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Sample records for anti-obesity agents

  1. Screening of anti-obesity agent from herbal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2012-01-01

    Globally, one in three of the World's adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion--Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22447026

  2. Screening of Anti-Obesity Agent from Herbal Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kee Jo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, one in three of the World’s adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion—Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity.

  3. Screening of anti-obesity agent from herbal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2012-03-23

    Globally, one in three of the World's adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion--Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity.

  4. Screening of Anti-Obesity Agent from Herbal Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Kee Jo; Uhee Jung; Changhyun Roh

    2012-01-01

    Globally, one in three of the World’s adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion—Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl ...

  5. Attitudes and Reported Practice for Obesity Management in Korea After Introduction of Anti-obesity Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Soon; Park, Jee-Young; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate current clinical assessments and management of obesity in the primary care setting in Korea since anti-obesity agents have become available. A questionnaire was sent to eligible primary care physicians selected from a national probability sample in two specialties: family physicians and internists. Of 939 randomly selected physicians, 452 (48.1%) replied. We found that 51.8% of physicians were aware of the definition of obesity, and 33.8% were aware of the definit...

  6. An eudesman derivative from Verbesina persicifolia D.C. as a natural mild uncoupler in liver mitochondria. A new potential anti-obesity agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Via, Lisa; García-Argáez, Aída N; Braga, Alessandra; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano; Grancara, Silvia; Martinis, Pamela; Agostinelli, Enzo; Toninello, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    4β-cinnamoyloxy,1β,3α-dihydroxyeudesm-7,8-ene (CDE) extracted from Verbesina persicifolia induces bioenergetic collapse in rat liver mitochondria (RLM), monitored as a fall in the respiratory control index and ADP/O values. This fall in energy is accompanied by a protonophore effect and membrane potential (Δψ) collapse, demonstrating that CDE behaves as a typical uncoupling agent. However, when examining the effect of CDE in detail, we found that it acts as a "mild" uncoupler because it drops Δψ and increases respiratory state 4. The proposed mechanism is based on the interaction of CDE with membrane protein cytochrome C oxidase, which is implicated in proton permeability, and with the respiratory chain for the generation of reactive oxygen species which mediate and regulate the activity of the above membrane protein. Considering the energy collapse, "mild" uncoupling, and the fact that CDE is largely used in folk medicines, this extract may be viewed as a potentially effective anti-obesity drug and a natural lead compound for developing new natural uncouplers against obesity. PMID:23701541

  7. A Hamster Model of Diet-Induced Obesity for Preclinical Evaluation of Anti-Obesity, Anti-Diabetic and Lipid Modulating Agents.

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    Louise S Dalbøge

    Full Text Available Unlike rats and mice, hamsters develop hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia when fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Because hyperlipidemia is a hallmark of human obesity, we aimed to develop and characterize a novel diet-induced obesity (DIO and hypercholesterolemia Golden Syrian hamster model.Hamsters fed a highly palatable fat- and sugar-rich diet (HPFS for 12 weeks showed significant body weight gain, body fat accumulation and impaired glucose tolerance. Cholesterol supplementation to the diet evoked additional hypercholesterolemia. Chronic treatment with the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, SC, BID, 27 days, normalized body weight and glucose tolerance, and lowered blood lipids in the DIO-hamster. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (3.0 mg/kg, PO, QD also improved glucose tolerance. Treatment with peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36, 1.0 mg/kg/day or neuromedin U (NMU, 1.5 mg/kg/day, continuously infused via a subcutaneous osmotic minipump for 14 days, reduced body weight and energy intake and changed food preference from HPFS diet towards chow. Co-treatment with liraglutide and PYY3-36 evoked a pronounced synergistic decrease in body weight and food intake with no lower plateau established. Treatment with the cholesterol uptake inhibitor ezetimibe (10 mg/kg, PO, QD for 14 days lowered plasma total cholesterol with a more marked reduction of LDL levels, as compared to HDL, indicating additional sensitivity to cholesterol modulating drugs in the hyperlipidemic DIO-hamster. In conclusion, the features of combined obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia in the DIO-hamster make this animal model useful for preclinical evaluation of novel anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and lipid modulating agents.

  8. NESS038C6, a novel selective CB1 antagonist agent with anti-obesity activity and improved molecular profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastinu, Andrea; Pira, Marilena; Pani, Luca; Pinna, Gérard Aimè; Lazzari, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The present work aims to study the effects induced by a chronic treatment with a novel CB1 antagonist (NESS038C6) in C57BL/6N diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Mice treated with NESS038C6 and fed with a fat diet (NESS038C6 FD) were compared with the following three reference experimental groups: DIO mice fed with the same fat diet used for NESS038C6 and treated with vehicle or the reference CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant, "VH FD" and "SR141716 FD", respectively; DIO mice treated with vehicle and switched to a normal diet (VH ND). NESS038C6 chronic treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 31 days) determined a significant reduction in DIO mice weight relative to that of VH FD. The entity of the effect was comparable to that detected in both SR141716 FD and VH ND groups. Moreover, if compared to VH FD, NESS038C6 FD evidenced: (i) improvement of cardiovascular risk factors; (ii) significant decrease in adipose tissue leptin expression; (iii) increase in mRNA expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides and a decrease of anorexigenic peptides; (iv) expression increase of metabolic enzymes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in the liver; (v) normalization of monoaminergic transporters and neurotrophic expression in mesolimbic area. However, in contrast to the case of rimonabant, the novel CB1 antagonist improved the disrupted expression profile of genes linked to the hunger-satiety circuit, without altering monoaminergic transmission. In conclusion, the novel CB1 antagonist compound NESS038C6 may represent a useful candidate agent for the treatment of obesity and its metabolic complications, without or with reduced side effects relative to those instead observed with rimonabant. PMID:22771813

  9. Pre-clinical evolutionary study of Clerodendrum phlomidis as an anti-obesity agent against high fat diet induced C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay R Chidrawar; Krishnakant N Patel; Havagiray R Chitme; Shruti S Shiromwar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Anti-obesity activity of alcoholic and methanolic extracts of roots of Clerodendrumphlomidis was evaluated against high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in C57BL/6J female mice. Methods: Obesity was induced by feeding high fat diet for 13 weeks to C57BL/6J female mice and one group was kept on normal chow diet in order to evaluate the effect of Clerodendrumphlomidis on food intake, body weight changes, digestive enzyme activity, lipid metabolism, theromogenesis, adiposities diameter and histology of fat pad. Results: Among these two extracts methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (MECP) have shown strong anti-obesity effect compare to alcoholic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (AECP). LD50 value was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. Conclusions: MECP have shown more promising effects than AECP may be because of its multiple mechanisms. Anti-obesity activity produced by MECP is because of inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity which delays the intestinal absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity was confirmed by in-vitro studies. MECP also containsβ-sitosterol in abundant amount which was confirmed by HPTLC analysis. Moreover flavonoid content in the plant has anorexic property. By this study we concluded that MECP is beneficial for the suppression of obesity and associated complications like T2DM.

  10. Food Ingredients as Anti-Obesity Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Matsushita, Mami

    2015-11-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis after cold exposure, and is involved in the regulation of energy expenditure and body fatness. BAT can be activated and recruited by not only cold exposure but also by various food ingredients including capsaicin in chili pepper and catechins in green tea, which would be easily and safely applicable to our daily life for preventing obesity. PMID:26421678

  11. Resveratrol: Anti-Obesity Mechanisms of Action

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    Leixuri Aguirre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenol which belongs to the stilbenes group and is produced naturally in several plants in response to injury or fungal attack. Resveratrol has been recently reported as preventing obesity. The present review aims to compile the evidence concerning the potential mechanisms of action which underlie the anti-obesity effects of resveratrol, obtained either in cultured cells lines and animal models. Published studies demonstrate that resveratrol has an anti-adipogenic effect. A good consensus concerning the involvement of a down-regulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ in this effect has been reached. Also, in vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol can increase apoptosis in mature adipocytes. Furthermore, different metabolic pathways involved in triacylglycerol metabolism in white adipose tissue have been shown to be targets for resveratrol. Both the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and adipose tissue fatty acid uptake mediated by lipoprotein lipase play a role in explaining the reduction in body fat which resveratrol induces. As far as lipolysis is concerned, although this compound per se seems to be unable to induce lipolysis, it increases lipid mobilization stimulated by β-adrenergic agents. The increase in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, and consequently the associated energy dissipation, can contribute to explaining the body-fat lowering effect of resveratrol. In addition to its effects on adipose tissue, resveratrol can also acts on other organs and tissues. Thus, it increases mitochondriogenesis and consequently fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle and liver. This effect can also contribute to the body-fat lowering effect of this molecule.

  12. Ischemic colitis after mesotherapy combined with anti-obesity medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong; Bin; Kim; Won; Moon; Seun; Ja; Park; Moo; In; Park; Kyu-Jong; Kim; Jae; Nam; Lee; Seong; Joo; Kang; Lee; La; Jang; Hee; Kyung; Chang

    2010-01-01

    Mesotherapy and anti-obesity medications are gradually gaining worldwide popularity for purposes of body contouring and weight loss.Their adverse effects are various,but there is a tendency to disregard them.Ischemic colitis is one of the most common diseases associated with non-obstructive blood vessel disorders.However,there have been no case reports about the adverse effects resulting from mesotherapy only or in combination with anti-obesity medications.We report on an interesting case of ischemic coliti...

  13. Serious adverse events reported for anti-obesity medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, L; Hallgreen, C E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2016-01-01

    of consumer, seriousness, system organ class (SOC) and medicine. The unit of analysis was one AE and one AE report, respectively. RESULTS: We located 4941 AE reports corresponding to 13 957 AEs for anti-obesity medicines in EV. More than 90% of all AE cases were serious, including 159 deaths. The majority...

  14. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased...... side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol...

  15. Anti-Obesity Activity of the Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin

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    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food.

  16. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill

    OpenAIRE

    Rani Neerja; Vasudeva Neeru; Sharma Surendra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity eff...

  17. Small lipidated anti-obesity compounds derived from neuromedin U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micewicz, Ewa D; Bahattab, Omar S O; Willars, Gary B; Waring, Alan J; Navab, Mohamad; Whitelegge, Julian P; McBride, William H; Ruchala, Piotr

    2015-08-28

    A small library of truncated/lipid-conjugated neuromedin U (NmU) analogs was synthesized and tested in vitro using an intracellular calcium signaling assay. The selected, most active analogs were then tested in vivo, and showed potent anorexigenic effects in a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. The most promising compound, NM4-C16 was effective in a once-weekly-dose regimen. Collectively, our findings suggest that short, lipidated analogs of NmU are suitable leads for the development of novel anti-obesity therapeutics. PMID:26204509

  18. Uso de drogas antiobesidade entre estudantes universitários Use of anti-obesity drugs among college students

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    Maria do Carmo de Carvalho e Martins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso de drogas antiobesidade entre estudantes de uma universidade pública. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística constituída por 664 universitários. Foram observadas variáveis socioeconômicas, antropométricas e uso das drogas. O índice de massa corpórea (IMC e circunferência da cintura (CC foram classificados segundo critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde. RESULTADOS: Uso atual ou anterior de agentes antiobesidade foi referido por 6,8% dos estudantes. As anfetaminas e as aminas simpaticomiméticas (40,5% foram as drogas mais usadas. Entre aqueles que referiram uso de agentes antiobesidade, 62,2% eram do sexo feminino. Apenas 31,1% das prescrições foram indicadas por médicos. As médias de IMC e CC foram maiores entre estudantes que referiram uso de tais drogas, mas 47% deles foram classificados como eutróficos pelo IMC, e 76,5% apresentavam medida de CC normal. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de drogas antiobesidade se mostrou preocupante, principalmente pela elevada proporção de uso sem indicação ou prescrição médica.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of anti-obesity drugs among students attending a public university. METHODS: This was a cross sectional random study of 664 college students. Drug use, socioeconomic, and anthropometric variables were observed. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were classified according to World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS: Current or previous use of anti-obesity drugs was reported by 6.8% of students. Amphetamine and sympathomimetic amines (40.5% were the most commonly used drugs. Among those who reported use of anti-obesity agents, 62.2% were female. Only 31.1% of medications were prescribed by doctors. Mean BMI and WC were higher among students reporting the use of such drugs, but 47% of them were classified as eutrophic by BMI, and 76.5% had normal WC measure. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-obesity drugs among college students is of concern

  19. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods. PMID:25520256

  20. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods.

  1. A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyounjeong; Eo, Haekwan; Park, Kyoungcheol; Jin, Mirim; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Sunyoung

    2007-08-01

    During the screening of a variety of plant sources for their anti-obesity activity, it was found that a water-soluble extract, named PG105, prepared from stem parts of Cucurbita moschata, contains potent anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. In this animal model, increases in body weight and fat storage were suppressed by 8-week oral administration of PG105 at 500 mg/kg, while the overall amount of food intake was not affected. Furthermore, PG105 protected the development of fatty liver and increased the hepatic beta-oxidation activity. Results from blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by PG105 administration, and also that the level of leptin was reduced, while that of adiponectin was increased. To understand the underlying mechanism at the molecular level, the effects of PG105 were examined on the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism by Northern blot analysis. In the liver of PG105-treated mice, the mRNA level of lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1c and SCD-1 was decreased, while that of lipolytic genes such as PPARalpha, ACO-1, CPT-1, and UCP-2 was modestly increased. Our data suggest that PG105 may have great potential as a novel anti-obesity agent in that both inhibition of lipid synthesis and acceleration of fatty acid breakdown are induced by this reagent.

  2. Mitochondria as pharmacological targets: the discovery of novel anti-obesity mitochondrial uncouplers from Africa's medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, Augustine; Dongdem, Julius Tieroyaare

    2012-01-01

    Obesity results from prolonged positive imbalance between energy in take and expenditure. When food intake chronically exceeds the body's energy need, an efficient metabolism results in the storage of the excess energy as fat. Mitochondria are the main centre for energy production in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial proton cycling is responsible for a significant proportion of basal or standard metabolic rate, therefore, further uncoupling of mitochondria may be a good way to increase energy expenditure and hence represent a good pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity. This implies that, any chemical agent or photochemical compound that further uncouples the mitochondria in vivo without having any effect on mitochondria activity could be a potential target in finding treatment for obesity. In the past, uncoupling by 2, 4-dinitrophenol has been used this way with notable success. This paper discusses the mitochondria as targets in the discovery of potential plant natural anti-obesity products from Africa's rich rainforests. PMID:23983343

  3. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

  4. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Ming Pan; Chun-Lin Lee; Jyh-Jye Wang; Tsung-Yu Tsai; Bai-Luh Wei; Yi-Hsin Kung; Tzu-Ying Lung; Li-Chun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD) known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD) and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD) in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composi...

  5. The anti-obesity effect of Taheebo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb) extract in ovariectomized mice and the identification of a potential anti-obesity compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazuko; Fukuda, Youichi; Tokikura, Chisato; Noda, Mayuko; Yamamoto, Ayami; Yamamoto, Misato; Yamashita, Mitsuaki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Iida, Akira; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-09-23

    Estrogen deficiency-induced obesity has a high risk of visceral fat accumulation and body weight gain. It is also associated with many adverse health conditions. Taheebo extract from Tabebuia avellanedae has been recognized as playing several biological and pharmacological roles. Therefore, we investigated whether the intake of n-BuOH extract of Taheebo shows anti-obesity effect in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. After 16 weeks of feeding, the mice administrated with 0.5% n-BuOH extract of Taheebo showed significantly decreased body weight compared with that of the control mice, and the fat mass also showed a significant decrease. In 3T3-L1 cells, supplementation with n-BuOH extract of Taheebo significantly reduced the triglyceride (TG) levels. Furthermore, bioassay-guided purification of the n-BuOH extract based on the TG levels in 3T3-L1 cells led to the isolation of compound 2 (1-dehydroxy-3,4-dihydroaucubigenin). These results suggested that the anti-obesity effect of Taheebo extract is due to its capability in preventing the accumulation of adipocyte in mice. Taheebo extract might be a promising functional food resources capable of protecting against OVX-induced obesity. PMID:27539320

  6. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

  7. Review: Evidence-based Clinical Research of Anti-obesity Supplements in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yasueda, Asuka; Ito, Toshinori; MAEDA, KAZUHISA

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically throughout the world, and weight reduction through lifestyle management is urgently warranted. At present, numerous supplements advertised for their anti-overweight property are available in the Japanese market, but most of these lack proper evidence. Thus, we investigated dietary supplements that have been tested in clinical trials. Search Strategy: We researched anti-obesity supplements in the Japanese market using the google ...

  8. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  9. New advances in models and strategies for developing anti-obesity drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Blomain, Erik S.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a worldwide pandemic. Obesity-related health and economic costs are staggering. Existing strategies to combat obesity through lifestyle improvements and medical intervention have had limited success. Pharmacotherapy, in combination with lifestyle modification, may play a vital role in reversing the disease burden. However, past and current weight-loss medications have had serious safety risks, notably cardiovascular and psychiatric events. Areas covered We review the strategies for designing new anti-obesity drugs by describing those currently in development. We describe their target, mechanism of action, and developmental or regulatory status. We also discuss the problem of weight regain following weight loss, and its relevance to the long-term success of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy. Expert opinion For weight management drugs to achieve the safety and efficacy required to be impactful, current studies are uncovering and characterizing new targets, including new signaling circuits and hormones regulating appetite and metabolism, and re-evaluating the role of pharmacotherapy in weight management. To avoid the safety failures of many past weight-loss drugs, the models and strategies covered in this article incorporate recent advances in knowledge and technology. We discuss the emergence of cGMP signaling as a potentially transformative target in weight management. Modulating cGMP signaling may represent an ideal goal for an anti-obesity pharmacotherapy, reflecting some of the major themes described in the present review: targeting pathways that are newly realized as relevant for weight management; promoting safety by re-purposing drugs that are safe, proven, and approved for clinical use; and having a synergistic effect on multiple, reinforcing pathways. PMID:23621300

  10. The utility of animal models to evaluate novel anti-obesity agents

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers, Steven P; Jackson, Helen C; Cheetham, Sharon C

    2011-01-01

    The global incidence of obesity continues to rise and is a major driver of morbidity and mortality through cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Animal models used in the discovery of novel treatments for obesity range from straightforward measures of food intake in lean rodents to long-term studies in animals exhibiting obesity due to the continuous access to diets high in fat. The utility of these animal models can be extended to determine, for example, that weight loss is due to fat...

  11. Anti-Obesity Effects of Onion Extract in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

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    Kiharu Igarashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower than the control group without onion extract. Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR levels were also improved, although the serum insulin and leptin levels did not show any remarkable difference. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in both the 3% and 5%-fed group were found to be reduced compared to the control group. Additionally the feeding of the onion extract increased the glucose tolerance. These results suggest that dietary onion extract is beneficial for improving diabetes by decreasing lipid levels. We also examined differentiation ability of rat white preadipocyte cells using the onion extract and its sulfur-containing components. Cycloalliin, S-methyl-l-cysteine, S-propyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, dimethyl trisulfide, especially S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were reported to be effective in inhibiting formation of oil drop in the cells, suggesting that these compounds may be involved in the anti-obesity effect of the onion extract.

  12. Anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Bo; Choi, Soo-Kyong; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skin, grape products, and peanuts as well as red wine, has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on adipocytes. The anti-obesity effects of grape skin extracts were investigated by measuring proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of grape skin ethan...

  13. Comparison of results from different imputation techniques for missing data from an anti-obesity drug trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders W.; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2014-01-01

    of handling missing data in a 60-week placebo controlled anti-obesity drug trial on topiramate. METHODS: We compared an analysis of complete cases with datasets where missing body weight measurements had been replaced using three different imputation methods: LOCF, baseline carried forward (BOCF) and MI....... In anti-obesity drug trials, many data are usually missing, and the most used imputation method is last observation carried forward (LOCF). LOCF is generally considered conservative, but there are more reliable methods such as multiple imputation (MI). OBJECTIVES: To compare four different methods...

  14. Anti-Obese Effect of Glucosamine and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

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    Lanlan Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is to evaluate the anti-obese effects of glucosamine (GLC and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS on high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into twelve groups: a normal diet group (NF, a high-fat diet group (HF, Orlistat group, GLC high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (GLC-H, GLC-M, GLC-L, COS1 (COS, number-average molecular weight ≤1000 high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (COS1-H, COS1-M, COS1-L, and COS2 (COS, number-average molecular weight ≤3000 high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (COS2-H, COS2-M, COS2-L. All groups received oral treatment by gavage once daily for a period of six weeks. Results: Rats fed with COS1 gained the least weight among all the groups (P < 0.01, and these rats lost more weight than those treated with Orlistat. In addition to the COS2-H and Orlistat groups, the serum total cholesterol (CHO and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly reduced in all treatment groups compared to the HF group (P < 0.01. The various doses of GLC, COS1 and COS2 reduced the expression levels of PPARγ and LXRα mRNA in the white adipose tissue. Conclusions: The results above demonstrated that GLC, COS1, and COS2 improved dyslipidemia and prevented body weight gains by inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet. Thus, these agents may potentially be used to treat obesity.

  15. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  16. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water

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    Tzu-Ming Pan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composition of DOW and DOW-influenced functional metabolites change of RMD on the differentiation and lipogenesis regulation were investigated using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. In the animal test, compared to UPW-RMD, DOW-RMD possessed better ability to inhibit increases in weight gain, and better feed efficiency, body-fat pad and cross-sectional area of adipocytes. In the cell test, the anti-obesity abilities of DOW-RMD in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in differentiation and lipoprotein lipase activity in lipogenesis were contributed to by the DOW-increased monascin and ankaflavin levels and the ions of DOW, respectively.

