional pulmonary lobectomy might be obtained after the target bronchus and pulmonary alveoli were filled with emulsion of lipiodol and alveolar cells damage liquors and then the target bronchus was occluded with PMMA. (authors)

  17. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  18. Using music interventions in perioperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori; Swezey, Shane; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety and pain are common responses to surgery, and both can negatively affect patient outcomes. Music interventions have been suggested as a nonpharmacological intervention to alleviate pain and anxiety during surgical treatment. Although the data are somewhat mixed, the research suggests that music-based interventions are effective in reducing anxiety, pain perception, and sedative intake. The majority of studies have focused on interventions during the postoperative period and address pain reduction, with preoperative use of music targeting anxiety reduction the second most commonly cited objective. Most of the studies found in the literature involve passive music listening via headphones. The data suggest that researcher-selected music is most effective in reducing anxiety, primarily because it incorporates evidence-based parameters such as consistent tempo and dynamics, stable rhythms, and smooth melodic lines. Finally, the literature suggests that music therapists can serve as experts to help medical personnel identify effective implementation strategies. PMID:22948329

  19. The effectiveness of forex interventions in four Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Broto

    2012-01-01

    Many central banks actively intervene in the foreign exchange (forex) market, although there is no consensus on its impact on the exchange rate level and volatility. We analyze the effects of daily forex interventions in four Latin American countries with inflation targets — namely, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru — by fitting GARCH-type models. These countries represent a broad span of intervention strategies in terms of size and frequency, ranging from pure discretionality to intervention ...

  20. A teaching intervention in a contouring dummy run improved target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Reducing the interobserver variability in multicentre clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Prokic, Vesna; Doll, Christian; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Nestle, Ursula [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site: Freiburg, Heidelberg (Germany); Troost, Esther G.C. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruecker, Gerta [University Medical Center Freiburg, Institute for Medical Biometry and Statistics, Centre for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Avlar, Melanie [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Duncker-Rohr, Viola [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach, Department of Radiation Oncology, Gengenbach (Germany); Mix, Michael [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site: Freiburg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-02-10

    Interobserver variability in the definition of target volumes (TVs) is a well-known confounding factor in (multicentre) clinical studies employing radiotherapy. Therefore, detailed contouring guidelines are provided in the prospective randomised multicentre PET-Plan (NCT00697333) clinical trial protocol. This trial compares strictly FDG-PET-based TV delineation with conventional TV delineation in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite detailed contouring guidelines, their interpretation by different radiation oncologists can vary considerably, leading to undesirable discrepancies in TV delineation. Considering this, as part of the PET-Plan study quality assurance (QA), a contouring dummy run (DR) consisting of two phases was performed to analyse the interobserver variability before and after teaching. In the first phase of the DR (DR1), radiation oncologists from 14 study centres were asked to delineate TVs as defined by the study protocol (gross TV, GTV; and two clinical TVs, CTV-A and CTV-B) in a test patient. A teaching session was held at a study group meeting, including a discussion of the results focussing on discordances in comparison to the per-protocol solution. Subsequently, the second phase of the DR (DR2) was performed in order to evaluate the impact of teaching. Teaching after DR1 resulted in a reduction of absolute TVs in DR2, as well as in better concordance of TVs. The Overall Kappa(κ) indices increased from 0.63 to 0.71 (GTV), 0.60 to 0.65 (CTV-A) and from 0.59 to 0.63 (CTV-B), demonstrating improvements in overall interobserver agreement. Contouring DRs and study group meetings as part of QA in multicentre clinical trials help to identify misinterpretations of per-protocol TV delineation. Teaching the correct interpretation of protocol contouring guidelines leads to a reduction in interobserver variability and to more consistent contouring, which should consequently improve the validity of the overall study

  1. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  2. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  3. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698

  4. E-Health Interventions for Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Christensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  5. Physical Activity Interventions for Adolescents: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Garside, Hailey; Morones, Sandra; Hayman, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the decline in physical activity (PA) observed during adolescence. We used an ecological framework to review 30 publications of PA interventions published between 1977 and 2009 targeting youth aged 12-18 years (19 PA interventions). We included studies that measured a primary outcome of PA and also examined intervening…

  6. Social Marketing, Stages of Change, and Public Health Smoking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…

  7. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20. Most of the interventions were community based (n=16, although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16, with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  8. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions. PMID:22496702

  9. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  10. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  11. Increasing condom use in heterosexual men: development of a theory-based interactive digital intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R; Michie, S; Estcourt, C; Gerressu, M; Bailey, J V

    2016-09-01

    Increasing condom use to prevent sexually transmitted infections is a key public health goal. Interventions are more likely to be effective if they are theory- and evidence-based. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) provides a framework for intervention development. To provide an example of how the BCW was used to develop an intervention to increase condom use in heterosexual men (the MenSS website), the steps of the BCW intervention development process were followed, incorporating evidence from the research literature and views of experts and the target population. Capability (e.g. knowledge) and motivation (e.g. beliefs about pleasure) were identified as important targets of the intervention. We devised ways to address each intervention target, including selecting interactive features and behaviour change techniques. The BCW provides a useful framework for integrating sources of evidence to inform intervention content and deciding which influences on behaviour to target. PMID:27528531

  12. Interventional Radiology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists

  13. Two Optimal Strategies for Active Learning of Causal Models from Interventions

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, Alain

    2012-01-01

    From observational data alone, a causal DAG is in general only identifiable up to Markov equivalence. Interventional data generally improves identifiability; however, the gain of an intervention strongly depends on the intervention target, i.e., the intervened variables. We present active learning strategies calculating optimal interventions for two different learning goals. The first one is a greedy approach using single-vertex interventions that maximizes the number of edges that can be oriented after each intervention. The second one yields in polynomial time a minimum set of targets of arbitrary size that guarantees full identifiability. This second approach proves a conjecture of Eberhardt (2008) indicating the number of unbounded intervention targets which is sufficient and in the worst case necessary for full identifiability. We compare our two active learning approaches to random interventions in a simulation study.

  14. The effectiveness of a work style intervention and a lifestyle physical activity intervention on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms in computer workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a single intervention targeting work style and a combined intervention targeting work style and physical activity on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms. Computer workers with frequent or long-term neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into

  15. The impact of behavioural screening on intervention outcomes in a randomised, controlled multiple behaviour intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing research focus on multiple health behaviour change interventions, a methodological issue requiring further investigation is whether or not to employ pre-trial behavioural screening to exclude participants who are achieving a pre-specified level of one or more behaviours. Behavioural screening can be used to direct limited resources to participants most in need of a behaviour change intervention; but may reduce the representativeness of the sample and limit comparability with trials that do not employ pre-trial behavioural screening. Furthermore, the impact of this type of screening on intervention participation and intervention effects is unknown. Methods Data for this study come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a randomised, controlled telephone counselling lifestyle intervention trial which did not employ behavioural screening prior to randomisation. Screening for physical activity, diet or the combination was simulated using baseline trial data. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention participation (in terms of participant characteristics, intervention dose received and retention, characteristics of participants included an excluded under the various screening scenarios were compared. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention effects, results from the main trial analysis were compared with results obtained from the same analyses performed separately for each of the screened groups. Results Simulated pre-trial behavioural screening impacted minimally on intervention dose received and trial retention rate. Beyond the anticipated effect of reducing baseline levels of the behaviours being screened for, behavioural screening affected baseline levels of behaviours not targeted by screening, and participants' demographic and health-related characteristics. Behavioural screening impacted on intervention effects in ways that were anticipated and positive, but also

  16. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  17. 6{sup th} interventional MRI symposium. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The ongoing progress in the field of interventional MRI and the great success of our last symposium 2004 in Boston have stimulated us to organize the 6th Interventional MRI Symposium to be held September 15-16, 2006 in Leipzig. This meeting will highlight ground-breaking research as well as cutting-edge reports from many groups. The symposium also provides a forum to network with leaders and innovators in the field. Session topics are: intraoperative MRI, vascular applications, targeted drug delivery, cryotherapy, thermometry, pulse sequences, LITT, percutaneous procedures, navigation, robotics, focused ultrasound. (uke)

  18. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. CONCLUSIONS: In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach...

  19. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth;

    2016-01-01

    and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...... development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...

  20. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  1. New Targets for Prevention of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidman, Larry J; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-01-01

    A number of influences have converged that make this Special Theme Issue timely: "A New Direction: Considering Developmentally Sensitive Targets for Very Early Intervention in Schizophrenia". These factors include: 1. the substantial knowledge about premorbid developmental vulnerabilities...... to psychosis, especially regarding schizophrenia; 2. the promising results emerging from interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis and; 3. the recognition that the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. These factors have together led to a perspective...

  2. Breast Cancer Screening Interventions in Selected Counties Across US Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Shamly; Martin, Michelle Y; Levine, Robert S.; Pisu, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the types of, and the populations targeted by interventions implemented to increase breast cancer screening rates in counties with large African American populations across different US regions. Methods A brief questionnaire was administered by e-mail to county representatives from 33 states from October 2008 through March 2009. Responses were obtained from 33% of 203 targeted counties. Results Most counties (>80%) reported interventions for African American women and for women with low income. Women were exposed to different kinds of interventions depending on where they lived. Most counties in the Northeast (93%), Southwest (82%) and Midwest (100%) implemented interventions that provided free or low cost mammograms. Counties in the Southeast (83%) were more likely to report education interventions. Counties from the Southwest reported using a variety of interventions to encourage breast cancer screening. Conclusion In this selected group of counties, different types of interventions were used to increase breast cancer screening in minority and disadvantaged women. Interventions implemented were similar to those shown in the literature to be effective in increasing screening rates in specific populations. Future research should examine the use of screening interventions in a larger sample of US counties. PMID:20820899

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as animportant diagnostic and therapeutic modality in thefield of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides accessto many organs and lesions which are in proximity tothe gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunityto target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.This modality also provides a real time opportunityto target the required area while avoiding adjacentvascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS hasfound role in management of pancreatic fluid collections,biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failedendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage,drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscessesand collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapyand radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emergedas the therapy of choice for management of pancreaticpseudocysts and recent innovations like fully coveredremovable metallic stents have improved resultsin patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUSguided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic ducthelps drainage of these systems in patients with failedcannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUSguided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergentprocedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who arenot fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysisand blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-visthe percutaneous technique. The field of interventionalEUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventionsare being continuously added. This review focuses onthe current status of evidence vis-à-vis the establishedindications of therapeutic EUS.

  4. Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ahyoung; Surkan, Pamela J.; Coutinho, Anastasia J.; Suratkar, Sonali R.; Campbell, Rebecca K.; Rowan, Megan; Sharma, Sangita; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Karlsen, Micaela; Gass, Anthony; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a youth-targeted multilevel nutrition intervention in Baltimore City. The study used a clustered randomized design in which 7 recreation centers and 21 corner stores received interventions and 7 additional recreation centers served as comparison. The 8-month intervention aimed to increase availability and…

  5. Development of a Multilevel Intervention to Increase HIV Clinical Trial Participation among Rural Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Shandor Miles, Margaret; Roman Isler, Malika

    2013-01-01

    Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using intervention mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people…

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Standardized Behavior Management Intervention for Students with Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Martin; Sundell, Knut; Morris, Richard J.; Karlberg, Martin; Melin, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results from a Swedish randomized controlled trial of a standardized behavior management intervention. The intervention targeted students with externalizing behavior in a regular education setting. First- and second-grade students (N = 100) from 38 schools were randomly assigned to either the intervention or an active…

  7. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information, motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support and environment (e.g. management support and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active. The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.

  8. [Psychobiosocial interventions for autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, S

    2011-05-01

    A multitude of interventions is offered for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, only few have demonstrated scientific evidence, and even the evaluated methods need further examination of their mechanisms and scope. This article provides a brief summary of the premises and principles of successful psychobiosocial ASD intervention. ABA, TEACCH, PECS, social skills and cognitive training are described as examples for established approaches to ASD. Training of μ-suppression using neurofeedback and reanimation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala using computer-aided facial affect recognition training are introduced as neurobiologically based ASD interventions. PMID:21523442

  9. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications. PMID:23306213

  10. Introduction to Interventional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jarmo Ruohonen; William G.Bradley; Jr.MD

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of interventional procedures are done under imaging guidance. These include biopsies, drainages and injections. Likewise, imaging guidance and monitoring have enabled the use of sophisticated techniques for minimally invasive therapy of tumors. Since MRI provides the best tissue contrast and lesion sensitivity,the use of MR-guided procedures (MRGP) is quickly gaining momentum. Special hardware and software solutions have been developed that allow more efficient interventional use of the MR scanner.This introduction summarizes the basic concepts of interventional MRI and outlines some of the applications of today and tomorrow.

  11. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  12. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  13. Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

  14. A behavioral family intervention to improve adherence and metabolic control in children with IDDM

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, Melanie Jean

    1992-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral family intervention on adherence and metabolic control in insulin dependent diabetic children (IODM). Specifically, assumption of regimen responsibilities between the parent and child were manipulated to facilitate regimen adherence. The intervention delivered was a target-specific behavioral contract extended sequentially across four target behaviors (Le., blood glucose testing, insulin injections, diet, and exercise). Regimen...

  15. The use of a proactive dissemination strategy to optimize reach of an internet-delivered computer tailored lifestyle intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Francine; Schulz, Daniela N; Pouwels, Loes HL; de Vries, Hein; van Osch, Liesbeth ADM

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of reactive strategies to disseminate effective Internet-delivered lifestyle interventions restricts their level of reach within the target population. This stresses the need to invest in proactive strategies to offer these interventions to the target population. The present study used a proactive strategy to increase reach of an Internet-delivered multi component computer tailored intervention, by embedding the intervention in an existing online health monitoring system of...

  16. Interventions for Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mainstreamed" for other subjects and activities. Make sure goals and expectations are set appropriately, with a timetable ... that might include educational and behavioral intervention and psychotherapy. Also, any medical conditions that may be contributing ...

  17. Overview of Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eligible babies and toddlers learn the basic and brand-new skills that typically develop during the first ... Services in Natural Environments Transition to Preschool Public Awareness & the Referral System Early Intervention, Then and Now ...

  18. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women and vascular disease Women's health Social Media Facebook Twitter (SIRspecialists) YouTube RSS Feeds ... Interventional Radiologists Are Minimally Invasive Specialists They Offer State-of-the-Art Modern Medical Advances Due to technology advances and ...

  19. Bivalirudin in percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam J Lehman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sam J Lehman, Derek P ChewDepartment of Medicine, Flinders University, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Bivalirudin is a member of the direct thrombin inhibitor group of anticoagulants. It has been evaluated as an alternative to unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins in the settings of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Results of clinical trials to date suggest bivalirudin is a viable alternative to the use of a heparin combined with a glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor in these settings. Thrombin has a central role in coagulation and platelet activation in ACS and during PCI. Its direct inhibition is an attractive target for therapy in these settings. Bivalirudin is a 20 amino acid polypeptide hirudin analog. It displays bivalent and reversible binding to the thrombin molecule, inhibiting its action. Direct inhibition of thrombin with bivalirudin has theoretical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages over the indirect anticoagulants. A reduction in rates of bleeding without loss of anti-thrombotic efficacy has been a consistent finding across multiple clinical trials. There may be economic benefits to the use of bivalirudin if it permits a lower rate of use of the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This article reviews the pharmacology of bivalirudin and clinical trial evidence to date. There are now data from multiple clinical trials and meta-analyses in the setting of ACS and PCI. Early results from the acute catheterization and urgent intervention strategy (ACUITY trial are discussed. Keywords: bivalirudin, direct thrombin inhibitor, acute coronary syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention

  20. Deafness and Diversity: Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rebecca L; Ammerman, Sarah B; Trautwein, Blane A

    2015-01-01

    earlier identification has increased the number of infants identified with hearing loss. A significant and growing proportion of children who are D/deaf or hard of hearing have a disability (DWD). Literature related to infants and toddlers who are DWD is scarce because of the heterogeneity of the population and because many disabilities may go undiagnosed until a child is older. Service availability, professional preparation, and use of evidence-based practices must improve to best meet the needs of these children and their families. An examination of theory, research, and practice in early intervention for children who are DWD revealed a lack of qualified professionals and a need for targeted instruction in teacher preparation programs and for technological advances paired with treatment (e.g., telepractice). Increased transdisciplinary collaboration and technology utilization in teacher preparation hold promise as ways of improving service provision to young children who are DWD. PMID:26497074

  1. intervention:coaction

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Intervention:coaction is a live, audiovisual, beat-and-noise-based performance work, in which live decision making by the performer impacts on both the audio and visual components of the work but also in which both the audio and visual components can interact with one another, causing behaviours that are not directly controlled by the system performer. There is also an element of chaotic behaviour built into the system, causing unpredictable audio and visual outcomes. Intervention:coaction h...

  2. Cultural Intervention in English and Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-he

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author defines translation as an act of communication in a cross-cultural context, the main aim of which is to establish communication between members of different cultures in accordance with previously determined communicative target purpose. He then discusses the unavoidable cultural intervention in the process of translation. Cases in aesthetic preference, political involvement and ethical tradition are studied to prove his proposition that translation is not only linguistic transfer, but also cultural transfer, and that "the more inclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation is to the source culture, the more exclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation must be to the target culture." In the last part of the paper, he proposes strategies of translation (especially for the translation between English and Chinese) with which we can tackle the cultural barriers in the process of translation, i.e. distortion,ignoring and coinage.

  3. Magnetic resonance-guided prostate interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Steven J; Mulkern, Robert V; Roebuck, Joseph R; Barnes, Agnieska Szot; Dimaio, Simon; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M C

    2005-10-01

    We review our experience using an open 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) interventional unit to guide procedures in the prostate. This system allows access to the patient and real-time MR imaging simultaneously and has made it possible to perform prostate biopsy and brachytherapy under MR guidance. We review MR imaging of the prostate and its use in targeted therapy, and describe our use of image processing methods such as image registration to further facilitate precise targeting. We describe current developments with a robot assist system being developed to aid radioactive seed placement. PMID:16924169

  4. Reduction of Maintenance Error Through Focused Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Walter, Diane; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that a significant proportion of aviation accidents and incidents are tied to human error. In flight operations, research of operational errors has shown that so-called "pilot error" often involves a variety of human factors issues and not a simple lack of individual technical skills. In aircraft maintenance operations, there is similar concern that maintenance errors which may lead to incidents and accidents are related to a large variety of human factors issues. Although maintenance error data and research are limited, industry initiatives involving human factors training in maintenance have become increasingly accepted as one type of maintenance error intervention. Conscientious efforts have been made in re-inventing the "team" concept for maintenance operations and in tailoring programs to fit the needs of technical operations. Nevertheless, there remains a dual challenge: to develop human factors interventions which are directly supported by reliable human error data, and to integrate human factors concepts into the procedures and practices of everyday technical tasks. In this paper, we describe several varieties of human factors interventions and focus on two specific alternatives which target problems related to procedures and practices; namely, 1) structured on-the-job training and 2) procedure re-design. We hope to demonstrate that the key to leveraging the impact of these solutions comes from focused interventions; that is, interventions which are derived from a clear understanding of specific maintenance errors, their operational context and human factors components.

  5. A Review of Computer-Based Interventions Used in the Assessment, Treatment, and Research of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bickel, Warren K.; Christensen, Darren R.; Marsch, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based interventions are cost-efficient methods that may result in greater access to drug addiction treatment. We review recent findings from our laboratory where computer-based interventions have produced outcomes that are comparable to therapist-delivered interventions. We also examine how computer-based interventions targeting substance abuse disorders relate to cognitive functioning. This review will suggest that not only are computer-based interventions cost-efficient and accessi...

  6. Nutrition intervention in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anzolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the effectiveness of nutrition intervention in changing dietary intake among school children aged 6 to 10 years old in private school, in the city of Itajaí - SC, Brazil. Methods: A non-randomized and uncontrolled intervention study, carried through four educational activities in the period from August to November, 2008 and food intake reassessed at the end. We evaluated the nutritional status by means of body mass index for age and sex, and waist circumference. The frequency of consumption before and after intervention was compared using the paired Student t test. Results: Joined in the survey 93 students (69.92% of whom 48 children (54.5% were normal weight, while 36 (40.9% were overweight or presented obesity. The most consumed food groups, before and after intervention were: crackers and pasta; rice and fruit juice. The average frequency of sweets intake decreased after the intervention (0.54 to 0.24 times per day, p <0.001, however increased the intake of fried potatoes (0.25 to 0.65, p <0.001, pizza and hamburger (0.30 to 0.46, p = 0.028. Among girls, the intake of sweets decreased after the educational activities (0.58 to 0.12, p <0.001. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions, despite the short period of time, were effective in changing the consumption of certain foods / food groups. The results reinforce the need to carry out interventions more often and for longer periods, to promote effective changes in food consumption.

  7. Internet interventions for mental health and addictions: current findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Gulliver, Amelia; Farrer, Lou; Bennett, Kylie; Carron-Arthur, Bradley

    2014-12-01

    Over the last several years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of publications reporting on Internet interventions for mental health and addictions. This paper provides a summary of the recent research on Internet interventions for the most common mental health and addictions concerns-depression, anxiety, alcohol and smoking. There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions targeting depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol use and smoking. Small to moderate effect sizes have been reported for interventions targeting depression, anxiety and alcohol use, and smoking interventions have shown large effects. The addition of human support to depression and anxiety interventions has generally resulted in larger treatments effects, but this trend has not been observed in trials of interventions targeting alcohol use. There is some evidence that online interventions can be as effective as face-to-face therapies, at least for anxiety disorders. Despite a proliferation of research activity in this area, gaps in knowledge remain. Future research should focus on the development and evaluation of interventions for different platforms (e.g. smartphone applications), examining the long-term impacts of these interventions, determining active intervention components and identifying methods for enhancing tailoring and engagement. Careful consideration should be given to the ongoing technical and clinical expertise required to ensure that Internet interventions are delivered safely and professionally in a rapidly changing technology environment.

  8. Effectiveness of psychological intervention following sport injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura; M.Schwab; Reese; Ryan; Pittsinger; Jingzhen; Yang

    2012-01-01

    <正>With increasing attention given to the development and implementation of psychological interventions during the sport injury rehabilitation process,there is a need to document the effectiveness of these interventions.The purpose of this review was to summarize the empirical findings of the effects of psychological interventions in reducing post-injury psychological consequences and improving psychological coping during the injury rehabilitation process among competitive and recreational athletes.In February 2012,utilizing a comprehensive search strategy,we conducted electronic searches of multiple electronic databases for randomized and nonrandomized control trials that evaluated interventions targeting populations of injured competitive and recreational athletes age 17 years and older.We included interventions that directly intervene on injured athletes’ psychological outcomes(e.g.,psychological consequences,psychological coping and re-injury anxiety) and utilized psychological strategies including imagery,goal-setting,relaxation,and other common techniques during the post-injury rehabilitation period.Six studies,described in seven peer-reviewed published articles,met study inclusion criteria and were included in this review.Of those studies,two included randomized control trials,two used before and after study designs and two were case study designs.Two interventions utilized guided imagery and relaxation,two interventions utilized goal-setting and one each utilized microcounseling,written disclosure,and acceptance and commitment therapy.Guided imagery/relaxation was shown to be associated with improved psychological coping and reduced re-injury anxiety. Goal setting,however,was not directly associated with the reduction of negative psychological consequences.Other psychological techniques such as microcounseling skills,acceptance and commitment therapy,and written disclosure have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing negative psychological consequences

  9. Paediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paediatric interventional radiology (PIR) is a rapidly-growing subspecialty, which offers a wide range of procedures applicable to almost all areas of hospital paediatrics. There are many important differences between paediatric and adult practice in interventional radiology, including disease processes and treatment goals, anatomical considerations, periprocedural patient management, radiation exposure optimisation and legal aspects. The use of retrievable or absorbable interventional devices such as stents will probably become more widespread in PIR practice. Recent advances in the technology of imaging equipment have been accompanied by an increase in the complexity of the work done by the radiographer. These developments present challenges and opportunities related to training and maintenance of skills, staffing arrangements, and the potential for advanced practice. It is likely that specialisation in PIR will become a more common role for radiographers in the future

  10. Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deter Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of patients with chronic diseases will be one of the main challenges of medicine in the future. This paper presents an overview of different origins, mechanism, and symptoms necessary for understanding new and different interventions that include a psychosomatic view. In a psychosomatic therapeutic intervention there are very different targets, such as psychological symptoms, personality traits, attitudes toward disease and life, risk behaviour, and social isolation and as biological targets the change of autonomic imbalance and of the effects of the psycho-endocrinological or psycho-immunological stress responses. And there are also different psychosomatic measures that influence the individual biological, psychological and sociological targets. There is a need to give different answer to different questions in the field of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine. Comparative effectiveness research is an important strategy for solving some methodological issues. What is the target of treatment for different diseases: Symptom reduction, healing, or limiting progression to the worst case - the death of patients. We know that, the patient-physician relationship is important for every medical/therapeutic action for patients with chronic diseases. This volume of BioPsychoSocial Medicine will present four different psychosomatic treatment studies from the clinical field in the sense of phase 2 studies: Reports of patients with obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic somatoform pain and coronary artery disease were presented

  11. Integrating Decision Making and Mental Health Interventions Research: Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Celia E.; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    The importance of incorporating patient and provider decision-making processes is in the forefront of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) agenda for improving mental health interventions and services. Key concepts in patient decision making are highlighted within a simplified model of patient decision making that links patient-level/“micro” variables to services-level/“macro” variables via the decision-making process that is a target for interventions. The prospective agenda for in...