  17. Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica Makino with lipase-inhibitory activity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chong-Suk; Sohn, Ho Yong; Kim, Sung Hee; Kim, Ji Hyun; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Jeong Soon; Lim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2003-07-01

    In the process of screening for pancreatic lipase inhibitors, which could be used as an anti-obesity measure, the methanol extract of Dioscorea nipponica Makino powder (DP) appeared to have potent inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase with an IC50 value of 5-10 microg/ml, where the enzyme activity was assayed by using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate as a substrate. Further purification of active components present in the herb generated dioscin that belongs to the saponin family. Dioscin and its aglycone, diosgenin, both suppressed the time-dependent increase of blood triacylglycerol level when orally injected with corn oil to mice, suggesting their inhibitory potential against fat absorption. Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a high-fat diet containing 5% Dioscorea nipponica Makino and 40% beef tallow gained significantly less body weight and adipose tissue than control animals fed on a high-fat diet alone during an 8-week experimental period (P<0.05). PMID:12913286

  18. Anti-obesity and cardioprotective effects of cinnamic acid in high fat diet- induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnafgui, Kais; Derbali, Amal; Sayadi, Sami; Gharsallah, Neji; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Allouche, Noureddine

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder that is associated with numerous diseases including hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Cinnamic acid is a phytochemical compound having many biological effects and could be considered for the management of obesity. This study is aimed to assess the possible anti-obesity and cardioprotective properties of cinnamic acid (CA) in high fat diet-fed rats (HFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. They received normal diet, HFD diet, HFD supplemented with fluvastatin (2 mg/kg/day) or cinnamic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. The results showed an increase in body weight of HFD rats by ~27 % as compared to control group. Moreover, serum lipase activity underwent a significant rise by 103 % which led to an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (T-Ch), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol in serum of untreated HFD-fed rats. Furthermore, the concentration of leptin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity exhibited remarkable increases in serum of HFD-fed rats as compared to controls. Whereas, the administration of CA to HFD-fed rats improved the body weight gain and serum lipid profile and reverted back near to normal the activities of lipase and ACE. In addition, the echocardiography evidenced that CA is able to protect the aorta and aortic arch and avoided vasoconstriction by increasing their diameters and improved liver steatosis and kidney indices of toxicity. Overall, these results suggest that cinnamic acid exerts anti-obesity and antihypertensive effects through inhibition of lipid digestive enzymes and ACE. PMID:26139902

  19. Anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from Panax japonicus rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuda Hiromichi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhizomes of Panax japonicus are used as a folk medicine for treatment of life-style related diseases such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a substitute for ginseng roots in China and Japan. Obesity is closely associated with life-style-related diseases. This study was performed to clarify whether chikusetsusaponins prevent obesity induced in mice by a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. Methods We performed two in vivo experiments. In one, female ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1 or 3% chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes for 9 weeks. In the other, lipid emulsion with or without chikusetsusaponins was administered orally to male Wistar rats, and then the plasma triacylglycerol level was measured 0.5 to 5 h after the orally administered lipid emulsion. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory effects of total chikusetsusaponins and various purified chikusetsusaponins on pancreatic lipase activity were determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein in an assay system using triolein emulsified with lecithin. Results Total chikusetsusaponins prevented the increases in body weight and parametrial adipose tissue weight induced by a high-fat diet. Furthermore, consumption of a high-fat diet containing 1 or 3% total chikusetsusaponins significantly increased the fecal content and triacylglycerol level at day 3 compared with the high-fat diet groups. Total chikusetsusaponins inhibited the elevation of the plasma triacylglycerol level 2 h after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion. Total chikusetsusaponins, chikusetsusaponin III, 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin IV and 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin V inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes in mice fed a high-fat diet may be partly mediated through delaying the

  20. Anti-obesity effect of alkaline reduced water in high fat-fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Rosa Mistica Coles; Kang, Tae-Young; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Young-Chul; Sohn, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not alkaline reduced water (ARW) has a positive effect on obesity is unclear. This study aims to prove the positive effect of ARW in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) in C57BL/6 mice model. Toward this, obesity was induced by feeding the C57BL/6 male mice with high-fat diet (w/w 45% fat) for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the animals were administered with either ARW or tap water. Next, the degree of adiposity and DIO-associated parameters were assessed: clinico-pathological parameters, biochemical measurements, histopathological analysis of liver, the expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in the liver, and serum levels of adipokine and cytokine. We found that ARW-fed mice significantly ameliorated adiposity: controlled body weight gain, reduced the accumulation of epididymal fats and decreased liver fats as compared to control mice. Accordingly, ARW coordinated the level of adiponectin and leptin. Further, mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)7A1 was upregulated. In summary, our data shows that ARW intake inhibits the progression of HF-DIO in mice. This is the first note on anti-obesity effect of ARW, clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for obesity control.

  1. Anti ­ diabetic and anti-obesity effects of plant extract from Cleome droserifolia (SAMWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal, **Hafiza A. Sharaf and ***Fathy E. Mattar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of an aqueous extract from Cleome droserifolia (SAMWA was studied in a group of glucose intolerant senile rats and compared with normal senile control rats. The plant extract significantly suppressed the rise in blood glucose concentration. The hypoglycemic effect of the plant extract without increasing insulin secretion was explained by: 1 potentiation of peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, 2 by diminishing intestinal glucose absorption, which was evident by blunting plasma glucose levels throughout the oral glucose challenge. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of liver glycogen content and a highly significant increase in leptin concentration which may suggest an anti-obesity role for the plant extracts. Plant extracts also decreased serum urea nitrogen. No changes on liver or heart function were observed. In histological sections of liver and kidney minor changes were noticed. These extracts might prove to have a promising therapeutic value in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Besides its suppression to hepatic glucose output, SAMWA beneficial therapeutic finding in favor of the plant as a replacement for insulin which is the most important drug that brings bout this effect.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Properties of Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kawser Hossain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are the most prevailing health concerns worldwide and their incidence is increasing at a high rate, resulting in enormous social costs. Obesity is a complex disease commonly accompanied by insulin resistance and increases in oxidative stress and inflammatory marker expression, leading to augmented fat mass in the body. Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells or diminished insulin secretion and action insulin. Obesity causes the development of metabolic disorders such as DM, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammation-based pathologies. Flavonoids are the secondary metabolites of plants and have 15-carbon skeleton structures containing two phenyl rings and a heterocyclic ring. More than 5000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been reported from various plants and have been found to possess many beneficial effects with advantages over chemical treatments. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of natural flavonoids in treating obesity and DM, and show increased bioavailability and action on multiple molecular targets. This review summarizes the current progress in our understanding of the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potential of natural flavonoids and their molecular mechanisms for preventing and/or treating obesity and diabetes.

  3. Anti-obesity and antioxidant activity of dietary flavonoids from Dioscorea steriscus tubers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pamhidzai Dzomba; Cexton Musekiwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant and anti-obesity activity of flavonoids extracted by solvent cold percolation and preparative thin liquid chromatography from Dioscorea steriscus tubers. Methods: 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antiradical activity was employed to investigate antioxidant activity while chromogenic method was used to determine alpha amylase inhibition activity and spectrophotometric methods using triolein as a substrate was used to investigate lipase activity. Results: Thin liquid chromatography profiling revealed eight different flavonoid types. Ethyl acetate extract yielded two types, Rf values 0.38 and 0.40;chloroform extract also yielded two types Rf values 0.06 and 0.51, while ethanol extract yielded four types with Rf values 0.16, 0.33, 0.65 and 0.96. All the extracted flavonoids exhibited antioxidant activity with ethanol extracts exhibiting the greatest antiradical activity. The order of enzyme inhibition capacity was ethyl acetate Conclusions: Results of the present study show that Dioscorea steriscus consists of bioactive compounds that can act as lipase and α-amylase inhibitors and therefore can be useful for the development of functional foods against obesity. It can also be used as a source of lead compounds for designing new ant-obesity therapeuticals.

  4. A Review of Potential Marine-derived Hypotensive and Anti-obesity Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, V; Vasiljevic, T; Donkor, O N; Mathai, M L

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are food derived components, usually consisting of 3-20 amino acids, which are inactive when incorporated within their parent protein. Once liberated by enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis, during food processing and gastrointestinal transit, they can potentially provide an array of health benefits to the human body. Owing to an unprecedented increase in the worldwide incidence of obesity and hypertension, medical researchers are focusing on the hypotensive and anti-obesity properties of nutritionally derived bioactive peptides. The role of the renin-angiotensin system has long been established in the aetiology of metabolic diseases and hypertension. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system by inhibiting the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and preventing the formation of angiotensin II can be a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of hypertension and obesity. Fish-derived proteins and peptides can potentially be excellent sources of bioactive components, mainly as a source of ACE inhibitors. However, increased use of marine sources, poses an unsustainable burden on particular fish stocks, so, the underutilized fish species and by-products can be exploited for this purpose. This paper provides an overview of the techniques involved in the production, isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive peptides from marine sources, as well as the evaluation of the ACE inhibitory (ACE-I) activity and bioavailability. PMID:25569557

  5. The anti-obesity drug orlistat reveals anti-viral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Elisabeth; Nietzsche, Sandor; Rien, Christian; Kühnl, Alexander; Mader, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Henke, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The administration of drugs to inhibit metabolic pathways not only reduces the risk of obesity-induced diseases in humans but may also hamper the replication of different viral pathogens. In order to investigate the value of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-obesity drug orlistat in view of its anti-viral activity against different human-pathogenic viruses, several anti-viral studies, electron microscopy analyses as well as fatty acid uptake experiments were performed. The results indicate that administrations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of orlistat reduced the replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) in different cell types significantly. Moreover, orlistat revealed cell protective effects and modified the formation of multi-layered structures in CVB3-infected cells, which are necessary for viral replication. Lowering fatty acid uptake from the extracellular environment by phloretin administrations had only marginal impact on CVB3 replication. Finally, orlistat reduced also the replication of varicella-zoster virus moderately but had no significant influence on the replication of influenza A viruses. The data support further experiments into the value of orlistat as an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase to develop new anti-viral compounds, which are based on the modulation of cellular metabolic pathways. PMID:25680890

  6. The anti-obesity effect of natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Joo; Youn, Cha-Kyung; Hyun, Jin Won; You, Ho Jin

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of Jeju ground water containing the vanadium components S1 (8.0 ± 0.9 μg/l) and S3 (26.0 ± 2.09 μg/l) on the differentiation of 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity in mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The 3 T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were cultured and differentiated in media consisting of Jeju ground water (S1, S3) or deionized water (DW) containing dexamethasone, isobutylmethylxanthine, and insulin. Oil Red O staining showed that lipid accumulation was attenuated in adipocyte cells treated with Jeju ground water. S3 significantly decreased peroxisome-activated receptor γ and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α mRNA expression levels, which play major roles in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, compared to DW. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of targeted genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid, lipoprotein lipase, and leptin, were decreased by S3 treatment compared with the control group. In mice with HFD-induced obesity, Jeju ground water decreased HFD-induced body weight gain and reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose levels in the plasma compared to control mice. Taken together, Jeju ground water inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis in obesity animal models.

  7. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic actions of histamine neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine roles of histamine neurons in leptin signaling pathways and leptin resistant states. H1-receptor knockout (H1KO) mice showed no change in daily food intake, adiposity, growth curve, basal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides, uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or ob gene. However, H1KO mice fed with high fat diet increased fat deposition and ob gene expression more excessively. Leptin-induced feeding suppression was attenuated in H1KO mice. Chronic leptin treatment decreased visceral fat and up-regulated UCPs expression in brown and white fat. These effects of leptin were attenuated in pair-fed H1KO mice. Chronic histamine or histidine treatment decreased body weight, body fat deposition, and serum glucose and insulin in diet-induced obese, ob/ob and db/db mice. Activation of histamine neurons suppressed ob gene expression in the fat tissue together with elevation of seurm leptin and UCPs mRNA. These actions of neuronal histamine were attenuated in the double knockout mice, i.e., db/db mice with H1KO. Taken together, H1KO mice, a novel leptin resistant model, elucidate essential roles of H1-R in energy intake and expenditure as a down-stream-signaling message of leptin actions in the brain. The anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of histamine neurons provide a new insight into therapeutic strategies on human obesity and diabetes with leptin resistance.

  8. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  9. New ethanol extraction improves the anti-obesity effects of black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bongju; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Bonggyeong; Kim, Ingyum; Baek, Namjoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Seok-Yong; Son, Miwon; Park, Hyunsung

    2016-03-01

    Black tea has been reported to have anti-obesity effects in both rodents and humans. Gallic acid, an active component of black tea, decomposes quickly into pyrogallol in high-temperature solutions. This study introduced a new, aqueous ethanol extraction of black tea, which resulted in extracts with higher concentrations of gallic acid than conventional black tea extracts prepared by hot-water extraction or hot-ethanol extraction. We confirmed that, compared with the hot-water extract of black tea, the cold-ethanol extract of black tea (CE-BTE) had greater effects on reducing body weight and body fat, improving fatty liver, regulating blood glucose, and reducing blood cholesterol in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Nonetheless, although CE-BTE significantly reduced fat content, it did not reduce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) protein in epididymal fat tissue of HFD mice. We also showed that CE-BTE did not inhibit the function of PPARγ protein to drive adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Considering that PPARγ is a master transcription factor not only for adipocyte differentiation, but also for adipose tissue function, such as glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, these results suggest that CE-BTE reduced fat mass and body weight without dampening fat cell homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

  10. Exploiting anti-obesity mechanism of Clerodendrum phlomidis against two different models of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Chidrawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis are used by the local people of Dibrugarh district of Assam state India as a dietary supplement for treating weight issues and are also mentioned in the traditional system of Indian medicine as a remedy for obesity. We examined the anti-obesity effect of Clerodendrum phlomidis (family Verbenaceae L. roots against cafeteria diet (CD and progesterone-induced obesity. In CD-induced model obesity was induced by feeding CD for 48-days and increase in body weight and fat storage was suppressed co-administration with methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (MECP at 400 mg/kg. Blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by MECP administration and there is subsequent rise in HDL-cholesterol level. From this experiment, we demonstrated that MECP is effective in ameliorating the CD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulimenia, dyslepidemia, increase in wet weight of white adipose tissue, and hypertrophy of fat cells. In drug induced obesity model hyperphagia was induced by progesterone (10 mg/kg s.c. for 28 days and was suppressed by co-administration with MECP in dose dependent manner. It is tempting to speculate that these protective effects shown by Clerodendrum phlomidis is by multiple mechanisms. MECP contains β-sitosterol in the abundant quantity because of the structural similarity it do the physical competition with natural sterols while absorption of food stuffs from GIT and moreover the crude saponin and flavonoid has been reported for it′s the appιtit suppressant property and hence reduces hyperphagia produced by progesterone. This is the first report demonstrating that Clerodendrum phlomidis is effective in ameliorating insulin resistance and visceral obesity induced by CD and Progesterone.

  11. Appraisal of adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique for estimating anti-obesity properties of a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Hajifaraji, Majid; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Mat Kiah, Miss Laiha

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the precision of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique in estimating the anti-obesity property of a potent medicinal plant in a clinical dietary intervention. Even though a number of mathematical functions such as SPSS analysis have been proposed for modeling the anti-obesity properties estimation in terms of reduction in body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and body weight loss, there are still disadvantages of the models like very demanding in terms of calculation time. Since it is a very crucial problem, in this paper a process was constructed which simulates the anti-obesity activities of caraway (Carum carvi) a traditional medicine on obese women with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS) method. The ANFIS results are compared with the support vector regression (SVR) results using root-mean-square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R(2)). The experimental results show that an improvement in predictive accuracy and capability of generalization can be achieved by the ANFIS approach. The following statistical characteristics are obtained for BMI loss estimation: RMSE=0.032118 and R(2)=0.9964 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.47287 and R(2)=0.361 in SVR testing. For fat loss estimation: RMSE=0.23787 and R(2)=0.8599 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.32822 and R(2)=0.7814 in SVR testing. For weight loss estimation: RMSE=0.00000035601 and R(2)=1 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.17192 and R(2)=0.6607 in SVR testing. Because of that, it can be applied for practical purposes. PMID:25453384

  12. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  13. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-01-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirena...

  14. Anti-obesity activity of hen egg anti-lipase immunoglobulin yolk, a novel pancreatic lipase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Mai; Ando, Taishi; Shofiqur, Rahman; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu; Van Nguyen, Sa; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Masaya; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background There is completely no report about both hen egg anti-lipase immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) and its anti-obesity action. Thus, we tried to isolate and characterize a novel anti-lipase immunoglobulin from hen egg yolk. Moreover, we investigated whether hen egg yolk anti-lipase IgY inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and examined its ability to prevent obesity in a murine high fat diet-induced obesity model. Methods We determined the inhibitory action of Anti-lipase IgY on lipas...

  15. Anti-obesity activity of diglyceride containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Jin-Joo; Lee, Ki Nam; Jeong, Jae-Hwang; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Lee, Young Ho; Jeong, Seong-woon; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won; Lee, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p < 0.01). All...

  16. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  17. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study.Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article.In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there

  18. Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and

  19. Potency of turmeric (Curcuma longa L. extract and curcumin as anti-obesity by inhibiting the cholesterol and triglycerides synthesis in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Budiman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocytes accumulate triacylglycerol when excessive food consumption. Adipocyte dysfunction plays an important role in the obesity development. People with a body weight 40 % heavier than the average body weight population at risk of death two times greater than the average body weight. The use of anti-obesity drugs have many side effects, so it is necessary to find the anti-obesity drug with low toxicity. This ex vivo study was conducted to determine the activity of C. longa L. extract in inhibiting triglycerides and cholesterol synthesis and lipid droplet formation on HepG2 cells compared to curcumin. Methods: Anti-obesity activity includes reduced formation of lipid droplet in HepG2 cells can be observed using oil red O staining method. The measurement of triglyceride level was performed according to Randox protocol using Randox TR 210 assay kit. Lipolytic activity by measuring cholesterol levels was performed based on Randox CH 200 kits. Results: This study suggested that the extract of C. longa L. and curcumin have potential anti-obesity compounds. C. longa L. extract have higher activity in inhibiting triglycerides and cholesterol synthesis compared to curcumin with inhibition activities 70.43% and 66.38% respectively in the highest concentration. Conclusion: The C. longa extract posses the anti-adipogenesis potential on inhibiting the synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol and lipid droplet formation in HepG2 cell as anti-obesity parameters better than curcumin. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1165-1171

  20. The anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota versus Orlistat on high fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golgis Karimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and overweight are major public health problems. Various factors, such as daily nutritional habits, physical inactivity, and genetic, are related to the prevalence of obesity. Recently, it was revealed that the gut microflora may also play an important role in weight management. Thus, this study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS compared with those of orlistat in an animal model fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Design: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups fed various diets as follows: a standard diet group, HFD group, HFD supplemented with LcS (108109 colony-forming units (HFD-LcS group, and HFD group treated with Orlistat (10 mg/kg body weight. After 15 weeks, the weights of organs, body weight, body fat mass and serological biomarkers were measured. In addition, histological analysis of the liver and adipose tissue was performed. Results: Body weight, body mass index, fat mass, leptin and glucose levels were lower, and high-density lipoprotein and adiponectin levels were higher in the HFD-LcS and HFD-orlistat groups than in the HFD group. In addition a significant difference in body fat mass was observed between HFD-LcS group with HFD-orlistat group (19.19±5.76 g vs. 30.19±7.98 g. Although the interleukin-6 level was significantly decreased in the HFD-LcS and HFD-orlistat groups compared with the HFD group, no significant change was observed in other inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that LcS supplementation improves body weight management and the levels of some related biomarkers. In addition, LcS supplementation showed a better result in fat mass and alanine aminotransferase reduction than Orlistat. Further studies are needed to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of LcS, with a longer period of supplementation.

  1. Active Components of Essential Oils as Anti-Obesity Potential Drugs Investigated by in Silico Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giosuè; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Alcaro, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In this study, for the first time, we have considered essential oils (EOs) as possible resources of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), in particular against the mitochondrial isoform VA that, actually, represents an innovative target for the obesity treatment. In silico structure-based virtual screening was performed in order to speed up the identification of promising antiobesity agents. The potential hit compounds were submitted to in vitro assays and experimental results, corroborated by molecular modeling studies, showed EOs components as a new class of CAIs with a competitive mechanism of action due to the zinc ion coordination within the active sites of these metallo-enzymes. PMID:27268752

  2. Potent anti-obese principle from Rosa canina: structural requirements and mode of action of trans-tiliroside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Kubo, Mizuho; Morikawa, Toshio; Nishida, Norihisa; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2007-06-01

    The 80% aqueous acetone extracts from the fruit (50 mg/kg/d) and seeds (12.5 and 25 mg/kg/d) of Rosa canina L., but not from the pericarps, were found to show substantial inhibitory effect on the gain of body weight and/or weight of visceral fat without affecting food intake in mice for 2 weeks after administration of the extracts. With regard to the active constituents, the principal constituent, trans-tiliroside (0.1-10 mg/kg/d), potently inhibited the gain of body weight, especially visceral fat weight, and significantly reduced blood glucose levels after glucose loading (1 g/kg, ip) in mice. On the other hand, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid lacked such effect and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside tended to reduce the gain of body weight and visceral fat weight, but not significantly, at a dose of 10 mg/kg/d. These results indicate the importance of both kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and p-coumaroyl moieties for anti-obese effects. Furthermore, a single oral administration of trans-tiliroside at a dose of 10 mg/kg increased the expression of PPAR-alpha mRNA of liver tissue in mice.

  3. Piceatannol Exerts Anti-Obesity Effects in C57BL/6 Mice through Modulating Adipogenic Proteins and Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chen Tung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health concern. Piceatannol (Pic, an analog of resveratrol (Res, has many reported biological activities. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Pic in a high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese animal model. The results showed that Pic significantly reduced mouse body weight in a dose-dependent manner without affecting food intake. Serum total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels, and blood glucose (GLU were significantly lowered in Pic-treated groups. Pic significantly decreased the weight of liver, spleen, perigonadal and retroperitoneal fat compared with the HFD group. Pic significantly reduced the adipocyte cell size of perigonadal fat and decreased the weight of liver. Pic-treated mice showed higher phosphorylated adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (pAMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC protein levels and decreased protein levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ and fatty acid synthase (FAS, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in adipocytes and the liver. Pic altered the composition of the gut microbiota by increasing Firmicutes and Lactobacillus and decreasing Bacteroidetes compared with the HFD group. Collectively, these results suggest that Pic may be a candidate for obesity treatment.

  4. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  5. Anti-obesity effects of chitosan and psyllium husk with L-ascorbic acid in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sung Chul; Jung, Eun Young; Hong, Yang Hee; Park, Yooheon; Kang, Duk ho; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether L-Ascorbic acid would facilitate the anti-obesity effects of chitosan and psyllium husk in vivo. The study was carried out with male Hartley guinea pigs for 5 weeks. The results show that chitosan itself did not influence body weight gain and food efficiency ratio (FER). However, the addition of L-Ascorbic acid to chitosan decreased these parameters; the body weight gain and FER in the chitosan-2 group (high-fat diet group with 5 % chitosan containing 0.5 % L-Ascorbic acid) was significantly (p psyllium husk did not differ from psyllium husk alone in terms of changes in weight gain, plasma lipid levels, and fat pad weight. We found that the addition of L-Ascorbic acid to chitosan influenced the reduction in body weight gain and FER, and the increase in total fecal weight and fecal fat excretion in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet. PMID:23065836

  6. MicroRNA Functions in Brite/Brown Fat — Novel Perspectives towards Anti-Obesity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Current anti-obesity strategies are aiming at restricting energy uptake, but still, obesity treatment is far from being satisfactory. The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans currently opens new avenues to combat obesity and follow-up complications as it tackles the other site of the energy balance: energy expenditure via non-shivering thermogenesis. This process of energy dissipation in the adipose tissue is tightly controlled, and the elucidation of its regulatory network is a key plank for therapeutic applications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs belong to a novel class of regulatory determinants which are small non-coding RNAs with vital roles in regulating gene expression that also play a role in many human diseases. In this review we summarize miRNAs which have been shown to govern thermogenic, i.e. brite or brown, adipocyte recruitment and physiology. Notably, most miRNAs in this context have so far been characterized solely in mice, revealing a great demand for more human studies. As in the context of other diseases, RNA-based therapeutics have meanwhile entered clinical trials, further exploring the functions of miRNAs in brown and white adipose tissues could result in novel therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and its follow-up complications.