  12. Development of an intervention to improve contraceptive use amongst adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katherine Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to identify key psychological variables associated with effective contraceptive use to target within an intervention aimed at improving contraceptive use amongst adolescents, since rates of pregnancy amongst UK adolescents remain the highest in Western Europe (Summerfield & Babb, 2004). A further aim was to implement and evaluate such an intervention. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 18 adolescents in order to inform the development of measu...

  13. Working on wellness (WOW): A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L; Proper Karin I; Lambert Estelle V; van Wier Marieke F; Pillay Julian D; Nossel Craig; Adonis Leegale; van Mechelen Willem

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW), a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention a...

  14. The development of a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development process of a protocol for a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program based on the main factors associated with fear of falling. Design/methods: The process of developing a protocol consisted of defining the target population, selecting the initial assessment components, adapting the intervention program based on findings about fear of falling and restriction of activities in this population. Settings: University-affiliated outpatient vertig...

  15. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. PMID:24571211

  16. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbestel Vera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of

  17. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    further newly identified drug-induced differential regulation of Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, Endoplasmin, DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha and Calmodulin 1. The feedback regulation in these and other targets is likely to be relevant for the success or failure of the molecular intervention....

  18. Comparing a Behavioral Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) Intervention to Standard Practice in an Urban Middle School Setting Using an Experimental Group Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Myers, Diane; Briere, Donald E., III

    2011-01-01

    Students who continue to demonstrate at-risk behaviors after a school implements schoolwide primary (Tier 1) interventions require targeted-group secondary (Tier 2) interventions. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of a targeted-group behavioral check-in/check-out (CICO) intervention with the school's standard practice (SP) with…

  19. Increased rate of stent thrombosis and target lesion revascularization after filter protection in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 15-month follow-up of the DEDICATION (Drug Elution and Distal Protection in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Anne; Kelbaek, Henning; Kløvgaard, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of distal protection during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of distal protection during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)....

  20. Application of the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop Keys, a family child care home intervention to prevent early childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Courtney M.; Ward, Dianne S.; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Long Vidal, Lenita J.; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention M...

  1. Selecting Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    Just as counseling approaches designed for individuals have their theory-specific techniques, family counseling approaches also have theory-specific interventions and strategies. Whatever presenting problem the family brings to counseling, one or more of four essential components (communication, problem solving, roles and boundaries) is typically…

  2. Anesthesia for fetoscopic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil S Anwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case report on anesthesia for fetoscopy performed in Saudi Arabia. Epidural anesthesia was given to the mother in her late second trimester for the fetoscopic intervention. The anesthesia related issues such as physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy, tocolytic medications and their interactions with anesthesia, anesthetizing/sedating the primary patient are discussed.

  3. Psychological Interventions with Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, James N.; And Others

    Psychotherapy is an alien concept to many refugees from traditional cultures, since much of psychotherapy is tied to Western thoughts, practices, and belief systems. However, a variety of therapeutic strategies can be effective with refugees if modified to account for cultural factors. Four clinical intervention strategies are discussed with…

  4. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  5. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  6. Implementing a stigma reduction intervention in healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, HIV-related stigma is prevalent in healthcare settings and is a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment adherence. Some intervention studies have showed encouraging outcomes, but a gap continues to exist between what is known and what is actually delivered in medical settings to reduce HIV-related stigma. Methods: This article describes the process of implementing a stigma reduction intervention trial that involved 1760 service providers in 40 hospitals in China. Guided by Diffusion of Innovation theory, the intervention identified and trained about 15–20% providers as popular opinion leaders (POLs to disseminate stigma reduction messages in each intervention hospital. The intervention also engaged governmental support in the provision of universal precaution supplies to all participating hospitals in the trial. The frequency of message diffusion and reception, perceived improvement in universal precaution practices and reduction in the level of stigma in hospitals were measured at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Results: Within the intervention hospitals, POL providers reported more frequent discussions with their co-workers regarding universal precaution principles, equal treatment of patients, provider-patient relationships and reducing HIV-related stigma. Service providers in the intervention hospitals reported more desirable intervention outcomes than providers in the control hospitals. Our evaluation revealed that the POL model is compatible with the target population, and that the unique intervention entry point of enhancing universal precaution and occupational safety was the key to improved acceptance by service providers. The involvement of health authorities in supporting occupational safety was an important element for sustainability. Conclusions: This report focuses on explaining the elements of our intervention rather than its outcomes. Lessons learned from the intervention implementation will

  7. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2010-09-16

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  8. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  9. 男男性接触者互联网行为特征及接受干预的意向分析%Internet behavior and intention of internet-based intervention targeted to HIV high risk behaviors among MSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈章颖; 王鸣; 徐慧芳; 陈维清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the internet use and on-line behavior characters of men who have sex with men (MSM) , and explore the intention of internet-based intervention targeted to HIV high risk behaviors among them. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in MSM who were recruited in a gay website between December 2009 and January 2010. Data on demographic characteristics, surfing habits, HIV/AIDS related behavior, needs of information on HIV prevention and the way which they obtain the information were collected by online questionnaire survey. Chi-square test was used to determine the differences of the intention of internet-based intervention targeted to HIV high risk behaviors among MSM with different demographic characteristics and surfing habits. Results A total of 719 MSM finished the survey. Most of them were aged between 25 and 29 years (40. 61% ) , possessed high education level (78.30% ) , unmarried (87.34% ) , and identified themselves as homosexual (77.05% ). The percentage of using condom persistently when having the anal-intercourse with partners was 70.93% (510/719) during the last sex episode and 44.78% (322/719) in the last month. 29.62% of them (213/719) used to have sexual relationship with female, 57. 75% (123/213) of which used condom at last sex episode. 75. 24% of them (541/719) surfed the internet at home and 79.28% (570/719) surfed the internet everyday. 84.70% of the participants were willing to obtain information on HIV prevention through internet, while less than 30% were willing to obtain such information by face-to-face such as from CDC (28.37% , 204/719) or hospital (22.81% , 164/719). The MSM who were young, possessed high education level, identified themselves as homosexual, or surfed the internet at home were more willing to accept the internet-based intervention (P检验分析不同人口特征及上网习惯的MSM对互联网干预的接受情况的差异.结果 共有719名MsM完成问卷调查,719名MSM中以25~29

  10. Accuracy and speed of robotic assisted needle interventions using a modern cone beam computed tomography intervention suite: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Boris [Goethe University Hospital, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Eichler, Katrin; Siebenhandl, Petra; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Vogl, Thomas Josef; Zangos, Stephan [Goethe University Hospital, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Czerny, Christoph [Goethe University Hospital, Department of Trauma Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To analyse the feasibility and accuracy of robotic aided interventions on a phantom when using a modern C-arm-mounted cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) device in combination with needle guidance software. A small robotic device capable of holding and guiding needles was attached to the intervention table. After acquiring a 3D data set the access path was planned on the CBCT workstation and shown on the intervention monitor. Then the robot was aligned to the live fluoroscopic image. A total of 40 punctures were randomly conducted on a phantom armed with several targets (diameter 2 mm) in single and double oblique trajectory (n = 20 each). Target distance, needle deviation and time for the procedures were analysed. All phantom interventions (n = 40) could be performed successfully. Mean target access path within the phantom was 8.5 cm (min 4.2 cm, max 13.5 cm). Average needle tip deviation was 1.1 mm (min 0 mm, max 4.5 mm), time duration was 3:59 min (min 2:07 min, max 10:37 min). When using the proposed robot device in a CBCT intervention suite, highly accurate needle-based interventional punctures are possible in a reasonable timely manner in single as well as in double oblique trajectories. (orig.)

  11. Healthcare professionals and managers' participation in developing an intervention: A pre-intervention study in the elderly care context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Howard

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to increase the chances of success in new interventions in healthcare, it is generally recommended to tailor the intervention to the target setting and the target professionals. Nonetheless, pre-intervention studies are rarely conducted or are very limited in scope. Moreover, little is known about how to integrate the results of a pre-intervention study into an intervention. As part of a project to develop an intervention aimed at improving care for the elderly in France, a pre-intervention study was conducted to systematically gather data on the current practices, issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers in order to determine the defining features of a successful intervention. Methods A qualitative study was carried out from 2004 to 2006 using a grounded theory approach and involving a purposeful sample of 56 healthcare professionals and managers in Paris, France. Four sources of evidence were used: interviews, focus groups, observation, and documentation. Results The stepwise approach comprised three phases, and each provided specific results. In the first step of the pre-intervention study, we gathered data on practices, perceived issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers. The second step involved holding focus groups in order to define the characteristics of a tailor-made intervention. The third step allowed validation of the findings. Using this approach, we were able to design and develop an intervention in elderly care that met the professionals' and managers' expectations. Conclusion This article reports on an in-depth pre-intervention study that led to the design and development of an intervention in partnership with local healthcare professionals and managers. The stepwise approach represents an innovative strategy for developing tailored interventions, particularly in complex domains such as chronic care. It highlights the usefulness of seeking out the

  12. Theory-based behavior change interventions: comments on Hobbis and Sutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin; Ajzen, Icek

    2005-01-01

    Hobbis and Sutton (this issue) suggest that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can be used in interventions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Although this suggestion has merit, CBT is only one of many applicable methods for producing belief and behavior change. Moreover, CBT's primary purpose is to help people carry out intended behaviors, not to influence intentions, and that it is more useful in face-to-face than in community-level interventions. Contrary to Hobbis and Sutton's critique, TPB can accommodate core beliefs or fundamental assumptions, but the theory suggests that interventions targeted at such beliefs are less effective than interventions targeted at behavior specific beliefs. PMID:15576497

  13. Social marketing and public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, R C; Flora, J A

    1988-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of community-based health education programs has out-paced the knowledge base of behavior change strategies that are appropriate and effective for public health interventions. However, experiences from a variety of large-scale studies suggest that principles and techniques of social marketing may help bridge this gap. This article discusses eight essential aspects of the social marketing process: the use of a consumer orientation to develop and market intervention techniques, exchange theory as a model from which to conceptualize service delivery and program participation, audience analysis and segmentation strategies, the use of formative research in program design and pretesting of intervention materials, channel analysis for devising distribution systems and promotional campaigns, employment of the "marketing mix" concept in intervention planning and implementation, development of a process tracking system, and a management process of problem analysis, planning, implementation, feedback and control functions. Attention to such variables could result in more cost-effective programs that reach larger numbers of the target audience. PMID:3056876

  14. Interventional Nanotheranostics of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Liu, Fengyong; Gupta, Sanjay; Li, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounts for over 90% of all pancreatic cancer. Nanoparticles (NPs) offer new opportunities for image-guided therapy owing to the unique physicochemical properties of the nanoscale effect and the multifunctional capabilities of NPs. However, major obstacles exist for NP-mediated cancer theranostics, especially in PDAC. The hypovascular nature of PDAC may impede the deposition of NPs into the tumor after systemic administration, and most NPs localize predominantly in the mononuclear phagocytic system, leading to a relatively poor tumor-to-surrounding-organ uptake ratio. Image guidance combined with minimally invasive interventional procedures may help circumvent these barriers to poor drug delivery of NPs in PDAC. Interventional treatments allow regional drug delivery, targeted vascular embolization, direct tumor ablation, and the possibility of disrupting the stromal barrier of PDAC. Interventional treatments also have potentially fewer complications, faster recovery, and lower cost compared with conventional therapies. This work is an overview of current image-guided interventional cancer nanotheranostics with specific attention given to their applications for the management of PDAC. PMID:27375787

  15. Biobehavioral Intervention for Cancer Stress: Conceptualization, Components, and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.

    2009-01-01

    Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…

  16. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  17. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  18. Psychological interventions in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanjali de Zoysa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor-patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy.

  19. DISABILITY AND EARLY INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a present reality of our time, much discussed, opposite which attempts to implement school and social policy based on equal opportunities. Reactions to disability were over time many: from rejection and extermination to tolerance and acceptance. Being a person with disabilities involves many processes of adaptation and assimilation of those considered typical in the world and a key role in the success of these processes turns to therapeutic intervention. To cope successfully with the demands and the expectations of society, to achieve a good relationship individual-society, the child should benefit as early as possible from the therapeutic-rehabilitation process appropriate to its specific disability, to take part in group activities. Therapeutic-rehabilitation process represents the foundation pillar of harmonious development, adequate to social and school norms. Early intervention is very important and represents a big win in rehabilitation and integration of disabled children.

  20. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  1. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review a...

  2. Nursing interventions in inpatient psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frauenfelder, F.; Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    The successful application of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in inpatient psychiatry depends on whether the classification adequately describes nursing care in this setting. The present study aimed to identify nursing interventions mentioned in journal articles on psychiatric inpatie

  3. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L;

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community......-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...

  4. Role of Interventional Radiology in Endocrine Diseases- Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHANAATI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a number of procedures for interventional radiology diagnosis and treatment have been developed by the radiologists. The ‘Interventional Radiology’ refers to the therapeutic procedures performed under imaging guidance. The emergence of this specialty has been made possible by a lot of advances in the technology, imaging systems, and radiologists experience. Interventional radiologists are physicians who are experienced in minimally invasive procedures and targeted treatments which have less risk, less pain and less recovery time in comparison with the surgery. Minimizing the patient discomfort, avoid of general anesthesia, lower incidence of morbidity and mortality, and decreases the length and cost of hospitalization are some advantages of interventional radiology procedures. Similar to all medical fields, interventional procedures have been introduced and developed for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrinology procedures. In this article we aim to review and report our experience about the role of interventional radiology in venous sampling for endocrine diseases (such as parathyroid venous sampling, inferior petrosal sinus sampling, adrenal venous sampling, and venous sampling for islet cell tumors. In addition, interventional treatments of neuroendocrine cancer metastases to the liver, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation of the adrenal gland neoplasms, and also establishing a cGMP pancreatic islet processing facility have been discussed in this article. Keywords: Interventional radiology, Endocrine diseases, Endovascular, Treatment

  5. Interventions for trachoma trichiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, M.; Habtamu, E.; Ho, D.; Gower, EW

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends eliminating trachomatous blindness through the SAFE strategy: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotic treatment, Facial cleanliness and Environmental hygiene. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for trachomatous trichiasis for people living in endemic settings. Search methods We...

  6. Government and parliamentary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper traces the history of government and parliamentary intervention in the development of the nuclear industry for power production over the last 40-50 years. Acts of parliament, directives and regulations providing for the control and disposal of radioactive wastes, site selection, the design and construction of repositories are listed. The highly controversial aspects of radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. (U.K.)

  7. Interventional radiology in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ever since starting X-rays use in medical practice, the first interventional methods used in urological practice have been applied. In modern times, based on the use of different sources for image acquisition, the interventional procedures are generally conducted under three types of image control: X-ray, including the CT, non-X-ray, including ultrasound and MRI, and mixed. On the other hand, based on the access used for carrying out the interventional procedure on the urinary tract, the procedures are divided into the following types: the percutaneous, intravascular and intraluminal. Percutaneous manipulations, the most widely used ones, include puncture and drainage of renal cysts and collections in the kidney area, drainage studies of the upper urinary tract, bladder percutaneous drainage and percutaneous nephrostomy are now routinely used. In modern times, more practical interest is percutaneous renal lithotripsy, especially in combination with extracorporeal lithotripsy and percutaneous ablation of renal tumors. Intravascular manipulation, especially after the massive use of CT angiography, are limited to therapeutic use, as in this respect the mainly use is in transluminal angioplasty and renal artery stenting, and embolization. The modern devices entering into the urological practice, allow a high degree of overlap and less invasive therapeutic methods, such as uretero renoscopy, that gradually become major therapeutic approaches to many of the most common urological diseases. It should be noted the role of retrograde ureteric pyelography and ureteral endoprosthesis in the development of these methods. Key elements to achieve maximum efficiency, as diagnostic as therapeutic, from the application of interventional procedures, especially widely used in urological practice than technical mastery of the methodology, is the use of the most appropriate methods or a combination of an exact display and good collaboration with the urologist as in

  8. Interventions to change physician performance: the ChiPP (change in professional performance) statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    to an accumulation of knowledge on how change is best brought about. In this article we argue that the design and testing of interventions intended to change professional performance from their conceptions should include theoretical considerations of the complexities of implementation and we further suggest a staged...... approach in the development of such interventions. In the preclinical stage an intervention model is developed based on theoretical understanding and empirical research. In stage I you experiment with elements of the intervention. In stage II the intervention is tried in selected units of the target group...

  9. Interventional cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, J; Nykanen, D; Freedom, R M; Benson, L N

    1999-04-01

    Over the past decade, transcatheter interventions have become increasingly important in the treatment of patients with congenital heart lesions. These procedures may be broadly grouped as dilations (e.g., septostomy, valvuloplasty, angioplasty, and endovascular stenting) or as closures (e.g., vascular embolization and device closure of defects). Balloon valvuloplasty has become the treatment of choice for patients in all age groups with simple valvar pulmonic stenosis and, although not curative, seems at least comparable to surgery for congenital aortic stenosis in newborns to young adults. Balloon angioplasty is successfully applied to a wide range of aortic, pulmonary artery, and venous stenoses. Stents are useful in dilating lesions of which the intrinsic elasticity results in vessel recoil after balloon dilation alone. Catheter-delivered coils are used to embolize a wide range of arterial, venous, and prosthetic vascular connections. Although some devices remain investigational, they have been successfully used for closure of many arterial ducts and atrial and ventricular septal defects. In the therapy for patients with complex CHD, best results may be achieved by combining cardiac surgery with interventional catheterization. The cooperation among interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons was highlighted in a report of an algorithm to manage patients with tetralogy of Fallot or pulmonary atresia with diminutive pulmonary arteries, involving balloon dilation, coil embolization of collaterals, and intraoperative stent placement. In this setting, well-planned catheterization procedures have an important role in reducing the overall number of procedures that patients may require over a lifetime, with improved outcomes.

  10. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V;

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

  11. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  12. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective Into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera L N; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-06-01

    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have translated these concepts into practice in the field of family planning-and generally in public health-remains scarce. This article seeks to review the current definitions of multilevel interventions and their operationalization in the field of family planning. First, we highlight the divergent definitions of multilevel interventions and show the persistent ambiguity around this term. We argue that interventions involving activities at several levels but lacking targets (i.e., objectives) to create change on more than one level have not incorporated a social-ecological framework and should therefore not be considered as "multilevel." In a second step, we assess the extent to which family planning interventions have successfully incorporated a social-ecological framework. To this end, the 63 studies featured in Mwaikambo et al.'s systematic review on family planning interventions were reexamined. This assessment indicates that the multilevel or social-ecological perspective has seldom been translated into interventions. Specifically, the majority of interventions involved some form of activity at the community and/or organizational level, yet targeted and measured intrapersonal change as opposed to explicitly targeting/measuring environmental modification. PMID:27105643

  13. Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study

    OpenAIRE

    Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lien, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    Background School-based interventions that target prevention of overweight and obesity in children have been tested with mixed results. Thus, successful interventions are still called for. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent school-based intervention programme targeting physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours on anthropometric outcomes. Methods A 20-month intervention was evaluated in a cluster randomised, controlled study of 1324 11-year-ol...

  14. Interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors%介入导入Ad-p53基因联合超声辐照治疗兔VX2肝癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐劲松; 杨瑞民; 赵鹏; 张铭秋; 崔红凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors, as well as its impact on VEGF and MMP2. Methods Forty-two Chinchilla rabbits were collected and VX2 cancer cells were injected into the left lobe of liver on the observation in rabbits. The growth of cancer was monitored by ultrasound. Thirty rabbit models were successfully made and divided into 3 groups (each n=10) randomly. Fourteen days after transplantation of cancer cells, Ad-p53 was administrated through hepatic artery (in Ad-p53 group) or combined with ultrasound wave irradiation (in Ad-p53 + US group), while the same amount of saline was given for rabbits in control group. Three days later, the tumor size was observed with ultrasound, and then all rabbits were sacrificed, the serum VEGF level was measured by ELISA, the hepatic tissue expression of p53, MMP2 and VEGF were detected respectively by immunohistochemistry, and expression level of wild type p53 was measured using Western blot. Results No difference of tumor size was found between 3 groups before therapy. All tumor sizes increased, but the tumors in Ad-p53 + US group were relatively smaller. The efficiency of Ad-p53 transfection was improved in Ad-p53 group compared with control group, which was the highest in Ad-p53 + US group. Furthermore, the serum VEGF level decreased in Ad-p53 + US group, so did the expression of MMP2 and VEGF in Ad-p53 group and Ad-p53 + US group, more obviously in Ad-p53 + US group. Conclusion Ad-p53 can suppress the growth of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbit models. The therapeutic efficacy of Ad-p53 can be improved by interventional targeting administration combining with ultrasound irradiation.%目的 探讨介入导向下联合超声辐照对兔VX2肝癌模型Ad-p53转染效率及该基因对VEGF、MMP2的影响.方法 青紫蓝兔42只,直视下手术,将VX2肿瘤细胞种植于肝左叶,以超声检测

  15. Intervention thresholds for osteoporosis in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, John A; Borgstrom, Frederik; Zethraeus, Niklas; Johnell, Olof; Oden, Anders; Jönsson, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the threshold of fracture probability at which interventions became cost-effective in women based on data from the UK. We modelled the effects of an intervention costing pound 350 per year given for 5 years that decreased the risk of all osteoporotic fractures by 35% followed by a waning of effect (offset time) for a further 5 years. Sensitivity analyses included a range of treatment duration (3-10 years), intervention costs (pound 300-400/year) and offset times (0-15 years). Data on costs and risks were from the UK. Costs included direct costs, but excluded indirect costs due to morbidity. A threshold for cost-effectiveness of pound 30,000/QALY gained was used. With the base case ( pound 350 per year; 35% efficacy) treatment in women was cost-effective with a 10-year hip fracture probability that ranged from 1.1% at the age of 50 years to 9.0% at the age of 85 years. Intervention thresholds were sensitive to the assumed costs and offset time. The exclusion of osteoporotic fractures other than hip fracture significantly increased the cost-effectiveness ratio because of the substantial morbidity from such other fractures, particularly at younger ages. Cost-effective scenarios were found for women at the threshold for osteoporosis from the age of 60 years. Treatment of established osteoporosis was cost-effective irrespective of age. We conclude that the inclusion of all osteoporotic fractures has a marked effect on intervention thresholds, that these vary with age and that available treatments can be targeted cost-effectively to individuals from the UK at moderately increased fracture risk.

  16. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. PMID:25936272

  17. [Drug therapy in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumkauskaite, M; Bryant, M; Kortes, N; Stampfl, U; Radeleff, B

    2015-06-01

    In the context of pre-interventional drug therapy, a premedication is given to patients who are known to have an allergy to contrast media, have renal impairment or hyperthyroidism. An already existing anticoagulation therapy, in anticipation of the planned intervention, must be reviewed and changed or even suspended as required. For peri-interventional drug therapy it is important to consider how strenuous the procedure will be as well as the general condition of the patient. Further discussion with anesthetists may be required for the planning of pain therapy or sedation during the procedure. These factors help to ensure maximum patient comfort as well as the success of the intervention. Post-interventional anticoagulation therapy, usually started peri-interventionally, plays an important role in minimizing the risk of acute thrombosis as well as in maintaining long-term functioning of the implanted material. The form of the anticoagulation therapy is set according to the type of intervention. PMID:26063076

  18. The Validation of Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Julie Grønborg; Samuelsen, Abigail Bethany May; Lund-Hansen, Søren Kristoffer Koch; Blankenburg, Mads

    2012-01-01

    This project is a comparative study between the international relations theories of neo-realism and liberalism. The aim is to test the theories using the example of the United Nations intervention in the Libyan revolution. This is not done to determine which theory is superior, but merely to assess whether or not they are utilized in international politics, and, if so, how. The motivation to write this project stemmed from our mutual interest in the work of the United Nations, and hereby, we ...

  19. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  20. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  1. Recommendations for intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is set a 'radiological protection criteria' for patients and staff involved for the purpose of the doses involved are as low as reasonably achievable considering the limitations that each technique and its objectives. Establish criteria for injury prevention in the patient's skin for long exposures and intense when complications arise in the process. Set levels for some well Dimensional procedures. Establish procedures for patient dosimetry control and operator personnel. These criteria will be established by the interventional radiology team with participation of specialists in radiation protection, medical physics, dosimetry and X rays equipment specialists

  2. Communication Intervention in Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa A.; Schlosser, Ralf; O'eilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed communication intervention studies involving people with Rett syndrome. Systematic searches of five electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) target skills, (c) procedures, (d) main…

  3. Rumination following bereavement : Assessment, working mechanisms and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to gain better understanding of rumination, a risk factor for poor bereavement outcome, so it can be targeted more effectively in therapeutic interventions. We defined grief-related rumination as thinking repetitively and recurrently about the causes and consequences of a loss and loss-rela

  4. Characteristics of Evidence-Based Child Maltreatment Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlison, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Treatment protocol review technique was used to summarize characteristics of effective interventions from nine studies of child maltreatment examining recovery from abuse or effects of maltreatment on child and parent outcomes. Findings suggested that stronger effects are yielded by: targeting parents and the parent-child interaction context in…

  5. Transforming the Lowest-Performing Students: An Intervention that Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Louis; Harris, Sara E.; Lane, Erin; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a small-scale study to investigate if a brief timely intervention focusing on specific study strategies would improve student performance in university science courses. We targeted low-performing students after the first midterm exam in two courses (enrollments of 67 and 185) with different student populations, one with students in a…

  6. New evidence on the effectiveness of foreign exchange market intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Mizrach (Bruce); Ph.A. Stork (Philip); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper compares foreign exchange market intervention in case there is no uncertainty about the extent of an imperfectly sustainable target zone and where there is uncertainty. A well-known example of the first case was the European Monetary System between 1979 and 1992. An example of

  7. Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men

    OpenAIRE

    van den Hoek Caty; Wolfers Mireille EG; Brug Johannes; de Zwart Onno

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence base...

  8. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Background: High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing o...