  7. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract. PMID:27757271

  8. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:26908215

  9. In vitro anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antioxidant proprieties of Juniperus phoenicea L. leaves from Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine chemical composition and antioxidant activity as well as the in vitroα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea). Methods: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and various extracts of J. phoenicea were determined by DPPH andβ-carotene bleaching methods. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the J. phoenicea essential oil resulted in the identification of 37 compounds, representing 96.98% of the oil; α-Pinene (24.02%), limonene (7.94%), D-3-Carene (16.9%), Germacrene D (11.98%), Germacrene B (5.40%) and δ-cadinene (6.52%) were the major compounds. The IC50 values of essential oil, hexane and methanol extracts against α-amylase were 35.44, 30.15 and 53.76 µg/mL respectively, and those against pancreatic lipase were 66.15, 68.47 and 60.22 µg/mL respectively, suggesting powerful anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. Antioxidant activity (IC50=2 µg/mL) and total phenolics content (265 mg as gallic acid equivalent/g extract) of the methanol extract were found to be the highest compared to the other extracts. Conclusions:The findings showed that the extents ofα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the J. phoenicea extracts as well as their antioxidant activity are in accordance with total phenolics contents. Leaves of J. phoenicea being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of natural products with interesting medicinal properties.

  10. Anti-obesity Effect of Yogurt Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 in Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Seong, Ki-Seung; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of yogurt fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 in diet-induced obese rats. To examine the effects, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on six different diets, as follows: Group A was fed an ND and orally administrated saline solution; Group B, an HFD and orally administrated saline solution; Group C, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt fermented by ABT-3 and L. plantarum Q180; Group D, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt with added Garcinia cambogia extract, fermented by ABT-3 and L. plantarum Q180; Group E, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt fermented by L. plantarum Q180; and Group F, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt with added Garcinia cambogia extract, fermented by L. plantarum Q180 for eight weeks. After eight weeks, the rate of increase in bodyweight was 5.14%, 6.5%, 3.35% and 10.81% lower in groups C, D, E and F, respectively, compared with group B; the epididymal fat weight of groups E and F was significantly lower than that of group B; and the level of triglyceride and leptin was significantly reduced in groups C, D, E and F compared to group B. In addition, the level of AST was reduced in group C compared to the other groups. To examine the effects of yogurt on the reduction of adipocyte size, the adipocyte sizes were measured. The number of large-size adipose tissue was less distributed in groups A, C, D, E and F than in group B. PMID:27499667

  11. Impact of weight-loss medications on the cardiovascular system: focus on current and future anti-obesity drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Benoit; Simard, Chantale; Poirier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have been rising dramatically worldwide and are associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, certain cancers, and sleep apnea. In fact, obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD and CVD risks have also been documented in obese children. The majority of overweight and obese patients who achieve a significant short-term weight loss do not maintain their lower bodyweight in the long term. This may be due to a lack of intensive counseling and support from a facilitating environment including dedicated healthcare professionals such as nutritionists, kinesiologists, and behavior specialists. As a result, there has been a considerable focus on the role of adjunctive therapy such as pharmacotherapy for long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. Beyond an unfavorable risk factor profile, overweight and obesity also impact upon heart structure and function. Since the beginning, the quest for weight loss drugs has encountered warnings from regulatory agencies and the withdrawal from the market of efficient but unsafe medications. Fenfluramine was withdrawn from the market because of unacceptable pulmonary and cardiac adverse effects. Nevertheless, there is extensive research directed at the development of new anti-obesity compounds. The effect of these molecules on CVD risk factors has been studied and reported but information regarding their impact on the cardiovascular system is sparse. Thus, instead of looking at the benefit of weight loss on metabolism and risk factor management, this article discusses the impact of weight loss medications on the cardiovascular system. The potential interaction of available and potential new weight loss drugs with heart function and structure is reviewed. PMID:17696568

  12. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Anti-obesity Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Pomegranate Fruit Peel Using Anthropometrical Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassanpour fard

    2015-04-01

    Results: Comparison of weight change before and after the intervention showed a significant reduction in the Group E and a significant increase in group N (p≤0.05. Waist circumference was significantly increased in the experimental group A and control group N (p≤0.05 and reduced in group X (p≤0.05.There was no significant difference in plasma lipid profile between the groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of pomegranate fruit peel can be considered as an anti-obesity compound in further studies.

  14. Preformulation characterization and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs of JFD, a novel anti-obesity drug for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Li, Yanyou; Zhou, Yuanda; Chen, Xiaoping; Shan, Li; Wei, Jun; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    JFD (N-isoleucyl-4-methyl-1,1-cyclopropyl-1-(4-chlorine)phenyl-2-amylamine·HCl) is a novel investigational anti-obesity drug without obvious cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to characterize the key physicochemical properties of JFD, including solution-state characterization (ionization constant, partition coefficient, aqueous and pH-solubility profile), solid-state characterization (particle size, thermal analysis, crystallinity and hygroscopicity) and drug-excipient chemical compatibility. A supporting in vivo absorption study was also carried out in beagle dogs. JFD bulk powders are prismatic crystals with a low degree of crystallinity, particle sizes of which are within 2-10 μm. JFD is highly hygroscopic, easily deliquesces to an amorphous glass solid and changes subsequently to another crystal form under an elevated moisture/temperature condition. Similar physical instability was also observed in real-time CheqSol solubility assay. pK(a) (7.49 ± 0.01), log P (5.10 ± 0.02) and intrinsic solubility (S0) (1.75 μg/ml) at 37 °C of JFD were obtained using potentiometric titration method. Based on these solution-state properties, JFD was estimated to be classified as BCS II, thus its dissolution rate may be an absorption-limiting step. Moreover, JFD was more chemically compatible with dibasic calcium phosphate, mannitol, hypromellose and colloidal silicon dioxide than with lactose and magnesium stearate. Further, JFD exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profiling in beagle dogs and the pharmacokinetic parameters T(max), C(max), AUC(0-t) and absolute bioavailability were 1.60 ± 0.81 h, 0.78 ± 0.47 μg/ml, 3.77 ± 1.85 μg·h/ml and 52.30 ± 19.39%, respectively. The preformulation characterization provides valuable information for further development of oral administration of JFD. PMID:24694186

  15. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  16. The anti-obesity effects of the dietary combination of fermented red ginseng with levan in high fat diet mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin sun; Lee, Seung Ri; Hwang, Keum Taek; Ji, Geun Eog

    2014-04-01

    In this study, to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of fermented red ginseng (FG), levan (L), and their combination (FGL), we investigated their effects on the weights of body, liver and white adipose tissue, lipid profiles, and biomarkers for insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J male mice. Furthermore, the levels of leptin in the serum were measured. FG (150 mg/kg/d), L (100 mg/kg/d), and FGL (150 mg/kg/d of FG plus 100 mg/kg/d of L) were administered orally to mice daily for 11 weeks. After 11 weeks feeding, FGL showed significantly lower body weight and fat mass with decreasing food efficiency ratio than the HFD control mice. In addition, the FGL group was significantly lower in the levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose and score of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Furthermore, FGL decreased serum leptin levels compared to the HFD control group. Taken together, FGL showed a significant anti-obesity effect in HFD-induced obese mice and prevent insulin and leptin resistance. FGL may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity. PMID:23873605

  17. Anti-Obesity and Hypoglycemic Effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. Extracts in High-Fat Diet C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the possible anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. extracts. Mature fruit were divided into flavedo (PF and juice sacs (PJ, and extracts from them were tested on C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for thirteen weeks. Both fruit extracts (40 mg/kg body weight, respectively showed anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. Consumption of PF and PJ extracts reduced body weight by 9.21% and 20.27%, respectively. Liver and adipose weights, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride (TG, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels decreased significantly, while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and oral glucose tolerance levels increased significantly in response to two fruit extracts. These effects were due in part to the modulation of serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. Furthermore, transcript levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 were reduced while those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2 were increased in the liver of C57BL/6 mice, which might be an important mechanism affecting lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, P. trifoliata fruit can be potentially used to prevent or treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  18. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

  19. The New Research about Anti-obesity Components in Food%食品中抗肥胖成分的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 周昇昇

    2016-01-01

    With the change of lifestyle and diet, obesity and overweight were prevalence caused by increased food intake, reduced energy expenditure and fat metabolism disorder. Obesity has become a public health prob-lem in developing countries.The research about the anti-obesity food ingredients(such as diglycerides and con-jugated linoleic acid) mechanism of action, develop anti-obesity functional food focused on decrease energy intake (such as lowering energy density of foods or reducing the food intake) or increasing energy expenditure (stimulation of thermogenesis) will become new food research and development focus.%随着生活方式的改变和饮食结构的变化,食物摄入量增加、能量支出减少和脂肪代谢紊乱造成肥胖和超重的流行。肥胖已经成为发展中国家的公共卫生问题,研究食品中的抗肥胖成分(如甘油二酯和共轭亚油酸)的作用机理,把抗肥胖功能性食品的开发集中于减少能量的摄入(如降低食品的能量密度或减少食物的摄入)或增加能量的消耗(促进新陈代谢),将成为食品研究与开发的重点。

  20. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Obese Diabetic KKAy Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphenol (AP extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia meansii is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. The present study investigated the anti-obesity/anti-diabetic effects of AP using obese diabetic KKAy mice. KKAy mice received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional AP for 7 weeks. After the end of administration, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression of obesity/diabetic suppression-related genes were measured in skeletal muscle, liver and white adipose tissue. As a result, compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for AP groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, mRNA expression of energy expenditure-related genes (PPARα, PPARδ, CPT1, ACO and UCP3 was significantly higher for AP groups in skeletal muscle. Protein expressions of CPT1, ACO and UCP3 for AP groups were also significantly higher when compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, AP lowered the expression of fat acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS in the liver. AP also increased mRNA expression of adiponectin and decreased expression of TNF-α in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, the anti-obesity actions of AP are considered attributable to increased expression of energy expenditure-related genes in skeletal muscle, and decreased fatty acid synthesis and fat intake in the liver. These results suggest that AP is expected to be a useful plant extract for alleviating metabolic syndrome.

  1. Evaluation of the Influence of thiosemicarbazone-triazole hybrids on genes implicated in lipid oxidation and accumulation as potential anti-obesity agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfe, Henok H; Belay, Yonas H; Joseph, Jitcy S; Mukwevho, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    A series of thiosemicarbazone-triazole hybrids 1a-h are efficiently synthesised and evaluated for their influence on the expression of genes, cpt-1, acc-1 and pgc-1, which are essential in lipid metabolism. The test results show that hybrids 1c and 1g exhibited relatively high influence on the expression of cpt-1 and pgc-1 and suppression of acc-1 as desired. PMID:23988353

  2. Anti-obesity potential of enzymatic fragments of hyaluronan on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byong-Gon; Park, Yoon-Sun; Park, Joo Woong; Shin, Eunji; Shin, Woon-Seob

    2016-04-22

    Hyaluronan has diverse biological activities depending on its molecular size. The hyaluronan fragments (50 kDa) can decrease adipogenic differentiation in vitro. However, in vivo anti-obesitic effects of hyaluronan fragments have not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the anti-obesity effects of hyaluronan fragments on high-fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of hyaluronan fragments (200 mg/kg for 8 weeks) decreased body weight, adipose tissues, serum lipid (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride), and leptin level. Hyaluronan fragments decreased the hypertrophy of adipose tissue and ameliorated liver steatosis. The mRNA expression of leptin was reduced in adipocyte by treatment with hyaluronan fragments. Additionally, hyaluronan fragments enhanced the mRNA expression of PPAR-α and its target genes UCP-2 and decreased mRNA expression of PPAR- γ and fatty acid synthase in liver. In conclusions, hyaluronan fragments had marked effects on inhibiting the development of obesity in obese mice fed the high-fat diet. It suggested that enhancing PPAR-α and suppressing PPAR-γ expression are two possible mechanisms for the anti-obesitic effect of hyaluronan fragments. PMID:27012203

  3. Anti-obesity effect of an isoflavone fatty acid ester on obese mice induced by high fat diet and its potential mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Hong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel compound 1a is one of the isoflavone fatty acid esters. In order to investigate the anti-obesity effect of compound 1a and its potential mechanism of influence in adipocyte differentiation, Obese male C57BL/6J mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD and rat preadipocytes (3T3-L1 cell were used. Methods After 4-week HFD induction, the obese model was made successfully. After treatment with compound 1a, mice plasma biochemistry parameters were analyzed. In addition, mice hepatic tissue slice was observed. In in vitro research, 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by Oil-Red-O staining and adipocyte apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results The in vivo results implied that compound 1a significantly decreased the body weight, white adipose tissue weight of obesity mice(p in vitro results suggested that compound 1a could significantly suppress the adipocyte viability and lipid accumulation in the differentiation of preadipocyte, and induce apoptosis in both preadipocytes and mature adipocytes(p Conclusion Compound 1a regulates serum lipid profiles, decreases adipose tissue mass and body weight gain by inducing adipocyte apoptosis in high fat diet induced mice. Thus, it may be used to treat obese patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  4. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  5. 绿茶提取物的降血脂及减肥作用研究%Study of the Anti-obesity Function of Green Tea Extracts for Development of a Hypolipidemic Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安军; 郭丹霄; 刘慧慧; 陈宏硕; 张会; 周绍迂

    2012-01-01

    本实验以福建绿茶为原料,对其进行水提、茶渣醇提、残渣碱提,得到粗多糖、上清液、醇提物、粗蛋白四种提取物.以昆明小鼠为供试动物,喂食高脂饲料建立高脂肥胖模型,设置模型对照和正常对照,对四种提取物进行减肥降脂功效验证.结果表明:醇提物和上清液在调节血脂和控制体重方面效果较好,与模型组相比醇提物组TG和体重分别下降了37.50%、1 1.84%,上清液组TG和体重分别下降了35.42%、7.32%.粗蛋白和粗多糖只有一定的降血脂效果,与模型组相比TC分别下降了17.69%和9.52%,LDL-C下降了56.25%和42.97%.血清HL活力,醇提物组显著高于模型组;血清PL活力,上清液组显著低于模型组(P<0.01).%In this experiment, Fujian tea was treated by water extraction, alcohol extraction and alkaline extraction, giving crud polysaccharide, supernatant extracts, ethanol extracts and crude proteins. Using mice for the test animals by feeding them high-fat diet, high-fat obesity model was established. By setting model control and normal control groups, the weight-lose and lipid-lowering functions of four kinds of extracts were investigated. The results showed that, alcohol extract and the supernatant showed good effects on regulating blood lipids and weight control. Compared with model group, TG and body weight of the alcohol extract group decreased by 37.50% and 11.84%, respectively. TG and body weight of the supernatant extract group decreased by 35.42% and 7.32%, respectively. Compared with model group, crude protein and polysaccharide from Fujian tea showed lower lipid-lowering effec,. TC values of the mice in crude protein and polysaccharide groups decreased by 17.69% and 9.52%, respectively, and the LDL-C values of the mice decreased by 56.25% and 42.97%, respectively.In addition, HL activity in serum of the mice in ethanol extract group was significantly higher than that in the model group and the PL activity in serum of the mice in the supernatant group was significantly lower than that in the model group (P <0.01).

  6. 茶多酚对奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠的减肥作用及其机制%Anti-obesity effects and its mechanism of tea polyphenols on obesity rats induced by olanzapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟满群; 唐言利; 吴铎; 吕俊华

    2011-01-01

    AIM To study the anti-obesity effects of tea polyphenols (TP) on olanzapine induced weight gain in rats and its mechanism. METHODS Fifty female SD rats were randomized into 2 groups, 10 rats in the normal control group and 40 rats in the obesity model group. The obesity model rats received olanzapine (1.2 mg-kg"1-d"1) daily via gavage 1 h before the beginning of the dark-phase for 2 weeks, while the rats in the normal control group received an equivalent volume of distilled water. At the beginning of wk 3, the obesity model rats were randomized into 4 groups: model group (distilled water) , sibutramine (2.5 mg ·kg-1·d-1) group, low-dose (150 mg·kg-1·d-1) group and high-dose (300 mg·kg-1·d-1) group of TP, 10 rats in each group, and the rats were administered with olanzapine continuously. TP and sibutramine were given by gavage for 5 weeks. The body weight and fat weight around the kidney and uterus were measured, and Lee' s index and fat coefficient were calculated. The levels of serum leptin and adiponectin ( ADP) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialchehyche (MDA) content were tested respectively. RESULTS Compared with the normal control group, the body weight, fat weight, Lee' s index, fat coefficient, the level of serum leptin were significantly increased and serum ADP decreased significantly in the model group (P 0.05). CONCLUSION TP can reduce olanzapine induced weight gain in rats, which may be associated with the enhanced regulation of ADP and antioxidative ability.%目的 探讨茶多酚对奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠的减肥作用及其机制.方法 SD雌性大鼠50只,随机分为正常对照组(10只)和奥氮平诱导肥胖模型组(40只).肥胖模型组于黑暗时相前1 h奥氮平1.2 mg·kg-1·d-1灌胃,正常对照组给予等容量蒸馏水,连续2 wk.于wk 3开始,再将肥胖模型大鼠随机分为4组:模型组、西布曲明(2.5 mg·kg-1·d-1)组、茶多酚低(150 mg·kg-1·d-1)剂量组和茶多酚高(300 mg·kg-1·d-1)

  7. Obesity and cardiovascular physiology: impact of some pharmacological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-04-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence is problematic as this condition is associated with health complications such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, more particularly when the excess body fat is stored in the deep abdominal region. The mainstay of therapy consists of behavior modification related to obesity such as overeating and physical inactivity. When these lifestyle modifying attempts fail, the use of anti-obesity drugs is warranted. Drug treatment is often indicated but is somewhat limited by the minimal number of well tolerated drugs that have proven to have long-term efficacy in maintaining body weight loss. The currently available drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, appear modestly effective in promoting weight loss. Ongoing studies continue to evaluate other drug treatments that may result in body weight reduction through a number of different mechanisms. Thus, the aim of this review is to present an overview of the current drugs available (particularly sibutramine and orlistat) as well as potential future candidates, and the impact of these agents on obesity and cardiovascular physiology. Furthermore, the therapeutic paradox of sibutramine in preventing obesity will be discussed as well as the beneficial impact of physical exercise on cardiac economy.

  8. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  9. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  10. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  11. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  12. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  13. The anti-obesity effects of a tuna peptide on 3T3-L1 adipocytes are mediated by the inhibition of the expression of lipogenic and adipogenic genes and by the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, YOUNG-MIN; KIM, IN-HYE; CHOI, JEONG-WOOK; LEE, MIN-KYEONG; NAM, TAEK-JEONG

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes involves the activation of an organized system of obesity-related genes, of which those encoding CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the Wnt-10b protein may play integral roles. In a previous study of ours, we found that a specific peptide found in tuna (sequence D-I-V-D-K-I-E-I; termed TP-D) inhibited 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. In the present study, we observed that the expression of expression of C/EBPs and Wnt-10b was associated with obesity. The initial step of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation involved the upregulation of C/EBP-α expression, which in turn activated various subfactors. An upstream effector of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibited Wnt-10b expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In a previous study of ours, we sequenced the tuna peptide via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) and confirmed the anti-obesity effects thereof in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TP-D inhibits C/EBP and promotes Wnt-10b mRNA expression, thus activating the Wnt pathway. The inhibition of lipid accumulation was measured using a glucose and triglyceride (TG) assay. Our results confirmed that TP-D altered the expression levels of C/EBP-related genes in a dose-dependent manner and activated the Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, we confirmed that total adiponectin and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were reduced by treatment with TP-D. These data indicate that TP-D inhibits adipocyte differentiation through the inhibition of C/EBP genes and the subsequent activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26046125

  14. The anti-obesity effects of a tuna peptide on 3T3-L1 adipocytes are mediated by the inhibition of the expression of lipogenic and adipogenic genes and by the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-08-01

    The differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes involves the activation of an organized system of obesity-related genes, of which those encoding CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the Wnt-10b protein may play integral roles. In a previous study of ours, we found that a specific peptide found in tuna (sequence D-I-V-D-K-I-E-I; termed TP-D) inhibited 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. In the present study, we observed that the expression of expression of C/EBPs and Wnt-10b was associated with obesity. The initial step of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation involved the upregulation of C/EBP-α expression, which in turn activated various subfactors. An upstream effector of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibited Wnt-10b expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In a previous study of ours, we sequenced the tuna peptide via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) and confirmed the anti-obesity effects thereof in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TP-D inhibits C/EBP and promotes Wnt-10b mRNA expression, thus activating the Wnt pathway. The inhibition of lipid accumulation was measured using a glucose and triglyceride (TG) assay. Our results confirmed that TP-D altered the expression levels of C/EBP-related genes in a dose-dependent manner and activated the Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, we confirmed that total adiponectin and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were reduced by treatment with TP-D. These data indicate that TP-D inhibits adipocyte differentiation through the inhibition of C/EBP genes and the subsequent activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  15. Effect of Adzuki Beans Alcohol Extract on Decreasing Lipid and Anti-obesity of the Mice Fed a High-fat Diet%红小豆醇提物对摄食高脂料小鼠的降脂减肥作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 刘笑然; 濮邵京; 赵波; 万平; 高建明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: in order to research on the effects of adzuki beans alcohol extract (AAE)on decreasing lipid and anti -obesity of the Kunming male and female mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods Hie mice fed a basic diet and a high-fat diet were consider as control groups. Mice treated with AAE at low, middle, high does (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg body weight of mice) by gavage were considered as experimental groups and the mice were fed a high-fat diet. During the experimental period(8weeks),Mice got diet and water freely. The daily food intake was measured on Monday and Thursday in each week. Bodyweight was measured once a week. After 8 weeks, Lees index, liver weight and adipose weight of different part were measured. The glucose level, total cholesterol(TC), triglycercide(TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C in mice blood were detected.Result Comparing with hight-fat group, AAE experimental groups significantly decreased bodyweight and adipose weight of different part to the male and female mice (P<0.05,0.01) and showed a significant difference in decreasing the lees index,liver weight to the female mice (P<0.05, 0.01). But, AAE experimental groups did not show a significant difference to the male mice on lees index, liver weight. During the experimental period, the ability of AAE in promoting appetite of male and female mice was found. To the blood indexes, the function of AAE in decreasing lipid was merely found in female mice while the high does group exhibited the best efficacy .Conclusion AAE has effect of anti-obesity on the mice fed high-fat diet. Effectiveness of decreasing lipid and anti-obesity to the female mice was better than the male mice.%目的:研究红小豆醇提物对摄食高脂料的昆明白雌、雄小鼠的降脂减肥作用.方法:以饲喂基础料、高脂科的小鼠为对照,以红小豆醇提物按低、中、高(即50、100、200 mg/kg小鼠体重)3个剂量分别强饲给摄食高脂料的小鼠,即试验

  16. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  17. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  18. Rise and fall of anti-obesity drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fang; Cheung, Bernard MY

    2010-01-01

    Although it is not generally a life-threatening disease, obesity is becoming a major health problem worldwide. It can be controlled by means of drugs, and, consequently, these are required to be safe as well as effective. In this paper, we summarize the fate of various drugs that have been introduced for clinical use in the treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn because of heart valve damage. Sibutramine suppresses appetite and increases heart rate and blood pre...