  9. Interventions to prevent tenant evictions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Marieke; van den Dries, Linda; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2016-09-01

    Tenant evictions are a significant cause of homelessness. As evictions are a traumatic experience for those being evicted and involve high costs, preventing evictions is vital and should be part of local and national policy. In order to develop and implement preventive practices and policies, it is essential to know which interventions are effective in preventing evictions. However, little is known about these interventions. Therefore, a systematic search of the international literature, providing an overview of interventions to prevent evictions published in scientific journals and reporting on their (cost-)effectiveness, was conducted. Nine electronic databases and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed and non-reviewed publications describing research into interventions to prevent tenant evictions published in English between January 1985 and May 2012. Two researchers reviewed titles, abstracts and full-text articles and eventually seven publications describing eight interventions to prevent tenant evictions were analysed. The eight interventions vary widely in terms of their target population, focus, type of support and duration, which makes comparison of results difficult. Only three effect studies on preventive interventions regarding tenant evictions were found; two researchers assessed their quality. One of these studies was of insufficient quality to assess the effectiveness of the intervention described. Legal assistance and debt advice are promising interventions that seem to be effective in decreasing the risk of eviction. The effectiveness of the other five interventions cannot be determined. More methodologically sound research into the prevention of tenant evictions is needed and future research will have to clarify what works for whom, in which context. PMID:26109137

  10. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  11. Can worksite nutritional interventions improve productivity and firm profitability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    and clarity in definition of interventions, as well as environmental and outcome variables. Results: The search identified 2,358 publications, 30 of which were found suitable for the review. Several of the reviewed studies suggest that diet-related worksite interventions have positive impacts on employees...... controlled or quasi-experimental worksite intervention trials and observational cross-sectional studies. Studies were selected on the basis of topic relevance, according to publication title and subsequently according to abstract content. A quality appraisal of the studies was based on study design......’ nutritional knowledge, food intake and health and on the firm’s profitability, mainly in terms of reduced absenteeism and presenteeism. Conclusions: Well-targeted and efficiently implemented diet-related worksite health promotion interventions may improve labour productivity by 1%–2%. On larger worksites...

  12. Psychosocial Intervention with ethnic minority families in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This session focusses on broad, inclusive family intervention in contrast to the narrow, individual oriented intervention. The target group for intervention includes diasporic- well as refugee families, which have received help due to psychosocial problems. The latest family research indicates that...... relatively newer conceptualizations such as identities with multiple dimensions, transnationalism, resilience orientation and health promotion play a salient role in family intervention in this era of globalization perceived as the growing interconnectedness between people around the world with regards to...... Team for ethnic minority youth and families (TTT), NGO in Copenhagen, established in 1991. The paper would illustrate TTT’s major principles and the above mentioned theoretical conceptualisations through a case study. This session additionally involves comments from discusssants and interactive...

  13. Implications of the results of community intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Emmons, K; Hunt, M K; Johnston, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the results of population-level interventions conducted in three settings: entire communities, worksites, and schools. Four major conclusions are discussed: (a) Directions for the next generation of community-based interventions include targeting multiple levels of influence; addressing social inequalities in disease risk; involving communities in program planning and implementation; incorporating approaches for "tailoring" interventions; and utilizing rigorous process evaluation. (b) In addition to randomized controlled trials, it is time to use the full range of research phases available, from hypothesis generation and methods development to dissemination research. (c) The public health research agenda may have contributed to observed secular trends by placing behavioral risk factors on the social and media agendas. (d) The magnitude of the results of community intervention trials must be judged according to their potential public health or population-level effects. Small changes at the individual level may result in large benefits at the population level. PMID:9611625

  14. Adapting a Brief Evidence-Based Intervention for Text Message Delivery to Young Adult Black Women

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Tiffany Monique

    2016-01-01

    Young adult Black women have the highest sexually transmitted disease rates among all U.S. women. There are several evidence-based interventions (EBIs) targeted toward this population, yet they each require travel to a healthcare facility or other location. With the increased use of mobile devices, mobile health technology is being utilized more frequently to deliver health interventions. Instead of creating entirely new technologically savvy interventions, the CDC recommends adaptation of EB...

  15. Activity, balance, learning, and exposure (ABLE): A new intervention for fear of falling

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, JL; Johnson, K.; Chang, D; Ward, SR; Bower, ES; Merz, C; Petkus, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Objective: Fear of falling is an important problem among older adults, even those with relatively low rates of objective fall risk, who are often overlooked as targets for intervention. Method: We developed and pilot tested a new intervention, Activity, Balance, Learning, and Exposure (ABLE), in a sample of 10 older adults with excessive fear of falling. The ABLE intervention integrates exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring with a home safety evaluation a...

  16. Development of a Multilevel Intervention to Increase HIV Clinical Trial Participation among Rural Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Isler, Malika Roman

    2012-01-01

    Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using Intervention Mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We collected data from both groups through 11 focus groups and 35 individual interviews. Resultant data were used to deve...

  17. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Texeira, Pedro J; Carraça, Eliana V; Marques, Marta M; Rutter, Harry; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse is high in lifestyle obesity interventions involving behavior and weight change. Identifying mediators of successful outcomes in these interventions is critical to improve effectiveness and to guide approaches to obesity treatment, including resource allocation. This article reviews the most consistent self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change interventions targeting ove...

  18. Mediators of a Coping and Communication-Enhancing Intervention and a Supportive Counseling Intervention among Women Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Winkel, Gary; Rubin, Stephen; Edelson, Mitchell; Rosenblum, Norman; Bergman, Cynthia; Hernandez, Enrique; Carlson, John; Rocereto, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated mechanisms of change for a coping and communication-enhancing intervention (CCI) and supportive counseling (SC). They proposed that the effects of CCI on depressive symptoms would be mediated by psychological processes targeted by CCI, namely increases in the following: positive reappraisal, acceptance, planful problem…

  19. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  20. Theory and model use in social marketing health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Nadina Raluca; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that theories and models can serve as valuable frameworks for the design and evaluation of health interventions. However, evidence on the use of theories and models in social marketing interventions is sparse. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify to what extent papers about social marketing health interventions report using theory, which theories are most commonly used, and how theory was used. A systematic search was conducted for articles that reported social marketing interventions for the prevention or management of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, HIV, STDs, and tobacco use, and behaviors related to reproductive health, physical activity, nutrition, and smoking cessation. Articles were published in English, after 1990, reported an evaluation, and met the 6 social marketing benchmarks criteria (behavior change, consumer research, segmentation and targeting, exchange, competition and marketing mix). Twenty-four articles, describing 17 interventions, met the inclusion criteria. Of these 17 interventions, 8 reported using theory and 7 stated how it was used. The transtheoretical model/stages of change was used more often than other theories. Findings highlight an ongoing lack of use or underreporting of the use of theory in social marketing campaigns and reinforce the call to action for applying and reporting theory to guide and evaluate interventions. PMID:22934539

  1. Electronic Feedback in College Student Drinking Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronce, Jessica M; Bittinger, Joyce N; Liu, Junny; Kilmer, Jason R

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is prevalent among college students and can be associated with serious negative consequences. Several efficacious programs using one-on-one brief intervention techniques have been developed to target high-risk drinking by individual students, such as the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) (Dimeff et al. 1999). To reach a larger population (e.g., the incoming freshman class), researchers have adapted these interventions so that students can access them via the Internet or in some other electronic format.The purpose of this review is to discuss specific alcohol intervention programs that were (1) designed to be delivered remotely (e.g., via the Web or on an electronic device) without interaction with a provider and (2) were tested among college students using a randomized controlled trial design. Specific studies were drawn from earlier reviews as well as a comprehensive literature search. Although many programs have limited research support, and some findings are mixed, components that were directly translated from in-person BASICS to remote-delivery mediums (i.e., personalized feedback interventions [PFIs], personalized normative feedback [PNF] interventions), and broader programs that incorporate PFI/ PNF, show promise in reducing alcohol use and/or negative consequences. However, more research is needed and suggestions for how the field can move these interventions forward are discussed.

  2. Theory and model use in social marketing health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Nadina Raluca; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that theories and models can serve as valuable frameworks for the design and evaluation of health interventions. However, evidence on the use of theories and models in social marketing interventions is sparse. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify to what extent papers about social marketing health interventions report using theory, which theories are most commonly used, and how theory was used. A systematic search was conducted for articles that reported social marketing interventions for the prevention or management of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, HIV, STDs, and tobacco use, and behaviors related to reproductive health, physical activity, nutrition, and smoking cessation. Articles were published in English, after 1990, reported an evaluation, and met the 6 social marketing benchmarks criteria (behavior change, consumer research, segmentation and targeting, exchange, competition and marketing mix). Twenty-four articles, describing 17 interventions, met the inclusion criteria. Of these 17 interventions, 8 reported using theory and 7 stated how it was used. The transtheoretical model/stages of change was used more often than other theories. Findings highlight an ongoing lack of use or underreporting of the use of theory in social marketing campaigns and reinforce the call to action for applying and reporting theory to guide and evaluate interventions.

  3. Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, Adrian; Wallace, R B; White, S

    2009-12-01

    Conservation of wildlife is especially challenging when the targeted species damage crops or livestock, attack humans, or take fish or game. Affected communities may retaliate and destroy wildlife or their habitats. We summarize recommendations from the literature for 13 distinct types of interventions to mitigate these human-wildlife conflicts. We classified eight types as direct (reducing the severity or frequency of encounters with wildlife) and five as indirect (raising human tolerance for encounters with wildlife) interventions. We analyzed general cause-and-effect relationships underlying human-wildlife conflicts to clarify the focal point of intervention for each type. To organize the recommendations on interventions we used three standard criteria for feasibility: cost-effective design, wildlife specificity and selectivity, and sociopolitical acceptability. The literature review and the feasibility criteria were integrated as decision support tools in three multistakeholder workshops. The workshops validated and refined our criteria and helped the participants select interventions. Our approach to planning interventions is systematic, uses standard criteria, and optimizes the participation of experts, policy makers, and affected communities. We argue that conservation action generally will be more effective if the relative merits of alternative interventions are evaluated in an explicit, systematic, and participatory manner. PMID:19459896

  4. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control

  5. Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion…

  6. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  7. Does shelf space management intervention have an effect on calorie turnover at supermarkets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben;

    2016-01-01

    . An experimental controlled trial has been conducted using 10 supermarkets in Denmark. The study looked specifically into the possible effect of shelf space management intervention at supermarkets. The study found a significant intervention effect for individual products targeted by the project. But overall, care...

  8. Using Narrative Language Intervention as a Tool To Increase Communicative Competence in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbrodt, Lisa; Kerins, Marie; Gesell, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Spanish-speaking school-aged children participated in an 8-week pretest/posttest design investigation targeting improvement of their communicative competence through a narrative intervention program. Also examined the efficacy of providing an intervention in the children's native language. Findings revealed that use of a narrative…

  9. Math Intervention: Building Number Power with Formative Assessments, Differentiation, and Games, Grades PreK-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Useful for small groups or one-on-one instruction, this book offers successful math interventions and response to intervention (RTI) connections. Teachers will learn to target math instruction to struggling students by: (1) Diagnosing weaknesses; (2) Providing specific, differentiated instruction; (3) Using formative assessments; (4) Offering…

  10. Math Intervention: Building Number Power with Formative Assessments, Differentiation, and Games, Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Useful for small groups or one-on-one instruction, this book offers successful math interventions and response to intervention (RTI) connections. Teachers will learn to target math instruction to struggling students by: (1) Diagnosing weaknesses; (2) Providing specific, differentiated instruction; (3) Using formative assessments; (4) Offering…

  11. Effects of a Brief Tiered Language Intervention for Prekindergartners at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Solari, Emily J.; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Multitiered instructional frameworks are becoming a recommended approach for enhancing prevention and intervention efforts targeting early literacy and language skills. However, few studies to date have studied the feasibility of tiered oral language interventions before kindergarten; therefore, this pilot study explored the…

  12. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies - a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of) stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach...

  13. Family Ties to Health Program: A Randomized Intervention to Improve Vegetable Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Tate, Deborah F.; Stevens, June; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a home-based intervention targeted toward parents to improve vegetable intake in preschool-aged children. Methods: Four-month feasibility study of home-based intervention consisting of 4 tailored newsletters and 2 motivational phone calls compared to control; 4 children's books for the control group; and measured pre and post…

  14. Promoting Teachers' Generalization of Intervention Use through Goal Setting and Performance Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Neelima G.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Consultation is beneficial for increasing teachers' intervention use for target students. However, little is known about teachers' generalized intervention use. This study is a systematic replication of Riley-Tillman and Eckert ("J Educ Psychol Consult" 12:217-241, 2001) and Martens et al. ("Sch Psychol Q" 12:33-41,…

  15. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…

  16. Lifestyle intervention for prevention of diabetes : determinants of success for future implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, Cheryl; Blaak, Ellen E.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions are reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals after mid- and long-term follow-up. Information on determinants of intervention outcome and adherence and the mechanisms underlying diabetes progression are valuable for a more targeted implementation

  17. Behind the scenes of the PRIME intervention: designing a complex intervention to improve malaria care at public health centres in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D. DiLiberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda, health system challenges limit access to good quality healthcare and contribute to slow progress on malaria control. We developed a complex intervention (PRIME, which was designed to improve quality of care for malaria at public health centres. Objective: Responding to calls for increased transparency, we describe the PRIME intervention's design process, rationale, and final content and reflect on the choices and challenges encountered during the design of this complex intervention. Design: To develop the intervention, we followed a multistep approach, including the following: 1 formative research to identify intervention target areas and objectives; 2 prioritization of intervention components; 3 review of relevant evidence; 4 development of intervention components; 5 piloting and refinement of workshop modules; and 6 consolidation of the PRIME intervention theories of change to articulate why and how the intervention was hypothesized to produce desired outcomes. We aimed to develop an intervention that was evidence-based, grounded in theory, and appropriate for the study context; could be evaluated within a randomized controlled trial; and had the potential to be scaled up sustainably. Results: The process of developing the PRIME intervention package was lengthy and dynamic. The final intervention package consisted of four components: 1 training in fever case management and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs; 2 workshops in health centre management; 3 workshops in patient-centred services; and 4 provision of mRDTs and antimalarials when stocks ran low. Conclusions: The slow and iterative process of intervention design contrasted with the continually shifting study context. We highlight the considerations and choices made at each design stage, discussing elements we included and why, as well as those that were ultimately excluded. Reflection on and reporting of ‘behind the scenes’ accounts of intervention

  18. 靶向 Akt1基因 RNA 干扰对胸主动脉平滑肌细胞增殖的影响%Effect of targeting Akt1gene RNA intervention on proliferation of smooth muscle cell of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏健; 范波; 丁明超; 王意忠; 王斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:构建兔Akt1短发卡RNA( shRNA)真核表达载体,探讨靶向Akt1基因RNA干扰对兔胸主动脉平滑肌细胞增殖的影响。方法经预实验挑选2条有效短发卡RNA转染入原代培养日本大耳白兔胸主动脉平滑肌细胞内,设置空白对照组( A组)、阴性对照组( B组)、Akt1-shRNA-1组( C组)、Akt1-shRna-2组( D组)。48、72 h荧光显微镜下观察细胞转染效率,分别在转染平滑肌细胞后24、48、72、96 h使用流式细胞仪和TUNEL法检测凋亡细胞数目。结果平滑肌细胞48 h转染效率为17櫃.8%;流式细胞仪测定C组和D组在48 h凋亡率分别为19.72%和15.43%,抑制增值效果达到最高峰,与A、B组比较,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。 TUNEL法测定结果表明,C、D组细胞凋亡水平与A、B组比较明显增多( P <0.05),且以C组较为明显。结论成功构建了2条兔Akt1 shRNA真核表达载体,可有效地抑制平滑肌细胞增殖。%Objective To construct Akt1 shRNA eukaryon expression vector to investigate the effect of targeting Akt1gene RNA intervention on proliferation of smooth muscle cell of rabbits .Methods After preliminary experiment , two strips of effective shRNA were selected to be transfected into thoracic aorta smooth muscle cells ( SMC ) of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).The experiment was divided into four groups ,blank control group (group A),negative control group (group B),Akt1-shRNA-1group (group C),Akt1-shRna-2 group (group D).The cell transfection rate was detected under fluorescence microscope at 48h,72h after transfection, and the cell apoptosis rates were measured by flow cytometry and TUNEL respectively at 24h,48h,72h,96h after transfection.Results The two sequences of synthesized shRNA named Akt1-shRNA-1 and Akt1-shRNA-2 were exactly the same as the designed ones .The SMC transfection rate at 48h was 17.8%. The cell apoptosis rate was 19.72% and 15.43% at 48h

  19. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.)

  20. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  1. Using the Medical Research Council Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in a Theory-Based Infant Feeding Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: The Baby Milk Intervention and Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi Lakshman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council framework on complex interventions to guide the development and evaluation of an intervention to prevent obesity by modifying infant feeding behaviours. Methods. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on early life risk factors for obesity and interventions to prevent obesity in this age group. The review suggested prevention of excess weight gain in bottle-fed babies and appropriate weaning as intervention targets; hence we undertook systematic reviews to further our understanding of these behaviours. We chose theory and behaviour change techniques that demonstrated evidence of effectiveness in altering dietary behaviours. We subsequently developed intervention materials and evaluation tools and conducted qualitative studies with mothers (intervention recipients and healthcare professionals (intervention deliverers to refine them. We developed a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes and feeding practices to understand the mechanism of any intervention effects. Conclusions. In addition to informing development of our specific intervention and evaluation materials, use of the Medical Research Council framework has helped to build a generalisable evidence base for early life nutritional interventions. However, the process is resource intensive and prolonged, and this should be taken into account by public health research funders. This trial is registered with ISRTCN: 20814693 Baby Milk Trial.

  2. Percutaneous interventions in Fontan circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Interventional catheterization procedures are often necessary to reach and maintain the fragile Fontan circulation, mainly in patients with right morphology systemic ventricles and fenestrated Fontan conduits.

  3. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2011-03-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  4. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2012-02-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  5. Dietary intervention in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integ...

  6. Process evaluation of a web-based intervention aimed at empowerment of disability benefit claimants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this process evaluation study was to gain insight into the reach, compliance, appreciation, usage barriers, and users' perceived effectiveness of a web-based intervention http://www.wiagesprek.nl. This intervention was aimed at empowerment of disability claimants, prior to the assessment of disability by an insurance physician. Methods Reach was determined by registering claimants exposed to the study's invitation brochures, and by comparing trial participant characteristics with non-participants and nationwide claimant data. Compliance was registered by analyzing weblogs, which were automatically collected during the period of the trial. This made it possible to analyze individual use of the intervention. Appreciation, usage barriers, and users' perceived effectiveness were assessed using an online questionnaire that was sent to participants from the intervention group, 6 weeks after enrolment. Results Only 9% of the target population enrolled in the internet program. Because of selective enrolment, more females, higher educated claimants, and less ethnical minorities were reached. Compliance was ambiguous: out of the 123 participants randomized into the intervention group, a significant proportion (33% did not use the intervention at all, while, at the same time, many participants (32% used the intervention for more than two hours (i.e. in approximately two weeks. Overall satisfaction with the intervention was good. Claimants perceived the intervention most effective in increasing knowledge, while also a fair amount of users perceived the intervention effective in gaining right expectations or being able to communicate better with their physician. Conclusions The uptake of the intervention http://www.wiagesprek.nl was disappointing. Specifically, the poor reach and compliance of the intervention resulted in a small proportion of the target population using the intervention as intended. Improvements in the

  7. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  8. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  9. Interventions for Stigma Reduction – Part 1: Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silatham Sermrittirong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contributors to the Working Group that produced this paper are like countless others who are confronted by programme realities in developing countries, such as the pressure to respond to the challenge of stigma in environments of extreme poverty, the issues of scant resources and the requirements to adapt objectives accordingly, and the competing demands for relief and emergency aid. It is in such contexts that researchers have the responsibility of making evidence-based recommendations and yet, regarding stigma interventions, they are confronted by a domain almost devoid of reliable evidence. Without examples of comparable situations that can be reviewed, it may be possible to make progress only through recourse to theoretical concepts. Broad guidelines, based on respected theories, may prove to be a sound foundation on which intervention programmes can be designed. In this article, the discrete components of stigma that should be targeted in stigma intervention programmes are identified. It is also recommended that since stigma affects different levels in society simultaneously, stigma programmes should be multi-targeted and designed with an intention to adjust interactions between groups at different societal levels. This article lays the foundation for a companion article that presents a generally applicable method by which plans for stigma interventions can be assessed (Interventions for Stigma Reduction – Part 2: Practical Applications. DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v22i3.70

  10. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  11. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar; Jani, Dewal; Nagarkatti, Rana

    2008-10-21

    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  12. Interventions for intermittent exotropia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Sarah R; Gnanaraj, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical management of intermittent exotropia has been discussed extensively in the literature, yet there remains a lack of clarity regarding indications for intervention, the most effective form of treatment and whether or not there is an optimal time in the evolution of the disease at which any treatment should be carried out. Objectives The objective of this review was to analyse the effects of various surgical and non-surgical treatments in randomised trials of participants with intermittent exotropia, and to report intervention criteria and determine the significance of factors such as age with respect to outcome. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2012), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 May 2012. We are no longer searching the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG) for this review. We manually searched the British Orthoptic Journal up to 2002, and the proceedings of the European Strabismological Association (ESA), International Strabismological Association (ISA) and American Academy of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus meeting (AAPOS) up to 2001. We contacted researchers who are active in the field for information about further published or unpublished studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials of any surgical or non-surgical treatment for intermittent exotropia. Data collection and

  13. Systematic Interventions for Teaching Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amy E.; Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics interventions for struggling students supplement regular instruction and are frequently implemented through computer programs and activity sheet practice (Swanson et al. 2012). However, students with foundational misunderstandings do not benefit from additional drill and practice alone. Instead, interventions that balance concepts with…

  14. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning.......Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning....

  15. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  16. Nonverbal Interventions in Clinical Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of nonverbal with verbal clinical group interventions suggested that some traditional self-report devices show less differentiation between these two interventions than do measures of group cohesion. A strong, replicable manipulation tested these findings, which were consistent with previous research. (Author/BEF)

  17. Job Demands-Resources Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Van Wingerden (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main aim of this dissertation was to examine whether positive organizational interventions based on JD-R theory can enhance employees’ work engagement and performance. This thesis presented five empirical intervention studies from different perspectives; (a) a personal resources

  18. Remote intervention in deep waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-09-01

    The project for Petrobras in Brazil's Marlim field marked a milestone in the development of remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and remote intervention capabilities. The ability to provide remotely operated intervention support for these deep water operations was the result of a concerted 18-month programme to develop and acquire the necessary technologies. This paper describes that programme. (author)

  19. Distal protection devices during percutaneous coronary and carotid interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Peter B

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distal embolization of particulate matter complicates percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions more often than had been recognized until recently. A number of distal protection devices are under development. The PercuSurge GuardWire™ is a balloon occlusion thrombectomy device approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for saphenous vein graft intervention. A number of filter devices utilize an expandable filter mounted on the angioplasty guidewire to facilitate entrapment of particles and safe removal. The Parodi Anti-Emboli System™ is an example of a catheter occlusion device that establishes protection by reversing blood flow in the target vessel.

  20. Distal protection devices during percutaneous coronary and carotid interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, Panayotis; Orford, James L; Denktas, Ali E; Berger, Peter B

    2001-01-01

    Distal embolization of particulate matter complicates percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions more often than had been recognized until recently. A number of distal protection devices are under development. The PercuSurge GuardWiretrade mark is a balloon occlusion thrombectomy device approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for saphenous vein graft intervention. A number of filter devices utilize an expandable filter mounted on the angioplasty guidewire to facilitate entrapment of particles and safe removal. The Parodi Anti-Emboli Systemtrade mark is an example of a catheter occlusion device that establishes protection by reversing blood flow in the target vessel.