  19. Study on Anti-obesity and Lipid-lowering of Chinese Medicine Xianti Formula with L-carnitine Tartrate Salt%中药纤体组方加左旋肉碱酒石酸盐减肥降脂作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操红缨; 李萍; 刘静

    2012-01-01

    Objective : To investigate effects of anti-obesity and lipid-lowering of Chinese medicine Xianti formula ( XTA ) and XTA with 1-carnitine tartrate salt ( XTB ) in niutritional obesity rats model. Methods : Made obesity model with high fat food, through observing body weight, food intake, food utilization, fat weight, body fat ratio; serum triglyceride ( TG ), total cholesterol ( TC ), high-density lipoprotein ( HDL-C ), low density lipoprotein ( LDL-C ) levels to assess effects of losing weight and lowering lipid of test samples. Results : Body weight of high fat feed group rats significant higher than normal group, tip that obesity model made successfully. Compared with model group, XTA high dose group rats'body weight significantly reduce ( P<0.05 ), food utiliazation of low and medium dose group all reduced ( P<0.05 ),low,medium and high dose group rats' fat weight and body fat ratio significantly reduced( P<0.05 ) Compared with model group, XTB middle and high dose group rats' body weight significantly reduced ( P<0.05 ), food utiliazation of low and high dose group all reduced ( P<0.05 ) low, medium and high dose group rats' fat weight and body fat ratio significantly reduced ( P<0.01~0.05 ); XTA medium and high doses group, XTB low, medium and high dose groups'serum TG were significantly lower ( P<0.05 ); LDL-C of XTB high dose group rats lower, but its HDL-C significantly rise ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion: XTA and XTB can lose weight through inhibiting nutritional obesity rat growth, lower fat weight and food utilization, and also have the effect of regulating blood lipid.Further more, there is a trend that XTB better than XTA., tip that Chinese medicine Xianti formula add 1-carnitine tartrate salt can enhance its effects of anti-obesity and lipid-Lowering.%目的:探讨中药纤体组方(XTA)和中药纤体组方加左旋肉碱酒石酸盐(XTB)对营养性肥胖大鼠减肥降脂的作用.方法:利用高脂饲料饮食建立营养性肥胖大鼠模型,通过

  20. 白藜芦醇改善高脂饮食小鼠的糖代谢并棕化腹股沟白色脂肪%Resveratrol exerts anti-obesity effects while browning the inguinal white adipose tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周逸亭; 万云; 黄杉; 关蓉媛; 张朝云; 李益明; 张烁; 叶红英

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of resveratrol on the body weight, ratio of white adipose tissue, glucose level and UCP-1, CIDEA mRNA expression in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Methods:Obese mice induced by 8 weeks’ high fat diet (HFD) were treated with resveratrol at a dose of 400 mg/kg (HFD-Res) or placebo (HFD-Con) for 2 weeks and were weighted. The ratio of white adipose tissue was calculated and glucose metabolism was evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT). The gene expression of UCP-1 and CIDEA was determined by real-time PCR. Results:Compared with HFD-Con, HFD-Res had more weight loss (P<0.05) while ipGTT was improved after 2 weeks’ therapy. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of UCP-1 and CIDEA mRNA in the inguinal white adipose tissue was higher in HFD-Res than in HFD-Con (P<0.05). Conclusion:Resveratrol has anti-obesity effect and can improve glucose metabolism in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Resveratrol can increase the gene expression of UCP-1 and CIDEA in inguinal white adipose tissue, indicating its potential effect in browning of white adipose tissue.%目的:观察白藜芦醇治疗对高脂饮食诱导肥胖小鼠的体重,体脂比及血糖代谢的作用,初步探索白藜芦醇对白色脂肪棕化的作用。方法:小鼠高脂饮食(45%热量来自脂肪)8周后随机分为对照组(HFD-Con)和白藜芦醇治疗组(HFD-Res,白藜芦醇400 mg/kg),治疗2周后称重、测定糖耐量和计算体脂比例,实时PCR测定腹股沟皮下白色脂肪组织解耦联蛋白-1(UCP-1)和CIDEA基因表达。结果:与HFD-Con组相比,HFD-Res组体重下降明显,糖耐量改善,脂肪组织/体重比无改变;而腹股沟皮下白色脂肪组织解耦联蛋白-1(UCP-1)和CIDEA基因表达升高。结论:白藜芦醇治疗可降低高脂饮食诱导肥胖小鼠体重和改善糖代谢,同时可能促进腹股沟皮下白色脂肪组织棕化。

  1. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  2. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  3. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  4. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  5. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  6. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  7. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  9. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  10. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  11. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  12. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  13. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  14. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  15. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  16. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  17. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  18. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  19. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise......Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... that have to be avoided in the endeavor. This chapter presents some of the pitfalls for enculturating interactive systems and presents strategies on how to avoid these pitfalls in relation to the standard development process of Embodied Conversational Agents....

  20. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  1. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  2. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  3. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  4. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  5. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  6. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  7. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  8. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  9. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  10. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  11. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  12. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  13. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  14. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  15. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  16. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  17. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  18. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  19. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  20. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  1. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  2. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  3. Lipid-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  4. Advances in antithrombotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ranjan; Das, Saibal Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Thrombosis is the condition where an imbalance in the homeostatic mechanism results in unwanted intravascular thrombus formation. Imbalances in this highly regulated process of coagulation and anticoagulation can lead to a variety of pathophysiological conditions leading to stroke, pulmonary heart attack and other serious conditions. In the western world, thromboembolic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has occurred over the last decade in the development of antithrombotic drugs, which can be classified into 3 major categories - Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets and thrombolytics. Increased understanding of the pathobiology of thrombotic and vascular disorders has helped researchers to target novel pathways involving the coagulation, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and integrin systems. Traditionally aspirin and unfractionated heparin was used for myocardial infarction. Newer antiplatelet agents such as, clopidogrel, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, low molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors and several improved thrombolytic agents have been introduced for clinical use. This review will discuss different important drugs, which have been launched in recent years and also some new targets pursued by different companies. PMID:17630943

  5. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  6. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  7. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  8. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence......, our critical examination offers understandings about how mathematics teachers are part of the larger cultural politics of schooling and education....

  9. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  10. Newer Hemostatic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment of inherited coagulation disorders is based on the infusion of the deficient clotting factor, when available. Significant advances have been made over the past two decades in the production and availability of factor replacement products. In spite of such progression, several issue are still unsolved, the most important being the need for frequent factor concentrate infusions and the development of inhibitory alloantibodies. To overcome these important limitations, several newer hemostatic agents with an extended half-life are at an advanced stage of clinical development. After a brief overview of hemostasis, this narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the most promising novel products for hemostasis. The current status of gene therapy for hemophilia, the only therapeutic option to definitively cure this inherited bleeding disorder, is also concisely discussed. PMID:25893779

  11. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  12. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  13. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  14. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  15. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  16. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  17. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  18. Mobile Agents for Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    SATOH, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an agent-based framework for building and operating context-aware multimedia content on digital signage in public/private spaces. It enables active and multimedia content to be composed from mobile agents, which can travel from computer to computer and provide multimedia content for advertising or user-assistant services to users. The framework automatically deploys their agents at computers near to their current positions to provide advertising o...

  19. An agent for ecological deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    2010-01-01

    An agent architecture supports the two forms of deliberation used by human agents. Cartesian, constructivist rationalism leads to game theory, decision theory and logical models. Ecological rationalism leads to deliberative actions that are derived from agents’ prior interactions and are not designed; i.e., they are strictly emergent. This paper aims to address the scant attention paid by the agent community to the predominant form of deliberation used by mankind.

  20. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  1. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  2. Agent factory: towards social robots

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, G. M. P.; Duffy, Brian R.; Collier, Rem; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a development environment, which facilitates rapid prototyping of soci...

  3. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  4. Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce: Designing Trading Agents and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutré, J.A.; Sadeh, N.M.; Janson, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, AMEC VII 2005, held in Utrecht, Netherlands in July 2005, as part of AAMAS 2005, and the third Workshop on Trading Agent Design and Analysis, TADA 2005, held in Edi

  5. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  6. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  7. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  8. Agent Roles in Human Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M.; Sycara, K.; Payne, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe results of a series of experiments investigating the effects of agent aiding on human teams. The role an agent played, its task, and the ease with which it communicated with its human teammates all influenced team behavior. Team supporting tasks such as relaying and reminding seemed particularly effective.

  9. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  10. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  11. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  12. 2012 Survey of clothing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Clothing agents take part in China International Clothing and Accessories Fairs ( CHIC ) year by year. In order to attracting investment, they compared with each other at improving their originality and service levels. At the exhibition brands manufacturers and agents had a face-to-face communication,

  13. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  14. Rhizoma Coptidis: A Potential Cardiovascular Protective Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Mehmood Khan, Tahir; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. Rhizoma coptidis (RC), known as Huang Lian in China, is the dried rhizome of medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, such as Coptis chinensis Franch, C. deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and C. teeta Wall which has been used by Chinese medicinal physicians for more than 2000 years. In China, RC is a common component in traditional medicines used to treat CVD associated problems including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism. In recent years, numerous scientific studies have sought to investigate the biological properties of RC to provide scientific evidence for its traditional medical uses. RC has been found to exert significant beneficial effects on major risk factors for CVDs including anti-atherosclerotic effect, lipid-lowering effect, anti-obesity effect and anti-hepatic steatosis effect. It also has myocardioprotective effect as it provides protection from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds contained in RC such as berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine; all of which have been demonstrated to have cardioprotective effects on the various parameters contributing to the occurrence of CVD through a variety of pathways. The evidence available in the published literature indicates that RC is a herb with tremendous potential to reduce the risks of CVDs, and this review aims to summarize the cardioprotective properties of RC with reference to the published literature which overall indicates that RC is a herb with remarkable potential to reduce the risks and damage caused by CVDs. PMID:27774066

  15. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  16. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  17. Intelligent Farmer Agent for Multi-Agent Ecological Simulations Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Cruz; António Pereira; Pedro Valente; Pedro Duarte; Luis Paulo Reis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area. A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum s...

  18. MDE and Mobile Agents : another reflexion on the agent migration

    OpenAIRE

    Gherbi, Tahar; Borne, Isabelle; Meslati, Djamel

    2009-01-01

    International audience Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is a software development approach family based on the use of models in the software construction. It allows the exploitation of models to simulate, estimate, understand, communicate and produce code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile and distributed environments. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf of a user and travels through a network of h...

  19. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  20. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  1. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingCheng; XuGuan; BaoLiu

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to designing and building complex systems. Yet, to date, little effort had been devoted to discussing the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstream software engineering paradiam.Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agentoriented will be argued.We describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing a auction system.

  2. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  3. Optimistic Agents are Asymptotically Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Sunehag, Peter; Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We use optimism to introduce generic asymptotically optimal reinforcement learning agents. They achieve, with an arbitrary finite or compact class of environments, asymptotically optimal behavior. Furthermore, in the finite deterministic case we provide finite error bounds.

  4. Agents containing chlorhexidine in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Zemlyanichenko М.К.

    2011-01-01

    Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries

  5. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  6. Epidemic Spreading with External Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gopalan, Aditya; Das, Abhik Kumar; Shakkottai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading processes in large networks, when the spread is assisted by a small number of external agents: infection sources with bounded spreading power, but whose movement is unrestricted vis-\\`a-vis the underlying network topology. For networks which are `spatially constrained', we show that the spread of infection can be significantly speeded up even by a few such external agents infecting randomly. Moreover, for general networks, we derive upper-bounds on the order of the...

  7. Locating Agents in RFID Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The use of software agents can create an “intelligent” interface between users’ preferences and the back‐end systems. Agents are now able to interact and communicate with each other, forming a virtual community and feeding back the user with suggestions. Innovative systems related to Asset Tracking, Inventory and Shelving architectures are more often involving advanced communication techniques (e.g., RFID); these systems are responsible for user authentication and objects verification. RFID s...

  8. Agents in E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mencke; Dumke, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  9. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  10. PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ganesh N.; Sanadya Jyotsana; Kaushik Avinash; Dwivedi Abha

    2012-01-01

    Many current therapeutic agents like antibiotics, ionizable and peptide drugs are impermeable or do not possess the requisite physicochemical properties for efficient transport through outer tissue barrier to attain therapeutic blood level. For this reason the delivery of such drugs through barriers is currently one of the major interests in pharmaceutical research. Penetration enhancers or promoters are agents that have no therapeutic properties of their own but can transport the sorption of...

  11. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  12. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  13. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhraj eKaur; Sumanpreet eKaur

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  14. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  15. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  16. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  17. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  18. Special issue about advances in Physical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of Spanish groups which are doing research in areas related with physical agents: they use agent-based technologies concepts, especially industrial applications, robotics and domotics (physical agents) and applications related to the information society, (software agents) highlighting the similarities and synergies among physical and software agents. In this special issue we will show several works from those groups, focusing on the recent advances in Physical Agents.

  19. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  20. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  1. Anti-obesity sodium tungstate treatment triggers axonal and glial plasticity in hypothalamic feeding centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Amigó-Correig

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the effects of sodium tungstate treatment on hypothalamic plasticity, which is known to have an important role in the control of energy metabolism.Adult lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were orally treated with sodium tungstate. Arcuate and paraventricular nuclei and lateral hypothalamus were separated and subjected to proteomic analysis by DIGE and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging were also performed.Sodium tungstate treatment reduced body weight gain, food intake, and blood glucose and triglyceride levels. These effects were associated with transcriptional and functional changes in the hypothalamus. Proteomic analysis revealed that sodium tungstate modified the expression levels of proteins involved in cell morphology, axonal growth, and tissue remodeling, such as actin, CRMP2 and neurofilaments, and of proteins related to energy metabolism. Moreover, immunohistochemistry studies confirmed results for some targets and further revealed tungstate-dependent regulation of SNAP25 and HPC-1 proteins, suggesting an effect on synaptogenesis as well. Functional test for cell activity based on c-fos-positive cell counting also suggested that sodium tungstate modified hypothalamic basal activity. Finally, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed that tungstate treatment can affect neuronal organization in the hypothalamus.Altogether, these results suggest that sodium tungstate regulates proteins involved in axonal and glial plasticity. The fact that sodium tungstate could modulate hypothalamic plasticity and networks in adulthood makes it a possible and interesting therapeutic strategy not only for obesity management, but also for other neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Anti ­ diabetic and anti-obesity effects of plant extract from Cleome droserifolia (SAMWA)

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal, **Hafiza A. Sharaf and ***Fathy E. Mattar

    2002-01-01

    In this work the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of an aqueous extract from Cleome droserifolia (SAMWA) was studied in a group of glucose intolerant senile rats and compared with normal senile control rats. The plant extract significantly suppressed the rise in blood glucose concentration. The hypoglycemic effect of the plant extract without increasing insulin secretion was explained by: 1) potentiation of peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, 2) by diminishing intestinal glucose a...

  3. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update

    OpenAIRE

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, i...

  4. Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mashmoul; Azrina Azlan; Huzwah Khaza'ai; Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof; Sabariah Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae) is a source of plant polyphenols/carotenoids, used as important spice and food colorant in different parts of the world. It has also been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different types of illnesse...

  5. Gastric emptying after a new, more physiological anti-obesity operation: the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magenstrasse and Mill (M and M) procedure for obesity is designed to preserve normal gastric emptying mechanisms. The hypothesis investigated in this study was that gastric emptying would be normal after the M and M gastroplasty. Gastric emptying studies were performed using both liquid and solid test meals, in ten morbidly obese patients (MO group) and in 13 patients after the M and M procedure (MM group). Seven people of normal weight served as controls and were matched for age, sex and height to the M and M and MO groups. Three years after the M and M procedure, mean (SD) weight loss was 42 (19) kg, with a mean loss of excess weight of 58% (20%). Gastric emptying half-times (t1/2) are expressed in minutes, as median values (25th and 75th percentiles). The t1/2 for solids was 97 (85-110) min in the control group, 140 (86-220) min in the MO group and 79 (46-150) min in the MM group. Median gastric emptying for solids was 0.7% (0.6%-0.8%) per minute in the control group, 0.5% (0.3%-0.8%) in the MO group and 0.9% (0.4%-1.4%) in the M and M group. There were no statistically significant differences in the emptying times of the three groups. It is concluded that the M and M procedure achieves acceptable weight loss, while preserving gastric emptying mechanisms and thus minimising possible side-effects such as vomiting, dumping and diarrhoea, which are common complications of gastric bypass procedures. (orig.)

  6. Anti-obesity effects of gut microbiota are associated with lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Cheng, Po-Ching; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly becoming endemic in industrialized countries and continues to increase in developing countries worldwide. Obesity predisposes people to an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have described an association between obesity and certain gut microbiota, suggesting that gut microbiota might play a critical role in the development of obesity. Although probiotics have many beneficial health effects in humans and animals, attention has only recently been drawn to manipulating the gut microbiota, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), to influence the development of obesity. In this review, we first describe the causes of obesity, including the genetic and environmental factors. We then describe the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity, and the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence energy metabolism and inflammation in obesity. Lastly, we focus on the potential role of LAB in mediating the effects of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity.

  7. Design, development and optimization of selfmicroemulsifying drug delivery system of an anti-obesity drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagruti Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to formulate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS containing orlistat. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were decided based on the solubility studies. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted, microemulsification area was determined and different formulations were prepared. Particle size, zeta potential, dispersibility test and thermodynamic stability studies were measured. In-vitro dissolution test of thermodynamically stable formulations OS-B and OS-C were carried and results were compared with those of plain drug and suspension formulation. Stability studies performed indicated that formulation OS-C remained stable over 12 months period. Thus this investigation concluded that hydrophobic drugs like orlistat can be delivered effectively through the formulation of SMEDDS.

  8. Mechanisms of the anti-obesity effects of oxytocin in diet-induced obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Deblon

    Full Text Available Apart from its role during labor and lactation, oxytocin is involved in several other functions. Interestingly, oxytocin- and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice develop late-onset obesity with normal food intake, suggesting that the hormone might exert a series of beneficial metabolic effects. This was recently confirmed by data showing that central oxytocin infusion causes weight loss in diet-induced obese mice. The aim of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effects of oxytocin. Chronic central oxytocin infusion was carried out in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Its impact on body weight, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity was determined. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain, increased adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The additional observation that plasma oxytocin levels increased upon central infusion suggested that the hormone might affect adipose tissue metabolism by direct action. This was demonstrated using in vitro, ex vivo, as well as in vivo experiments. With regard to its mechanism of action in adipose tissue, oxytocin increased the expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, as well as the tissue content of the phospholipid precursor, N-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, the biosynthetic precursor of the oleic acid-derived PPAR-alpha activator, oleoylethanolamide. Because PPAR-alpha regulates fatty acid β-oxidation, we hypothesized that this transcription factor might mediate the oxytocin effects. This was substantiated by the observation that, in contrast to its effects in wild-type mice, oxytocin infusion failed to induce weight loss and fat oxidation in PPAR-alpha-deficient animals. Altogether, these results suggest that oxytocin administration could represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Anti-obesity sodium tungstate treatment triggers axonal and glial plasticity in hypothalamic feeding centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Amigó-Correig; Sílvia Barceló-Batllori; Guadalupe Soria; Alice Krezymon; Alexandre Benani; Luc Pénicaud; Raúl Tudela; Anna Maria Planas; Eduardo Fernández; Maria del Carmen Carmona; Ramon Gomis

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]: This study aims at exploring the effects of sodium tungstate treatment on hypothalamic plasticity, which is known to have an important role in the control of energy metabolism. [Methods]: Adult lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were orally treated with sodium tungstate. Arcuate and paraventricular nuclei and lateral hypothalamus were separated and subjected to proteomic analysis by DIGE and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging...

  10. Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mashmoul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae is a source of plant polyphenols/carotenoids, used as important spice and food colorant in different parts of the world. It has also been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different types of illnesses since ancient times. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this article is to assess the potential role of saffron and its constituents in the regulation of metabolic functions, which can beneficially alter obesity pathophysiology.

  11. Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor with anti-obesity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Lieuwe; Bergström, Mats; Buus Lassen, Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    multiple doses of 0.125-1 mg TE at anticipated steady-state conditions. The mean striatal DAT occupancy varied dose-dependently between 18% and 77%. A sigmoid E(max) model well described the relationship between striatal DAT occupancy and TE plasma concentrations or doses. It was estimated that the maximum......, but the specific mechanism of this triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor still needs to be further elucidated. This positron emission tomography (PET) study, using [¹¹C]βCIT-FE, aimed to assess the degree of the dopamine transporter (DAT) occupancy, at constant TE plasma levels, following different oral, multiple...

  12. Detection of thermogenesis in rodents in response to anti-obesity drugs and genetic modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R S Arch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds and genetic manipulations are claimed to confer resistance to obesity in rodents by raising energy expenditure. Examples taken from recent and older literature, demonstrate that such claims are often based on measurements of energy expenditure after body composition has changed and depend on comparisons of energy expenditure divided by body weight. This is misleading because white adipose tissue has less influence than lean tissue on energy expenditure. Application of this approach to human data would suggest that human obesity is usually due to a low metabolic rate, which is not an accepted view. Increased energy expenditure per animal is a surer way of demonstrating thermogenesis, but even then it is important to know whether this is due to altered body composition (repartitioning, or increased locomotor activity rather than thermogenesis per se. Regression analysis offers other approaches. The thermogenic response to some compounds has a rapid onset and so cannot be due to altered body composition. These compounds usually mimic or activate the sympathetic nervous system. Thermogenesis occurs in, but may not be confined to, brown adipose tissue. It should not be assumed that weight loss in response to these treatments is due to thermogenesis unless there is a sustained increase in 24-h energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones and fibroblast growth factor 21 also raise energy expenditure before they affect body composition. Some treatments and genetic modifications alter the diurnal rhythm of energy expenditure. It is important to establish whether this is due to altered locomotor activity or efficiency of locomotion. There are no good examples of compounds that do not affect short-term energy expenditure but have a delayed effect. How and under what conditions a genetic modification or compound increases energy expenditure influences the decision on whether to seek drugs for the target or take a candidate drug into clinical studies.

  13. Gastric emptying after a new, more physiological anti-obesity operation: the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, A.R.; Johnston, D.; Barker, M.C.J.; Bury, R.F.; Boyce, J.; Sue-Ling, H. [Leeds General Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The Magenstrasse and Mill (M and M) procedure for obesity is designed to preserve normal gastric emptying mechanisms. The hypothesis investigated in this study was that gastric emptying would be normal after the M and M gastroplasty. Gastric emptying studies were performed using both liquid and solid test meals, in ten morbidly obese patients (MO group) and in 13 patients after the M and M procedure (MM group). Seven people of normal weight served as controls and were matched for age, sex and height to the M and M and MO groups. Three years after the M and M procedure, mean (SD) weight loss was 42 (19) kg, with a mean loss of excess weight of 58% (20%). Gastric emptying half-times (t{sub 1/2}) are expressed in minutes, as median values (25th and 75th percentiles). The t{sub 1/2} for solids was 97 (85-110) min in the control group, 140 (86-220) min in the MO group and 79 (46-150) min in the MM group. Median gastric emptying for solids was 0.7% (0.6%-0.8%) per minute in the control group, 0.5% (0.3%-0.8%) in the MO group and 0.9% (0.4%-1.4%) in the M and M group. There were no statistically significant differences in the emptying times of the three groups. It is concluded that the M and M procedure achieves acceptable weight loss, while preserving gastric emptying mechanisms and thus minimising possible side-effects such as vomiting, dumping and diarrhoea, which are common complications of gastric bypass procedures. (orig.)

  14. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  15. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  16. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  17. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  18. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  19. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  20. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  1. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  2. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  3. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  4. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  5. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  6. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  7. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  8. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agents...

  9. Direct Vasodilators and Sympatholytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Meghan N; Chao, James Y; Ng, Tien M H

    2016-01-01

    Direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents were some of the first antihypertensive medications discovered and utilized in the past century. However, side effect profiles and the advent of newer antihypertensive drug classes have reduced the use of these agents in recent decades. Outcome data and large randomized trials supporting the efficacy of these medications are limited; however, in general the blood pressure-lowering effect of these agents has repeatedly been shown to be comparable to other more contemporary drug classes. Nevertheless, a landmark hypertension trial found a negative outcome with a doxazosin-based regimen compared to a chlorthalidone-based regimen, leading to the removal of α-1 adrenergic receptor blockers as first-line monotherapy from the hypertension guidelines. In contemporary practice, direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents, particularly hydralazine and clonidine, are often utilized in refractory hypertension. Hydralazine and minoxidil may also be useful alternatives for patients with renal dysfunction, and both hydralazine and methyldopa are considered first line for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Hydralazine has also found widespread use for the treatment of systolic heart failure in combination with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). The data to support use of this combination in African Americans with heart failure are particularly robust. Hydralazine with ISDN may also serve as an alternative for patients with an intolerance to angiotensin antagonists. Given these niche indications, vasodilators and sympatholytics are still useful in clinical practice; therefore, it is prudent to understand the existing data regarding efficacy and the safe use of these medications. PMID:26033778

  10. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  11. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  12. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  13. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  15. Multi-Agent Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; Witteveen, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a distributed transport planning problem with competitive autonomous actors that carry out time-constrained pick-up delivery orders from customers. The agents have to find conflict-free routes to execute a series of orders they have accepted. Hatzack and Nebel [2] were the first to sugges

  16. Using Agent to Coordinate Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C H; Chen, Jason J Y

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, agent and web service are two separate research areas. We figure that, through agent communication, agent is suitable to coordinate web services. However, there exist agent communication problems due to the lack of uniform, cross-platform vocabulary. Fortunately, ontology defines a vocabulary. We thus propose a new agent communication layer and present the web ontology language (OWL)-based operational ontologies that provides a declarative description. It can be accessed by various engines to facilitate agent communication. Further, in our operational ontologies, we define the mental attitudes of agents that can be shared among other agents. Our architecture enhanced the 3APL agent platform, and it is implemented as an agent communication framework. Finally, we extended the framework to be compatible with the web ontology language for service (OWL-S), and then develop a movie recommendation system with four OWL-S semantic web services on the framework. The benefits of this work are: 1) dynamic ...

  17. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    2008-01-01

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation in software systems with less human interaction. Major challenge to deployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents and preventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems, as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchor toolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure management of mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. It provide...

  18. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  19. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  20. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  1. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  3. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  4. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  5. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  6. Crimen organizado y agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Reus, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de la justicia penal actual es la lucha contra la criminalidad organizada, bien por su propia naturaleza de “crimen organizado”, bien porque presenta elementos trasnacionales que impiden su investigación a fondo. Todo ello exige la creación de recursos que permitan la investigación de dichos delitos, recursos como el de infiltración de los agentes policiales, objeto del trabajo.

  7. Antipsychotic agents and QT changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, R.; Chue, P

    2000-01-01

    Recently, antipsychotic medications of the novel or atypical classes have received increased attention because of concerns with respect to potential lengthening of the QT interval, yet the currently available and commonly prescribed conventional antipsychotics are significantly more cardiotoxic, particularly agents in the butyrophenone and phenothiazine classes. Lengthening of the QT interval can be associated with a fatal paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The sp...

  8. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  9. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  10. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  11. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  12. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  13. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  14. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  15. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  16. Dimensions and Issues of Mobile Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Agent is a type of software system which acts “intelligently” on one’s behalf with the feature of autonomy, learning ability and most importantly mobility. Now mobile agents are gaining interest in the research community. In this article mobile agents will be addressed as tools for mobile computing. Mobile agents have been used in applications ranging from network management to information management. We present mobile agent concept, characteristics, classification, need, applications and technical constraints in the mobile technology. We also provide a brief case study about how mobile agent is used for information retrieval.

  17. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  18. A framework for organization-aware agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by the presence of a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals. Organizations, such as those used in real-life to structure human activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, can regulate the agents...... explicit coordination mechanisms within the agents. The organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model, but uses an organizational metamodel. We show how AORTA helps agents work together in a system with an organization......’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...

  19. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  20. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  1. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  2. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  3. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange VA presumes porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is related to Veterans' exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service when the ...

  4. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  5. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  6. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server...

  7. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...

  8. Explaining Simulations Through Self Explaining Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Maaike Harbers; John-Jules Meyer; Karel Van den Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is more variable and harder to predict than reactive behavior, and therefore it might be harder to explain. However, the approach presented in this paper tries to make advantage of the agents' pro-active...

  9. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuayuQiu; ChuanfuLiu; XiaokeMa; YingjuanFu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-15 30%, were better than that of the imported product.

  10. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huayu Qiu; Chuanfu Liu; Xiaoke Ma; Yingjuan Fu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally, some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-1530%, were better than that of the imported product.

  11. Virtual Knowledge Communities for Semantic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    International audience Virtual Knowledge Communities are a well suited paradigm for decentralized knowldege exchanges and they have been applied in several domains. In this paper we investigate the implementation of virtual knowledge communities with se- mantic agents. Using the SAM (Semantic Agent Modeling) approach, we show that agents can exchange community re- lated concepts (in OWL) and behavior (in SWRL). Agents can then learn and adapt new community-related behavior, which is useful...

  12. Topology and Social Behaviour of Agents

    OpenAIRE

    O. Hudak

    2003-01-01

    In a social group its members are caled here agents. Any two agents from the group may interact. The interaction consists of the exchange of information and it costs some energy. There exist subgroups of interacting agents which are nonreducibile. The structure, configuration of interactions between agents in the group, forms a macroscopic structure. The statistical equilibrium due to microreversibility is characterised by the maximum of entropy and by the minimum of energy, costs of informat...

  13. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  14. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic plausibility models are Kripke models agents use to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of themselves and each other. Restricting ourselves to the single-agent case, we determine when such models are indistinguishable in the logical language containing conditional belief, i.e., we......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  15. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  16. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  17. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  18. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedale, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    This research book proposes a general conceptual framework for the development of automation in human-agents environments that will allow human- agent teams to work effectively and efficiently. We examine various schemes to implement artificial intelligence techniques in agents.  The text is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors and students of all disciplines, interested in the agency methodology and applications.

  19. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  20. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may r

  1. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  2. Explaining simulations through self explaining agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  3. Explaining Simulations through Self Explaining Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Dignum, F.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  4. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...

  5. The Ontogenesis of Agent: Linguistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley Barrett; Carpenter, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the findings of a longitudinal study of three infants between their 11th and 22nd months to document development of linguistic expression of the agent concept indicated that first vocalizations were inconsistently associated with nonverbal agentive behaviors and later mature utterances coded agent-action-recipient events. (MC)

  6. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  7. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  8. 7 CFR 1430.210 - MILC agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MILC agents. (a) MILC benefits may be disbursed by a dairy marketing cooperative that serves special... operation may authorize an agent of a dairy cooperative or milk handler affiliated with such cooperative to... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false MILC agents. 1430.210 Section 1430.210...

  9. Agents and Lattice-valued Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Germanno Resconi

    2006-01-01

    In fuzzy set theory, instead of the underlying membership set being a two -valued set it is a multi-valued set that generally has the structure of a lattice L with a minimal element O and the maximal element I. Furthermore if ∧, ∨, → and (「) are defined in the set L, then we can use these operations to define, as in the ordinary set theory, operations on fuzzy subsets. In this paper we give a model of the Lattice-Valued Logic with set of agents.Any agents know the logic value of a sentence p. The logic value is compatible with all of the accessible conceptual models or worlds of p inside the agent. Agent can be rational or irrational in the use of the logic operation.Every agent of n agents can have the same set of conceptual models for p and know the same logic for p in this case the agents form a consistent group of agents.When agents have different conceptual models for p,different subgroup of agents know different logic value for p. In this case the n agents are inconsistent in the expression of the logic value for p. The valuation structure of set of agents can be used as a semantic model for the Lattice-valued Logic and fuzzy logic.

  10. Improving Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen; Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt;

    2011-01-01

    We describe the approach used to develop the multi-agent system of herders that competed as the Jason-DTU team at the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2010. We also participated in 2009 with a system developed in the agentoriented programming language Jason which is an extension of AgentSpeak. We ...

  11. Construction and Evaluation of Animated Teachable Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, Bobby; Williams, Betsy; Kramer, Mattie Ruth; Viswanath, Karun; Balachandran, Ramya; Belynne, Kadira; Biswas, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the design decisions, technical approach, and evaluation of the animation and interface components for an agent-based system that allows learners to learn by teaching. Students learn by teaching an animated agent using a visual representation. The agent can answer questions about what she has been taught and take quizzes.…

  12. Stigmergy in multi-agent reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Raghav; Dutech, Alain; Charpillet, François

    2004-01-01

    http://www.computer.org In this paper, we describe how certain aspects of the biological phenomena of stigmergy can be imported into multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), with the purpose of better enabling coordination of agent actions and speeding up learning. In particular, we detail how these stigmergic aspects can be used to define an inter-agent communication framework.

  13. Agent for roentgenocontrast examination of cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-soluble agent, additionaly containing starch, agar, water, is suggested to increase accuracy of injured cavity diagnostics. The method for roentgenocontrast agent preparation on the base of starch-agar gel is described. Advantages of the agent suggested in comparison with those of roentgenologic cavity investigation used are shown

  14. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  15. Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.

  16. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  17. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  18. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  19. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 12 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014), EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), and Science Citation Index-Expanded (1900 to January 2014). Manual searches in reference...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...

  20. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  1. Camouflaging Agents for Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Claudia; Porto, Dennis A; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired condition resulting in patches of depigmented skin that is cosmetically disfiguring and can subsequently be psychologically disturbing. For patients seeking to mask their vitiligo, camouflage options have historically been limited and been designated as a cosmetic, rather than a medical, concern. As research has indicated that proper concealment of vitiligo lesions can vastly improve quality of life, we believe it is essential that dermatologists become aware of all the options available to their patients and that discussions of camouflage options be broached from the first visit. Methods for concealment include cosmetic tattoos, dihydroxyacetone, general cosmetics, and various topical camouflage agents, including the newest product, Microskin™. We conducted a literature review of all of the available options for vitiligo concealment and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, temporary methods of concealment are recommended; but the particular agent used can come from discussion with the patient based on the location of the lesions, degree of concealment desired, cost, and availability. PMID:27050692

  2. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  3. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  4. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  5. Cooperative planning in multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torreño Lerma, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Automated planning is a centralized process in which a single planning entity, or agent, synthesizes a course of action, or plan, that satisfies a desired set of goals from an initial situation. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a distributed system where a group of autonomous agents pursue their own goals in a reactive, proactive and social way. Multi-Agent Planning (MAP) is a novel research field that emerges as the integration of automated planning in MAS. Agents are endowed with plan...

  6. A SURVEY OF THE PROPERTIES OF AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelije Rabuzin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade agent systems were considered to be as one of the major fields of study in Artificial Intelligence (AI field. Many different definitions of agents were presented and several different approaches describing agency can be distinguished. While some authors have tried to define “what” an agent really is, others have tried to identify agents by means of properties which they should possess. Most authors agree on these properties (at least basic set of properties which are intrinsic to agents. Since agent's definitions are not consistent, we are going to give an overview and list the properties intrinsic to an agent. Many different adjectives were attached to the term agent as well and many different kinds of agents and different architectures emerged too. The aim of this paper it go give an overview of what was going on in the field while taking into consideration main streams and projects. We will also present some guidelines important when modelling agent systems and say something about security issues. Also, some existing problems which restrict the wider usage of agents will be mentioned too.

  7. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  8. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server for queries in SQL and converts the query results into XML documents and a stationary agent acting as a client for query forwarding and conversion of received documents into text files readable by a client application. We have tested the performance of the agents in a distributed simulation scenario and established that the agents can be used to connect heterogeneous simulation models and other applications, improving their connectivity and usability.

  9. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  10. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  11. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  12. Model Based Testing for Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Thangarajah, John; Padgham, Lin

    Although agent technology is gaining world wide popularity, a hindrance to its uptake is the lack of proper testing mechanisms for agent based systems. While many traditional software testing methods can be generalized to agent systems, there are many aspects that are different and which require an understanding of the underlying agent paradigm. In this paper we present certain aspects of a testing framework that we have developed for agent based systems. The testing framework is a model based approach using the design models of the Prometheus agent development methodology. In this paper we focus on model based unit testing and identify the appropriate units, present mechanisms for generating suitable test cases and for determining the order in which the units are to be tested, present a brief overview of the unit testing process and an example. Although we use the design artefacts from Prometheus the approach is suitable for any plan and event based agent system.

  13. Agent-Oriented Probabilistic Logic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Shi-Er Ju; Chun-Nian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, agent-based computing is an active research area, and great efforts have been made towards the agent-oriented programming both from a theoretical and practical view. However, most of them assume that there is no uncertainty in agents' mental state and their environment. In other words, under this assumption agent developers are just allowed to specify how his agent acts when the agent is 100% sure about what is true/false. In this paper, this unrealistic assumption is removed and a new agent-oriented probabilistic logic programming language is proposed, which can deal with uncertain information about the world. The programming language is based on a combination of features of probabilistic logic programming and imperative programming.

  14. Agent-Based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the agent-based modeling and mapping i n manufacturing system, some system models are described in this paper, which are included: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Structure (CAS), Proximity Relation Structure (PRS), and Bus-based Network Structure (BNS ). In DBHS, one sort of agents, called static agents, individually acts as Domai n Agents, Resources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents. And the oth ers, named mobile agents, are the brokers of task and ...

  15. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  16. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  17. Interaction Protocols in Multi-Agent Systems based on Agent Petri Nets Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Barkaoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of interaction between agents in Multi Agents System (MAS based on Agent Petri Nets (APN. Our models are created based on communicating agents. Indeed, an agent initiating a conversation with other can specify the interaction protocol wishes to follow. The combination of APN and FIPA Protocols schemes leads to a set of deployment formal rules for points where model interaction can be successfully implemented. We introduce some models FIPA standard protocols.

  18. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... several such logical theories which we prove to be consistent. These theories are all based on first-order predicate logic. To prove our consistency results, we develop a general mathematical framework, suitable for proving a large number of consistency results concerning logical theories involving...

  19. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  20. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  1. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  2. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  3. Agent Grid技术研究初探%Initial Research on Agent Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英朝; 张维明; 肖卫东; 沙基昌

    2003-01-01

    The term "Grid" is increasingly appearing in computer literature, generally referring to some form of system framework into which hardware, software, or information resources can be plugged, and which permits easy configuration and creation of new functionality from existing resources. In this article, first, we introduce the concepts of Grid and Agent Grid based on our own understanding. Then we compare Agent Grid with the traditional Multi-Agent System to make the concept and characters of Agent Grid much clearer. Next, the key techniques of Agent Grid, such as Agent Grid System Architecture, System Models, Intelligent Agents and Agent-Based System Resource Management, are thoroughly illustrated. Finally, we briefly discusse the future applications of Agent Grid.

  4. MATRIX-AGENT FRAMEWORK:A VIRTUAL PLATFORM FOR MULTI-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lan ZHANG; Clement H.C. LEUNG; Gitesh K. RAIKUNDALIA

    2006-01-01

    Multi-agent technology has been applied extensively to many areas, including Decision Support Systems (DSS). However, the applications of multi-agent technology in DSS are still very preliminary.Most of the current agent frameworks, such as middle-agent-based or agent-facilitator-based frameworks, are basically agent-to-agent model. These agent-based frameworks often neglect the living environment for agents and they suffer from: (i) inability to adapt to the environment, (ii)inability to self-upgrade, and (iii) inefficiency in information acquisition. Here, we introduce a recently proposed multi-agent framework, namely Agent-based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD). In this new framework, the communication and cooperation between agents are through a key component, the Matrix, which provides a virtual platform for agents. We use a unified Matrices framework to solve the bottleneck problem in the AOCD framework. Our experimental results based on different agent network topologies indicate that the hybrid topology presents superior performance compared with the centralised and decentralised topologies.

  5. Diuretic Agents in Treatment of Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-you; LI Hong-tao; ZHOU Ding-rong; CHEN Ji-chuan; WANG Yi-nan; GUAN Li-qian; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the role of diuretic agents in treating sudden deafness (SD) and explore the possibility of endolymphatic hydrops as a potential cause of SD. Methods Twenty-eight SD cases were reviewed. In 23 cases, treatment was initiated with routine agents. Diuretic agents were later added in 8 of these cases that failed to respond to routine treatment agents. Diuretic agents were included in the initial treatment in the rest 5 cases. In total, 13 cases received diuretics in addition to routine treatment agents and 15 cases received conventional treatment only. Results In the 8 cases who received diuretics after failed conventional treatments, 4 showed hearing improvement, whereas all 5 cases in which diuretics were included in the initial treatment demonstrated hearing improvement. Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of endolymphatic hydrops in the pathophysiologic course of SD. Diuretics should be considered when clear indications exist with no conflicts to other medical conditions.

  6. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-Ting; Dai, Ming-Xiang; Xue, Fang-Zheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all of the agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all of the agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups and that agents in the same group collaborate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203080 and 61473051) and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing City (Grant No. CSTC 2011BB0081).

  7. Departments as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  8. Ultrasound contrast agents: bubbles, drops and particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lajoinie, Guillaume Pierre René

    2015-01-01

    The research on the medical use of microbubbles has coontinuously provided fascinating results for half a century. Investigating new agents or new uses of existing agents requires both innovative physics and ideas and extensive testing in-vitro and in vivo. The translation from the lab to the clinic is long and calls upon many specialties. In this dissertation, we have presented and studied various experimental agents for biomedical imaging and therapy, some in the early development phase and...

  9. Web-Based Computing Resource Agent Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Web-based Computing Resource Publishing is a efficient way to provide additional computing capacity for users who need more computing resources than that they themselves could afford by making use of idle computing resources in the Web.Extensibility and reliability are crucial for agent publishing. The parent-child agent framework and primary-slave agent framework were proposed respectively and discussed in detail.

  10. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  11. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  12. Applying Software Engineering to Agent Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Mark A.; Lock Haven University; RITTER, Frank E.; Haynes, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Developing intelligent agents and cognitive models is a complex software engineering activity. This article shows how all intelligent agent creation tools can be improved by taking advantage of established software engineering principles such as high-level languages, maintenance-oriented development environments, and software reuse. We describe how these principles have been realized in the Herbal integrated development environment, a collection of tools that allows agent developers to exploi...

  13. Agent-based argumentation for ontology alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Laera, Loredana; Tamma, Valentina; Bench-Capon, Trevor; Euzenat, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    laera2006a International audience When agents communicate they do not necessarily use the same vocabulary or ontology. For them to interact successfully they must find correspondences between the terms used in their ontologies. While many proposals for matching two agent ontologies have been presented in the literature, the resulting alignment may not be satisfactory to both agents and can become the object of further negotiation between them. This paper describes our work constructing ...

  14. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; O'Farrel, Ryan l; Boloni, Ladislau

    2006-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division at the NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent-based tool to monitor the space shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent (NESTA), increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined crit...

  15. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  16. Glaucoma: role of neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, considered as the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and a progressive loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is one of the most important risk factors for developing glaucoma and hence we mainly focus on lowering IOP to arrest the progression of glaucoma. However, many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite the control of initially raised IOP. In fact, some patients develop what is called normal tension glaucoma, not associated to an increased IOP. This emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous neuropathy and that high IOP and vascular insufficiency in the optic nerve head are only risk factors for the development of glaucoma, and are not the only target for the treatment of glaucoma. The reason is that the process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic, and the primary injury is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to a noxious environment surrounding the apoptotic cells. This environment is characterized by changes in the extra-cellular ionic concentrations, increased amounts of free radicals, neurotrophins (NT depletion and increased glutamate-induced excitotoxicity due to high extra-cellular glutamate levels, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors leading to an abnormally high intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the remaining cells that are still vulnerable to damage, and the main aim of neuroprotective therapy is to employ pharmacologic or other means to attenuate the hostility of the environment surrounding the degenerating cells, or to supply the cells with the tools to deal with this aggression, providing resilience to the insult. Several agents have been reported neuroprotective in glaucoma, both in clinical assays

  17. Agent fabrication and its implementation for agent-based electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Su; Zhu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, agent-based e-commerce has emerged as a potential role for the next generation of e-commerce. How to create agents for e-commerce applications has become a serious consideration in this field. This paper proposes a new scheme named agent fabrication and elaborates its implementation in multi-agent systems based on the SAFER (Secure Agent Fabrication, Evolution & Roaming) architecture. First, a conceptual structure is proposed for software agents carrying out e-commerce act...

  18. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2009-01-01

    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  19. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  20. Integrating Interaction Framework for Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正光; 王振杰; 徐良贤

    2003-01-01

    Agent negotiation has become increasingly important since the advent of electronic commerce.There are two kinds of interactions in the process of agent negotiation.One is the interaction between different agents,and the other is the interaction between the agent and the human user.In this paper,firstly,we introduce Q language,a scenario description language for designing interactions between agents and human users.Then we propose an integrating interaction framework for agent negotiation,in which both kinds of interactions are described by Q scenario.Our framework can make the interaction process open and easy to be understood by the users.Users can understand how the negotiation process goes and what is happening in the system including some erroneous or inappropriate actions caused by the negotiation agent.This gives the users a chance to terminate or change the behavior of negotiation agent in time to avoid unfavorable negotiation outcome.In addition,users can customize the agent's behaviors through visible interactions with it.

  1. Agent architecture for intelligent manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis is made of requirements posed by tasks of agents operating in the intelligent manufacturing systems and their resulting architecture is presented.Design/methodology/approach: Architecture of agent systems for industrial environment is presented, making it possible to generate the particular agents customised for the specific tasks, based on the automatic analysis of its required features.Findings: Extension of cellular automata approach underlying the conventional agent behaviour specification using the Fuzzy Cognitive Maps is presented in conjunction with the neural networks providing learning capability of the agents designed for the various levels of the manufacturing supervisory and execution systems. Adding reaction time specification to FCM makes it possible to analyse and design systems with the required behaviour.Research limitations/implications: Specific features of the designed agent architecture have been tested as separate mechanisms which can be merged into the final comprehensive at a later stage.Originality/value: Agent architecture is proposed for the industrial applications of single agents and their groups that can collaborate to achieve the individual and joint goals specified in reaction to changing environment conditions and into their agendas in XML format. Automatic generation of custom agent reactions models can be carried out based on a set of requirements that may be specified in the if-then rules form.

  2. TEST SUITE GENERATION PROCESS FOR AGENT TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOUHAMDI ZINA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software agents are a promising technology for today's complex, distributed systems. Methodologies and techniques that address testing and reliability of multi agent systems are increasingly demanded, in particular to support automated test case generation and execution. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for goal-oriented software agent testing. It specifies a testing process that complements the goal oriented methodology Tropos and reinforces the mutual relationship between goal analysis and testing. Furthermore, it defines a structured and comprehensive agent test suite generation process by providing a systematic way of deriving test cases from goal analysis.

  3. Mobile Agents Principles of Operation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Genco, A

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are one of the most effective software design paradigms, and they are considered to be the most recent evolutionary step of object-oriented programming. Agents have several advantages when compared with objects. The most important among them is to be made of active code, which is capable of acting autonomously. Agents can be a suitable choice to exploit the Internet reality, since users can operate easily in a less compelling way and also reduce Internet connection time. Mobile agents thus make a PC an intelligent entity able to autonomously accomplish boring human tasks, s

  4. Dronedarone: a new antiarrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Ola O; Rogers, Carrie E; Hofmann, Prudence O

    2010-09-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The drug is a derivative of amiodarone and has been modified to reduce the organ toxicities frequently encountered with amiodarone. Dronedarone exerts its antiarrhythmic effects through multichannel blockade of the sodium, potassium, and calcium channels and also possesses antiadrenergic activity, thereby exhibiting pharmacologic effects of all four Vaughan Williams classes of antiarrhythmics. The efficacy of dronedarone for the maintenance of sinus rhythm, ventricular rate control, and reduction in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Although a high rate of gastrointestinal events (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) has been associated with dronedarone, more serious adverse events such as thyroid, liver, or pulmonary toxicities have not been observed. Because of a possible increase in mortality, dronedarone should be avoided in patients with New York Heart Association class IV or II-III heart failure with a recent decompensation. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, dronedarone represents a reasonable alternative for maintenance of sinus rhythm in appropriately selected patients.

  5. Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R

    2012-02-01

    The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.

  6. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  7. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent...

  8. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Core Competencies Of A Call Centre AgentCore Competencies Of A Call Centre Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Christine White; Vera Roos

    2005-01-01

    Call centre agents are becoming increasingly important in the call centre context. They act as a contact point between the customer and the company. Call centre agents should have certain competencies to perform their duties sufficiently. Identifying competencies, required to be effective agents, will ease the task of training and recruitment. Due to the interrelatedness of the call centre agent, the management of a call centre and customers, all relevant role players’ perceptions were taken ...

  10. Your company's secret change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas. PMID:15929405

  11. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  12. Modeling agents with a theory of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Training systems with intelligent virtual agents provide an effective means to train people for complex, dynamic tasks like crisis management or firefighting. Virtual agents provide more adequate behavior and explanations if they not only take their own goals and beliefs into account, but also the a

  13. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  14. 31 CFR 330.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.9 Fiscal agents. (a) The Federal Reserve Banks referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States, are... Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH,...

  15. 31 CFR 342.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.9 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States..., Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ (northern half), NY (City & State), RI, VT,...

  16. Transient Diversity in Multi-Agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lyback, David

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is an important aspect of highly efficient multi-agent teams. We introduce the main factors that drive a multi-agent system in either direction along the diversity scale. A metric for diversity is described, and we speculate on the concept of transient diversity. Finally, an experiment on social entropy using a RoboCup simulated soccer team is presented.

  17. Semantics of Agent Communication: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, R.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Communication has been one of the salient issues in the research on concurrent and distributed systems. This holds no less for the research on multiagent systems. Over the last few years the study of agent communication, and in particular the semantics of agent communication, has attracted increased

  18. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DES

  19. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  20. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  1. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  2. Modelling cooperative agents in infrastructure networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, A.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of concepts of cooperation into an agent-based model of an industrial network. It first addresses the concept of cooperation and how this could be captured as heuristical rules within agents. Then it describes tests using these heuristics in an abstract model of

  3. Freeze conditioning agents ease winter railcar unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.E.

    1982-02-01

    A US midwest utility's freeze control programme is described. All coal is treated with a glycol-based freeze control agent. Some rail wagons were treated with a side release agent which stops coal sticking to the metal wagon. The use of calcium chloride or heat to thaw frozen coal is also discussed.

  4. Explanation in human-agent teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bradshaw, J.M.; Johnson, M.; Feltovich, P.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    There are several applications in which humans and agents jointly perform a task. If the task involves interdependence among the team members, coordination is required to achieve good team performance. This paper discusses the role of explanation in coordination in human-agent teams. Explanations ab

  5. Agent programming languages: programming with mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Agents are personal assistants which can provide proactive support to users by executing routine activities like searching on the Internet, the scheduling of meetings, etc. The concept of an Intelligent Agent has its roots in Artificial Intelligence and provides a basis for the con

  6. PU Sizing Agent Sector Starts Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane (PU) sizing agent is a thermoplastic PU elastomer extensively used in synthetic leather, artificial deerskin and electrostatic flocking sectors. The drastic production and demand increase of synthetic leather in China in recent years has promoted rapid consumption growth of PU sizing agent.

  7. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  8. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Jörg; Rodríguez, Juan; Pérez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  9. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm providesmany benefits in developments of distributed application at the sametime introduce new requirements for security issues with thesesystems. In this paper we try to focus mainly on security issues thatarise when mobile agent paradigm comes into play.

  10. Interaction between some common genotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1986-01-01

    The clastogenic effects of arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide and the protective effect of selenium were studied in short-term lymphocyte cultures. The three agents selected are the major toxic substances in emissions from copper smelters. Cells from non-smoking, healthy individuals were exposed to individual agents and combinations of the four agents (sodium arsenite, lead acetate, sodium sulphite and sodium selenite) and the cells were analysed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatide exchanges. Selenium showed an antagonistic (protective) effect against the other agents. No synergistic effects were found, and the interactions between arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide were mainly antagonistic. These rather unexpected findings indicate that mixed exposure from copper smelters, and other mixed exposures where arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide are involved, may cause less genetic damage than expected and that an adequate dietary supplement of selenium may reduce the genotoxic effects of these agents. PMID:3793119

  11. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  12. A Network Management Framework Using Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lefebvre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Network management of heterogeneous networks is still hard to achieve automatically and efficiently. In this study, we present a framework that has the ability to perform network management tasks on heterogeneous networks using mobile agents. This framework handles the inability of many network devices to run mobile agents. While the main focus of the project is the framework, we present an example of mobile agents that are able to locate a fixed set of network failures and detect the possible causes accurately. Experimental results show that some network management tasks can be more easily executed by mobile agents. In particular, search and diagnostic mobile agents are able to find more precisely a cause of a network failure by finding alternate paths to gather more data about the failure.

  13. Incorporating Inertia Into Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Man, W C

    2005-01-01

    We consider a model that demonstrates the crucial role of inertia and stickiness in multi-agent systems, based on the Minority Game (MG). The inertia of an agent is introduced into the game model by allowing agents to apply hypothesis testing when choosing their best strategies, thereby reducing their reactivity towards changes in the environment. From massive numerical simulations, a remarkable improvement of global cooperation is observed throughout the whole phase space, and the maladaptation behaviour due to over-reaction of agents is removed. Also, these agents are found to be advantageous over the standard ones, which are sometimes too sensitive to attain a fair success rate. Analytical calculation on determining the minimum amount of inertia needed to achieve the above improvement is also provided, which is consistent with the numerical data.

  14. Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Miguel; Mathieu, Philippe; Rodríguez, Juan; Adam, Emmanuel; Ortega, Alfonso; Moreno, María; Navarro, Elena; Hirsch, Benjamin; Lopes-Cardoso, Henrique; Julián, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  15. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  16. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  18. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Nestor; Cesar, Jonatas; Vicente, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with more conservative-like agents treating it more equally than liberal-like agents. This is consistent with the correlation between political affiliation and the Openness personality trait reported in the literature. 3. Under the increase of a model parameter interpreted as an external pressure, the statistics of liberal agents resemble more those of conservative agents, consistent with reports on the consequences of external threats on measures of conservatism. We also show that in the social influence phase liberal-like agents readapt much faster than conservative-like agents when subjected to changes on the relevant set of moral issues. This suggests a verifiable dynamical criterium for attaching liberal or conservative labels to groups.

  19. Agent-based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the gent-based modeling and mapping in m anufacturing system, in this paper, some system models are described, which are including: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Struc ture (CAS), Proximity Relation structure (PRS), and Bus-based network structure (BNS). In DBHS, one sort of agent individually delegates Domain Agents, Res ources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents and the other one is a br oker of tasks and process flow. Static agents representing...

  20. An Application of Mobile Agent System in Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chen-xiang; DU Jun-ping; YIN Yi-xin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an application of a reusable mobile agent system in network management. A mobile agent reusable system is constructed to realize a new method in forming mobile agent systems. By using this method, an agent can change its route dynamically without making any change to its specific behavior. By classifying mobile agents into two categories, the task agent can be reusable in different networks. In this way, a mobile agent system can easily carry out network management tasks.

  1. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  2. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  3. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  4. Agent and multi-Agent systems in distributed systems digital economy and e-commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Hartung, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technology, in particular artificial intelligence, can be used to support economy and commerce using digital means. This book is about agents and multi-agent distributed systems applied to digital economy and e-commerce to meet, improve, and overcome challenges in the digital economy and e-commerce sphere. Agent and multi-agent solutions are applied in implementing real-life, exciting developments associated with the need to eliminate problems of distributed systems.   The book presents solutions for both technology and applications, illustrating the possible uses of agents in the enterprise domain, covering design and analytic methods, needed to provide a solid foundation required for practical systems. More specifically, the book provides solutions for the digital economy, e-sourcing clusters in network economy, and knowledge exchange between agents applicable to online trading agents, and security solutions to both digital economy and e-commerce. Furthermore, it offers soluti...

  5. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the

  6. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  7. Fluorescence quenching of flavins by reductive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Bansal, A.K. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Song, S.-H.; Dick, B. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-07-09

    The fluorescence behaviour of the flavins riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lumiflavin in aqueous solution at pH 8 in the presence of the reducing agents {beta}-mercaptoethanol ({beta}-ME), dithiothreitol (DTT), and sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) is studied under aerobic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are determined as a function of the reducing agent concentration. For all three reducing agents diffusion controlled dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed which is thought to be due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. For DTT additionally static fluorescence quenching occurs.

  8. Cognitive agent programming : A semantic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Riemsdijk, van, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we are concerned with the design and investigation of dedicated programming languages for programming agents. We focus in particular on programming languages for rational agents, i.e., flexibly behaving computing entities that are able to make "good" decisions about what to do. An important line of research in this area is based on Bratman’s so-called Belief Desire Intention (BDI) philosophy. The idea of BDI philosophy is that the behavior of rational agents can be predicted by...

  9. Agent Based Processing of Global Evaluation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing across a networked environment is a monotonous job. Moreover, if the job to be distributed is a constraint satisfying one, the distribution of load demands core intelligence. This paper proposes parallel processing through Global Evaluation Function by means of randomly initialized agents for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. A potential issue about the number of agents in a machine under the invocation of distribution is discussed here for securing the maximum benefit from Global Evaluation and parallel processing. The proposed system is compared with typical solution that shows an exclusive outcome supporting the nobility of parallel implementation of Global Evaluation Function with certain number of agents in each invoked machine.

  10. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  11. On agent-mediated electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    He, M.; Jennings, N. R.; Leung, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys and analyzes the state of the art of agent-mediated electronic commerce (e-commerce), concentrating particularly on the business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) aspects. From the consumer buying behavior perspective, agents are being used in the following activities: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering, and negotiation. The roles of agents in B2B e-commerce are discussed through the business-to-business tran...

  12. Intelligent agent based control of TL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agent based control of complex systems is becoming popular due to its ability to identify the critical situation and its ability to dynamically search for the best available solution to the problem with constrained optimization of the inputs. In this paper we are presenting the architecture of intelligent agent for automatic control of power supplies of TL-1 (Transfer Line 1) to maximise the injection process against the changes in the input beam obtained from Microtron. The paper discusses the results obtained by applying this agent architecture to the accelerator model comprises of Microtron output, TL-1 and booster. (author)

  13. Information Service Model with Mobile Agent Supported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 王继成; 张福炎

    2000-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a kind of novel agent technology characterized by mobile, intelligent, parallel and asynchronous computing. In this paper, a new information service model that adopts mobile agent technology is introduced first,and then an experimental system DOLTRIA system that is implemented based on the model is described. The DOLTRIA system implemented by WWW framework and Java can search for relevant HTML documents on a set of Web servers. The result of experiments shows that performance improvement can be achieved by this model, and both the elapsed time and network traffic are reduced significantly.

  14. Evaluating Agent Architectures: Cougaar, Aglets and AAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian; Haack, Jereme N.; Mcgee, David R.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Thomson, Judi R.; Carlos Lucena Alessandro Garcia Alexander Romanovsky, et al

    2003-05-03

    Research and development organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies in order to implement the next generation of advanced applications. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, agent technologies are perceived as an approach that can provide a competitive advantage in the construction of highly sophisticated software systems in a range of application areas. To determine the sophistication, utility, performance, and other critical aspects of such systems, a project was instigated to evaluate three candidate agent toolkits. This paper reports on the outcomes of this evaluation, the knowledge accumulated from carrying out this project, and provides insights into the capabilities of the agent technologies evaluated.

  15. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  16. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  17. Ontology Based Agent Communication in Resource Allocation and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of ontology is to share information between sending and receiving agents of Multi Agent System (MAS. It provides standard vocabulary and terms for knowledge sharing and is designed to share information conveniently and understandably. Agent based application requires complex interaction among agents. This complexity is due to agent-agent and agent-user communication. It is required to use ontology in agent based application of resource allocation and monitoring. The purpose of Resource Allocation and Monitoring System is to make the procedures involved in allocating fund resources to competing fund seekers transparent so that deserving candidates get funds. Proactive and goal directed behaviour of agents make the system transparent and intelligent. This paper presents ontology designed and implemented for the purpose of communication among agents of Multi Agent System for Resource Allocation and Monitoring (MASRAM. FIPA (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents compliant software JADE (Java Agent Development is used to implement ontology.

  18. RESEARCH ON A SOCCER SERVER TEAM WITH ENVIRONMENTAL-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposed a new agent model, which applies the agent-oriented paradigm to represent multiple objects. This agent model consists of three types of agents as follows: (a) an upperagent which describes an autonomous and dynamic object; (b) a lower-agent which describes a reactive and static object; and (c) an environ-mental-agent which describes the environment of the other agents. As an example, it considered soccer players (a kind of multiple objects) in environmental-agent. Three kinds of soccer agents were constructed with different powers. With soccer server the soccer games were simulated to confirm the effectiveness of our model.

  19. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  20. Multi-target pursuit formation of multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jing; Guan Xin-Ping; Luo Xiao-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to design a team of agents that can accomplish multi-target pursuit formation using a developed leader-follower strategy. It is supposed that every target can accept a certain number of agents. First, each agent can automatically choose its target based on the distance from the agent to the target and the number of agents

  1. Web Search Agents: "One-Stop Shopping" for Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Explains Web search agents as tools that apply intelligent agent software technology for the purpose of automating, improving, and speeding up online search operations. Topics include intelligent desktop agents; search agent marketplace; comparing Web search agents; subjective evaluations; and use by researchers. (LRW)

  2. A Highly Secure Mobile Agent System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okataku, Yasukuni; Okutomi, Hidetoshi; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Ohgishi, Nobuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    We propose a system architecture for mobile agents to improve their security in the environments of insecure networks and non-sophisticated terminals such as PDAs. As mobile agents freely migrate onto their favorite terminals through insecure networks or terminals, it is not appropriate for them to store some secret information for authentication and encryption/decryption. We introduce one and more secure nodes(OASIS NODE) for securely generating and verifying authentication codes. The each agent’s data are encrypted by a pseudo-chaos cipher mechanism which doesn’t need any floating processing co-processor. We’ve constructed a prototype system on a Java mobile agent framework, “Bee-gent" which implements the proposed authentication and cipher mechanisms, and evaluated their performances and their applicability to business fields such as an auction system by mobile agents.

  3. Agent Based Patient Scheduling Using Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes about an agent based approach to patient scheduling using experience based learning. A heuristic algorithm is also used in the proposed framework. The evaluation on different learning techniques shows that the experience based learning (EBL gives better solution. The processing time decreases as the experience increases. The heuristic algorithm make use of EBL in calculating the processing time. The main objective of this patient scheduling system is to reduce the waiting time of patient in hospitals and to complete their treatment in minimum required time. The framework is implemented in JADE. In this approach the patients and resources are represented as patient agents (PA and resource agents (RA respectively. Even though mathematical model give optimal solution, the computational complexity increases for large size problems. Heuristic solution gives better solution for large size problems. The comparisons of the proposed framework with other scheduling rules shows that an agent based approach to patient scheduling using EBL is better.

  4. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir kamal Salih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework (JADE as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems.

  5. Behavior-based dual dynamic agent architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵博; 吴敏; 曹卫华

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the architecture is to make agent promptly and adaptively accomplish tasks in the real-time and dynamic environment. The architecture is composed of elementary level behavior layer and high level be-havior layer. In the elementary level behavior layer, the reactive architecture is introduced to make agent promptlyreact to events; in the high level behavior layer, the deliberation architecture is used to enhance the intelligence ofthe agent. A confidence degree concept is proposed to combine the two layers of the architecture. An agent decisionmaking process is also presented, which is based on the architecture. The results of experiment in RoboSoccer simu-lation team show that the proposed architecture and the decision process are successful.

  6. Study of Desorption Agent for LADS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaojing; Qin Ruyi; Liu Jinlong

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the procedure for selection, evaluation and development of the LADS-D desorption agent associated with the LADS-A adsorbent used in the non-hydroprocessing adsorptive desulfurization (LADS) process for FCC naphtha developed by LPEC Refining Research Institute. The LADS-D desorption agent can effectively remove the sulfides adsorbed on the LADS-A adsorbent. The saturated LADS-A adsorbent can be instantly regenerated by the LADS-D desorption agent to recover its adsorption activity. The LADS-D desorption agent can not only effectively remove all impurities adsorbed on the adsorbent, but also has strong ability to dissolve the impurities to keep a stable desorption efficiency of adsorbent to be basically commensurate with fresh adsorbent after extended use.

  7. Multi-Agent Formations and Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate three intertwined problems concerned with distributed cooperative control of groups of autonomous mobile agents. These problems are the consensus problem in mobile networks, the localization problem in sensor networks and the formation maintenance problem in autonomous robotic teams.

  8. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., quality and level of service, and conformity with established guidelines and procedures. (d) Each Agent... the report of such audit. The auditor selected must be recognized by a State or territorial...

  9. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    CERN Document Server

    Caticha, Nestor; Vicente, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with mo...

  10. Towards Culturally-Aware Virtual Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    in a game-like environment in a more interesting way than for example learning with a textbook. The authors support the idea that virtual agents are a great opportunity for teaching cultural awareness. Realizing this, the concept of culture needs to be translated into computational models and the advantages......Globalization leads to an increase in intercultural encounters with a risk of misunderstandings due to different patterns of behavior and understanding. Learning applications have been proposed that employ virtual agents as their primary tool. Through their embodiment, learning can be done...... of different systems using virtual agents need to be considered. Therefore, the authors reflect in this chapter on how virtual agents can help to learn about culture, scan definitions of culture from the social sciences, give an overview on how multiagent systems developed over time and classify the state...

  11. Empowerment for Continuous Agent-Environment Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Tobias; Stone, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops generalizations of empowerment to continuous states. Empowerment is a recently introduced information-theoretic quantity motivated by hypotheses about the efficiency of the sensorimotor loop in biological organisms, but also from considerations stemming from curiosity-driven learning. Empowemerment measures, for agent-environment systems with stochastic transitions, how much influence an agent has on its environment, but only that influence that can be sensed by the agent sensors. It is an information-theoretic generalization of joint controllability (influence on environment) and observability (measurement by sensors) of the environment by the agent, both controllability and observability being usually defined in control theory as the dimensionality of the control/observation spaces. Earlier work has shown that empowerment has various interesting and relevant properties, e.g., it allows us to identify salient states using only the dynamics, and it can act as intrinsic reward without requi...

  12. Nominaliseeritud protsessi agent meediauudistes / Reet Kasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasik, Reet, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Ajalehe "Postimees" 2005. aasta materjalile toetudes vaadeldakse, mis tüüpi on nominalisatsioonides representeeritavad protsessid ja mis kujul on esitatud protsessi agent ehk tegija. Aluseks on võetud funktsionaalse grammatika põhimõtted.

  13. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  14. Spatial interactions in agent-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Merlone, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Agent Based Modeling (ABM) has become a widespread approach to model complex interactions. In this chapter after briefly summarizing some features of ABM the different approaches in modeling spatial interactions are discussed. It is stressed that agents can interact either indirectly through a shared environment and/or directly with each other. In such an approach, higher-order variables such as commodity prices, population dynamics or even institutions, are not exogenously specified but instead are seen as the results of interactions. It is highlighted in the chapter that the understanding of patterns emerging from such spatial interaction between agents is a key problem as much as their description through analytical or simulation means. The chapter reviews different approaches for modeling agents' behavior, taking into account either explicit spatial (lattice based) structures or networks. Some emphasis is placed on recent ABM as applied to the description of the dynamics of the geographical distribution o...

  15. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    for chemotherapy. The nanoparticles were 150 nm in size with spherical shape, which contained PFOB in the inner core and Dox and ICG in the polymeric shell. More importantly, they could target folate receptor expressing cancer cells, which provide positive in vitro and in vivo NIR and 19F MRI results. In project......Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...

  16. Ontology-based multi-agent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzic, Maja; Wongthongtham, Pornpit; Dillon, Tharam; Chang, Elizabeth [Digital Ecosystems and Business Intelligence Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    The Semantic web has given a great deal of impetus to the development of ontologies and multi-agent systems. Several books have appeared which discuss the development of ontologies or of multi-agent systems separately on their own. The growing interaction between agents and ontologies has highlighted the need for integrated development of these. This book is unique in being the first to provide an integrated treatment of the modeling, design and implementation of such combined ontology/multi-agent systems. It provides clear exposition of this integrated modeling and design methodology. It further illustrates this with two detailed case studies in (a) the biomedical area and (b) the software engineering area. The book is, therefore, of interest to researchers, graduate students and practitioners in the semantic web and web science area. (orig.)

  17. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Muchnik, I. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  18. inventory management, VMI, software agents, MDV model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Wieczerzycki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: As it is well know, the implementation of instruments of logistics management is only possible with the use of the latest information technology. So-called agent technology is one of the most promising solutions in this area. Its essence consists in an entirely new way of software distribution on the computer network platform, in which computer exchange among themselves not only data, but also software modules, called just agents. The first aim is to propose the alternative method of the implementation of the concept of the inventory management by the supplier with the use of intelligent software agents, which are able not only to transfer the information but also to make the autonomous decisions based on the privileges given to them. The second aim of this research was to propose a new model of a software agent, which will be both of a high mobility and a high intelligence. Methods: After a brief discussion of the nature of agent technology, the most important benefits of using it to build platforms to support business are given. Then the original model of polymorphic software agent, called Multi-Dimensionally Versioned Software Agent (MDV is presented, which is oriented on the specificity of IT applications in business. MDV agent is polymorphic, which allows the transmission through the network only the most relevant parts of its code, and only when necessary. Consequently, the network nodes exchange small amounts of software code, which ensures high mobility of software agents, and thus highly efficient operation of IT platforms built on the proposed model. Next, the adaptation of MDV software agents to implementation of well-known logistics management instrument - VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory is illustrated. Results: The key benefits of this approach are identified, among which one can distinguish: reduced costs, higher flexibility and efficiency, new functionality - especially addressed to business negotiation, full automation

  19. Studies of dynamics of physical agent ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Moreno, Israel

    2002-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of learning in physical heterogeneous multi-agent systems(MAS) and the analysis of the benefits of using heterogeneous MAS with respect tohomogeneous ones. An algorithm is developed for this task; building on a previous work on stability in distributed systems by Tad Hogg and Bernardo Huberman, and combining two phenomena observed in natural systems, task partition and hierarchical dominance. This algorithm is devised for allowing agents to learn which are th...

  20. Distributed enterprise search using software agents

    OpenAIRE

    Gunadi, Erwin; Meder, Michael; Plumbaum, Till; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a distributed information retrieval system using agent-based technology. In this multiagent system, each agent has its own specific task and can be used to handle a specific document repository. The system is designed to automatically comply with access restriction rules that are normally enforced in companies. It is used in the administration offices of the German capital city Berlin where it serves as a testbed for further research on aggre...

  1. Designinig Coordination among Human and Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a new methodology for designing coordination between human angents and software agents and, ultimately, among software agents. The methodology is based on two key ideas. The first is that coordination should be designed in steps, according to a precise software engineering methodology, and starting from the specification of early requirements. The second is that coordination should be modeled as dependency between actors. Two actors may depend on one anoth...

  2. Bacteriophages as recognition and identification agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorescu, M.C.; Gaspar, A.

    1987-04-23

    Bacteriophages are employed as agents for recognition and identification of molecules and cellular materials, using their ability to recognize their bacterial host, by coating them with antibodies or by selecting them to perform in a manner analogous to antibodies. Visibility for identification is effected by incorporating a fluorescent agent, a radioisotope, a metal, an enzyme, or other staining material. The method of this invention may be utilized in selected clinical procedures, and is adaptable to use in an assay kit.

  3. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  4. Evolution of hemostatic agents in surgical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Chandru P.; Keenan, Alison C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Topical hemostatic agents are used in a wide variety of surgical settings, and the evolution of this class of surgical tools is an interesting topic. We reviewed and outlined the historical progress of topical hemostats into present day surgery and urology, and highlight opportunities for future research. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE search of all available literature concerning several classes of topical hemostatic agents was performed. Fibrins sealants, Gelatin sponge hemosta...

  5. Delegating budgets when agents care about autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Michael; Gundlach, Erich

    2006-01-01

    We consider resource allocation within an organisation and show how delegation bears on moral hazard and adverse selection when agents have a preference for autonomy. Agents may care about autonomy for reasons of job-satisfaction, status or greater reputation when performing well under autonomy. Separating allocations (overall budget and degree of delegation) are characterised depending on the preference for autonomy. As the latter increases, the degree of delegation assigned to productive an...

  6. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  7. Research on Virtual Agent Perception Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiu-fang; GAO Bao-lu

    2006-01-01

    An intelligent virtual environment is described for training users in the operation of complex engineering systems. After analyzing the original model of virtual environment, a virtual agent perception model was put forward. The information layer was inserted into original virtual environment. The model classifies all kinds of information and offers a way for knowledge description of virtual environment, and contributes to set up feeling model for the Virtual Agent within virtual environment.

  8. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    OpenAIRE

    Cheonshik Kim; You S. Hong

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to...

  9. Agents advanced features for negotiation and coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, E.

    2001-01-01

    Agent-based systems suitable for dealing with applications where the environment is both dynamic and populated with competitors demand for sophisticated characteristics including adaptation, negotiation and coordination. We here briefly summarize some proposals on agents negotiation capabilities including adaptation through reinforcement learning as well as qualitative multi-criteria negotiation and coalition formation protocols. Also, and inspired by robosoccer domain, some basic hints on kn...

  10. Scheduling Activity in an Agent Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    Agents for applications in dynamic environments require artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems to achieve their objectives. For example, they must develop plans of actions to carry out missions in their environment, in other words, to achieve some state in the world. But also, the agents must fulfill real-time requirements that arise because the characteristics of the applications and the dynamism of the environment. In this paper we analyze the use of a schedule of activity in ...

  11. Institutions, Behavior of Agents and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the efficiency criterion, describing the behavior and choices of agents, the influence of moral norms on the model of behavior, as well as the criterion of efficiency as an institution to assess the behavior and development of the economic system. Curve proposed institutional compromise that allows to determine the possibility of changes in the welfare of interacting agents and their compliance with ethical standards when welfare increases due to violation or compliance with these standards. For the purposes of this demonstration of the influence of the model of chart-based dilemmas Holmes-Moriarty. Incentives in determining the agents behaviors play a key role in their formation due to the moral principles of behavior. However, in economics there are situations when moral principles are derived certain behaviors or interactions agents. Holmes and Moriarty there is an alternative interaction, which they can not take advantage of, and there is a full range of alternatives that actually programs the strategic outcomes of interactions that reflect the curves of "institutional compromise." Choosing an agent of moral standards as a potential model determines its behavior and, most importantly, interaction with other agents, adhering to certain moral principles. Assess the condition and the possibility of using a static criterion of Pareto efficiency for the analysis of situations where it is important to measure the economic efficiency. Showing institutional aspects that must be considered in the application or formulation of new performance criteria. It is proved that there is a connection microeconomic efficiency / inefficiency and parameters of behavior of agents that actualizes the need to impact on the behavior of agents incentives to solve the task of changing the structure.

  12. Creating Real-Time Embodied Autonomous Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ A challenging research area for computer graphics and virtual environments (VE) is training interpersonal interactions. In such a system, at least one person is the VE participant, while several more virtual human agents (represented by human-like, embodied models) are engaged in activities in the same virtual space. The participants, whether live or virtual, should interact as if all were real. This means that the virtual agents must have several characteristics afforded to real people, including the following:

  13. Agent-oriented commonsense knowledge base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汝钤; 石纯一; 张松懋; 毛希平; 徐晋晖; 杨萍; 范路

    2000-01-01

    Common sense processing has been the key difficulty in Al community. Through analyzing various research methods on common sense, a large-scale agent-oriented commonsense knowledge base is described in this paper. We propose a new type of agent——CBS agent, specify common sense oriented semantic network descriptive language-Csnet, augment Prolog for common sense, analyze the ontology structure, and give the execution mechanism of the knowledge base.

  14. Operations on Rigid Formations of Autonomous Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Tolga; Anderson, Brian D. O.; Morse, A. Stephen; Whiteley, Walter; Belhumeur, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the maintenance of rigid formations of mobile autonomous agents. A key element in all future multi-agent systems will be the role of sensor and communication networks as an integral part of coordination. Network topologies are critically important for autonomous systems involving mobile underwater, ground and air vehicles and for sensor networks. This paper focuses on developing techniques and strategies for the analysis and design of sensor a...

  15. Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. ...

  16. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  17. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  18. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  19. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  20. The Behaviors Decision of Agent in Multi-agent System%多agent系统中agent的行为决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新军; 王怀民; 楚蓓蓓; 王逸欣

    2003-01-01

    The behavior decision of agent in multi-agent system is dependent on the task of individual agent ,the cooperation with other agents,and the multi-agent system' constraints. The paper presents three abstract concept models of achievement intention,joint intention and maintenance intention representing the factors that affect agent's behaviors respectively,to investigate autonomous agent's behaviors decision in support of agent-oriented software development. The paper discusses and analyzes how they will affect agent's behavior decision and the relationship among them,defines their formal and rigorous semantics,finally specifies and proves a number of important properties.

  1. An Agent Operationalization Approach for Context Specific Agent-Based Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Christof Knoeri; Binder, Claudia R.; Hans-Joerg Althaus

    2011-01-01

    The potential of agent-based modeling (ABM) has been demonstrated in various research fields. However, three major concerns limit the full exploitation of ABM; (i) agents are too simple and behave unrealistically without any empirical basis, (ii) 'proof of concept' applications are too theoretical and (iii) too much value placed on operational validity instead of conceptual validity. This paper presents an operationalization approach to determine the key system agents, their interaction, deci...

  2. Intelligent Agent-Based System for Digital Library Information Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师雪霖; 牛振东; 宋瀚涛; 宋丽哲

    2003-01-01

    A new information search model is reported and the design and implementation of a system based on intelligent agent is presented. The system is an assistant information retrieval system which helps users to search what they need. The system consists of four main components: interface agent, information retrieval agent, broker agent and learning agent. They collaborate to implement system functions. The agents apply learning mechanisms based on an improved ID3 algorithm.

  3. Research and Application of Multi-Agent Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Zhang Fengming

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the background and conception of Agent and Multi-Agent technology and compares the frameworks of Agent system and MAS. Analyzing the framework of Agent secondly. Then explaining the communication language used in the Multi-Agent society where knowledge communication plays a key role among Agents. Finally, some applications are enumerated and the future direction of this technology is prospected.

  4. Engagement driven Topic Selection for an Information-Giving Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Nadine; Prepin, Ken; Pelachaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    International audience We propose a model for conversational agents to select the topic of interaction in agent-initiated information-giving chat. By taking into account the agent's dynamically updated perception of the user's engagement, the agent's own preferences and its associations between topics, the agent tries to select the topic that max-imises the agent and user's combined engagement. The model offers engagement driven dialogue management on the topic level.

  5. The Agent Modeling Language AML A Comprehensive Approach to Modeling Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cervenka, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are already a focus of studies for more than 25 years. Despite substantial effort of an active research community, modeling of multi-agent systems still lacks complete and proper definition, general acceptance, and practical application. Due to the vast potential of these systems e.g., to improve the practice in software and to extent the applications that can feasibly be tackled, this book tries to provide a comprehensive modeling language - the Agent Modeling Language (AML) - as an extension of UML 2.0, concentrating on multi-agent systems and applications.

  6. An Interactive Tool for Creating Multi-Agent Systems and Interactive Agent-based Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing principles from parallel and distributed processing combined with inspiration from modular robotics, we developed the modular interactive tiles. As an educational tool, the modular interactive tiles facilitate the learning of multi-agent systems and interactive agent-based games....... The modular and physical property of the tiles provides students with hands-on experience in exploring the theoretical aspects underlying multi-agent systems which often appear as challenging to students. By changing the representation of the cognitive challenging aspects of multi-agent systems education...

  7. Mobile Agent Based on Internet%基于Internet的移动Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐练; 周龙骧; 王翰虎

    2001-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a hybrid of Internet technology and Artificial Intelligence. Today there are tremendous amount of information resources distributing among Internet ,but it's very difficult to find the wanted-thing. Internet has increasingly become a vital compute platform for electron commercial which has highly popular through the world. Developing new Internet-based application programs such as shopping online,e-business,search engine etc pose new task. Mobile Agent proffers new clue and technology. Considering Internet,this thesis conducts a research on architecture,mobile mechanism in mobile Agent system. Based on the Agent theory research and engineering ,the thesis focuses point at researching Mobile Agents,which have the ability to rove through the network. Using OMG's "Mobile Agent Facility Specification" for reference,we design a model architecture of Mobile Agent System. Based on the architecture ,the article analyzes the key technology and gives methods to resolving them ,emphases on mobility mechanism of Agent and implementing it. At last a model of java-based Mobile Agent System is given.

  8. Challenges of agent banking experiences in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gichana Atandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available More than ever before there is a global concern to entrench financial deepening access to previously ignored areas due to some areas considered economically unviable where majority of the MSEs operate their businesses. There is an increasing need to promote technological and institutional innovation as a means to expand financial system access and usage, including addressing infrastructure weaknesses and empowering business enterprises by developing financial literacy and financial capability programs to bring all people on board and all to participate in economic development of a country, perhaps agent banking will offer a solution to slow pace of individuals enterprise development especially from the rural areas. The uptake of agent banking in Kenya has not been well appreciated by the target beneficiaries who include among others the micro and small enterprises in the rural areas in Kenya who were expected to benefit from this technologically innovative service. In as much as it has been witnessed that there is an increase in penetration of agent banking services clients have not fully made use of the available agents at their localities to cut down on transaction costs occasioned by travelling to traditional branches and also time wasted on queuing for services . It can also be noted that, the banks have not fully taken advantage of agent banking to explore all market segments at a low operating costs. The researcher also identified some of the factors hindering the well functioning of agent banking despite mounting financial literacy training to Equity bank clients. Lack of mobile network services and float, lack of capital, issues of insecurity and fear of robbery. The paper is based on a study conducted to reveal the challenges which are hindering the rural people of Kenya from benefiting from agent banking.

  9. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  10. Environmental Agents Service (EAS) Registry System of Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Environmental Agent Service (EAS) Registries is the information system encompassing the Ionizing Radiation Registry (IRR), the Agent Orange Registry (AOR), and...

  11. 2015 Special Sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Josefa; Mathieu, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Moreno, María; Julián, Vicente; Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo; Jiménez-López, María; Botti, Vicente; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems and Sustainability : the PAAMS Collection

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2015 special sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at 3rd-5th June, 2015: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and Recommender systems (WebMiRes); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Agent-based Modeling of Sustainable Behavior and Green Economies (AMSBGE); Emotional Software Agents (SSESA) and Intelligent Educational Systems (SSIES). The volume also includes the paper accepted for the Doctoral Consortium in PAAMS 2015. PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest develo...

  12. Frequently asked questions: iodinated contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Michael A

    2004-10-01

    Although iodinated contrast agents are safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. Some questions are easily answered and others still require extensive investigation. For one frequent question--is informed consent necessary before all contrast media injections--the simple answer is no. Another question concerns use of contrast media in patients with prior reactions or allergies. Contrast agents can be safely used in such patients, but special care must be taken to be aware of what the previous reaction was and to be ready to treat any reaction. The protective role of pre-treatment with steroids is well established for minor reactions, but they may not prevent major reactions. It is important to realize that even life-threatening, anaphylactoid reactions are not the result of a true allergy to contrast media. Many questions arise about contrast agent-induced nephropathy. Baseline serum creatinine values should be obtained in patients who are at risk, not all patients. The incidence and natural history of contrast agent-induced nephropathy remain unclear. It occurs only in patients with compromised renal function before contrast agent injection, but even patients with normal serum creatinine levels can have renal dysfunction. Calculated creatinine clearance is a better way to determine risk and to follow this complication. The outcome in almost all patients is benign, with progression to end-stage renal disease being rare. The major risk factors, in addition to renal dysfunction, are long-standing diabetes mellitus, dehydration, and use of other nephrotoxic medications. Recent work in preventing and ameliorating contrast agent-induced nephropathy with N-acetyl cysteine, substitution of an isosmolal nonionic contrast agent, and various hydration regimens has been promising. Another common concern is use of iodinated contrast agents in pregnant or breast-feeding women. In both cases, there is no evidence

  13. Dispatching mobile Agents for DDM applicationss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-ning; Guillaume Autran

    2008-01-01

    Techniques for mining information from distributed data sources accessible over the Internet are a growing area of research. The mobile Agent paradigm opens a new door for distributed data mining and knowledge discovery applications. In this paper we present the design of a mobile agent system which couples service discovery, using a logical language based application programming interface, and database access. Combining mobility with database access provides a means to create more efficient data mining applications. The processing of data is moved to network wide data locations instead of the traditional approach of bringing huge amount of data to the processing location. Our proposal aims at implementing system tools that will enable intelligent mobile Agents to roam the Internet searching for distributed data services. Agents access the data, discover patterns, extract useful information from facts recorded in the databases, then communicate local results back to the user. The user then generates a global data model through the aggregation of results provided by all Agents. This overcomes barriers posed by network congestion, poor security, and unreliability.

  14. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  15. Agents: An approach for dynamic process modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Axel; Kopetzky, Roland; Lurk, Alexander

    1999-03-01

    With the growing amount of distributed and heterogeneous information and services, conventional information systems have come to their limits. This gave rise to the development of a Multi-Agent System (the "Logical Client") which can be used in complex information systems as well as in other advanced software systems. Computer agents are proactive, reactive and social. They form a community of independent software components that can communicate and co-operate in order to accomplish complex tasks. Thus the agent-oriented paradigm provides a new and powerful approach to programming distributed systems. The communication framework developed is based on standards like CORBA, KQML and KIF. It provides an embedded rule based system to find adequate reactions to incoming messages. The macro-architecture of the Logical Client consists of independent agents and uses artificial intelligence to cope with complex patterns of communication and actions. A set of system agents is also provided, including the Strategy Service as a core component for modelling processes at runtime, the Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) Component for supporting remote co-operation between human users and the Repository for managing and hiding the file based data flow in heterogeneous networks. This architecture seems to be capable of managing complexity in information systems. It is also being implemented in a complex simulation system that monitors and simulates the environmental radioactivity in the country Baden-Württemberg.

  16. Constructing Agent Model for Virtual Training Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yohei; Sugimoto, Yuki; Ishida, Toru

    Constructing highly realistic agents is essential if agents are to be employed in virtual training systems. In training for collaboration based on face-to-face interaction, the generation of emotional expressions is one key. In training for guidance based on one-to-many interaction such as direction giving for evacuations, emotional expressions must be supplemented by diverse agent behaviors to make the training realistic. To reproduce diverse behavior, we characterize agents by using a various combinations of operation rules instantiated by the user operating the agent. To accomplish this goal, we introduce a user modeling method based on participatory simulations. These simulations enable us to acquire information observed by each user in the simulation and the operating history. Using these data and the domain knowledge including known operation rules, we can generate an explanation for each behavior. Moreover, the application of hypothetical reasoning, which offers consistent selection of hypotheses, to the generation of explanations allows us to use otherwise incompatible operation rules as domain knowledge. In order to validate the proposed modeling method, we apply it to the acquisition of an evacuee's model in a fire-drill experiment. We successfully acquire a subject's model corresponding to the results of an interview with the subject.

  17. Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laljer, Charles E.

    2003-08-01

    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  18. Do Low Molecular Weight Agents Cause More Severe Asthma than High Molecular Weight Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, Olga; Cruz, María-Jesús; Sánchez-Ortiz, Mónica; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Ojanguren, Iñigo; Munoz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to analyse whether patients with occupational asthma (OA) caused by low molecular weight (LMW) agents differed from patients with OA caused by high molecular weight (HMW) with regard to risk factors, asthma presentation and severity, and response to various diagnostic tests. Methods Seventy-eight patients with OA diagnosed by positive specific inhalation challenge (SIC) were included. Anthropometric characteristics, atopic status, occupation, latency periods, asthma severity according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) control classification, lung function tests and SIC results were analysed. Results OA was induced by an HMW agent in 23 patients (29%) and by an LMW agent in 55 (71%). A logistic regression analysis confirmed that patients with OA caused by LMW agents had a significantly higher risk of severity according to the GINA classification after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 3.579, 95% CI 1.136–11.280; p = 0.029). During the SIC, most patients with OA caused by HMW agents presented an early reaction (82%), while in patients with OA caused by LMW agents the response was mainly late (73%) (p = 0.0001). Similarly, patients with OA caused by LMW agents experienced a greater degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, measured as the difference in the methacholine dose-response ratio (DRR) before and after SIC (1.77, range 0–16), compared with patients with OA caused by HMW agents (0.87, range 0–72), (p = 0.024). Conclusions OA caused by LMW agents may be more severe than that caused by HMW agents. The severity of the condition may be determined by the different mechanisms of action of these agents. PMID:27280473

  19. A Multi-Agent Approach for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tiejun; TAN Yihong; XING Lining

    2006-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a classical optimization problem and it is one of a class of NP-Problem. This paper presents a new method named multi-agent approach based genetic algorithm and ant colony system to solve the TSP. Three kinds of agents with different function were designed in the multi-agent architecture proposed by this paper. The first kind of agent is ant colony optimization agent and its function is generating the new solution continuously. The second kind of agent is selection agent, crossover agent and mutation agent, their function is optimizing the current solutions group. The third kind of agent is fast local searching agent and its function is optimizing the best solution from the beginning of the trial. At the end of this paper, the experimental results have shown that the proposed hybrid approach has good performance with respect to the quality of solution and the speed of computation.

  20. A Study in a Hybrid Centralised-Swarm Agent Community

    CERN Document Server

    van Aardt, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a systems architecture for a hybrid Centralised/Swarm based multi-agent system. The issue of local goal assignment for agents is investigated through the use of a global agent which teaches the agents responses to given situations. We implement a test problem in the form of a Pursuit game, where the Multi-Agent system is a set of captor agents. The agents learn solutions to certain board positions from the global agent if they are unable to find a solution. The captor agents learn through the use of multi-layer perceptron neural networks. The global agent is able to solve board positions through the use of a Genetic Algorithm. The cooperation between agents and the results of the simulation are discussed here. .

  1. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  2. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  3. Existence of Multiagent Equilibria with Limited Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Bowling, M; 10.1613/jair.1332

    2011-01-01

    Multiagent learning is a necessary yet challenging problem as multiagent systems become more prevalent and environments become more dynamic. Much of the groundbreaking work in this area draws on notable results from game theory, in particular, the concept of Nash equilibria. Learners that directly learn an equilibrium obviously rely on their existence. Learners that instead seek to play optimally with respect to the other players also depend upon equilibria since equilibria are fixed points for learning. From another perspective, agents with limitations are real and common. These may be undesired physical limitations as well as self-imposed rational limitations, such as abstraction and approximation techniques, used to make learning tractable. This article explores the interactions of these two important concepts: equilibria and limitations in learning. We introduce the question of whether equilibria continue to exist when agents have limitations. We look at the general effects limitations can have on agent b...

  4. Antiseptic skin agents for percutaneous procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Norman E; Madyoon, Hooman

    2009-01-01

    Infections associated with percutaneously implanted devices, such as pacemakers, internal cardiac defibrillators, and endovascular prostheses, create difficult and complex clinical scenarios because management can entail complete device removal, antibiotic therapy, and prolonged hospitalization. A source for pathogens is often thought to be the skin surface, making skin preparation at the time of the procedure a critical part of minimizing implantation of infected devices and prostheses. The most common skin preparation agents used today include products containing iodophors or chlorhexidine gluconate. Agents are further classified by whether they are aqueous-based or alcoholbased solutions. Traditional aqueous-based iodophors, such as povidone-iodine, are one of the few products that can be safely used on mucous membrane surfaces. Alcohol-based solutions are quick, sustained, and durable, with broader spectrum antimicrobial activity. These agents seem ideal for percutaneous procedures associated with prosthesis implantation, when it is critical to minimize skin colony counts to prevent hardware infection.

  5. DIRAC - Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; van Herwijnen, E; Loverre, F; Ponce, S; Graciani Diaz, R.; Galli, D; Marconi, U; Vagnoni, V; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Harrison, K; Schmelling, M; Egede, U; Bogdanchikov, A; Korolko, I; Washbrook, A; Palacios, J P; Klous, S; Saborido, J J; Khan, A; Pickford, A; Soroko, A; Romanovski, V; Patrick, G N; Kuznetsov, G; Gandelman, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes DIRAC, the LHCb Monte Carlo production system. DIRAC has a client/server architecture based on: Compute elements distributed among the collaborating institutes; Databases for production management, bookkeeping (the metadata catalogue) and software configuration; Monitoring and cataloguing services for updating and accessing the databases. Locally installed software agents implemented in Python monitor the local batch queue, interrogate the production database for any outstanding production requests using the XML-RPC protocol and initiate the job submission. The agent checks and, if necessary, installs any required software automatically. After the job has processed the events, the agent transfers the output data and updates the metadata catalogue. DIRAC has been successfully installed at 18 collaborating institutes, including the DataGRID, and has been used in recent Physics Data Challenges. In the near to medium term future we must use a mixed environment with different types of grid mid...

  6. Using Mobile Agents to Implement Workflow System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LIU Xian-xing; GUO Zheng-wei

    2004-01-01

    Current workflow management systems usually adopt the existing technologies such as TCP/IP-based Web technologies and CORBA as well to fulfill the bottom communications.Very often it has been considered only from a theoretical point of view, mainly for the lack of concrete possibilities to execute with elasticity.MAT (Mobile Agent Technology) represents a very attractive approach to the distributed control of computer networks and a valid alternative to the implementation of strategies for workflow system.This paper mainly focuses on improving the performance of workflow system by using MAT.Firstly, the performances of workflow systems based on both CORBA and mobile agent are summarized and analyzed; Secondly, the performance contrast is presented by introducing the mathematic model of each kind of data interaction process respectively.Last, a mobile agent-based workflow system named MAWMS is presented and described in detail.

  7. AGVs Dispatching Using Multiple Cooperative Learning Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    AGVs dispatching,one of the hot problems in FMS, has attracted widespread inte rest in recent years. It is hard to dynamically schedule AGVs with pre-designed rule because of the uncertainty and dynamic nature of AGVs dispatching progress,so the AGVs system in this paper is treated as a cooperative learning mul tiag ent system, in which each agent adopts multilevel decision method, which includes two level decisions:the option level and the action level.On the option level,an agent learns a policy to execute a subtask with the best resp onse to the other AGVs'current options. On the action level,an agent learns an optimal policy of actions for achieving his planned option.The method is applied to a AGVs'dispatching simulation,and the performance of the AGVs system bas ed on this method is verified.

  8. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  9. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  10. NATURAL AGENTS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darji Vinay Chhanalal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract. It comprises the two conditions, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, characterized by chronic recurrent ulceration of the bowel. Conventional drugs for colitis treatment include aminosalicylate, corticosteroids,antibiotics & immunomodulators. 5- Amino salicylic acid having side effects in 30% of the patients. Systemic corticosteroids producing incidence of complication is 4.3%. Antibiotic therapy is beneficial in 70% of the patients & Immunomodulators having 50 to 70% beneficial effects. This report shows that there is no any appropriate treatment available to treat IBD without side effects. A natural agent with reduced or no toxicity is therefore essential. In nature there are so many types of natural agents which are used as protective agents in IBD. This article emphasizes many natural products obtained from plant & other sources, which possess potent activity against experimentally induced IBD.

  11. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor DUQUE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  12. Network Management using Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo ISAZA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a multiagent system for network management. The models developed for the proposed system defines certain intelligent agents interact to achieve the objectives and requirements of the multiagent organization.These agents have the property of being adaptive, acquire knowledge and skills to make decisions according to the actual state of the network that is represented in the information base, MIB, SNMP devices. The ideal state of the network policy is defined by the end user entered, which contain the value that should have performance variables and other parameters such as the frequency with which these variables should be monitored.. An agent based architecture increase the integration, adaptability, cooperation, autonomy and the efficient operation in heterogeneous environment in the network supervision. 

  13. Intelligent Virtual Agents Architecture in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the contemporary performing behavior in the reciprocity of virtual agents is glazed excessively and can't satisfy complex unknown environment, the research of Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA with active learning and local apperception must be accelerated. In this paper, we design and implement a new IVA system architecture, for which active learning and local apperceive interaction were approached. Active learning using knowledge acquisition and knowledge evolution improved the self-regulation of behavior mechanism significantly, while local apperceive interaction could sense disturbances of the simulated environment and interactively communicate with other simulated agents within perception dimension effectively. Ultimately, the experimental result provides effectiveness and practicability of the performance in our prototype IVA system.

  14. Toward Agent Programs with Circuit Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1992-01-01

    New ideas are presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments-environments in which the agent's current situation cannot always be accurately discerned and in which the effects of actions cannot always be reliably predicted. The notion of 'circuit semantics' for programs based on 'teleo-reactive trees' is introduced. Program execution builds a combinational circuit which receives sensory inputs and controls actions. These formalisms embody a high degree of inherent conditionality and thus yield programs that are suitably reactive to their environments. At the same time, the actions computed by the programs are guided by the overall goals of the agent. The paper also speculates about how programs using these ideas could be automatically generated by artificial intelligence planning systems and adapted by learning methods.

  15. Smell Detection Agent Based Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Chandra S. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel nature-inspired optimization algorithm has been employed and the trained behaviour of dogs in detecting smell trails is adapted into computational agents for problem solving. The algorithm involves creation of a surface with smell trails and subsequent iteration of the agents in resolving a path. This algorithm can be applied in different computational constraints that incorporate path-based problems. Implementation of the algorithm can be treated as a shortest path problem for a variety of datasets. The simulated agents have been used to evolve the shortest path between two nodes in a graph. This algorithm is useful to solve NP-hard problems that are related to path discovery. This algorithm is also useful to solve many practical optimization problems. The extensive derivation of the algorithm can be enabled to solve shortest path problems.

  16. Price Prediction in a Trading Agent Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Lochner, K M; Vorobeychik, Y; Wellman, M P; 10.1613/jair.1333

    2011-01-01

    The 2002 Trading Agent Competition (TAC) presented a challenging market game in the domain of travel shopping. One of the pivotal issues in this domain is uncertainty about hotel prices, which have a significant influence on the relative cost of alternative trip schedules. Thus, virtually all participants employ some method for predicting hotel prices. We survey approaches employed in the tournament, finding that agents apply an interesting diversity of techniques, taking into account differing sources of evidence bearing on prices. Based on data provided by entrants on their agents' actual predictions in the TAC-02 finals and semifinals, we analyze the relative efficacy of these approaches. The results show that taking into account game-specific information about flight prices is a major distinguishing factor. Machine learning methods effectively induce the relationship between flight and hotel prices from game data, and a purely analytical approach based on competitive equilibrium analysis achieves equal ac...

  17. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  18. Learning Pet -- Intelligent Agents for WBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玮; 俞方桦

    2001-01-01

    An intelligent agent is any program that can be considered by the user to be acting as an assistant or helper, rather than as a tool in the manner of a conventional direct-manipulation interface. An agent should as well display some, but perhaps not all, of the characteristics that are associated with human intelligence: learning, inference, adaptability,independence, creativity, etc.. In order to make webbased education (WBE) more vividly and instructionally with learner's independence at the same time, the intelligent agent can act as a learning pet, which is affiliated with learner's score or grades and will grow up with learner's achievement. And during the course of study, the learning pet can provides any information required by the learner, gives hints if necessary when the learner doing his/her assignment, offers instructional guide for further study etc..

  19. CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA: A PROMISING ANTIFERTILITY AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Jhuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Population explosion is a serious problem trough out the world. Population is a major problem in our country. Birth control becomes essential part of our life. Synthetic antifertility agents have severe side effect like breast cancer, cervical cancer etc. The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in most part of India is based on the uses of plant medicines of many years. Cissampelos pareira Linn. is a perennial twining shrub with small yellow flower commonly, is one of the folk medicinal plant used as an agent for birth control among rural people. The present review encompasses botanical information, description, geographical distribution, phytochemical properties, uses and recent research on Cissampelos pareira Linn which may help us to know the effectiveness of Cissampelos pareira Linn. as antifertility agent.

  20. Multi-Agent Simulation and Management Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Celia, Helen; Clegg, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent agents offer a new and exciting way of understanding the world of work. Agent-Based Simulation (ABS), one way of using intelligent agents, carries great potential for progressing our understanding of management practices and how they link to retail performance. We have developed simulation models based on research by a multi-disciplinary team of economists, work psychologists and computer scientists. We will discuss our experiences of implementing these concepts working with a well-known retail department store. There is no doubt that management practices are linked to the performance of an organisation (Reynolds et al., 2005; Wall & Wood, 2005). Best practices have been developed, but when it comes down to the actual application of these guidelines considerable ambiguity remains regarding their effectiveness within particular contexts (Siebers et al., forthcoming a). Most Operational Research (OR) methods can only be used as analysis tools once management practices have been implemented. Ofte...

  1. Mining Molecular Pharmacological Effects from Biomedical Text: a Case Study for Eliciting Anti-Obesity/Diabetes Effects of Chemical Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Elzbieta; Muresan, Sorel; Engkvist, Ola; Blomberg, Niklas; Chen, Hongming

    2014-05-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, efficiently mining pharmacological data from the rapidly increasing scientific literature is very crucial for many aspects of the drug discovery process such as target validation, tool compound selection etc. A quick and reliable way is needed to collect literature assertions of selected compounds' biological and pharmacological effects in order to assist the hypothesis generation and decision-making of drug developers. INFUSIS, the text mining system presented here, extracts data on chemical compounds from PubMed abstracts. It involves an extensive use of customized natural language processing besides a co-occurrence analysis. As a proof-of-concept study, INFUSIS was used to search in abstract texts for several obesity/diabetes related pharmacological effects of the compounds included in a compound dictionary. The system extracts assertions regarding the pharmacological effects of each given compound and scores them by the relevance. For each selected pharmacological effect, the highest scoring assertions in 100 abstracts were manually evaluated, i.e. 800 abstracts in total. The overall accuracy for the inferred assertions was over 90 percent. PMID:27485890

  2. Immobilized tannase treatment alters polyphenolic composition in teas and their potential anti-obesity and hypoglycemic activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Bruna Sampaio; Macedo, Gabriela Alves; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Nakajima, Vânia Mayumi; Allwood, J William; Stewart, Derek; McDougall, Gordon J

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of immobilized-tannase treatment on black, green, white and mate tea components and on their bioactivities relevant to obesity. Tannase treatment caused predictable changes in polyphenol composition with substantial reduction in galloylated catechins in green, white and black tea. Mate tea, which is rich in chlorogenic acids, was much less affected by tannase treatment although some degradation of caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives was noted. The original tea samples were effective in inhibiting digestive enzymes in vitro. They inhibited amylase activity, some with IC50 values ∼70 μg mL(-1), but were much less effective against α-glucosidase. They also inhibited lipase activity in vitro and caused dose-dependent reductions in lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The bio-transformed tea samples generally matched the effectiveness of the original samples but in some cases they were markedly improved. In particular, tannase treatment reduced the IC50 value for amylase inhibition for green tea and white tea by 15- and 6-fold respectively. In addition, the bio-transformed samples were more effective than the original samples in preventing lipid accumulation in adipocytes. These in vitro studies indicate that bio-transformed tea polyphenols could assist in the management of obesity through improvement in energy uptake and lipid metabolism and also indicate that biotechnological modification of natural food molecules can improve the benefits of a common beverage such as tea. PMID:27528497

  3. Design, development and optimization of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of an anti-obesity drug

    OpenAIRE

    Jagruti Desai; Nirav Khatri; Sachin Chauhan; Avinash Seth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to formulate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) containing orlistat. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were decided based on the solubility studies. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted, microemulsification area was determined and different formulations were prepared. Particle size, zeta potential, dispersibility test and thermodynamic stability studies were measured. In-vitro dissolution test of thermodynamically stable formulations...

  4. Neuromodulation by soy diets or equol: Anti-depressive & anti-obesity-like influences, age- & hormone-dependent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Trent D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soy-derived isoflavones potentially protect against obesity and depression. In five different studies we examined the influence of soy-containing diets or equol injections on depression, serotonin levels, body weight gain (BW and white adipose tissue (WAT deposition in female Long-Evans rats at various stages of life [rats were intact, ovariectomized or experienced natural ovarian failure (NOF]. Results In general, animals fed a soy-rich diet (Phyto-600 and/or administered equol (@ 5 mg/kg/day displayed significant decreases in BW and WAT compared to a low-soy diet. When equol was injected alone (5 mg/kg/day, experiments 1, 4, and 5 demonstrated that body weight was significantly decreased. Equol has body weight control effects in females that are dependent on ovarian status and/or age of diet initiation. Experiments 1-4 all displayed no significant differences in depressive-related behavior as measured by the Prosolt forced swim test (PFST when soy-rich (Phyto-600 or low-soy diets (Phyto-low or equol treatments (5 mg/kg/day were tested in female rats at various ages or hormonal status. Results of all the experiments are not presented here due to space limitations, but data from experiment 5 are presented. From conception female rats were exposed to either: a a soy-rich (Phyto-600 or b low-soy diet (Phyto-low. After 290 days all rats experienced NOF. At 330 days-old the animals were examined in the Porsolt forced swim test (PFST. One month later a second PFST was performed [after Phyto-low fed animals were injected with equol (5 mg/kg/day for one week prior to the second PFST]. At the first PFST, serotonin and mobility levels were significantly decreased in the Phyto-low fed animals compared to animals that consumed the Phyto-600 diet. After equol injections at the second PFST, mobility and serotonin levels significantly increased in aged NOF rats fed the Phyto-low diet (to levels comparable to Phyto-600 fed animals. Conclusions Consumption of dietary isoflavones or equol exposure in rats has body weight controlling effects and equol specifically may have antidepressant potential dependent upon diet initiation and/or dosage of treatments. The current study demonstrates that equol is able to decrease body weight, abdominal WAT, and depressive-related behavior. While other factors and mechanisms may play a role, in part, the present results provide a greater understanding of how isoflavonoid molecules modulate the brain's influence on behavior.

  5. Anti-obesity effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggu Lee

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF has molecular structures and intracellular signaling pathways that are similar to those of leptin and ciliary neurotropic factor (CNTF. It also has immune-modulatory properties. Given that leptin and CNTF play important roles in energy homeostasis and that obesity is an inflammatory condition in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that G-CSF could also play a role in energy homeostasis. We treated 12 38-week-old male Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats (OLETF, diabetic and 12 age-matched male Long-Evans-Tokushima rats (LETO, healthy with 200 µg/day G-CSF or saline for 5 consecutive days. Body weight reduction was greater in G-CSF-treated OLETF (G-CSF/OLETF than saline-treated OLETF (saline/OLETF following 8 weeks of treatment (-6.9±1.6% vs. -3.1±2.2%, p<0.05. G-CSF treatment had no effect on body weight in LETO or on food intake in either OLETF or LETO. Body fat in G-CSF/OLETF was more reduced than in saline/OLETF (-32.2±3.1% vs. -20.8±6.2%, p<0.05. Energy expenditure was higher in G-CSF/OLETF from 4 weeks after the treatments than in saline/OLETF. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower in G-CSF/OLETF than in saline/OLETF. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was higher in G-CSF/OLETF than in saline/OLETF, but was unaffected in LETO. Immunofluorescence staining and PCR results revealed that G-CSF receptors were expressed in BAT. In vitro experiments using brown adipocyte primary culture revealed that G-CSF enhanced UCP-1 expression from mature brown adipocytes via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In conclusion, G-CSF treatment reduced body weight and increased energy expenditure in a diabetic model, and enhanced UCP-1 expression and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels may be associated with the effects of G-CSF treatment.

  6. Mitochondria as Pharmacological Targets: The Discovery of Novel Anti-Obesity Mitochondrial Uncouplers from Africa's Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ocloo, Augustine; Dongdem, Julius Tieroyaare

    2011-01-01

    Obesity results from prolonged positive imbalance between energy in take and expenditure. When food intake chronically exceeds the body's energy need, an efficient metabolism results in the storage of the excess energy as fat. Mitochondria are the main centre for energy production in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial proton cycling is responsible for a significant proportion of basal or standard metabolic rate, therefore, further uncoupling of mitochondria may be a good way to increase energy e...

  7. Structural analysis and anti-obesity effect of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Won; Synytsya, Andriy; Capek, Peter; Bleha, Roman; Pohl, Radek; Park, Yong Il

    2016-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide JS-MP-1 was isolated from Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.). Sugar linkage analysis and NMR data confirmed that it is a rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG I) polymer carrying arabinan and arabinogalactan (AG II) side chains. JS-MP-1 reduced dose-dependently the viability of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells, significantly stimulated the cleavage of caspases 9 and 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax expression level that led to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in pre-adipocyte cells. The apoptotic death was mediated by stimulation of MAPKs (ERK and p38) signalling pathway. These results suggest that JS-MP-1 is able to reduce the number of fat cells and the mass of adipose tissue via inhibition of pre-adipocyte proliferation and thus JS-MP-1 itself or a crude aqueous Oddi extract containing this polysaccharide can be used as functional ingredient of health-beneficial food supplements for the treatment or prevention of obesity disorders. PMID:27112865

  8. Nondestructive intervention to multi-agent systems through an intelligent agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents). However, we add one intelligent agent, called 'shill', which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior.

  9. A Multi Agent System for MS Windows using Matlab-enabled Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, Th.M.; Thaens, R.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described to program the properties of agents of a multi agent system by using Matlab instructions or Matlab m-files. Apart from the obvious advantage that all Matlab functionality is immediately available, there is the added advantage that all debugging capabilities that Matlab provides

  10. A Comparison of Organization-Centered and Agent-Centered Multi-Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most classical multi-agent systems have the agent in center, there has recently been a development towards focusing more on the organization of the system, thereby allowing the designer to focus on what the system goals are, without considering how the goals should be fulfilled. We have d...

  11. Research of Communication Mechanism of the Multi-agent in Multi-agent Robot Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cooperation of multi-robot that is based on the multi-agent system (MAS) theory of distributed artificial intelligence has become a hotspot in the robotics R&D. In the research the multi-robot is regarded as multi-agent. So the communication and cooperation of multi-agent become the key problem for gaining the dynamic running information of cooperating robots. In this paper the authors introduce the communication modes for agent and provide a common strategy which aims at the communication resources of multi-agent model-the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol which is based on the transmittal medium. It supports the cable-communication of multi-robot and the experiments prove its validity.

  12. 10th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    The modern economy is driven by technologies and knowledge. Digital technologies can free, shift and multiply choices, often intruding on the space of other industries, by providing new ways of conducting business operations and creating values for customers and companies. The topics covered in this volume include software agents, multi-agent systems, agent modelling, mobile and cloud computing, big data analysis, business intelligence, artificial intelligence, social systems, computer embedded systems and nature inspired manufacturing, etc. that contribute to the modern Digital Economy. This volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent, new digital and knowledge economy research and includes 28 papers classified in the following specific topics: business process management, agent-based modeling and simulation, anthropic-oriented computing, learning paradigms, business informatics and gaming, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published papers were selected for presentatio...

  13. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  14. Chelating agents in pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 71 abstracts of papers. Fourteen abstracts were inputted in INIS. The topics covered include: the effects of chelating agents on the retention of 63Ni, 109Cd, 203Hg, 144Ce, 95Nb and the excretion of 210Po, 63Ni, 48V, 239Pu, 241Am, 54Mn; the applications of tracer techniques for studies of the efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with heart and brain disorders; and the treatment of metal poisoning with chelating agents. (J.P.)

  15. New agents: great expectations not realized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancet, Jeffrey E

    2013-09-01

    A number of new agents in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have held much promise in recent years, but most have failed to change the therapeutic landscape. Indeed, with the exception of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (which was subsequently voluntarily withdrawn from the commercial market), no new agent has been approved for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) beyond the 7 + 3 regimen, which was has been in use for over 40 years. This review touches upon the potential reasons for these failures and explores the newer therapeutic approaches being pursued in AML.

  16. Intelligent Agents: The Measure of their Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlabosse, François

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents an original attempt for testing the level of autonomy of intelligent physical agents. After a short review of the architectural problematic of designing such artefacts, we try to situate the place of uncertainty modelling in mobile robotic and complex control systems. We then briefly describe a design for giving to an industrial control problem the highest level of autonomy for performing its tasks. We give some hints how to extend these tests on physical agents exhibiting adaptive behaviours. Future works for applying this methodology will be illustrated.

  17. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  18. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  19. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonshik Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to create optimum traffic signals in congested conditions. The effectiveness of this method was shown through simulation of multiple intersections.

  20. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, H. D.; Siddons, D. P.

    1990-05-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. Gd-DTPA is already approved for use as a contrast agent for