  1. Contemporary anticoagulation therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatty, Shaun; Ali, Asghar; Shetty, Ranjith; Sumption, Kevin F; Topaz, On; Jovin, Ion S

    2014-04-01

    The proper use of anticoagulants is crucial for ensuring optimal patient outcomes post percutaneous interventions in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Anticoagulant agents such as unfractionated heparin, a thrombin inhibitor; low-molecular weight heparins, predominantly Factor Xa inhibitors; fondaparinux, a Factor Xa inhibitor and bivalirudin, a direct thrombin inhibitor have been developed to target various steps in the coagulation cascade to prevent formation of thrombin. Optimal anticoagulation achieves the correct balance between thrombosis and bleeding and is related to optimal outcomes with minimal complications. This review will discuss the mechanisms and appropriate use of current and emerging anticoagulant therapies used during percutaneous interventions. PMID:24506409

  2. Intervention principles: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became clear that some clarification of the basic principles for intervention was necessary as well as more internationally recognised numerical guidance on intervention levels. There was in the former USSR and in Europe much confusion over, and lack of recognition of, the very different origins and purposes of dose limits for controlling deliberate increases in radiation exposure for practices and dose levels at which intervention is prompted to decrease existing radiation exposure. In the latest recommendations from ICRP in its Publication 60, a clear distinction is made between the radiation protection systems for a practice and for intervention. According to ICRP, the protective measures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantages, should each be justified on their own merit in the sense that they should do more good than harm, and their form, scale, and duration should be optimised so as to do the most good. Intervention levels for protective actions can be established for many possible accident scenarios. For planning and preparedness purposes, a generic optimisation based on generic accident scenario calculations, should result in optimised generic intervention levels for each protective measure. The factors entering such an optimisation will on the benefit side include avertable doses and avertable risks as well as reassurance. On the harm side the factors include monetary costs, collective and individual risk for the action itself, social disruption and anxiety. More precise optimisation analyses based on real site and accident specific data can be carried out and result in specific intervention levels. It is desirable that values for easily measurable quantities such as dose rate and surface contamination density be developed as surrogates for intervention levels of avertable dose. However, it is important that these quantities should be used carefully and applied taking account of local

  3. Strategies for implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD. Historically, the research has focused on interventions targeting problems in the home or school setting, but more recent research has highlighted the importance of family – school partnerships and conjoint approaches to intervention involving family and school. Effective approaches to psychosocial intervention consist of strategies to address performance deficits, promote adaptive behavior, and improve children’s self-control and academic and social skills. Considerable evidence exists to indicate that combined approaches are more effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and related academic and social impairments than separate treatments. PMID:22137818

  4. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion: Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for

  5. Interventional spinal procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreula, Cosma E-mail: cosmaandreula@tin.it; Muto, Mario; Leonardi, Marco

    2004-05-01

    The interventional procedures for disk herniation and protrusion by percutaneous techniques are decompressive such as chemodiscolysis with chimopapain, nucleo-discectomy introduced by Onik, LASER discectomy, and recently nucleoplasty, and decompressive and direct antinflammatory such as chemiodiscolysis with an Oxygen-ozone mixture. These techniques have minimized the invasive nature of surgery and avoid or decrease complications like infection linked to surgery. Reducing intervertebral disc size by mechanical aspiration of a part of the disc or partially dissolving the herniation by drying reduces the conic pressure on the torn annulus and creates the space necessary for retropulsion whenever the circular fibres of the annulus regain a minimum capacity to contain the disc under tension. The proposed suggestion in these techniques is that a small change in volume produces large change in pressure. The success rates reported in different studies vary from 65 to 80% of excellent or good results with chemonucleolysis and aspiration. Vertebroplasty (VP) is done by percutaneous injection of acrylic cement (polymethylmetacrylate-PMMA) into the vertebrae under fluoroscopic and/or CT control to achieve an antalgic effect and stabilize the vertebral body. VP has been used for vertebral collapses caused by osteoporosis, long-term steroid treatment, aggressive symptomatic angiomas and lytic metastasis. The reported figures in literature are 80-95% of pain relief, within 7 days after procedure, commonly on the same day.

  6. Implications for Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Hof

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an upper motor neurone syndrome (CP suffer from many disabling primary symptoms: spasms, weakness, and loss of dexterity. These primary ‘neurogenic’ symptoms often lead to secondary disabilities, muscle contractures, and tertiary effects, bone deformations. A common symptom of CP is hypertonia, with. the consequence that the involved muscles remain in an excessively shortened length for most of the time. As a normal reaction of the muscle tissue, the number of sarcomeres is reduced and the muscle fibers shorten permanently: a contracture develops. A possible second type of contracture is that normal muscle lengthening along with bone growth is affected. Current treatments for the secondary effects include (1 reduction of muscle force, (2lengthening of the muscle fibers by serial plaster casts, and (3surgical lengthening of tendons or aponeurosis. The choice of treatment depends on the cause of the functional deficit. Bone tissue also adapts itself to abnormal forces, especially in the growth period. The hypertonias or contractures of CP so may give rise to bone malformations that interfere with function (e.g. femur endorotation or may reduce the action of muscles by changing the lever arm (e.g. ankle varus. Although prevention should always be preferred, a timely surgical intervention cannot always be avoided. The differences in treatment for the various groups require and justify an extensive laboratory investigation, including EMG recordings in gait, measurement of passive elastic properties, and long-term observation of the hypertonia.

  7. Do Couple-Based Interventions Make a Difference for Couples Affected by Cancer?: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Tim W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing recognition that patients and partners react to a cancer diagnosis as an interdependent system and increasing evidence that psychosocial interventions can be beneficial to both patients and partners, there has been a recent increase in the attention given to interventions that target couples. The aim of this systematic review was to identify existing couple-based interventions for patients with cancer and their partners and explore the efficacy of these interventions (including whether there is added value to target the couple versus individuals, the content and delivery of couple-based interventions, and to identify the key elements of couple-based interventions that promote improvement in adjustment to cancer diagnosis. Method A systematic review of the cancer literature was performed to identify experimental and quasi-experimental couple-based interventions published between 1990 and 2011. To be considered for this review, studies had to test the efficacy of a psychosocial intervention for couples affected by cancer. Studies were excluded if they were published in a language other than English or French, focused on pharmacological, exercise, or dietary components combined with psychosocial components, or did not assess the impact of the intervention on psychological distress (e.g., depression, anxiety or quality of life. Data were extracted using a standardised data collection form, and were analysed independently by three reviewers. Results Of the 709 articles screened, 23 were included in this review. Couple-based interventions were most efficacious in improving couple communication, psychological distress, and relationship functioning. Interventions had a limited impact on physical distress and social adjustment. Most interventions focused on improving communication and increasing understanding of the cancer diagnosis within couples. Interventions were most often delivered by masters-level nurses or

  8. Mobilising a disadvantaged community for a cardiovascular intervention: designing PRORIVA in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Öhman

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a burden for developing countries, yet few CVD intervention studies have been conducted in developing countries such as Indonesia. This paper outlines the process of designing a community intervention programme to reduce CVD risk factors, and discusses experiences with regard to design issues for a small-scale intervention. Design process: The design process for the present community intervention consisted of six stages: (1 a baseline risk factor survey, (2 design of a small-scale intervention by using both baseline survey and qualitative data, (3 implementation of the small-scale intervention, (4 evaluation of the small-scale intervention and design of a broader CVD intervention in the Yogyakarta municipality, (5 implementation of the broader intervention and 6 evaluation of the broader CVD intervention. According to the baseline survey, 60% of the men were smokers, more than 30% of the population had insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and more than 30% of the population were physically inactive, this is why a small-scale population intervention approach was chosen, guided both by the findings in the quantitative and the qualitative study. Experiences: A quasi-experimental study was designed with a control group and pre- and post-testing. In the small-scale intervention, two sub-districts were selected and randomly assigned as intervention and control areas. Within them, six intervention settings (two sub-villages, two schools and two workplaces and three control settings (a sub-village, a school and a workplace were selected. Health promotion activities targeting the whole community were implemented in the intervention area. During the evaluation, more activities were performed in the low socioeconomic status sub-village and at the civil workplace.

  9. Correlates of the intention to implement a tailored physical activity intervention: perceptions of intermediaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-02-01

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries-intervention providers-determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries' intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy. PMID:24518647

  10. Correlates of the intention to implement a tailored physical activity intervention: perceptions of intermediaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-02-10

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries-intervention providers-determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries' intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p organisations (B = 0.81; p strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy.

  11. Cardiometabolic interventions – focus on transcriptional regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the largest healthcare burden in the Western world; and the increasing prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus, at least partially driven by a trend in lifestyle changes associated with global economic development, is likely to fuel this CVD burden worldwide. Over the past two decades, there has been an increased awareness of the convergence of risk factors contributing to both cardiovascular disease and diabetes leading to the concept of the metabolic syndrome, and the realisation of the opportunity to intervene at this intersection to simultaneously target CVD and metabolic dysfunction. This brings together the fields of cardiovascular medicine, diabetology, and increasingly clinical immunology for a unified and concerted effort to reduce risk for both conditions simultaneously. The discovery of the targeted pathways of drugs already in clinical use such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZD has led to accelerated basic and clinicalresearch into selective and dual PPAR-α and PPAR-γ agonists, which can theoretically target glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, as well as potentially exerting inhibitoryeffects in vascular inflammation, all of which might be predicted to reduce atherosclerosis. In this article, we will discuss the basic science as well as recent clinical development in the pursuit of optimal cardiometabolic intervention along with insight into strategies for future drug development.

  12. Strategies to Address Weight-Based Victimization: Youths' Preferred Support Interventions from Classmates, Teachers, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Weight-Based Victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents who are overweight or obese, and is associated with numerous psychosocial and physical consequences for those who are targets of victimization. Assessing targets' preferences for different types of support and intervention has been absent in the context of weight-based…

  13. Teacher Motivation as an Enhancement to the First Step to Success Early Intervention Program for Children with Tertiary Level Behavioral Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The First Step to Success early intervention program (Walker, 1998) is a secondary prevention intervention that targets primary grade children with moderate or emerging behavior disorders. While the effectiveness of the First Step to Success early intervention program has been documented repeatedly (see Loman, Rodriguez, & Horner, 2010; Walker…

  14. The cost-effectiveness of the RSI quickscan intervention programme for computer workers: Results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, E.M.; Heinrich, J.; Hoozemans, M.J.; Blatter, B.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Dieën, J.H. van; Tulder, M.W. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: The costs of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms are high. In order to decrease these costs employers implement interventions aimed at reducing these symptoms. One frequently used intervention is the RSI QuickScan intervention programme. It establishes a risk profile of the target population

  15. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  16. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  17. The Targeting of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  18. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  19. A new rapid diagnostic test for detection of anti-Schistosoma mansoni and anti-Schistosoma haematobium antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Jean T

    2013-01-01

    relative insensitivity of the direct diagnostic approaches using microscopy. Conclusions The SmCTF-RDT is at least as sensitive as duplicate Kato-Katz and a single urine filtration for detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively. Further investigations into the specificity of the test for anti-schistosome antibodies are necessary, but our results suggest that it may be a useful tool for mapping the prevalence of anti-schistosome antibodies in a given population pending intervention.

  20. An actionable climate target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  1. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  2. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bv Venkataram; Shanker, Sreejesh; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Deng, Lisheng; Choi, Jae-Mun; Estes, Mary K; Song, Yongcheng; Palzkill, Timothy; Atmar, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents. Despite these impediments, there is progress in the design and development of therapeutic agents. These include capsid-based candidate vaccines, and potential antivirals either in the form of glycomimetics or designer antibodies that block HBGA binding, as well as those that target essential non-structural proteins such as the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition to these classical approaches, recent studies suggest the possibility of interferons and targeting host cell factors as viable approaches to counter norovirus infection. This review provides a brief overview of this progress. PMID:27318434

  3. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  4. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Interventions targeting maternal obesity are a healthcare and public health priority. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of the methodological designs implemented in dietary intervention trials for obesity in pregnancy. DATA SOURCES......: A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  5. Policy interventions to reduce the harm from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P; Hughes, J R

    2000-01-01

    The other papers in this series on reduced smoking discuss interventions focused on individuals. This paper illustrates possible smoking reduction interventions focused on policies rather than individuals. Target 12 of the new WHO Health For All Policy aims to significantly reduce the harm from addictive substances, including tobacco, in all member states by 2015, and the WHO Third Action Plan for Tobacco-Free Europe focuses on reducing the harm from tobacco. These documents recommend five key policy strategies: market regulation, product liability, smoke-free environments, support for smoking cessation and education, public information and public opinion. Interventions such as price increases, restricting availability, advertising bans and product control could all be used to achieve harm reduction. Research on reducing the harm of smoking needs to include policy as well as treatment research.

  6. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27138986

  7. The working mechanisms of an environmentally tailored physical activity intervention for older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudde Aart N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to explore the working mechanisms of a computer tailored physical activity intervention for older adults with environmental information compared to a basic tailored intervention without environmental information. Method A clustered randomized controlled trial with two computer tailored interventions and a no-intervention control group was conducted among 1971 adults aged ≥ 50. The two tailored interventions were developed using Intervention Mapping and consisted of three tailored letters delivered over a four-month period. The basic tailored intervention targeted psychosocial determinants alone, while the environmentally tailored intervention additionally targeted environmental determinants, by providing tailored environmental information. Study outcomes were collected with questionnaires at baseline, three and six months and comprised total physical activity (days/week, walking (min/week, cycling (min/week, sports (min/week, environmental perceptions and use and appreciation of the interventions. Results Mediation analyses showed that changes in cycling, sports and total physical activity behaviour induced by the environmentally tailored intervention were mediated by changes in environmental perceptions. Changes in environmental perceptions did not mediate the effect of the basic tailored intervention on behaviour. Compared with the basic tailored intervention, the environmentally tailored intervention significantly improved cycling behaviour (τ = 30.2. Additionally, the tailored letters of the environmentally tailored intervention were better appreciated and used, although these differences did not mediate the intervention effect. Discussion This study gave some first indications of the relevance of environmental perceptions as a determinant of changing physical activity behaviours and the potential effectiveness of providing environmental information as an intervention strategy aimed at

  8. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  9. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  10. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  11. Economical analyses in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerations about the relation between benefit and expenses are also gaining increasing importance in interventional radiology. This review aims at providing a survey about the published data concerning economical analyses of some of the more frequently employed interventions in radiology excluding neuroradiological and coronary interventions. Because of the relative scarcity of literature in this field, all identified articles (n=46) were included without selection for methodological quality. For a number of radiological interventions the cost-effectiveness has already been demonstrated, e.g., PTA of femoropopliteal and iliac artery stenoses, stenting of renal artery stenoses, placement of vena-cava filters, as well as metal stents in malignant biliary and esophageal obstructions. Conflicting data exist for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. So far, no analysis could be found that directly compares bypass surgery versus PTA+stent in iliac arteries. (orig.)

  12. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  13. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...

  14. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  15. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  16. Categorization of cerebrovascular intervention methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxin Zhao; Gelin Xu; Xinfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular intervention is a medical strategy to diagnose and treat cerebrovascular disease by intravascular intervention techniques. With the continual developments of computer technology, imageology, and angiography, cerebrovascular intervention techniques have developed rapidly.OBJECTIVE: To summarize and to evaluate vascular imaging diagnostic techniques, vascular intra-arterial thrombolysis, vascular intra-arterial angioplasty, and vascular embolization in clinical applications.RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: An online search was conducted in PubMed for English language reports, published from January 2002 to January 2008, containing the key words: intervention therapy, cerebral vascular disease, endovascular intervention and angioplasty. A total of 57 publications were identified. Inclusion criteria: articles about cerebrovascular intervention for cerebrovascular disease; articles published either in high impact factor journals or in recent years. Exclusion criteria: duplicated articles.LITERATURE EVALUATION: 30 articles were identified concerning intravascular intervention techniques and arterial angioplasty. Of those, 7 articles were reviews and 23 were clinical or basic studies.DATA SYNTHESIS: Carotid artery and basilar artery stenosis were important etiological factors for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanism of stenosis induction included atherosclerotic plaque exfoliation and stenosis could cause hemodynamic changes to induce cerebral infarction. Therefore, the treatment of carotid artery and basilar artery stenosis played a key role in preventing ischemic cerebral infarction. The international organization for subarachnoid hemorrhage aneurysm has conclusively shown that both relative and absolute risk factors of intravascular embolotherapy were reduced compared to those of surgical occlusion, demonstrating the important role of vascular embolization for the treatment of intracranial aneurysm. Endovascular stents were placed into the

  17. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  18. Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagnoses, the podiatry diagnoses (impairments and disabilities), treatment goals derived from these diagnoses, and interventions. Impairments were recorded in nearly all patients. The interrelationship ...

  19. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  20. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation.......Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation....

  1. Musculoskeletal Interventional Radiology, an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nMusculoskeletal interventions are routine in many radiology departments in developed countries, and also in some of the centers in Iran. These are in a wide variety of procedures from FNA to percutaneous tumor ablation and vertebroplasty. "nThe purpose of this presentation is to cover the major current musculoskeletal interventional radiologic procedures. In this talk a summary of indications, usefulness, limitations and contraindications and a review of the last papers will be presented.  

  2. Existential interventions in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This study provides the result of a doctorate research into the impact of existential psychotherapeutic interventions with people experiencing chronic eating disorders. The results indicate that positive outcomes are correlated to therapeutic interventions which concentrate on the clients own perception of control and choice over their own eating habits. The research aim was to explore both the effects and the effectiveness of existential therapy in altering the individuals subjective int...

  3. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-12-10

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  4. Working on wellness (WOW: A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW, a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods The intervention mapping (IM protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees’ preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928 will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting

  5. Interventions to reduce college student drinking: State of the evidence for mechanisms of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Kate B

    2015-08-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions. PMID:26164065

  6. Implementing evidence-based interventions in health care: application of the replicating effective programs framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pincus Harold A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the use of a conceptual framework and implementation protocol to prepare effective health services interventions for implementation in community-based (i.e., non-academic-affiliated settings. Methods The framework is based on the experiences of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Replicating Effective Programs (REP project, which has been at the forefront of developing systematic and effective strategies to prepare HIV interventions for dissemination. This article describes the REP framework, and how it can be applied to implement clinical and health services interventions in community-based organizations. Results REP consists of four phases: pre-conditions (e.g., identifying need, target population, and suitable intervention, pre-implementation (e.g., intervention packaging and community input, implementation (e.g., package dissemination, training, technical assistance, and evaluation, and maintenance and evolution (e.g., preparing the intervention for sustainability. Key components of REP, including intervention packaging, training, technical assistance, and fidelity assessment are crucial to the implementation of effective interventions in health care. Conclusion REP is a well-suited framework for implementing health care interventions, as it specifies steps needed to maximize fidelity while allowing opportunities for flexibility (i.e., local customizing to maximize transferability. Strategies that foster the sustainability of REP as a tool to implement effective health care interventions need to be developed and tested.

  7. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided. PMID:26350445

  8. Unit costs, cost - effectiveness, and financing of nutrition interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Susan

    1992-01-01

    The author summarizes what is known about unit costs, the cost structure, cost-effectiveness, and financing of eight nutrition interventions: maternal and child health (MCH) feeding, school feeding, nutrition education, the promotion of breastfeeding, targeted food subsidies, micronutrient supplementation, micronutrient fortification, and growth monitoring. Among items that she reports: (1) mass media nutrition education campaigns and the promotion of breastfeeding cost about $1 - $5 per bene...

  9. Rumination following bereavement : Assessment, working mechanisms and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Eisma, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to gain better understanding of rumination, a risk factor for poor bereavement outcome, so it can be targeted more effectively in therapeutic interventions. We defined grief-related rumination as thinking repetitively and recurrently about the causes and consequences of a loss and loss-related negative emotions. Although many researchers regarded rumination after bereavement as a maladaptive confrontation strategy, others have recently claimed that rumination could serve as cognitive...

  10. Development of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders: Intervention Mapping as a useful tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, mental health problems and mental workload have been increasingly related to long-term sick leave and disability. However, there is, as yet, no structured protocol available for the identification and application of an intervention for stress-related mental health problems at the workplace. This paper describes the structured development, implementation and planning for the evaluation of a return-to-work intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders (SMDs. The intervention is based on an existing successful return-to-work intervention for sick-listed employees with low back pain. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to combine theory and evidence in the development, implementation and planning for the evaluation of a participatory workplace intervention, aimed at an early return-to-work for sick-listed employees with SMDs. All stakeholders were involved in focus group interviews: i.e. employees recently sick-listed with SMDs, supervisors and occupational health professionals. Results The development of the participatory workplace intervention according to the Intervention Mapping principles resulted in a structured return-to-work intervention, specifically tailored to the needs of sick-listed employees with SMDs. Return-to-work was proposed as a behavioural change, and the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy model was identified as a theoretical framework. Stakeholder involvement in focus group interviews served to enhance the implementation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusion Intervention Mapping was found to be a promising method to develop interventions tailored to a specific target group in the field of occupational health. Trial registration ISRCTN92307123

  11. Drug discovery for schistosomiasis: hit and lead compounds identified in a library of known drugs by medium-throughput phenotypic screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha-Hamadien Abdulla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Praziquantel (PZQ is the only widely available drug to treat schistosomiasis. Given the potential for drug resistance, it is prudent to search for novel therapeutics. Identification of anti-schistosomal chemicals has traditionally relied on phenotypic (whole organism screening with adult worms in vitro and/or animal models of disease-tools that limit automation and throughput with modern microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. METHODS: A partially automated, three-component phenotypic screen workflow is presented that utilizes at its apex the schistosomular stage of the parasite adapted to a 96-well plate format with a throughput of 640 compounds per month. Hits that arise are subsequently screened in vitro against adult parasites and finally for efficacy in a murine model of disease. Two GO/NO GO criteria filters in the workflow prioritize hit compounds for tests in the animal disease model in accordance with a target drug profile that demands short-course oral therapy. The screen workflow was inaugurated with 2,160 chemically diverse natural and synthetic compounds, of which 821 are drugs already approved for human use. This affords a unique starting point to 'reposition' (re-profile drugs as anti-schistosomals with potential savings in development timelines and costs. FINDINGS: Multiple and dynamic phenotypes could be categorized for schistosomula and adults in vitro, and a diverse set of 'hit' drugs and chemistries were identified, including anti-schistosomals, anthelmintics, antibiotics, and neuromodulators. Of those hits prioritized for tests in the animal disease model, a number of leads were identified, one of which compares reasonably well with PZQ in significantly decreasing worm and egg burdens, and disease-associated pathology. Data arising from the three components of the screen are posted online as a community resource. CONCLUSIONS: To accelerate the identification of novel anti-schistosomals, we have developed a

  12. Optimising self-care support for people with heart failure and their caregivers: development of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) intervention using intervention mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, Colin J; Wingham, Jennifer; Deighan,Carolyn; Doherty, Patrick Joseph; Elliott, Jennifer; Armitage, Wendy; Clark, Michelle; Austin, Jackie; Abraham, Charles; Frost, Julia; Singh, Sally; Jolly, Kate; Paul, Kevin; Taylor, Louise; Buckingham, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to establish the support needs of people with heart failure and their caregivers and develop an intervention to improve their health-related quality of life. Methods We used intervention mapping to guide the development of our intervention. We identified “targets for change” by synthesising research evidence and international guidelines and consulting with patients, caregivers and health service providers. We then used behaviour change theory, expert opinion and a taxonomy...

  13. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kyla L.; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K.; Straker, Leon M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical ...

  14. Correlates of the Intention to Implement a Tailored Physical Activity Intervention: Perceptions of Intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Peels

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries—intervention providers—determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries’ intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006; relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020; complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001; compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001, organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002; perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001; capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001, and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001 were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%, these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy.

  15. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  16. Postpartum family planning: current evidence on successful interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries

  17. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  18. Tier II Interventions within the Framework of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Essential Features for Design, Implementation, and Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Borgmeier, Chris

    2010-01-01

    To meet the complex social behavioral and academic needs of all students, schools benefit from having available multiple evidence-based interventions of varying intensity. School-wide positive behavior support provides a framework within which a continuum of evidence-based interventions can be implemented in a school. This framework includes three levels or tiers of intervention; Tier I (primary or universal), Tier II (secondary or targeted), and Tier III (tertiary or individualized) supports...

  19. Randomized Trial of a Literacy-Sensitive, Culturally Tailored Diabetes Self-Management Intervention for Low-Income Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosal, Milagros C.; Ockene, Ira S; Restrepo, Angela; White, Mary Jo; Borg, Amy; Olendzki, Barbara; Scavron, Jeffrey; Candib, Lucy; Welch, Garry; Reed, George

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether a theory-based, literacy, and culturally tailored self-management intervention, Latinos en Control, improves glycemic control among low-income Latinos with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 252 patients recruited from community health centers were randomized to the Latinos en Control intervention or to usual care. The primarily group-based intervention consisted of 12 weekly and 8 monthly sessions and targeted knowledge, attitudes, and self-mana...

  20. Positive outlook as a moderator of the effectiveness of an HIV/STI intervention with adolescents in detention

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Justice-involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior, underscoring the need for targeted, effective, prevention interventions geared toward this population. In a randomized controlled trial, 484 detained adolescents received a theory-based intervention or an information-only control. We have previously demonstrated that the theory-based intervention was superior to the control condition in changing theoretical mediators and in producing longitudinal decreases in risky s...

  1. Community interventions for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R

    2005-12-01

    Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the

  2. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  3. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  4. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  5. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  6. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  7. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  8. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.costanzo@uniroma2.it [Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Montpellier 1, 00199, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-03

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  10. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  11. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  12. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  13. Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.

    2012-01-01

    Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence u

  14. Psychosocial Mediators of a Faith-Based Physical Activity Intervention: Implications and Lessons Learned from Null Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steve; Hooker, Steve; Hussey, Jim; Saunders, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Mediation analyses in faith-based physical activity (PA) interventions targeting African-American adults are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial mediators of a faith-based PA intervention with African-American adults. Churches were randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed (1-year later) training in PA…

  15. Pathways Explaining the Reduction of Adult Criminal Behaviour by a Randomized Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify the pathways through which a preventive intervention targeting young low-SES disruptive boys could result in lower crime involvement during adulthood. Method: The preventive intervention was implemented when the children were between 7 and 9 years and included three components (i.e. social skills, parental…

  16. Family-based interventions to increase physical activity in children: a meta-analysis and realist synthesis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Atkin, Andrew J.; Panter, Jenna; Corder, Kirsten; Wong, Geoff; Mai J M Chinapaw; van Sluijis, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the established relationship between physical activity and health, data suggest that many children are insufficiently active, and that levels decline into adolescence. Engaging the family in interventions may increase and maintain children's physical activity levels at the critical juncture before secondary school. Synthesis of existing evidence will inform future studies, but the heterogeneity in target populations recruited, behaviour change techniques and intervention ...

  17. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  18. Early Intervention for Preschoolers at Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Preschool First Step to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Edward G.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Golly, Annemieke; Forness, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the Preschool First Step (PFS) to Success early intervention for children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PFS is a targeted intervention for children 3-5 years old with externalizing behavior problems and addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. As part of a larger…

  19. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComputer tailoring may be a promising technique for prevention of overweight in adolescents. However, very few well-developed, evidence-based computer-tailored interventions are available for this target group. We developed and evaluated a computer-tailored intervention for adolescents t

  20. Sustainability of Physical Activity Promoting Environments and Influences on Sustainability Following a Structural Intervention in Residential Children's Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    2016-01-01

    Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity…