WorldWideScience

Sample records for anti-interleukin 10-specific small

  1. Purification of antibodies anti-interleukin-1 beta for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay is dependent on the affinity of the antibody. The isolation of specific very high affinity antibodies is therefore a key requirement. In this project purified antibodies were prepared by affinity chromatography from polyclonal antisera anti-Interleukin-1 beta involving stepwise elution from pH 7.0 to 2.5 contributing to the development of a sensitive radioimmunoassay for measurement of human IL-1 beta. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody ixekizumab in chronic plaque psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardi, Craig; Matheson, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Cameron, Gregory; Li, Linda; Edson-Heredia, Emily; Braun, Daniel; Banerjee, Subhashis

    2012-01-01

    Type 17 helper T cells have been suggested to play a pathological role in psoriasis. They secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17A (also known as interleukin-17). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab (LY2439821), a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal...

  3. Prolongation of Cardiac Allograft Survival in Rats by Treatment with Anti-Interleukin 2 Antiserum

    OpenAIRE

    Osaki, Toshihide; Sakagami, Kenichi; Orita,Kunzo

    1988-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) is the obligatory signal for both T cell mitogenesis and in vitro generation of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). An investigation was made to determine whether an antibody directed against IL2 would suppress the rejection reaction of rat cardiac allografts. Rabbit anti-interleukin 2 (anti-IL2) antiserum was obtained by immunizing at 2 week intervals over a period of 8 weeks with 10(6) U of recombinant human IL2 along with complete Freund's adjuvant. The bioassay...

  4. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier la

  5. Epitope Mapping of Anti-Interleukin-13 Neutralizing Antibody CNTO607

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina; Wu, Sheng-Jiun; Luo, Jinquan; Kang, James; O' Neil, Karyn; Gilliland, Gary L.; (Centocor)

    2009-06-24

    CNTO607 is a neutralizing anti-interleukin-13 (IL-13) human monoclonal antibody obtained from a phage display library. To determine how this antibody inhibits the biological effect of IL-13, we determined the binding epitope by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of the complex between CNTO607 Fab and IL-13 reveals the antibody epitope at the surface formed by helices A and D of IL-13. This epitope overlaps with the IL-4Ralpha/IL-13Ralpha1 receptor-binding site, which explains the neutralizing effect of CNTO607. The extensive antibody interface covers an area of 1000 A(2), which is consistent with the high binding affinity. The key features of the interface are the charge and shape complementarity of the molecules that include two hydrophobic pockets on IL-13 that accommodate Phe32 [complementarity-determining region (CDR) L2] and Trp100a (CDR H3) and a number of salt bridges between basic residues of IL-13 and acidic residues of the antibody. Comparison with the structure of the free Fab shows that the CDR residues do not change their conformation upon complex formation, with the exception of two residues in CDR H3, Trp100a and Asp100b, which change rotamer conformations. To evaluate the relative contribution of the epitope residues to CNTO607 binding, we performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the A-D region of IL-13. This study confirmed the primary role of electrostatic interactions for antigen recognition.

  6. Prolongation of Cardiac Allograft Survival in Rats by Treatment with Anti-Interleukin 2 Antiserum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaki,Toshihide

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is the obligatory signal for both T cell mitogenesis and in vitro generation of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. An investigation was made to determine whether an antibody directed against IL2 would suppress the rejection reaction of rat cardiac allografts. Rabbit anti-interleukin 2 (anti-IL2 antiserum was obtained by immunizing at 2 week intervals over a period of 8 weeks with 10(6 U of recombinant human IL2 along with complete Freund's adjuvant. The bioassay for inhibition of IL2 activity by anti-IL2 antiserum was carried out in conjunction with the IL2-dependent cytotoxic T cell (CTLL cell assay. Cardiac allografts of F344 rats were heterotopically transplanted into ACI rats. Seven daily doses of 1 ml of anti-IL2 antiserum were administered intravenously following transplantation. IL2-driven [3H]thymidine incorporation in CTLL cells was significantly inhibited by rabbit anti-IL2 antiserum. Graft survival in the anti-IL2 serum-treated group was significantly prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion compared to control groups. In conclusion, these results indicate that rabbit anti-IL2 antiserum may prove to be of significant value as an immunosuppressive agent in clinical organ transplantation.

  7. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti- interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, L.; Hilvering, B; Pavord, ID

    2015-01-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma ...

  8. Effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody treatment on the survival of rat cardiac allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody (anti-IL2 MoAb) and the accumulation of intravenously administered 125I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb were examined in heterotopic rat cardiac allografts. Mouse anti-human recombinant IL2 MoAb was obtained by the hybridoma technique. The anti-IL2 MoAb, termed 8H-10, was an IgG2a which inhibited IL2-driven [3H]TdR incorporation in cytolytic T lymphocyte line cells at a dilution of 2(6). 8H-10 was injected iv at a dose of 200 micrograms/day for 8 consecutive days, beginning on the day of transplantation. Hearts from F344 rats (RT11v1) were transplanted into ACI recipient rats (RT1av1). The mean survival time was 7.6 +/- 0.8 days in untreated controls, 9.0 +/- 1.2 days in additional controls treated with mouse anti-sheep red blood cell monoclonal antibody, and 25.3 +/- 18.4 days in the anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10)-treated group (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the accumulation of intravenously administered 125I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10) was specifically seen in the grafted heart. In conclusion, these results suggest that IL2 may play an important role in allograft rejection and that anti-IL2 MoAb may serve as a useful immunosuppressive agent in clinical transplantation

  9. Use of the VH6-1 gene segment to code for anti-interleukin-18 autoantibodies in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiumentseva, Marina; Morozova, Vera; Zakabunin, Aleksandr; Korobko, Denis; Malkova, Nadezhda; Filipenko, Maksim; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether levels and repertoires of anti-interleukin-18 (IL-18) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) differ in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy donors (HDs). IL-18 concentration in MS patients' sera was higher than in HD, but the level of anti-IL-18 auto-Abs was lower in MS patients. Correlation patterns of IL-18/anti-IL-18 auto-Abs system differed in HD and MS patients, so we have compared segment composition of the anti-IL-18 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) selected from MS and naïve phage display libraries. Considerable differences between anti-IL-18 auto-Abs of these libraries were found. MS panel contained auto-Abs displaying both signs of "fetal" and somatically hypermutated repertoires. Naïve panel mainly contained the naïve antibodies. These variations from the norm are possible results of abnormal regulation of the repertoire perhaps determined by remodeling of the molecular mechanisms involved in the V(D)J recombination and/or abnormal selection by antigen in MS pathogenesis. PMID:26743536

  10. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates thelper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mérida, S.; Sancho Tello, M.; Navea, A; Almansa, Inmaculada; Muriach Saurí, María; Bosch Morell, F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology...

  11. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5α receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor α) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments. PMID:25900924

  12. Anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies—basiliximab and daclizumab—for the prevention of acute rejection in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Sageshima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Junichiro Sageshima, Gaetano Ciancio, Linda Chen, George W Burke IIIDewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Division of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, The Lillian Jean Kaplan Renal Transplant Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: The use of antibody induction after kidney transplantation has increased from 25% to 63% in the past decade and roughly one half of the induction agent used is anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA, ie, basiliximab or daclizumab. When combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression, IL-2RAs have been shown to reduce the incidence of acute rejection, one of the predictors of poor graft survival, without increasing risks of infections and malignancies in kidney transplantation. For low-immunological-risk patients, IL-2RAs, as compared with lymphocyte-depleting antibodies, are equally efficacious and have better safety profiles. For high-risk patients, however, IL-2RAs may be inferior to lymphocyte-depleting antibodies for the prophylaxis of acute rejection. In an effort to reduce toxicities of other immunosuppressive medications without increasing the risk of acute rejection and chronic graft loss, IL-2RAs have often been combined with steroid- and CNI-sparing immunosuppression protocols. More data support the benefits of early steroid withdrawal with IL-2RA in low-risk patients, but preferred induction therapy for high-risk patients has yet to be determined. Although CNI-sparing protocols with IL-2RA may preserve renal function and improve long-term survival in selected patients, further studies are needed to identify those who benefit most from this strategy.Keywords: basiliximab, daclizumab, interleukin-2 receptor antagonist, kidney transplantation, monoclonal antibody

  13. Monitoring anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody treatment for rheumatoid arthritis by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the hand and power Doppler ultrasonography of the finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamishima, Tamotsu; Terae, Satoshi [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sapporo (Japan); Tanimura, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Masato; Matsuhashi, Megumi; Fukae, Jun; Hagiwara, Hiromi; Narita, Akihiro; Aoki, Yuko [Hokkaido Medical Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Sapporo (Japan); Kon, Yujiro [St Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Kosaka, Naoki [Tokeidai Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Atsumi, Tatsuya [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    To compare quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) with conventional measures of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with the anti-interleukin 6 (anti-IL 6) receptor antibody tocilizumab in terms of responsiveness at a few months to disease activity and ability to predict structural damage at 1 year. A cohort of patients with RA (n = 29) was evaluated clinically including disease activity score 28 (DAS28) and by semiquantitative (SQ-) and quantitative (Q-) PDUS (bilateral metacarpophalangeal joints) and MRI (one hand and wrist) at initiation of treatment with anti-IL 6 receptor antibody agents and after 2 and 5 months. Conventional radiography for both hands and wrists was performed at baseline and at 12 months. Responsiveness was assessed by standardized response means (SRM). Areas under the curve (AUC) for measures at baseline, 2 and 5 months were correlated with structural damage at 1 year. Among the laboratory and clinical parameters, DAS28-ESR was the most responsive with a large effect size of SRM. Structural damage progressions for radiography and MR erosion were correlated with AUC of MR bone erosion and Q-PDUS, respectively. In the evaluation of disease activity in RA patients in the first few months after starting anti-IL 6 receptor antibody tocilizumab treatment, the semiquantitative MR bone erosion score of the hand and quantitative value for power Doppler signal in the finger joint were both responsive and predictive of structural damage progression at 1 year. (orig.)

  14. Successful treatment with humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) in a case of AA amyloidosis complicated by familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Satoshi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Junichi; Sumida, Keiichi; Mise, Koki; Hayami, Noriko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Yazaki, Masahide; Ikeda, Shuichi; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a well-known cause of secondary AA amyloidosis. Colchicine is generally considered to be the most effective treatment for FMF and FMF-associated amyloidosis, but the management of patients who are refractory to colchicine remains controversial. We encountered a 51-year-old Japanese man with suspected FMF, who had periodic fever with abdominal pain, polyarthritis, and nephropathy (serum creatinine of 1.9 mg/dL and 24-h protein excretion of 3.8 g). FMF was diagnosed by mutation analysis of the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene, which revealed that the patient was compound heterozygous for the marenostrin/pyrin variant E148Q/M694I. AA amyloidosis was diagnosed by renal and gastric biopsy. Colchicine was administered, but his arthritis persisted, and serum creatinine increased to 2.4 mg/dL. Therefore, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) was administered at a dose of 8 mg/kg on a monthly basis. Both arthritis and abdominal pain subsided rapidly, and C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased from 2.5 to 0.0 mg/dL. After 2 years, his serum creatinine was decreased to 1.5 mg/dL and proteinuria was improved to 0.3 g daily. In addition, repeat gastric biopsy showed a marked decrease of AA amyloidosis. This case suggests that tocilizumab could be a new therapeutic option for patients with FMF-associated AA amyloidosis if colchicine is not effective. PMID:25619282

  15. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates T- helper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Mérida

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60-70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nullens

    Full Text Available During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model.OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48 h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed.Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24 h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant.Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro-intestinal motility, suppress inflammation and

  17. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: Characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since autoantibodies (Abs) to cytokines may modify their biologic activities, high-affinity binding factors for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha BF) were characterized in human sera. IL-1 alpha BF was identified as IgG (1) by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunodiffusion autoradiography, (2) by ligand-blotting method, (3) by ligand binding to affinity-immobilized serum IgG, and (4) by IgG affinity purification followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. IL-1 alpha binding activity resided in the F(ab)2 fragment. The apparent equilibrium constant was in the range of IgG found after immunization with conventional antigens (i.e., 10(-9) to 10(-10) mol/L). Anti-IL-1 alpha IgG auto-Abs represented only an extremely small fraction of total IgG (less than 1/10(-5)). Some sera with IL-1 alpha BF and purified IgG thereof were able to inhibit by 96% to 98% the binding of human recombinant IL-1 alpha to its receptor on murine thymoma EL4-6.1 cells, whereas other sera did not. When 125I-labeled anti-IL-1 alpha IgG complexes were injected into rats, they prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha several fold and altered its tissue distribution. The predominant class was IgG (12/19), mainly IgG4 (9/19), but in five of the sera, anti-IL-1 alpha IgA was also detected. In a screening of 271 sera, IL-1 alpha BF was detected in 17/98 normal subjects and was not more frequent in several control groups of patients, except in patients with Schnitzler's syndrome (fever, chronic urticaria, bone pain, and monoclonal IgM paraprotein) (6/9; p less than 0.005). The pathologic significance of these auto-Abs remains to be determined

  18. Efficacy of anti-interleukin-5 therapy with mepolizumab in patients with asthma: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-5 is believed to be a key cytokine in eosinophil inflammatory infiltration in asthma. Previous clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy and safety of mepolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IL-5, in patients with asthma. However, most of these studies were small, the conclusions were inconsistent, and the precise effects are therefore debatable. METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the effect of intravenous infusion of mepolizumab on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma. Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, Scopus, reviews, and reference lists of relevant articles. The outcome variables analyzed included eosinophil counts in blood and sputum, airways outcome measures, exacerbations, asthma control, and quality of life scores. RESULTS: Seven studies met final inclusion criteria (total n = 1131. From the pooled analyses, mepolizumab significantly reduced eosinophils in blood (MD -0.29×10(9/L, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.14×10(9/L, P = 0.0001 and sputum (MD -6.05%, 95% CI -9.34 to -2.77%, P = 0.0003. Mepolizumab was also associated with significantly decreased exacerbation risk than placebo (OR 0.30, 95%CI 0.13 to 0.67, P = 0.004, and with a significant improvement in the scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ (MD 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.49, P = 0.03 in patients with eosinophilic asthma. There were no statistical differences between the groups with respect to FEV1, PEF, or histamine PC20 (all P>0.05, and a non-significant trend for improvement in scores on the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire (JACQ (MD -0.21, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.01, P = 0.06 in the mepolizumab group was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Mepolizumab reduces the risk of exacerbations and improves quality of life in patients with eosinophilic asthma, but no significant improvement in lung function outcomes was observed. Further

  19. Anti-interleukin-17 treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinna, Sphoorthi; Strober, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory dermatosis, affecting 2-3% of the US population. While first-generation cytokine antagonists targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-dependent pathways have produced favorable responses in the treatment of psoriasis, higher levels of efficacy in a greater proportion of patients have been shown in trials with antibodies targeting interleukin (IL)-17A and the IL-17 receptor subunit. This examines the role of IL-17 inhibitors in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. The efficacy and safety results from the phase-3 trials with monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-17RA (brodalumab) and IL-17A (ixekizumab and secukinumab) validate IL-17 as a highly effective therapeutic target for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. PMID:26943806

  20. Therapeutic uses of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sujin; Tanaka, Toshio; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine-targeted therapy has generated a paradigm shift in the treatment of several immune-mediated diseases. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was initially identified as B-cell stimulatory factor 2, is a prototypical cytokine with wide-ranging biological effects on immune cells such as B and T cells, on hepatocytes, hematopoietic cells, vascular endothelial cells and on many others. IL-6 is thus crucially involved in the regulation of immune responses, hematopoiesis and inflammation. When infections and tissue injuries occur, IL-6 is promptly synthesized and performs a protective role in host defense against such stresses and traumas. However, excessive production of IL-6 during this emergent process induces potentially fatal complications, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and dysregulated, persistently high expression of IL-6 causes the onset or development of various chronic immune-mediated disorders. For these reasons, IL-6 blockade was expected to become a novel therapeutic strategy for various diseases characterized by IL-6 overproduction. Indeed, worldwide clinical trials of tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, have successfully proved its outstanding efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Castleman disease, leading to the approval of tocilizumab for the treatment of these diseases. Moreover, various reports regarding off-label use of tocilizumab strongly suggest that it will be widely applicable for acute, severe complications such as SIRS and cytokine-release syndrome and other refractory chronic immune-mediated diseases. PMID:25142313

  1. Anti-Interleukin-1 Agents in Adult Onset Still's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin 1β (IL-1β is emerging as a master mediator of adult onset Still’s disease (AOSD pathogenesis. This pleiotropic cytokine, whose expression is under the control of the inflammasome pathway, has a wide type of effects. As a key mediator of innate immunity is a potent pyrogen and facilitates neutrophilic proliferation and diapedesis into the inflamed tissues, which are key AOSD manifestations. The study of proinflammatory cytokines profiles in sera and pathological tissues of AOSD patients has shown elevated levels of IL-1β, these levels being highly correlated with disease activity and severity. These experimental evidences and the analogy with other autoinflammatory diseases that share with AOSD clinical and biological characteristics have suggested the blockade of IL-1β as a possible new therapeutic option for the AOSD, especially in conventional therapy resistant cases. Anakinra, the first anti-IL-1 agent put on the market, has demonstrated capable to induce a rapid response sustained over time, especially in systemic forms, where anti-TNFα failed to control symptoms. While a growing number of evidences supports the utilisation of anakinra in AOSD, a new generation of anti-IL1β antagonists is developing. Canakinumab and rilonacept, thanks to their higher affinity and longer half-life, could improve the management of this invalidating disease.

  2. Pulmonary biology of anti-interleukin 5 antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Egan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin 5 (IL-5 is a critical cytokine for the maturation of eosinophil precursors to eosinophils in the bone marrow and those eosinophils then accumulate in the lungs during asthma. We have studied anti IL-5 antibodies on allergic responses in mice, guinea pigs and monkeys and are extending this experiment into humans with a humanized antibody. In a monkey model of pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperreactivity, we found that the TRFK-5 antibody blocked both responses for three months following a single dose of 0.3 mg/kg, i.v. This antibody also blocked lung eosinophilia in mice by inhibiting release from the bone marrow. To facilitate multiple dosing and to reduce immunogenicity in humans, we prepared Sch 55700, a humanized antibody against IL-5. Sch 55700 was also active against lung eosinophilia in allergic monkeys and mice and against pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. Furthermore, as opposed to steroids, Sch 55700 did not cause immunosuppression in guinea pigs. Studies with this antibody in humans will be critical to establishing the therapeutic potential of IL-5 inhibition.

  3. Inhibition of RANKL-dependent cellular fusion in pre-osteoclasts by amiloride and a NHE10-specific monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Yuichi; Shuto, Takahiro; Nikawa, Hiroki; Kawai, Toshihisa; Ohara, Masaru; Kawahara, Kazuko; Ohta, Kouji; Kukita, Toshio; Terada, Yoshihiro; Makihira, Seicho

    2015-06-01

    The functions of Na(+) /H(+) exchangers (NHEs) during osteoclastic differentiation were investigated using the NHE inhibitor amiloride and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Compared with sRANKL-stimulated control cells, amiloride decreased the number of large TRAP-positive osteoclast cells (OCs) with ≥10 nuclei and increased the number of small TRAP-positive OCs with ≤10 nuclei during sRANKL-dependent osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells. NHE10 mRNA expression and OC differentiation markers were increased by sRANKL stimulation in dose- and time-dependent manners. NHEs 1-9 mRNA expression was not increased by sRANKL stimulation. Similar to amiloride, a rat anti-mouse NHE10 MAb (clone 6B11) decreased the number of large TRAP-positive OCs, but increased the number of small TRAP-positive OCs. These findings suggested that inhibition of NHEs by amiloride or an anti-NHE10 MAb prevented sRANKL-promoted cellular fusion. The anti-NHE10 MAb has the potential for use as an effective inhibitor of bone resorption for targeted bone disease therapy. PMID:25612314

  4. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah A; Minthorn, Elisabeth A; Beerahee, Misba

    2011-04-01

    Mepolizumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG1/κ) targeting human interleukin-5 (IL-5), a key haematopoietin needed for eosinophil development and function. Mepolizumab blocks human IL-5 from binding to the α-chain of the IL-5 receptor complex on the eosinophil cell surface, thereby inhibiting IL-5 signalling. The pharmacokinetics of mepolizumab have been evaluated in clinical studies at doses of 0.05-10 mg/kg and at 250 mg, 750 mg and 1500 mg. Mepolizumab was eliminated slowly, with mean initial and terminal phase half-life values of approximately 2 and 20 days, respectively. Plasma clearance ranged from 0.064 to 0.163 mL/h/kg and steady-state volume of distribution ranged from 49 to 93 mL/kg. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional and time independent. Estimates based on a two-compartment intravenous infusion model from patients with asthma or healthy subjects following single doses predicted mepolizumab plasma concentrations in multiple-dose studies involving patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), asthma or eosinophilic oesophagitis. The absolute bioavailability of mepolizumab was 64-75% following subcutaneous injection and 81% following intramuscular injection. Peripheral blood eosinophil levels decreased in healthy subjects and patients with HES, asthma, eosinophilic oesophagitis or atopic dermatitis after intravenous mepolizumab infusion and subcutaneous injection. Reductions in eosinophil counts in oesophagus, sputum, skin, bone marrow, nasal lavage fluid and/or bronchial mucosa after treatment with mepolizumab were observed in placebo-controlled studies in various indications. The relationship between percentage change from baseline in blood eosinophils and mepolizumab plasma concentrations was described by an indirect pharmacological response model. The estimated maximal decrease in eosinophil count was approximately 85% from baseline and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was approximately 0.45 μg/mL. PMID:21348536

  5. Administration of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody prolongs cardiac allograft survival in mice

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Administration of the monoclonal antibody M7/20, which binds to the murine interleukin-2 (IL) receptor, significantly prolongs cardiac allograft survival in two H-2-incompatible strain combinations of inbred mice. The results support the important role of the IL-2 receptor in the mechanism of graft rejection, and suggest its suitability as a target for immunosuppressive therapy.

  6. Prolongation of murine skin allograft survival by immunologic manipulation with anti-interleukin 2 receptor antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of a rat monoclonal antibody (M7/20) directed against the murine interleukin 2 (IL 2) receptor in combination with sublethal x-irradiation of the recipient significantly enhanced the survival of skin allografts, both when the grafts were MHC disparate from the hosts and when only minor histocompatibility differences were present compared with untreated controls. No prolongation in graft survival was seen with either treatment alone at the dose employed. M7/20 and x-ray-treated allograft recipients also displayed significantly decreased alloantigen-specific reactivity against donor-strain spleen cells in both delayed-type hypersensitivity and cytotoxicity assays. Thus, such combination treatment reduces expression of host immune reactivity against graft determinants by several criteria. This work provides additional evidence that monoclonal antibodies directed against the IL 2 receptor may be useful in clinical transplantation

  7. Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Mihara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Masahiko Mihara1, Yoshiyuki Ohsugi2, Tadamitsu Kishimoto31Product Research Department, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Fuji-Gotemba Research Laboratories, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Interleukin (IL-6 has a variety of biological functions. For example, it stimulates the production of acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A and hepcidin which interferes with iron recycling and absorption, causing iron-deficient anemia, and augments expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in synovial cells, leading to neovascularization and osteoclast formation. IL-6 also acts on lymphocytes, not only on B cells to stimulate autoantibody production, but also on naïve T helper cells to promote Th17 cell differentiation. Thus, an imbalance between T cell subsets possibly contributes to development of rheumatoid arthritis. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, improves clinical symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis. Tocilizumab prevented radiographic progression of joint destruction by inhibiting cartilage/bone resorption. Tocilizumab also improved hematological abnormalities, including hypergammaglobulinemia, high levels of autoantibodies, and elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and acute-phase proteins. Importantly, tocilizumab improved quality of life by reducing systemic symptoms, including fatigue, anemia, anorexia, and fever. These findings have confirmed that hyperproduction of IL-6 is responsible for the above clinical symptoms, including joint destruction. Many patients treated with tocilizumab achieved clinical remission associated with decreased serum IL-6, suggesting that IL-6 enhances autoimmunity. Tocilizumab is a new therapeutic option for rheumatoid arthritis.Keywords: interleukin-6, tocilizumab, efficacy, safety, mode of action

  8. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered 125I- and 111In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using 111In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL

  9. Anti-interleukin-6 therapy through application of a monogenic protein inhibitor via gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Dieter; Braun, Gerald S; Maruta, Yuichi; Djudjaj, Sonja; van Roeyen, Claudia R; Martin, Ina V; Küster, Andrea; Schmitz-Van de Leur, Hildegard; Scheller, Jürgen; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Anti-cytokine therapies have substantially improved the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cytokine-targeting drugs are usually biologics such as antibodies or other engineered proteins. Production of biologics, however, is complex and intricate and therefore expensive which might limit therapeutic application. To overcome this limitation we developed a strategy that involves the design of an optimized, monogenic cytokine inhibitor and the protein producing capacity of the host. Here, we engineered and characterized a receptor fusion protein, mIL-6-RFP-Fc, for the inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-established target in anti-cytokine therapy. Upon application in mice mIL-6-RFP-Fc inhibited IL-6-induced activation of the transcription factor STAT3 and ERK1/2 kinases in liver and kidney. mIL-6-RFP-Fc is encoded by a single gene and therefore most relevant for gene transfer approaches. Gene transfer through hydrodynamic plasmid delivery in mice resulted in hepatic production and secretion of mIL-6-RFP-Fc into the blood in considerable amounts, blocked hepatic acute phase protein synthesis and improved kidney function in an ischemia and reperfusion injury model. Our study establishes receptor fusion proteins as promising agents in anti-cytokine therapies through gene therapeutic approaches for future targeted and cost-effective treatments. The strategy described here is applicable for many cytokines involved in inflammatory and other diseases. PMID:26423228

  10. Anti-Interleukin-6 Receptor Antibody Therapy-Induced Retinopathy in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asumi Tada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-human interleukin-6 (IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, is beneficial for treating autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The most common adverse event is upper respiratory tract infection; ocular side effects are rare. We describe a case of skin ulceration and bilateral retinopathy with multifocal cotton-wool spots and retinal hemorrhages in a patient with RA treated with tocilizumab. Tocilizumab administration increased the serum level of IL-6 without affecting the IL-8 levels. We could not exclude the possibility of blood coagulation or retinal vascular changes caused by tocilizumab. The current case highlights the need to consider that ocular adverse effects can develop in patients treated with tocilizumab.

  11. The anti-interleukin-1 in type 1 diabetes action trial--background and rationale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickersgill, Linda M S; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by an inflammatory destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been suggested to be effector molecules based on the observations that pro-inflammatory cytokines cause beta-cell apoptosis in vitro and ag...

  12. Small pleasures

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    This book simply examines the differences between what men and women consider their 'small pleasures' in life. The book combines contemporary text matter juxtaposed with traditional illustrations. A double-sided concertina book that uses the theme of minutiae as both topic and form.

  13. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Expands Regulatory T Cells and Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Stiffening

    OpenAIRE

    Beenish Majeed; Supannikar Tawinwung; Lance S. Eberson; SECOMB, TIMOTHY W.; Nicolas Larmonier; Larson, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive immune function is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Inhibition of T-lymphocyte function has been shown to reduce hypertension, target-organ damage, and vascular stiffness. To study the role of immune inhibitory cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), on vascular stiffness, we stimulated the proliferation of Treg lymphocytes in vivo using a novel cytokine immune complex of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody clone JES6-1 (mAbCD25). Thre...

  14. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction through Expansion of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells have protective effects in wound healing and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. We hypothesize that the interleukin- (IL- 2 complex comprising the recombinant mouse IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1 attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI through the expansion of Treg. Mice were subjected to surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and treated with either PBS or IL-2 complex. The IL-2 complex significantly attenuates ventricular remodeling, as demonstrated by reduced infarct size, improved left ventricular (LV function, and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The IL-2 complex increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, which may be recruited to the infarcted heart, and decreased the frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing CD4+ T helper (Th cells among the CD4+Foxp3− T cells in the spleen. Furthermore, the IL-2 complex inhibited the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines as well as macrophage infiltrates in the infarcted myocardium and induced the differentiation of macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype in border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our studies indicate that the IL-2 complex may serve as a promising therapeutic approach to attenuate adverse remodeling after MI through expanding Treg cells specifically.

  15. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction through Expansion of Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhipeng Zeng; Kunwu Yu; Long Chen; Weihua Li; Hong Xiao; Zhengrong Huang

    2016-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have protective effects in wound healing and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesize that the interleukin- (IL-) 2 complex comprising the recombinant mouse IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1) attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI through the expansion of Treg. Mice were subjected to surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and treated with either PBS or IL-2 complex. The IL-2 complex significant...

  16. Hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D syndrome: a rare cause of prolonged fever and treatment with anti-interleukin 1 agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Deniz; Sahin, Sezgin; Cokugras, Haluk; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    Hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D syndrome (HIDS) is an autosomal recessive, autoinflammatory disease that is characterised with intermittent febrile episodes, cervical lymphadenopathy, rashes, arthritis and gastrointestinal symptoms associated with synovial or serosal inflammation. HIDS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase enzyme. The febrile attacks usually start in early childhood and triggered by stress or vaccinations. We report a case of 16-month-old boy who had episodes of recurrent fever accompanied by maculopapular rash and lymphadenopathy. He was diagnosed as HIDS and he had heterozygote mutation of mevalonate kinase gene. PMID:27190114

  17. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  18. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  19. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  20. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Răzvan Constantin BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCĂ; Cătălin Mihail BARBU

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  1. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  2. Small wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines provides a thorough grounding in analysing, designing, building, and installing a small wind turbine. Small turbines are introduced by emphasising their differences from large ones and nearly all the analysis and design examples refer to small turbines.The accompanying software includes MATLAB(R) programs for power production and starting performance, as well as programs for detailed multi-objective optimisation of blade design. A spreadsheet is also given to help readers apply the simple load model of the IEC standard for small wind turbine safety. Small Wind Turbines repr

  3. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Răzvan Constantin BARBU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  4. Small bowel resection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incision is red, warm, swollen, or more painful Short of breath or chest pain Swollen legs or pain in your calves Alternative Names Small intestine surgery - discharge; Bowel resection - small intestine - discharge; Resection of ...

  5. Securitization and small business

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Small businesses have relied considerably on securitized markets for credit. The recent financial crisis led to a virtual cessation of securitization of some of the loans used by small businesses, such as commercial real estate mortgages, vehicle, and credit card loans. In addition, values of commercial and residential real estate, which small businesses often use as collateral for loans, dropped dramatically. As a consequence, small businesses may have experienced tighter credit conditions t...

  6. Chairing a Small Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.

    Ten management problems for chairs of small departments in small colleges are discussed, along with problem-solving strategies for these administrators. Serious disagreements within a small and intimate department may create a country club culture in which differences are smoothed over and the personal idiosyncrasies of individual members are…

  7. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H;

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  8. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  9. Development of Small Company

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The subject of bachelor thesis is analysis of possibilities and directions of the development of small company. It describes the structure of small company and the problems of its development. It analyses present economical, financial and business situation inside and outside the company. In the second part author introduces some proposals for improving several parts of company.

  10. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  11. Small Mammal Intrigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristol, Daniel A.

    1985-01-01

    Gives introductory information about the study of small mammals including the selection and use of harmless live-traps, handling and identification, techniques for observation and trapping in the wild, and safety measures. Suggests useful references for teachers wishing to develop a small mammal study program for their students. (JHZ)

  12. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  13. Wind: small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-10-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described.

  14. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  15. An Approach to Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: The Apoptotic Activity of Recombinant Anti-Interleukin-6 Monoclonal Antibodies in Intact Tumour Microenvironment of Breast Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shousha, S; Moaaz, M; Sheta, M; Motawea, M A

    2016-06-01

    Current work is one of our comprehensive preclinical studies, a new approach to breast cancer (BC) immunotherapy through induction of tumour cell apoptosis. Tumour growth is not just a result of uncontrolled cell proliferation but also of reduced apoptosis. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with metastatic BC and correlated with poor survival as it promotes growth of tumour-initiating cells during early tumorigenesis protecting these cells from apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the potential of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies to suppress IL-6 proliferative/anti-apoptotic activities in intact tumour microenvironment of BC. Fresh sterile tumour and normal breast tissue specimens were taken from 50 female Egyptian patients with BC undergoing radical mastectomy. A unique tissue culture system designed to provide cells of each intact tumour/normal tissue sample with its proper microenvironment either supplemented or not with anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies. To evaluate the apoptotic activity of anti-IL-6 as a novel candidate for BC treatment strategy, we compared its effects with those obtained using tumour necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL as an established apoptotic agent. Our results revealed that levels of either anti-IL-6- or TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the tumour or normal tissue cultures were significantly higher than those in their corresponding untreated ones (P Recombinant anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies could represent a novel effective element of immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for BC. The selectivity and anti-apoptotic potential of anti-IL-6 is highly hopeful in IL-6- abundant BC tumour microenvironment. PMID:26971879

  16. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  17. Small satellites - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. K.

    The present review of small satellites examines spacecraft activities in the U.K. and compiles a checklist of advantages and applications for the class. These advantages are illustrated with references to recent small satellite missions and technologies developed to facilitate such launches and projects. Specific programs examined include AMPTE-UKS, Viking, and the UoSAT program, and information is given regarding the Small Explorer program, the RAE Space Technology Research Vehicle, the AEA Argos Program, and space research programs in both Japan and India. Low-cost launches are shown to be available in the form of the Ariane Structure for Auxiliary Payloads, the Pegasus and Delta vehicles, and with the Shuttle Free-flying Getaway Special. Small-satellite technologies that play key roles in their effective implementation are: structure/thermal advances, attitude control systems, on-board communications, and power and data-handling systems.

  18. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Symptoms The most common symptoms are: Abdominal ...

  19. Small & Large Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the large intestine produces no digestive enzymes. Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. Functions of the large intestine include the absorption of water and electrolytes and the elimination of ...

  20. Small bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reconnect, your surgeon makes an opening called a stoma through the skin of your belly. The small ... of your belly. Stool will go through the stoma into a drainage bag outside your body. This ...

  1. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen;

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together with...... the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client...... ? Portal Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a...

  2. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  3. Small Mammal Trapping 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal traps were placed in the Baring division and in the Edmunds division of Moosehom National Wildlife Refuge. There were a total of 98 traps set for up to...

  4. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the IAEA-sponsored meeting held in Nice, France 10-11 October, 1988, contain the manuscripts of the 21 reports dealing with research using small tokamaks. The purpose of this meeting was to highlight some of the achievements of small tokamaks and alternative magnetic confinement concepts and assess the suitability of starting new programs, particularly in developing countries. Papers presented were either review papers, or were detailed descriptions of particular experiments or concepts. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. SMALL SCALE MORPHODYNAMICAL MODELLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Ditschke; O. Gothel; H. Weilbeer

    2001-01-01

    Long term morphological simulations using complete coupled models lead to very time consuming computations. Latteux (1995) presented modelling techniques developed for tidal current situations in order to reduce the computational effort. In this paper the applicability of such methods to small scale problems is investigated. It is pointed out that these methods can be transferred to small scale problems using the periodicity of the vortex shedding process.

  6. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  7. UNDERSTANDING SMALL BUSINESS SCAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Schaper; PAUL WEBER

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  8. Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Dolezal; Marcela Kopacova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscop...

  9. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  10. Small simple impact craters

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses some examples of image processing applied to improve optical satellite imagery of small craters (Kamil, Veevers, Haviland). The examples show that image processing can be quite useful for further in-situ researches, because the resultant imagery helps to have a better picture of the crater shape and of the distribution of debris about it. The paper is also disclosing an interesting underwater structure, with shape and size of a small crater, located on the coast-line of Sudan.

  11. Small wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Castellano, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to develop a project on installing a small wind turbine at the University of Glyndwr in Wrexham Wales. Today are immersed in a world seeking clean energy for reduce greenhouse gases because this problem is becoming a global reality. So installing a small wind turbine at the university would provide large quantity of clean energy to supply a workshop and also reduce the expulsion of CO2 into the atmosphere. The main characteristic of the turbine under...

  12. Gas Quenching Small Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Stratton

    2004-01-01

    Gas quenching is an environmentally friendly and effective way of quenching components. However it has not been possible to apply it to small components because of the difficulties of jigging. A method of gas quenching such small components is described in which they are levitated in a confined gas stream. The method is suitable for quenching low alloy steel components that weigh between 1 and 10g.

  13. How small is a small cloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  14. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  15. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  16. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  17. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.; Casteel, K.

    1997-12-01

    While safety standards in modern mechanised underground coal mines in Britain are good, so are standards in their smaller competitors using much older equipment. Working practices and conditions at several Federation of Independent Mines (FIM) operations are described, detailing the use of equipment and methods that would be considered obsolete in larger mines. Although these mines are small the high quality of the coal that they mine means that they are economic. Drilling equipment used in small mines, and scoops are also described. 7 photos. 1 tab.

  18. How Small are Small Stars Really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    VLT Interferometer Measures the Size of Proxima Centauri and Other Nearby Stars [1] Summary At a distance of only 4.2 light-years, Proxima Centauri is the nearest star to the Sun currently known [2]. It is visible as an 11-magnitude object in the southern constellation of Centaurus and is the faintest member of a triple system, together with Alpha Centauri , the brightest (double) star in this constellation. Proxima Centauri is a very-low-mass star, in fact barely massive enough to burn hydrogen to helium in its interior. It is about seven times smaller than the Sun, and the surface temperature is "only" about 3000 degrees, about half of that of our own star. Consequently, it is also much fainter - the intrinsic brightness is only 1/150th of that of our Sun. Low-mass stars are very interesting objects , also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with those of giant planets, like Jupiter in our solar system. A determination of the sizes of the smallest stars has been impossible until now because of their general faintness and lack of adequate instrumentation. However, astronomers have long been keen to move forward in this direction, since such measurements would provide indirect, crucial information about the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions. When the first observations with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI), combining the light from two of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL), were made one year ago ( ESO PR 23/01 ), interferometric measurements were also obtained of Proxima Centauri . They formed part of the VLTI commissioning and the data were soon released to the ESO community, cf. the special website. Now, an international team of astronomers from Switzerland, France and ESO/Chile has successfully analysed these observations by means of newly developed, advanced software. For the first time ever, they obtained a highly accurate measurement of the size of such a small star . Three other small stars were also

  19. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    authorities, which recommend sizes over 13,5 million € (100 million DKr). PPP is here understood as Design, Build, Finance and Operate projects. The paper shows, when looking at Germany, Italy and United Kingdom, that small PPP (below 13,5 million €) are widespread in two investigated countries; United...

  20. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author)

  1. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  2. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  3. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  4. Small can be beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrand, Solveig (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier, 53, avenue des Martyrs, 38026, Grenoble Cedex (France)); Ravel, J.C. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier, 53, avenue des Martyrs, 38026, Grenoble Cedex (France))

    1994-12-15

    Small laboratories with limited financial means can use low-cost personal computers for many control applications. Examples of control systems developed at SARA are discussed, illustrating the evolution of the system in step with that of the PC, but each time with a considerable re-use of software. ((orig.))

  5. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, M.

    1994-09-01

    This article focusses on small hydroelectric power development in Finland. Legislative and financial incentives, and use of standard tubular turbines are discussed. The Vuotos reservoir project is described, and the preparation of an environmental assessment of the project is noted. (UK)

  6. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Small and Magical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ant genome study offers promising evidence in medical and anti-aging research While children often love observing ants happily for hours, grownups are more likely to ignore these small creatures. Some scientists, however, show greater interest in ants than children do.

  8. Small is Beatiful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Aldershaab Boje; Pleman, Allan; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The life and death of a small Danish software house developing ERP-software in collaboration with costumers is analysed.User producer relationships are central drivers in the company's history. This reactive development strategy creates a niche at the marketplace but produces internal...

  9. Small Windmills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.

    1980-01-01

    The report describes a project for small windmills funded by the Ministry of Energy. The test plant is described and a survey of Danish windmills is presented. Some requirements for windmills are mentioned and regulations governing the interface between grid-connected windmills and the electric...

  10. Deburring small intersecting holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  11. Libraries for Small Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda M.

    Presented are the very basic requirements for establishing a small special library operating under a limited budget. Physical plant organization, cataloging, book processing, circulation procedures, book selection and ordering and instructions for typists are covered. Although the practices discussed were established for a museum library, what is…

  12. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  13. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation...

  14. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  15. [Small intestine bacterial overgrowth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Ki, E L; Roduit, J; Delarive, J; Guyot, J; Michetti, P; Dorta, G

    2010-01-27

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by nutrient malabsorption and excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It typically presents with diarrhea, flatulence and a syndrome of malabsorption (steatorrhea, macrocytic anemia). However, it may be asymptomatic in the eldery. A high index of suspicion is necessary in order to differentiate SIBO from other similar presenting disorders such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance or the irritable bowel syndrome. A search for predisposing factor is thus necessary. These factors may be anatomical (stenosis, blind loop), or functional (intestinal hypomotility, achlorydria). The hydrogen breath test is the most frequently used diagnostic test although it lacks standardisation. The treatment of SIBO consists of eliminating predisposing factors and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. PMID:20214190

  16. Small steps for hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  17. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... costs and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a......The application of small wind turbines for residential and commercial applications depends on how a microgrid can operate in a suitable way. Because there is variable demand and a random nature of wind resources, it is usually necessary the installation of controllable end-use loads, storage...

  18. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  19. Small reactor return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current state of the development of present-day small reactors in different countries is performed. Various designs of low and middle power reactors, among which are CAREM (25 MW, PWR), KLT-40 (40 MW, PWR), MRX (30 MW, PWR), IRIS (50 MW, PWR), SMART (1000 MW, PWR), Modular SBWR (50 MW, BWR), PBMR (120 MW, HTGR), GT-HMR (285 MW, HTGR), are discussed

  20. Small and Magical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2011-01-01

    While children often love observing ants happily for hours,grown-ups are more likely to ignore these small creatures.Some scientists,however,show greater interest in ants than children do.One of them is Zhang Guojie,Associate Director of the Bioinformatics Center and Leader of Genome Projects in BGI.BG1 is China's largest genome and bioinformatics analysis center in Shenzhen,in south China's Guangdong Province.

  1. Small Business Innovations (Photodetector)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxx, Inc. of Princeton, NJ, developed the Epitaxx Near Infrared Room Temperature Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) Photodetector based on their Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract work to develop a linear detector array for satellite imaging applications using InGaAs alloys that didn't need to be cooled to (difficult and expensive) cryogenic temperatures. The photodetectors can be used for remote sensing, fiber optic and laser position-sensing applications.

  2. Small Business Innovations (MISER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, CA, developed the Series 120 and 122 non-planner diode pumped ring lasers based on a low noise ring laser with voltage tuning that they delivered to Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The voltage tuning feature allows "phase-locking" the lasers, making them "electronic," similar to radio and microwave electronic oscillators. The Series 120 and 122 can be applied to fiber sensing, coherent communications and laser radar.

  3. Leadership in Small Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Younger

    2010-01-01

    Multi-agent simulation was used to study several styles of leadership in small societies. Populations of 50 and100 agents inhabited a bounded landscape containing a fixed number of food sources. Agents moved about the landscape in search of food, mated, produced offspring, and died either of hunger or at a predetermined maximum age. Leadership models focused on the collection and redistribution of food. The simulations suggest that individual households were more effective at meeting their ne...

  4. Think Small Go Big

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤维维

    2006-01-01

    Vepoo公司在创立之前,经历了三次创业转型。用他们的话来说,从“think big go small”转到“think small go big”用了一年的时间。这期间他们耗尽了初期筹备资金,幸运的是在最后一刻迎来了黎明的曙光。

  5. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  6. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  7. When small is beautiful. Boom time for small hydro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, John

    2002-08-01

    Although small hydropower projects generally contribute a small proportion of most nations' electricity needs their importance often exceeds their size. The author, a freelance industrial journalist considers prospects for small hydro, how such schemes are benefiting communities throughout the world and why some countries are more successfully using small hydro than others. (Author)

  8. The small library manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  9. Spacecraft at Small NEO

    CERN Document Server

    Scheeres, D

    2006-01-01

    The impact risk has been sharply curtailed for the largest km-sized Near Earth Objects (NEOs) through a concerted period of observation spanning the last decade. Thus the risk of impact has now migrated to the smaller and more numerous members of the Near Earth Object (NEO) population. Characterization and mitigation missions to these smaller objects become more complex from a spacecraft operations perspective, even as the prospects for nudging such lower mass bodies off course become more feasible. This paper details the challenges for spacecraft operations at small bodies and indicates areas where more research and analysis of this problem is needed.

  10. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  11. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well...... plasticity. Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence...

  12. Small changes for works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology indicates that genetic information from DNA is transmitted to RNA,and then translated into proteins that play various roles during all physiological and pathological processes.However,most of the proteins have to make small chemical changes on their amino acid chains,so-called post-translational modifications,before they start to work.The collection of four articles in this issue presents timely developments in the area of protein modifications,ranging from how proteins carry out their biological functions based on protein modifications to what are molecular mechanisms of protein modifications.

  13. Business Small company

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    This diploma work deals with a Business Small company. The work moves on the concrete company, which is analyzed and on the basis of analyses the new strategy is formulated. At the theoretical part, summary of solving problems is introduced. It’s needed for the analytic part of work. At the beginning, business is defined in economic terms. Found in this part are basic concepts that are linked to business. From the general definition of business the work fluently proceeds to more concrete...

  14. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  15. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  16. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  17. Securitization of Small Business Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Beshouri, Christopher P.; Peter J. Nigro

    1995-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential impact of securitization in improving small businesses’ access to credit. It begins by examining the nature of small business lending and the factors that make banks the primary providers of credit to small businesses. The paper then examines the conditions under which the benefits of securitization are fully realized and whether the nature of small business lend­ing satisfies those conditions. We argue that certain characteristics of small firm finance, espe...

  18. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... (available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-15/pdf/2012-11586.pdf ), the U.S. Small Business... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research... regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and...

  19. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and... related to size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 15, 2012, at 77 FR 28520 (available at...

  20. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research... its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and.... Background On July 22, 1982, Congress enacted and the President signed into law the Small Business...

  1. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F.; Kast, Brian A.; Kniskern, Marc W.; Rose, Scott E.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Woods, James W.; Greene, Ronald W.

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  2. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  3. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  4. Seminar on small PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first of the three papers presented, reviews the history of small and medium power reactors. Although the category includes all reactors with an output up to 600MWe, the concentration is on the range 250-300MWe. Their suitability for developing countries and their economic aspects are discussed. The other two papers are concerned with the construction, transportation, installation and management of the Shore Test Facility for the prototype of the PWR 2, a reactor designed for use in submarines. The test facility was built at Barrow-in-Furness and then moved to its site in Caithness, Scotland. The methods used to move the enormous loads involved are described in detail. The construction and installation was planned over 5 years and involved a large number of people from the construction company, the Royal Navy and the contractors who operate the facility. The project management is described. (U.K.)

  5. Small-crack test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, James M.; Allison, John E.

    This book contains chapters on fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks, monitoring small-crack growth by the replication method, measurement of small cracks by photomicroscopy (experiments and analysis), and experimental mechanics of microcracks. Other topics discussed are the real-time measurement of small-crack-opening behavior using an interferometric strain/displacement gage; direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks; an ultrasonic method for the measurement of the size and opening behavior of small fatigue cracks; and the simulation of short crack and other low closure loading conditions, utilizing constant K(max) Delta-K-decreasing fatigue crack growth procedures.

  6. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  7. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  8. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  9. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  10. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  11. Thinking small is big again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.; Didsbury, R.; Strati, G.L.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    This article introduces a series of articles in the field of small reactors. Activity in this field has been on the upswing in North America. The major advantages of a small modular reactor are improved safety, lower cost and a small-risk venture. Canada has a long history of small reactor designs for research reactors as well as power reactors. Some of these reactors are ZEEP, ZED-2, NRX, NRU, WR-1, SLOWPOKE and CANDU power reactors.

  12. Globalization, Entrepreneurship and Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    Stan ªtefania Anca

    2012-01-01

    New product innovation often comes from small business. Most the radical inventions of the last century, such as the computer, come from small companies, not large ones. And this will not change. Globalization will continue to modify and mold the environment or small business and entrepreneurship. The competition from abroad places strong pressure on small business in terms of efficiency, price, quality, cost, control, marketing, expertise, customer satisfaction and innovativeness. Globalizat...

  13. Training in Chinese Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zhejun

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation aims to review the currently predominant literature on the factors influencing the training in small business in the industrialized Western economies and to carry out empirical investigation on the determinants of training in Chinese small business and then analyze whether the Western-based literature is consistent with the practices of training in Chinese small firms. In addition, relevant problems with training in small business are presented and recommendations on how to r...

  14. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  15. Modified Small Business Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Belayet Ali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers some likely threats and effectivesteps for a secure small business. It also involves a flowchart tocomprehend the overall small business network security easilyand we identify a set of security issues and applyappropriate techniques to satisfy the correspondingsecurity requirements. In respect of all, this document isstrong enough for any small business network security.

  16. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine. ... A sample of fluid from the small intestine is needed. A procedure ... done to get the sample. The fluid is placed in a special dish in ...

  17. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical reports contained in this collection of papers on research using small tokamaks fall into four main categories, i.e., (i) experimental work (heating, stability, plasma radial profiles, fluctuations and transport, confinement, ultra-low-q tokamaks, wall physics, a.o.), (ii) diagnostics (beam probes, laser scattering, X-ray tomography, laser interferometry, electron-cyclotron absorption and emission systems), (iii) theory (strong turbulence, effects of heating on stability, plasma beta limits, wave absorption, macrostability, low-q tokamak configurations and bootstrap currents, turbulent heating, stability of vortex flows, nonlinear islands growth, plasma-drift-induced anomalous transport, ergodic divertor design, a.o.), and (iv) new technical facilities (varistors applied to establish constant current and loop voltage in HT-6M), lower-hybrid-current-drive systems for HT-6B and HT-6M, radio-frequency systems for HT-6M ICR heating experimentation, and applications of fiber optics for visible and vacuum ultraviolet radiation detection as applied to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches. A total number of 51 papers are included in the collection. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Small Hydropower in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.EOKRANEFE; S.OWOLABI

    2002-01-01

    Nigeria is the most populaous black nation in the world. It has an area of 913,072 square kilometres. The country population is about 120 million. There are three major languages, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, although there is still more than 380 dialects in local languages. There are large number of household on the African continent that are unelectrified.In Nigeria about 70 million people remain literally in the dark without access to electricity. The majority of these numbers are in the rural areas. This workshop is apt in a number of ways. It is a joint effort between government, private sector, the academic and other practitioners in small hydro power station, it is also a promotion of business and industrial activities as well as development of renewable energy resources. I wish to commend the organizers of this workshop. The focus of the workshop is relevant to the agenda of the Federal Ministry of Power and Steel and aspirations of the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide regular and steady electricity to majority of Nigerians before the end of year 2001.

  19. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  20. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section...

  1. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive coordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project, is presented

  2. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project is presented. (author)

  3. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  4. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 deg. C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 deg. C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  5. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  6. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  7. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from about 1 nm up to a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nano-metric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area... ) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some information that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2. Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  8. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical reports in this document were presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting ''Research on Small Tokamaks'', September 1990, in three sessions, viz., (1) Plasma Modes, Control, and Internal Phenomena, (2) Edge Phenomena, and (3) Advanced Configurations and New Facilities. In Section (1) experiments at controlling low mode number modes, feedback control using external coils, lower-hybrid current drive for the stabilization of sawtooth activity and continuous (1,1) mode, and unmodulated and fast modulated ECRH mode stabilization experiments were reported, as well as the relation to disruptions and transport of low m,n modes and magnetic island growth; static magnetic perturbations by helical windings causing mode locking and sawtooth suppression; island widths and frequency of the m=2 tearing mode; ultra-fast cooling due to pellet injection; and, finally, some papers on advanced diagnostics, i.e., lithium-beam activated charge-exchange spectroscopy, and detection through laser scattering of discrete Alfven waves. In Section (2), experimental edge physics results from a number of machines were presented (positive biasing on HYBTOK II enhancing the radial electric field and improving confinement; lower hybrid current drive on CASTOR improving global particle confinement, good current drive efficiency in HT-6B showing stabilization of sawteeth and Mirnov oscillations), as well as diagnostic developments (multi-chord time resolved soft and ultra-soft X-ray plasma radiation detection on MT-1; measurements on electron capture cross sections in multi-charged ion-atom collisions; development of a diagnostic neutral beam on Phaedrus-T). Theoretical papers discussed the influence of sheared flow and/or active feedback on edge microstability, large edge electric fields, and two-fluid modelling of non-ambipolar scrape-off layers. Section (3) contained (i) a proposal to construct a spherical tokamak ''Proto-Eta'', (ii) an analysis of ultra-low-q and runaway

  9. Successful budgeting for small business

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The most important rule for financial management in small companies, although it is general rule for all sizes of company, is not to run out of cash. Being a financial manager for a small company, it is more serious to manage company's budget because the smaller enterprise faces greater challenge in raising cash. The following subjects are areas to be covered in addressing the issue of budgeting in a small business: -the current academic views and literature reviews on the subject o...

  10. Sustainability for a Small Country

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Geoff W.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective in this paper is to promote thinking on what "sustainable development" or "ecologically sustainable development" means for a small trading country. After a brief acknowledgement of some of the diverse literature on sustainability, there is a consideration of some realities facing a small trading economy. The balance of the paper comprises a discussion of the scope for a small country to enhance sustainability. This is done under several headings, corresponding to different ...

  11. Small Spacecraft Activities at JPL

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ross

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief technical description of some of the small spacecraft concepts prepared by JPL for various sponsors. Some of JPL's work in microspacecraft is presented. The paper contains brief technical descriptions of the following four small spacecraft conceptual designs: 1) Lunar GAS, 2) Polar Mesoscale Explorer, 3) DARPA SHF and 4) Discovery. Since 1986, JPL has studied more than 10 small spacecraft including those to be presented here.

  12. Leadership in a small enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Palmgren, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Leadership is often seen as the premier force behind the success and failure of enterprises and the well-being of the personnel. In spite of the vast amount of studies on leadership, leadership in small enterprises has seldom been in focus in leadership research. The increasing importance of small firms to the economic growth and competitiveness raises questions about the role and practice of leadership in small enterprises. This study aims to deepen our understanding of leadership as a socia...

  13. Organization of Small Business Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Along with continuing changes in the tax law, the requirements to the organization of small business accounting are changing, too. The article provides the analysis of normative legal documents governing small business accounting. The accounting requirements for small businesses of general and simplified tax accounts have been systematized. The necessity and essentiality of drawing primary documents has been grounded. The list and order of making tax registers and preparation of financial sta...

  14. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  15. Deterministic Small-World Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Comellas, Francesc; Sampels, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Many real life networks, such as the World Wide Web, transportation systems, biological or social networks, achieve both a strong local clustering (nodes have many mutual neighbors) and a small diameter (maximum distance between any two nodes). These networks have been characterized as small-world networks and modeled by the addition of randomness to regular structures. We show that small-world networks can be constructed in a deterministic way. This exact approach permits a direct calculatio...

  16. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  17. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  18. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  19. What Is a Small Business?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome S. Osteryoung; Newman, Derek

    1993-01-01

    This paper argues that a definition of small business is important for both research and governmental policy. A chronological history of definitions is discussed along with their limitations. A new definition of small business is advocated when a business has personal guarantees and has no public stock. This definition is measurable, meaningful, and congruent with the perceptions of the market system.

  20. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  1. Resourcing Change in Small Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources for school-community…

  2. Board Effectiveness in Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Söderqvist, Anette; WÀgar, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates boards of directors in small firms and explores the link between board effectiveness and the composition, roles and working styles of the boards. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyses data from a telephone survey of boards in 45 small firms. The survey included both the CEO and the chairperson of the board. Findings: The study identifies three groups of small firms: ‘paperboards’, ‘professional boards’, and ‘management ...

  3. Cosmic Strings with Small Tension

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2009-01-01

    We describe cosmic F--term strings with exponentially small tension which are D3 branes wrapped on deformed $A_3$ singularities. We show that brane instanton effects which can be calculated after a geometric transition give rise to an exponentially small volume for the node on which the D3 branes wrap leading to a string with small tension. We generalize our description to the case of non--Abelian cosmic strings and argue that these strings are stable against monopole--anti monopole pair creation.

  4. Small Probe Reentry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), and its research partner, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo (CPSLO), will develop an integrated Small Probe Reentry System (SPRS) for low...

  5. JPL Small Body Database Browser

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL Small-Body Database Browser provides data for all known asteroids and many comets. Newly discovered objects and their orbits are added on a daily basis....

  6. Small Sat Analysis Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Low-Cost Small Spacecraft Program is focused on the technologies, subsystems, methodologies, and mission concepts for space missions which lower the...

  7. Small Sat Analysis Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop Small Satellite Analysis Laboratory (SatLab): A simulation-of-simulations framework to integrate component and engineering simulations into a single larger...

  8. Quantum Small-world Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zong-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2011-01-01

    Quantum networks are critical to quantum communication and distributed quantum computing. Here we propose a small-world model of large-scale quantum repeater networks, where "small-world" is a fundamental concept rooted in complex networks, which describe a broad range of real systems. The core of the model is to relate the hierarchical fashion of measurements to coarse-graining process, when quantum repeater protocols are implemented. We demonstrate that quantum repeater networks with fractal structure can be enlarged with certain length scale in geographic space, while preserving topology by performing renormalization. Actually, renormalization here serves as an organizing principle determining the distribution of long-range entangled links over quantum networks, which gives rise to fractal to small-world transition. Furthermore, by iterative implementation of renormalization on the former coarse-grained network, we eventually obtain an onion-like, hierarchical quantum small-world network, where the distanc...

  9. Development project of small accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project is demonstration of a small proton and heavy ion synchrotron and a small hard X-ray photon radiation source by using new technology and application of them to therapy, diagnosis, material science and life science. In this paper, a part of small proton and heavy ion synchrotron is discussed. Nine organizations joined in this project. There are four development themes such as optimization of laser-ion 100 TW class source target, beam storage and cooling device, small synchrotron ring and FFAG accelerator. Outline and contents of development of them are explained. This project is planning to generate a few MeV/u carbon ions in fully ionized states by impact of laser with about 100 TW output. 3 T maximum bending magnetic field using normal conduction AC magnet will be actualized for synchrotron with 200 MeV proton beam. (S.Y.)

  10. Small for gestational age (SGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called intrauterine growth restriction. The most common definition of small for gestational age (SGA) is a ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Business Opportunities for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the market potential and identifies a number of potential paths for developing the small nuclear reactor business. There are several potential opportunities identified and evaluated. Selecting a specific approach for the business development requires additional information related to a specific market and sources of capital to support the investment. If and how a market for small nuclear plants may develop is difficult to predict because of the complexity of the economic and institutional factors that will influence such development. Key factors are; economics, safety, proliferation resistance and investment risk. The economic and political interest of any of the identified markets is also dependent on successful demonstration of the safety and reliability of small nuclear reactor. Obtaining a US-NRC Standard Design approval would be an important development step toward establishing a market for small reactors. (authors)

  12. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  13. Very small ionization pressure gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very small ionization pressure gauge has been developed to operate in the pressure range 10-6 Torr to 100μ. A metal construction and external cooling fins result in a very rugged device with exceptionally small outgassing properties. The gauge also incorporates a replaceable filament-grid assembly on a single plug which allows the simple replacement of both the filament and the grid when needed

  14. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    % supersaturated in oxygen while the bottom waters becomes anoxic. Dense charophyte stands influenced the hydrodynamics and created favorable conditions for the apical parts in the surface waters, while the basal parts withstood anoxia for up to 12 hours in the bottom waters. Nocturnal convective mixing oxygenated......) both in the small lakes and in the small ephemeral streams on the Great Alvar. Downstream respiration was decoupled from GPP as respiration rates were much higher due to agricultural impact....

  15. Small Bowel Review - Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, ABR; Wild, G.

    1997-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the study of the small bowel. Part I of this two-part review of the small bowel examines carbohydrates, including brush border membrane hydrolysis and sugar transport; amino acids, dipeptides, proteins and food allergy, with a focus on glutamine, peptides and macromolecules, and nucleosides, nucleotides and polyamines; salt and water absorption, and diarrhea, including antidiarrheal therapy and oral rehydration treatment; lipids (digestion and absorption...

  16. Small windpower systems are beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, A.

    1988-11-01

    Today's small wind turbine generators perform well and reliably, thanks to brushless alternators, composite blades and protection against high winds. Wind turbines of such dimensions would often be employed for battery chargers. Bigger, geared machines, with rotors of up to 17 m diameter, driving synchronous or induction generators, would be coupled with diesel sets for supplying small communities. Battery chargers, island and hybrid systems and possible sites are discussed.

  17. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Heribert

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small x ``projectile side'' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Lange...

  18. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  19. Small

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Joseph

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

  20. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology... Director, Office of Innovation, Small Business Administration, 409 Third Street SW., Washington, DC...

  1. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... period for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR... Edsel Brown, Jr., Assistant Director, Office of Innovation, Small Business Administration, 409...

  2. Runoff processes and small watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small watersheds are a fundamental landscape unit for quantifying inputs and outputs of water, sediment and nutrients. Small watersheds have been used historically for defining runoff processes and flood response to storm precipitation. Early conceptualizations of runoff production during the International Hydrological Decade in the 1960s focused on the importance and movement of event water as overland flow to the stream channel. Use of mass balance mixing models using stable isotope tracers in the 1970s and 1980s directly challenged early ideas of where water goes when it rains, residence time of catchment waters and flow paths of subsurface runoff towards the stream. These data showed that the majority of water in the stream during a precipitation event was water that existed in the watershed prior to the event. While credible physical mechanisms of old water mobilization have only been defined in the past decade, stable isotope tracer approaches are now mature enough to offer new potential for informing new model structures of how small watersheds work. Isotope tracer data in small watersheds and mass balance separations also represent new ways of validating and calibrating watershed models. This presentation will chronicle the use of isotope tracers in small watersheds and provide examples of how these data can be used in models of runoff processes and for providing valuable input for water resource management at larger basin scales. (author)

  3. Small satellites for tropical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Marie-Jose; Bonn, Ferdinand

    1993-11-01

    A number of mission studies were performed to assess the suitability of small satellite systems for tropical data acquisition. These studies took into account the specifics of the tropical user communities and were focused on remote sensing and resource management issues. The requirements and potential solutions for four application areas are discussed. For monitoring of forest and agricultural vegetation, a small synthetic aperture radar is considered with P, C, or X band imaging, possibly supplemented by a high resolution multispectral imager. The radar would have the capability to monitor below cloud cover which is often found in tropical regions. Optical, microwave, or spectrographic imaging would also be useful in small satellites for disaster monitoring (notably of floods), land management, and air pollution monitoring. A small satellite with data storage and forwarding capability is also envisioned to collect data from dependable, low-power, and low-cost ground sensors via a simple ultrahigh frequency uplink and download the data on a very high frequency downlink. All the small satellites would be launched in low inclination orbits to ensure a number of consecutive passes over the targeted tropical area.

  4. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huppert, Mark [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States); Cochrane, Ric [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  5. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  6. Studies in small field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore some issues in slow roll inflation in situations where field excursions are small compared to Mp. We argue that for small field inflation, minimizing fine tuning requires low energy supersymmetry and a tightly constrained structure. Hybrid inflation is almost an inevitable outcome. The resulting theory can be described in terms of a supersymmetric low energy effective action and inflation completely characterized in terms of a small number of parameters. Demanding slow roll inflation significantly constrains these parameters. In this context, the generic level of fine tuning can be described as a function of the number of light fields, there is an upper bound on the scale of inflation, and an (almost) universal prediction for the spectral index. Models of this type need not suffer from a cosmological moduli problem

  7. Small Business Social Responsibility Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality to....../implications: The conceptualization of SBSR communication would be enhanced by in-depth, nuanced empirical research. Practical implications: This paper has policy implications for those seeking to understand CSR among SMEs using formal communication mechanisms as a metric and control. Our paper suggests this to be...... intrinsic motivations) are confronting owner-managers’ ethos. We explain theoretically how small business managers respond to the challenge when they are required to formalize and display for external surveillance that which would otherwise be informal and part of the non-public or private sphere....

  8. Studies in Small Field Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Dine, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We explore some issues in slow roll inflation in situations where field excursions are small compared to $M_p$. We argue that for small field inflation, minimizing fine tuning requires low energy supersymmetry and a tightly constrained structure. Hybrid inflation is {\\it almost} an inevitable outcome. The resulting theory can be described in terms of a supersymmetric low energy effective action and inflation completely characterized in terms of a small number of parameters. Demanding slow roll inflation significantly constrains these parameters. In this context, the generic level of fine tuning can be described as a function of the number of light fields, there is an upper bound on the scale of inflation, and an (almost) universal prediction for the spectral index. Models of this type need not suffer from a cosmological moduli problem.

  9. Trust Propagation in Small Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Chen, Yong; Jensen, Christian D.

    do not scale well. We aim to develop trust-based security mechanisms using small world concepts to optimise formation and propagation of trust amongst entities in these vast networks. In this regard, we surmise that in a very large mobile ad hoc network, trust, risk, and recommendations can be...... propagated through relatively short paths connecting entities. Our work describes the design of trust-formation and risk-assessment systems, as well as that of an entity recognition scheme, within the context of the small world network topology....

  10. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m2) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  11. Orbit Mechanics about Small Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Space missions to small solar system bodies must deal with multiple perturbations acting on the spacecraft. These include strong perturbations from the gravity field and solar tide, but for small bodies the most important perturbations may arise from solar radiation pressure (SRP) acting on the spacecraft. Previous research has generally investigated the effect of the gravity field, solar tide, and SRP acting on a spacecraft trajectory about an asteroid in isolation and has not considered their joint effect. In this paper a more general theoretical discussion of the joint effects of these forces is given.

  12. Particles in small volume injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  13. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Part XVI Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (SBA) SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Ch. I Semiannual Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: U.S. Small... General Counsel for Legislation and Appropriations, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third...

  14. Small Parts Assembler Work Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and potential to enter a training program in small parts assembly or in a similar job. Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for completing the work sample, and lists related occupations and DOT codes.…

  15. Small Business. Lesson Plan Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that requires students to use their research and analytical skills in studying the social and economic importance of small business. Activities include interviewing local business owners and producing a written summary, developing a survey showing and explaining area land use, and researching opposition to Wal-Mart stores.…

  16. Joint research using small tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Van Oost, G.; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, Martin; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 10 (2005), S245-S254. ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference contributions. Vilamoura, 1.11.2004-6.11.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : small tokamaks * thermonuclear fusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.418, year: 2005

  17. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  18. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  19. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  20. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  1. Sonography of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Nylund; Svein (φ)degaard; Trygve Hausken; Geir Folvik; Gülen Arslan Lied; Ivan Viola; Helwig Hauser; Odd-Helge Gilja

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial resolution. The method has limitations with penetration in obesity and with intestinal air impairing image quality. The flexibility ultrasonography offers the examiner also implies that a systematic approach during scanning is needed. This paper reviews the basic scanning techniques and new modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, strain rate imaging, hydrosonography, allergosonography, endoscopic sonography and nutritional imaging, and the literature on disease-specific findings in the small intestine. Some of these methods have shown clinical benefit, while others are under research and development to establish their role in the diagnostic repertoire. However, along with improved overall image quality of new ultrasound scanners, these methods have enabled more anatomical and physiological changes in the small intestine to be observed. Accordingly, ultrasound of the small intestine is an attractive clinical tool to study patients with a range of diseases.

  2. Small Signal Loudspeaker Impedance Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    from driver to driver. Therefore, a loudspeaker emulator capable of adjusting its impedance to that of a given driver is desired for measurement purposes. This paper proposes a loudspeaker emulator circuit for small signals. Simulations and experimental results are compared and show that it is possible...

  3. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business tran

  4. Small Turing universal signal machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durand-Lose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing signal machines as small as possible able to perform any computation (in the classical understanding. After presenting signal machines, it is shown how to get universal ones from Turing machines, cellular-automata and cyclic tag systems. Finally a halting universal signal machine with 13 meta-signals and 21 collision rules is presented.

  5. Microwave Levitation Of Small Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave radiation in resonant cavities used to levitate small objects, according to proposal. Feedback control and atmosphere not needed. Technique conceived for use in experiments on processing of materials in low gravitation of outer space, also used in normal Earth gravitation, albeit under some limitations.

  6. Small bowel transplantation: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron); E. Heineman (Erik); R.L. Marquet (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSmall bowel transplantation (SBT) would, in theory, be the treatment of choice for patients suffering from the short bowel syndrome. Although SBT has been done with a considerable degree of success in some centers [36,145], it is by no means an established or widely applicable therapy fo

  7. Proceedings of Small Hydro 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was attended by speakers from government, industry and client organizations who addressed the growing interest in small hydro. Small hydro has been steadily increasing for years and will likely continue to increase as the supply of fossil fuels dwindles. The conference provided an opportunity to assess this renewable resources in terms of new estimates of micro (less than 100 kW), mini (100 kW to 1 MW) and small hydro (1 MW to 50 MW) facilities. Some presentations identified new locations for potential hydroelectric facilities and the development of projects at existing structures. New development mechanisms were reviewed, such as government funding initiatives, prospects for private funding, risk assessment and allocation. Local issues regarding small hydro development include quick routes to licensing and assessing and minimizing environmental impacts. The conference also provided an opportunity to highlight advances in technology to increase efficiency; refurbish and uprate existing, aging hydropower plants; and software developments. The conference featured 25 presentations, of which 10 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Small rocket research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven; Biaglow, James

    1993-01-01

    Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion include apogee kick, delta-V, de-orbit, drag makeup, final insertions, north-south stationkeeping, orbit change/trim, perigee kick, and reboost. The program encompasses efforts on earth-storable, space storable, and cryogenic propellants. The earth-storable propellants include nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as an oxidizer with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) or anhydrous hydrazine (AH) as fuels. The space storable propellants include liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer with hydrazine or hydrocarbons such as liquid methane, ethane, and ethanol as fuels. Cryogenic propellants are LOX or gaseous oxygen (GOX) as oxidizers and liquid or gaseous hydrogen as fuels. Improved performance and lifetime for small chemical rockets are sought through the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, the introduction of high temperature materials to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency, and improved component designs to optimize performance. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Results indicate that modeling of the injector and combustion process in small rockets needs improvement. High temperature materials require the development of fabrication processes, a durability data base in both laboratory and rocket environments, and basic engineering property data such as strength, creep, fatigue, and work hardening properties at both room and elevated temperature. Promising materials under development include iridium-coated rhenium and a

  9. Small is beautiful: models of small neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Damon G; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Modeling has contributed a great deal to our understanding of how individual neurons and neuronal networks function. In this review, we focus on models of the small neuronal networks of invertebrates, especially rhythmically active CPG networks. Models have elucidated many aspects of these networks, from identifying key interacting membrane properties to pointing out gaps in our understanding, for example missing neurons. Even the complex CPGs of vertebrates, such as those that underlie respiration, have been reduced to small network models to great effect. Modeling of these networks spans from simplified models, which are amenable to mathematical analyses, to very complicated biophysical models. Some researchers have now adopted a population approach, where they generate and analyze many related models that differ in a few to several judiciously chosen free parameters; often these parameters show variability across animals and thus justify the approach. Models of small neuronal networks will continue to expand and refine our understanding of how neuronal networks in all animals program motor output, process sensory information and learn. PMID:22364687

  10. Small Bodies, Big Discoveries: NASA's Small Bodies Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.; Erickson, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is turning out to be a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system's unsung heroes, small bodies. This includes the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 / Siding Spring with Mars in October and the historic Rosetta mission with its Philae lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Beyond 2014, the much anticipated 2015 Pluto flyby by New Horizons and the February Dawn Mission arrival at Ceres will take center stage. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system's small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA's JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like "Eyes on the Solar System" and more. This talk will highlight NASA's focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies mission science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  11. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  12. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  14. Propulsion Challenges for Small Spacecraft: 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadim Zakirov; LI Luming

    2006-01-01

    Small (<100 kg) spacecrafts are being developed in many countries but their propulsion systems still have many challenges. Although there is demand for small spacecraft propulsion, the number of missions at present is small due to several commercial and technical reasons. Poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion systems is one of the main reasons for the small number of missions. Several reasons are given for the poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion. Suggested improvements focus on small spacecraft and propulsion hardware mass optimization rather than on specific impulse enhancement. Propellantless propulsion systems are also recommended for small spacecraft interplanetary missions.

  15. Going global - growing small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Going Global Energy Steering Committee was established to help small and medium-sized Canadian enterprises to compete in the electrical power industry in the Asia-Pacific region primarily, but also in Eastern Europe and Latin America. The aim is to provide market intelligence, and help with forming consortia for financing. A small to medium-sized business can be defined as one with 50 to 500 employees. Big businesses no longer have the same competitive advantages that they once had, because automated systems can make short production runs just as cost-effective as long ones, and because computerization, automation and rising productivity mean that fewer workers are required than formerly

  16. Trust Propagation in Small Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Chen, Yong;

    2003-01-01

    do not scale well. We aim to develop trust-based security mechanisms using small world concepts to optimise formation and propagation of trust amongst entities in these vast networks. In this regard, we surmise that in a very large mobile ad hoc network, trust, risk, and recommendations can be...... propagated through relatively short paths connecting entities. Our work describes the design of trust-formation and risk-assessment systems, as well as that of an entity recognition scheme, within the context of the small world network topology.......The possibility of a massive, networked infrastructure of diverse entities partaking in collaborative applications with each other increases more and more with the proliferation of mobile devices and the development of ad hoc networking technologies. In this context, traditional security measures...

  17. Remotely sensed small reservoir monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; Annor, Frank; Iannini, Lorenzo; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    A new 'growing' maximum likelihood classification algorithm for small reservoir delineation has been developed and is tested with Radarsat-2 data for reservoirs in the semi-arid Upper East Region, Ghana. The delineation algorithm is able to find the land-water boundary from SAR imagery for different weather and environmental conditions. As such, the algorithm allows for remote sensed operational monitoring of small reservoirs. Multipurpose small reservoirs (1-100 ha) are important for many livelihoods in rural semi-arid West Africa. In order to manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage fluctuation. Several studies on remotely sensed reservoir mapping have recently been published, but no single method yields good results for all weather and environmental conditions. Detection of small reservoirs from optical satellite imagery using supervised maximum likelihood classification is a well proved method. The application of this method for the monitoring of small reservoirs is however limited because of its dependence on cloud-free day-acquisitions. Delineation from SAR images is promising, but because of difficulties with wind induced Bragg-scattering and low contrast between the water surface and the dried-out surroundings at the end of the dry season, only quasi manual methods have been applied successfully. A smart combination of optical satellite based detection combined with a delineation method for SAR imagery is proposed. From the optical satellite based small reservoir detection the reservoir window is determined in which the 'growing' maximum likelihood classification on SAR images is performed. A water-class seed and land-class seed are implemented and grown dependent on the likelihood of a pixel to belong to one class. The likelihood is calculated based on the probability distributions of the growing land and water populations. Combinations of single

  18. Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari

    2016-01-01

    A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.

  19. Knowledge Management in Small Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasorn, Jessada; Panteli, Niki; Powell, Philip

    This paper explores knowledge management in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs). It investigates the use of Lotus Notes in SMEs of a developing country as a counterpoint to the large firm, developed country emphasis of existing research. It develops taxonomy of Lotus Notes use within the context of different knowledge management processes; notably communicating, co-ordinating and collaborating. The study employs an interpretive approach using three case studies. The key findings suggest that publishing, searching, sharing and retrieving are the user modes for enabling sharing and storing information. Evidence of knowledge creation is found at the departmental level but not at the organizational level. Further, small firms may explore more groupware potential than large organizations and this reflects their different context. Finally, implications for further research are identified.

  20. [Sarcomas of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrouti, M L; Abid, M; Beyrouti, R; Ben Amar, M; Gargouri, F; Frikha, F; Affes, N; Boujelbene, S; Ghorbel, A

    2005-03-12

    Sarcomas of the small intestine are rare, clearly differentiated, malignant, mesenchymatous tumours that can be of smooth muscle, Schwann cell or fibroblastic origin. From a clinical point of view, the pain and abdominal mass are the 2 types of symptoms that frequently reveal the disease. In rare cases, sarcomas of the small intestine are manifested by an acute complication. No imaging method can clearly confirm the diagnosis. Before immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis was made on undifferentiated mesenchymatous "stromal" tumours, which are also rare. Exeresis must be complete and without perforation of the tumour because of the risk of locoregional relapse. The benefits provided by chemotherapy and radiotherapy are limited because of the low mitotic activity of the tumour cells and its weak vascularisation. Long-term survival is limited by poor prognosis criteria: high grade malignancy, size greater than 5 cm, tumour extension, perforation of the tumour, quality of surgical resection and histological type. PMID:15859576

  1. Parton distributions at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the recent data for deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and related processes, in which we pay particular attention to the forms of the parton distributions at very small x. We discuss in detail, and we incorporate in the analysis, the theoretical QCD results leading to the singular x-1/2 type of behaviour of the gluon and sea quark distributions, as well as the modifications due to shadowing effects. We find the QCD shadowing corrections are significant for x ''approx -3 even though the parton distributions are below their saturation limit. We give predictions for the structure functions F2 and FL accessible at HERA, and for W and Z productions up to linear hard core pinch devices (LHC) and superconducting supercollider (SSC) energies. We discuss the possibility of experiments at these colliders probing the parton distributions in the very small x region. (author)

  2. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    CERN Document Server

    Weigert, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small x ``projectile side'' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Langevin equations are given as a basis for numerical simulations opening the field for future studies of dynamical issues of the evolution not analytically accessible. The methods used may be extended to the ``target side'' equations of Jalilian-Marian, Kovner, Leonidov and Weigert.

  3. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small-x 'projectile side' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Langevin equations are given as a basis for numerical simulations opening the field for future studies of dynamical issues of the evolution not analytically accessible. The methods used may be extended to the 'target side' equations of Jalilian-Marian, Kovner, Leonidov and Weigert

  4. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigert, Heribert E-mail: heribert.weigert@physik.uni-regensburg.de

    2002-06-03

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small-x 'projectile side' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Langevin equations are given as a basis for numerical simulations opening the field for future studies of dynamical issues of the evolution not analytically accessible. The methods used may be extended to the 'target side' equations of Jalilian-Marian, Kovner, Leonidov and Weigert.

  5. Small black holes on cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders

  6. Neutronic design of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small reactors design is one of the main activities of AREVA TA. At the time, AREVA TA main projects are oriented towards research reactors and reactors for military naval propulsion. Due to differences in the physics and performances to meet, each kind of small reactor leads to specific modelling needs. Many computing tools have been developed in order to successfully carry out these projects. These schemes are mainly based on the use of TRIPOLI, MCNP, APOLLO2 and CRONOS2 codes. In that framework, a multi-purpose pre/post processing tool named CHARM is being developed by AREVA NP in partnership with AREVA TA in order to integrate small reactors specification. CHARM is used to elaborate APOLLO2 input data while various dedicated tools are used to automatically generate TRIPOLI and MNCP input data. These 3D numerical models need a very accurate spatial description to perform specific calculations. As an example, for the JHR design, after calculating 3D burn up by APOLLO2/MOC models, the data is fed back into a TRIPOLI model used for safety analyses. This paper presents our methodology for the small core design and 3 examples: 1) The calculation scheme for the JHR (Jules Horowitz Reactor) neutronic studies. These design studies are a recent illustration of combined use of both deterministic and probabilistic codes, 2) The use of CHARM, with the modelling of a JHR core. The purpose of CHARM- V2, based on Open Cascade Technology, is to provide a pre/post processing tool for APOLLO2/MOC, TRIPOLI4 and MCNP solvers, 3) The depletion Monte Carlo calculation of a MTR core. (author)

  7. Doing Astronomy with Small Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Kangujam Yugindro Singh; Irom Ablu Meitei; Salam Ajitkumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    We are playing a lead role for growth of astronomy and its quality teaching and research in Manipur, a State located at northeast India (longitude = 93°58'E; latitude = 24°44'N; altitude = 782 m). We have innovatively designed and constructed three cost effective observatories, each costing a few hundred USD. These observatories are completely different in design and are perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements, using small ground-...

  8. Metagenomic small molecule discovery methods

    OpenAIRE

    Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Milshteyn, Aleksandr; Brady, Sean F

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches to natural product discovery provide the means of harvesting bioactive small molecules synthesized by environmental bacteria without the requirement of first culturing these organisms. Advances in sequencing technologies and general metagenomic methods are beginning to provide the tools necessary to unlock the unexplored biosynthetic potential encoded by the genomes of uncultured environmental bacteria. Here, we highlight recent advances in sequence- and functional- bas...

  9. Nucleation barrier in small volumes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožíšek, Zdeněk; Demo, Pavel; Sveshnikov, Alexey; Tichá, Petra

    Bratislava: N, 2009 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 36-37 ISBN 978-80-89088-81-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2009 /19./. Závažná Poruba (SK), 31.08.2009-04.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nucleation * phase transition in small volumes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Design of small table saws

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is the engineering design of a small table circular saw according to the specified parameters. At first, the types of machines available on the market are named and analyzed in detail. Afterwards, the engineering design of the machine is created. The following part is concerned with the individual parts,, tilting of the saw blade, maximum cutting pull through linkage with motion screw and checking of deformation of he critical parts of the machine. The previously s...

  11. Small gauge vitrectomy: Recent update

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeet Khanduja; Ashish Kakkar; Saptrishi Majumdar; Rajpal Vohra; Satpal Garg

    2013-01-01

    Small gauge vitrectomy, also known as minimally invasive vitreous surgery (MIVS), is a classic example of progress in biomedical engineering. Disparity in conjunctival and scleral wound location and reduction in wound diameter are its core principles. Fluidic changes include increased pressure head loss with consequent reduction in infusional flow rate and use of higher aspiration vacuum at the cutter port. Increase An increase in port open/port closed time maintains an adequate rate of vitre...

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Bures, Jiri Cyrany, Darina Kohoutova, Miroslav Förstl, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jaroslav Kvetina, Viktor Vorisek, Marcela Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestina...

  13. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Bures, J.; Cyrany, J.; Kohoutova, D.; Förstl, M.; Rejchrt, S.; Kvetina, J.; Vorisek, V.; Kopacova, M.

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestina...

  14. The small world of psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Denny Borsboom; Cramer, Angélique O. J.; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Sacha Epskamp; Waldorp, Lourens J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are highly comorbid: people having one disorder are likely to have another as well. We explain empirical comorbidity patterns based on a network model of psychiatric symptoms, derived from an analysis of symptom overlap in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that a) half of the symptoms in the DSM-IV network are connected, b) the architecture of these connections conforms to a small world structure, fe...

  15. The small world of psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, D; Cramer, A.O.J.; Schmittmann, V.D.; Epskamp, S.; Waldorp, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are highly comorbid: people having one disorder are likely to have another as well. We explain empirical comorbidity patterns based on a network model of psychiatric symptoms, derived from an analysis of symptom overlap in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). Principal Findings We show that a) half of the symptoms in the DSM-IV network are connected, b) the architecture of these connections conforms to a small world structure, feat...

  16. Rhapsody on small processor platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Per-Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Rhapsody is a Model-Driven Development (MDD) tool for embedded and real-time system design. The purpose of this thesis is to determine if Rhapsody can be used for software development on small processor platforms such as the Atmel AVR. Rhapsody is normally used on platforms running an operating system. Therefore certain adaptations are needed in order to use it on platforms without an operating system. These adaptations and their affect on the usability of the tool, advantages and disadvantag...

  17. Twisted Yangians of small rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Nicolas; Regelskis, Vidas; Wendlandt, Curtis

    2016-04-01

    We study quantized enveloping algebras called twisted Yangians associated with the symmetric pairs of types CI, BDI, and DIII (in Cartan's classification) when the rank is small. We establish isomorphisms between these twisted Yangians and the well known Olshanskii's twisted Yangians of types AI and AII, and also with the Molev-Ragoucy reflection algebras associated with symmetric pairs of type AIII. We also construct isomorphisms with twisted Yangians in Drinfeld's original presentation.

  18. Innovation in small food firms

    OpenAIRE

    Avermaete, Tessa

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation of the world food market, structural changes in the food chain, changing consumption patterns and the strengthening of food regulation lie on the basis of the fast developments in the food and drink industry. Facing increased competition, small food firms are generally limited in exploiting economies of scale. Alternatively, they are more likely to seek for strategies that are based on the introduction of new products, optimising processing, the reorganisation of manageme...

  19. Small Business Innovations (Robotic Wrist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. Minneapolis, MN, developed the Omni-Wrist actuator, which has a 25-pound capacity, 180 degrees of pitch/yaw, and 360 degrees of roll. Company literature calls it "the first successful singularity-free high-precision (robotic) wrist." Applications include spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, welding and a variety of nuclear industry, aerospace and military uses.

  20. Small Business Innovations (Integrated Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.

  1. Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

  2. Vibration Testing for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Delbert

    1989-01-01

    Most people involved in the design and construction of small satellites are unfamiliar with vibration testing. Yet most satellites undergo vibration testing to qualify them for flight. Some familiarity with the basic aspects of vibration testing is needed to insure that a vibration test on a satellite is valid. This paper sets forth the basic equipment, practices and concepts of vibration testing. It provides guidelines for specifying a vibration test, designing fixtures, attaching instrument...

  3. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  4. The evolution of small change

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Sargent; Francois R. Velde

    1997-01-01

    Western Europe was plagued with currency shortages from the 14th to the 19th century, at which time a `standard formula' had been devised to cure the problem. We document the evolution of mon- etary theory, policy experiments and minting tech- nology over the course of six hundred years. In a companion paper, we use a cash-in-advance model of commodity money to provide an analytical frame- work for the problem of small change.

  5. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan; Bures; Jiri; Cyrany; Darina; Kohoutova; Miroslav; Frstl; Stanislav; Rejchrt; Jaroslav; Kvetina; Viktor; Vorisek; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymi-crobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO).SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. There...

  6. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David José Martínez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ~800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ~140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent role. However, new experimental data suggest that selective processes may be at operation as well for endosymbiotic prokaryotes at least during the first stages of genome reduction. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes have evolved diverse strategies for living with reduced gene sets inside a host-defined medium. These include utilization of host-encoded functions (some of them coded by genes acquired by gene transfer from the endosymbiont and/or other bacteria; metabolic complementation between co-symbionts; and forming consortiums with other bacteria within the host. Recent genome sequencing projects of intracellular mutualistic bacteria showed that previously believed universal evolutionary trends like reduced G+C content and conservation of genome synteny are not always present in highly reduced genomes. Finally, the simplified molecular machinery of some of these organisms with small genomes may be used to aid in the design of artificial minimal cells. Here we review recent genomic discoveries of the biology of prokaryotes endowed with small gene sets and discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their peculiar nature.

  7. Superconductivity of small metal grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Renrong; CHEN; Zhiqian; ZHU; Shunquan

    2005-01-01

    The formulas of the energy gap and superconducting critical temperature appropriate for systems with both odd and even number of electrons are derived; the bases of the derivations are BCS theory and energy level statistics. Numerical results qualitatively agree with the experimental phenomena. i.e., the superconductivity of small metallic grains will first enhance then decrease to zero when the grain are getting smaller and smaller. The calculations indicate that the above phenomena happen in the metallic grains belonging to Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) and Gaussian Unitary ensemble (GUE) with zero spin; The superconductivity of small metallic grains in Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE) will monotonically decrease to zero with the decreasing of the grain size. The analyses suggest that the superconductivity enhancements come from pairing and the balance of the strengths between spin-orbital coupling and external magnetic field. In order to take the latter into account, it is necessary to include the level statistics given by Random Matrix Theory (RMT) in describing small metallic grains.

  8. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  9. Chronic Hemodialysis in Small Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novljan, Gregor; Rus, Rina R; Premru, Vladimir; Ponikvar, Rafael; Battelino, Nina

    2016-06-01

    When peritoneal dialysis is inapplicable, chronic hemodialysis (HD) becomes the only available treatment option in small children. Due to small patient size, central venous catheters (CVC) are mainly used for vascular access. Over the past 4 years, four children weighing less than 15 kg received chronic HD in our unit. A total of 848 dialysis sessions were performed. Altogether, 21 catheters were inserted. In all but one occasion, uncuffed catheters were used. Catheter revision was performed 15 times during the study period, either due to infection or catheter malfunction. The median number of catheter revisions and the median line survival was 3.0/patient-year and 53 days (range; 6-373 days), respectively. There were 14 episodes of catheter related infections requiring 11 CVC revisions (78.6%). The median rate of line infections was 2.8/patient-year. Chronic HD in small children is demanding and labor intensive. Issues pertain mainly to CVCs and limit its long-term use. PMID:27312919

  10. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA or Agency) is... submissions: Dean Koppel, U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Government Contracting, 409...

  11. Small satellite solar array substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, John N.; Rosanova, Giulio

    1994-01-01

    The SMall EXplorer (SMEX) Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft was developed to investigate plasma physics of auroral phenomena at high orbital altitude. The FAST satellite comprises a variety of deployable booms with sensors on the ends, and instruments that protrude from the main body of the spacecraft to obtain the plasma and electromagnetic fields data. This required the plasma disturbance around the satellite to be kept to a minimum. A non deployable, body mounted solar array was implemented. This led to the design of a light weight solar array substrate with a high degree of structural integrity.

  12. Emissions from small heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study treats emissions from and economy of small biofuelled heating plants. In order to reduce emissions of particulates below 100 mg/nm3, the plants must be equipped with flue gas cleaning systems superior to cyclones/multicyclones. The use of pellets or pulverized fuel does not necessarily give emissions lower than 100 mg/nm3. However, the study shows that the CO-emissions can be kept low. An economic analysis for biofuelled plants is also presented 18 tabs, 18 figs

  13. GEF small grants programme - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the GEF small grants program which seeks to enhance the role of households and communities in conserving global biodiversity, mitigating global climate change, and protecting international waters. Grants up to $50k have been granted for projects in 33 countries, with plans for 12 other countries. The author describes the framework that the program works under, and the methodology followed in developing and planning projects. The approach to climate change concerns is to emphasize the development of non-carbon energy development activities to provide energy sources and economic development.

  14. Valorization of small uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the valorization of small uranium deposits, the Total Mining Co. has developed an original leaching process in immersed live stalls, allied to the treatment of uraniferous liquors on ion exchanger resins. This technology was put in operation at Saint-Pierre (Cantal) in 1976, at La Ribiere (Creuse) in 1982 and in Bertholene (Aveyron) in 1985. In the last mentioned installation, 75 t of uranium can be produced per year on the basis of 60 000 t of ore containing 1.5 kg of uranium per ton. The investments per kg of uranium have thus been reduced to a quarter of their value in a conventional plant

  15. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  16. Small helical flux compression amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, explosively compressed, magnetic flux transducers with many closely spaced helical turns are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The analysis is limited to linear operation, but takes into account load influence, proximity effects, and switching delays. The latter are due to retarded breakdown in the wire insulation and to the finite decay time of the magnetic field in the wire. More than 150 experiments showed considerable data scatter. Shots which exhibited low clocking and high amplification were in good agreement with the theory. The main conclusion is that device performance is limited not only by flux loss, but by flux remaining in the generator after compression

  17. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  18. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... results for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  19. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  20. Fuzzy Small Submodule and Jacobson -Radical

    OpenAIRE

    Saifur Rahman; Helen K. Saikia

    2011-01-01

    Using the notion of fuzzy small submodules of a module, we introduce the concept of fuzzy coessential extension of a fuzzy submodule of a module. We attempt to investigate various properties of fuzzy small submodules of a module. A necessary and sufficient condition for fuzzy small submodules is established. We investigate the nature of fuzzy small submodules of a module under fuzzy direct sum. Fuzzy small submodules of a module are characterized in terms of fuzzy quotient modules. This chara...

  1. Small bowel neoplasia in coeliac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rampertab, S D; Forde, K A; Green, P. H. R.

    2003-01-01

    There is an increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma in patients with coeliac disease compared with the normal population. It has been suggested that adenocarcinoma of the small intestine in coeliac disease arises through an adenoma-carcinoma sequence but there has been only one reported case of a small bowel adenoma in a patient with coeliac disease. We report three additional cases of a small bowel adenoma in the setting of coeliac disease. In addition, four cases of small bowel adenoca...

  2. Small crater populations on Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; O'Brien, D P; Schenk, P; Mottola, S; De Sanctis, M C; Kring, D A; Williams, D A; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Dawn mission has extensively examined the surface of asteroid Vesta, the second most massive body in the main belt. The high quality of the gathered data provides us with an unique opportunity to determine the surface and internal properties of one of the most important and intriguing main belt asteroids (MBAs). In this paper, we focus on the size frequency distributions (SFDs) of sub-kilometer impact craters observed at high spatial resolution on several selected young terrains on Vesta. These small crater populations offer an excellent opportunity to determine the nature of their asteroidal precursors (namely MBAs) at sizes that are not directly observable from ground-based telescopes (i.e., below ~100 m diameter). Moreover, unlike many other MBA surfaces observed by spacecraft thus far, the young terrains examined had crater spatial densities that were far from empirical saturation. Overall, we find that the cumulative power-law index (slope) of small crater SFDs on Vesta is fairly consistent with...

  3. Railgun launch of small bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobyshevski, E.M.; Zhukov, B.G.; Sakharov, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst.

    1995-01-01

    The small body launching using gas or plasma faces the fundamental problem caused by excess energy loss due to great wall surface/volume of the barrel ratio. That is why the efficiency of the plasma armature (PA) railgun acceleration is maximum for 8--10 mm-size bodies and drops as their size decreases. For the nuclear fusion applications, where {number_sign}1--2 mm-size pellets at 5--10 km/s velocity are desirable, one is forced to search for compromise between the body size (3--4 mm) and its velocity (3 km/s). Under these conditions, EM launchers did not demonstrate an advantage over the light-gas guns. When elaborating the {number_sign}1 mm railgun, the authors made use of the ideology of the body launching at constant acceleration close to the body strength or the electrode skin-layer explosion limits. That shortened the barrel length sufficiently. The system becomes highly compact thus permitting rapid test of new operation modes and different modifications of the design including the magnetic field augmentation. As a result of these refinements, the difficulties caused by the catastrophic supply of mass ablated from the electrodes were overcome and regimes of {number_sign}1 mm body non-sabot speed-up to 4.5 km/s were found. Potentialities of the small system created are far from being exhausted.

  4. Small gauge vitrectomy: Recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Khanduja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small gauge vitrectomy, also known as minimally invasive vitreous surgery (MIVS, is a classic example of progress in biomedical engineering. Disparity in conjunctival and scleral wound location and reduction in wound diameter are its core principles. Fluidic changes include increased pressure head loss with consequent reduction in infusional flow rate and use of higher aspiration vacuum at the cutter port. Increase An increase in port open/port closed time maintains an adequate rate of vitreous removal. High Intensity Discharge (HID lamps maintain adequate illumination in spite of a decrease in the number of fiberoptic fibers. The advantages of MIVS are, a shorter surgical time, minimal conjunctival damage, and early postoperative recovery. Most complications are centered on wound stability and risk of postoperative hypotony, endophthalmitis, and port site retinal break formation. MIVS is suited in most cases, however, it can cause dehiscence of recent cataract wounds. Retraction of the infusion cannula in the suprachoroidal space may occur in eyes with scleral thinning. As a lot has been published and discussed about sutureless vitrectomy a review of this subject is necessary. A PubMed search was performed in December 2011 with terms small gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, and 27 gauge vitrectomy, which were revised in August 2012. There were no restrictions on the date of publication but it was restricted to articles in English or other languages, if there abstracts were available in English.

  5. Management of Small Vessel Vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Rigante, Donato; Venerito, Vincenzo; Emmi, Giacomo; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Lapadula, Giovanni; Iannone, Florenzo; Cantarini, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation mediated by cells of the immune system and necrosis are the most striking features observed at the histologic level in patients with vasculitides, clinical entities classified according to pathologic findings involving different organs, to etiology, or to size of vessels involved. Small vessel vasculitides (SVV) are a peculiar group of systemic disorders electively involving small intraparenchymal arteries, arterioles, capillaries, or venules and leading to different levels of vascular obstruction, tissue ischemia and risk of infarction; they can be divided into anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides and immune complex vasculitides. Despite the significant advances in understanding the whole disease process and pathophysiology of SVV, strong efforts are still needed to draft, share and spread guidelines in the therapeutic management of these protean disorders. After an accurate evaluation of different open or double-blind trials and cohort studies in this review, we analyze the actual medical tools suggested for treating granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis. PMID:27118389

  6. Small-sized centrifugal extractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-sized centrifugal extractors (E) and small-sized clarifier (SCC) are described. The SCE construction provides their remote service with the help of manipulators. The arrangement of sections in the block of all apparatuses is the same and it differs only in the number of sections (4-14 sections). Phase mixing and separation are carried out in the sections. The sections rotate with the help of electromotor remotely replaced in case of necessity. The main construction material of the extractors is chromium-nickel steel, stainless bearings, interlaying material -polyethylene. On the basis of SCE construction the SCC is developed with the operating volume up to 1000 cm3 and capacity up to 200 l/h. The clarifier can be used for the control purification of solutions from solid ingredients in hot chambers with remote service. On the basis of the tests performed the conclusion may be made on the advisability of SCC application for preparing initial solutions before extraction

  7. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  8. Low-energy small house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Erat, B. [Ekosolar Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kalema, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Haapala, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Punttila, A. [Rakennus Ekono Oy, Espoo (Finland); Nyman, M. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Heating and Ventilation; Pulakka, S. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Urban Planning and Building Design Engineering; Peippo, K. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1993-12-31

    Low-energy small-house designs for various heating energy consumption levels have been planned in this research project. The actual house designs have been presented in earlier reports of the project. The potential and profitability of various energy-saving measures have been examined in this report. The investigations indicated that improvement of the thermal insulation of the building envelope, utilization of advanced windows and the heat recovery from the exhaust air are the most profitable saving measures. These measures examined in terms of the annual costs of buildings are valuable saving measures even at an energy prize of 25 p/kWh. By using the above mentioned measures, it is possible to reduce the annual consumption of heating energy to 80 kWh/room m{sup 2}. The project has taken part in IEA cooperation by taking part in the solar research programmes project `Advanced solar low-energy buildings`, TASK XIII. A small house requiring very little energy has been planned within the framework of this cooperation, the annual consumption of the bought-in heating energy of which being around 3.0 kWh/room-m{sup 2}. A house will be built in Pietarsaari for the housing fair to be held in the summer 1994 (orig.)

  9. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  10. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  11. Mental retardation, premature balding, small genitalia, small acra and small patellae in brothers: Confirmation of an entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Vandersteen; R.C. Hennekam

    2010-01-01

    We describe two brothers with moderate to severe mental retardation, short stature, an unusual skull shape, early anterior balding, unusual facial morphology, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, small genitalia, and small patellae. The older sib had generalized hypotonia without focal neurological abnor

  12. Small Data Archives and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, A.

    2010-10-01

    Preservation is important for documenting original observations, and existing data are an important resource which can be re-used. Observatories should set up electronic data archives and formulate archiving policies. VO (Virtual Observatory) compliance is desirable; even if this is not possible, at least some VO ideas should be applied. Data archives should be visible and their data kept on-line. Metadata should be plentiful, and as standard as possible, just like file formats. Literature and data should be cross-linked. Libraries can play an important role in this process. In this paper, we discuss data archiving for small projects and observatories. We review the questions of digitization, cost factors, manpower, organizational structure and more.

  13. Mycoplasmas: small but perfectly formed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin NICHOLAS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mycoplasmas stems from their importance as serious animal and human pathogens, their frequent contamination of cell lines and, because of their small size, for their use as models of the minimal cell concept.They have traditionally been seen as highly host specific but this is being reviewed in view of recent detections of animal mycoplasmas in unlikely hosts including humans. Some highlights include:Mycoplasmas, containing as few as 450 genes, are the smallest free-living organisms on the planetThey were the first synthetically created life formsWhile the majority of mycoplasmas are harmless, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE have listed 4 mycoplasma diseases because of their serious socio-economic impacts10-15% of cell lines used for virus research are contaminated with mycoplasma Are they the real the causes of TSEs and other undiagnosed human conditions?

  14. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    important means of discretely balancing the contractual aspect of requirements engineering against facilitating the users in an open-ended search for their system requirements. The requirements classification is analysed in terms of the complementary concepts of boundary objects and coordination mechanisms......Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...

  15. Semitransparent peroral small bowel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emons, D.

    1981-10-01

    171 follow-through examinations of the small bowel performed in children and adolescents with a large contrast medium meal and the high voltage-low density barium technique (10 to 25 g BaSO/sub 4//100 ml, depending on age), are described. A ready made suspension, diluted with water, proved unsatisfactory. Coating properties and stability of the diluted, weak suspension were then greatly improved by hydroxyethylcellulose as a thickening agent and in addition by premedication of the patient with cimetidine. Pure cellulose solution instead of the last portion of barium prevented thickening in the ileum. The procedure has the well known advantages of a large contrast medium meal without the problem of overly dense superpositions.

  16. Small Business Innovations (Mass Microbalance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Femtometrics of Costa Mesa, CA, developed the Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. The product is described as "the next generation of aerosol mass microbalance technology," because a new type of sensor, the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) piezoelectric crystal, offers mass resolution two orders of magnitude greater than the Quartz Crystal Microbalance cascade impactor (QCM) (used at Langley since 1979 for collection and measurement of aerosol particles in the upper atmosphere). The Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance, which provides a 400-fold increase in mass sensitivity per unit area over the QCM, can be used for real-time particle monitoring in clean rooms, measuring chemical vapors in very low concentrations, measuring target chemicals in the stratosphere and in industry as a toxic vapor monitor.

  17. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  18. Evaluation of small reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPRI small reactor design program requires a procedure to analyze the economic benefits of specific design improvements suggested by the participating contractors, and to evaluate the total impacts of a new plant design on nuclear power generation costs. To that purpose, an analysis procedure is now being developed by EPRI and its participating contractors. This procedure involves the use of two separate costing models: 1. A top-down total generation cost model that integrates, in a relatively simplified manner, capital operating and fuel expenses, to yield total unit costs on an annual as well as on a lifetime levelized basis. A bottoms-up model that enables the analysis of specific system changes on station capital costs. Using a detailed reference plant cost breakdown, proposed design improvements can be measured against the reference data for their economic benefits

  19. Small Cell Network Topology Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oppolzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential problems in a mobile network with small cells is that there is only a limited number of (PCIs available. Due to this fact, operators face the inevitable need for reusing (PCIs. In our contribution, we are dealing with a (PCI assignment to FAPs in three different topologies. The first model places FAPs randomly within the network while respecting overlapping defined. The second model places FAPs in a grid without other restrictions. The third model forms a grid as well, although buildings and roads are taken into account and (FAPs are always inside buildings. The proposed models are compared and a conclusion is made based on simulation results.

  20. Small Minors in Dense Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Samuel; Theis, Dirk Oliver; Wood, David R

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental result in structural graph theory states that every graph with large average degree contains a large complete graph as a minor. We prove this result with the extra property that the minor is small with respect to the order of the whole graph. More precisely, we describe functions $f$ and $g$ such that every graph with $n$ vertices and average degree at least $f(t)$ contains a $K_t$-model with at most $g(t)\\cdot\\log n$ vertices. The logarithmic dependence on $n$ is best possible. For $t\\leq 4$, we determine the least value of $f(t)$; in particular $f(3)=2+\\eps$ and $f(4)=4+\\eps$. For $t\\leq4$, we establish similar results for graphs embedded on surfaces, where the size of the $K_t$-model is bounded.

  1. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  2. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  3. Small boiler uses waste coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  4. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal

  5. 75 FR 66411 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...: I. Background On October 7, 2010 (75 FR 62258), the Small Business Administration (SBA) issued a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program AGENCY: Small...

  6. 76 FR 5680 - Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, HUBZone, and Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 134 RIN 3245-AF65 Small Business, Small Disadvantaged.... AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small...

  7. 77 FR 46909 - Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    .... 77, No. 151 / Monday, August 6, 2012 / Notices#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR)...

  8. Chemisorption and Reactions of Small Molecules on Small Gold Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Bond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of supported gold particles for a number of oxidations and hydrogenations starts to increase dramatically as the size falls below ~3 nm. This is accompanied by an increased propensity to chemisorption, especially of oxygen and hydrogen. The explanation for these phenomena has to be sought in kinetic analysis that connects catalytic activity with the strength and extent of chemisorption of the reactants, the latter depending on the electronic structure of the gold atoms constituting the active centre. Examination of the changes to the utilisation of electrons as particle size is decreased points to loss of metallic character at about 3 nm, as energy bands are replaced by levels, and a band gap appears. Detailed consideration of the Arrhenius parameters (E and ln A for CO oxidation points clearly to a step-change in activity at the point where metallic character is lost, as opposed to there being a monotonic dependence of rate on a physical property such as the fraction of atoms at corners or edges of particles. The deplorable scarcity of kinetic information on other reactions makes extension of this analysis difficult, but non-metallic behaviour is an unavoidable property of very small gold particles, and therefore cannot be ignored when seeking to explain their exceptional activity.

  9. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small...

  10. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to small-angle scattering (SAS) is given. Initial results obtained using the AERE small-angle diffractometer are presented for four materials of interest: doped uranium dioxide, nitrided steel, graphite and alumina. (U.K.)

  11. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Small Intestine Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Or More after Being Diagnosed with Small Intestine Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  12. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Horn L, Eisenberg R, Gius D, et al. Cancer of the lung. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ...

  13. Specifics of Small Satellite Propulsion: Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zakirov, Vadim; Sweeting, Martin; Erichsen, Peter; Lawrence, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Small satellite propulsion is a subject of unique constraints and requirements. Based on University of Surrey experience in small satellite building and operation, these features are listed and explained. Available volume is often identified as the most severe constraint for a small satellite with power and cost being the other two major constraints. Mass is often only of secondary importance for small satellites. Propulsion dry mass fraction for a spacecraft grows upon the system scaling-dow...

  14. Conservation of small RNA pathways in platypus

    OpenAIRE

    Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pat...

  15. Small Business Performance in Urban Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalopoulou, Irene; Petrou, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    Research findings indicate that the successful performance of small businesses is an important determinant of regional development. Successful business performance is affected by a number of firm-specific factors including human and social capital. Although, small and medium firms comprise the vast majority of the tourism production system, research on small business performance in tourism is rather limited. Drawing on recent advances and empirical evidence from enterpreneurship and small bus...

  16. Is small business a safety problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Tore J

    2003-01-01

    Common beliefs in relation to safety in small business are of two types; a) small businesses are more unsafe, apply unsafe practices, and thus have a higher incidence of occupational injury and a higher average severity of injury, and b) small business have poor knowledge of, and exhibit low compliance with, laws, rules and regulations, and are increasingly difficult to control. A survey of 100 small business operators in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia was undertaken. Ten different indus...

  17. Marketing Channels Used by Small Tennessee Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Tegegne, Fisseha; Pasirayi, Simbarashe; Singh, Surendra P.; Ekanem, Enefiok P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges that small farmers face is marketing their products. National and international markets are difficult to tap into for small farmers due to their inability to compete with large farm operators that dominate these markets. The objective of this study was to examine marketing channels used by small Tennessee Farmers. A mail survey was sent to 250 selected small farmers in Tennessee. Ninety-two completed responses, representing about 37% response rate, were received. Ove...

  18. Myoglobin in pelagic small cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolar, M L; Suarez, P; Ponganis, P J; Kooyman, G L

    1999-02-01

    Although myoglobin (Mb) is considered to contribute significantly to the oxygen and diving capacity of marine mammals, few data are available for cetaceans. Cetacean by-catch in the tuna driftnet fisheries in the Sulu Sea, Philippines, afforded the opportunity to examine Mb content and distribution, and to determine muscle mass composition, in Fraser's (Lagenodelphis hosei) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins and a pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). Age was estimated by body length determination. Stomach contents were analyzed for the presence or absence of milk and solid foods. It was hypothesized (a) that Mb concentration ([Mb]) would be higher in Fraser's and spinner dolphins than in other small cetaceans because of the known mesopelagic distribution of their prey, (b) that [Mb] would vary among different muscles according to function during diving, and (c) that [Mb] would increase with age during development. The results were as follows. (1) Myoglobin concentrations of the longissimus muscle in adult Fraser's (6.8-7.2 g 100 g-1 muscle) and spinner (5-6 g 100 g-1 muscle) dolphins and in an immature pygmy killer whale (5.7 g 100 g-1 muscle) were higher than those reported previously for small cetaceans. (2) [Mb] varied significantly among the different muscle types in adult dolphins but not in calves; in adults, swimming muscles had significantly higher [Mb] than did non-swimming muscles, contained 82-86 % of total Mb, and constituted 75-80 % of total muscle mass. (3) Myoglobin concentrations in Fraser's and spinner dolphins increased with size and age and were 3-4 times greater in adults than in calves. The high Mb concentrations measured in the primary locomotory muscles of these pelagic dolphins are consistent with the known mesopelagic foraging behaviour of Fraser's and spinner dolphins and suggest that the pygmy killer whale is also a deep-diving species. The high Mb concentrations in epaxial, hypaxial and abdominal muscle groups also support

  19. Understanding the statistics of small risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo analyses are used to show what inferences can and cannot be drawn when either a very small number of accidents result from a considerable exposure or where a very small number of people, down to a single individual, are exposed to small added risks. The distinction between relative and absolute uncertainty is illustrated. No new statistical principles are involved

  20. Generation of Small Enterprises’ Multivariate Sample Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Bokun, N. Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The work gives methodology of small enterprises’ multivariate sample aggregates in order to provide more comprehensive statistical evaluation of small institutional units’ economic activity. The strategy is found on usage cluster analysis. The article provides results of small enterprises’ selection carried out in Minsk City.

  1. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  2. Small Satellite Space Environments Effects Test Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, JR; Hartley, Kent; Montierth Phillipps, Lisa; Johnson, Robert; Dekany, Justin; Dyer, James

    2014-01-01

    A versatile space environments test facility has been designed and built to study the effects on small satellites and system components. Testing for potentially environmental-induced modifications of small satellites is critical to avoid possible deleterious or catastrophic effects over the duration of space missions. This is increasingly more important as small satellite programs have longer mission lifetimes, expand to more hash env...

  3. 7 CFR 201.42 - Small containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small containers. 201.42 Section 201.42 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.42 Small containers. In sampling seed in small containers that it is not practical to sample as required in § 201.41, a portion of one unopened container...

  4. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 42391). The document amended SBA's regulations governing small business subcontracting to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting: Correction AGENCY: U.S....

  5. Leiomyosarcoma in leiomyomatosis of the small intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    EL-OMAR, M.; Davies, J.; Gupta, S.; Ross, H.; Thompson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple leiomyomata of the small intestine are rare. We report one such case where a leiomyosarcoma had arisen from a leiomyoma in the small intestine 8 years after presentation. The possible origin of the leiomyomata is discussed and it is concluded that small intestinal leiomyomatosis should be regarded as a premalignant condition.

  6. New examples of small Polish structures

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We answer some questions from a paper of Krupi\\'nski by giving suitable examples of small Polish structures. First, we present a class of small Polish group structures without generic elements. Next, we construct a first example of a small non-zero-dimensional Polish $G$-group.

  7. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    , indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  8. 27 CFR 19.912 - Small plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small plants. 19.912... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.912 Small plants. Persons wishing to establish a small plant shall apply for a permit as provided in...

  9. Electric propulsion for small satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propulsion is required for satellite motion in outer space. The displacement of a satellite in space, orbit transfer and its attitude control are the task of space propulsion, which is carried out by rocket engines. Electric propulsion uses electric energy to energize or accelerate the propellant. The electric propulsion, which uses electrical energy to accelerate propellant in the form of plasma, is known as plasma propulsion. Plasma propulsion utilizes the electric energy to first, ionize the propellant and then, deliver energy to the resulting plasma leading to plasma acceleration. Many types of plasma thrusters have been developed over last 50 years. The variety of these devices can be divided into three main categories dependent on the mechanism of acceleration: (i) electrothermal, (ii) electrostatic and (iii) electromagnetic. Recent trends in space exploration associate with the paradigm shift towards small and efficient satellites, or micro- and nano-satellites. A particular example of microthruster considered in this paper is the micro-cathode arc thruster (µCAT). The µCAT is based on vacuum arc discharge. Thrust is produced when the arc discharge erodes some of the cathode at high velocity and is accelerated out the nozzle by a Lorentz force. The thrust amount is controlled by varying the frequency of pulses with demonstrated range to date of 1–50 Hz producing thrust ranging from 1 µN to 0.05 mN. (paper)

  10. Electric propulsion for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Zhuang, Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Teel, George; Chiu, Dereck; Lukas, Joseph; Haque, Samudra; Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Propulsion is required for satellite motion in outer space. The displacement of a satellite in space, orbit transfer and its attitude control are the task of space propulsion, which is carried out by rocket engines. Electric propulsion uses electric energy to energize or accelerate the propellant. The electric propulsion, which uses electrical energy to accelerate propellant in the form of plasma, is known as plasma propulsion. Plasma propulsion utilizes the electric energy to first, ionize the propellant and then, deliver energy to the resulting plasma leading to plasma acceleration. Many types of plasma thrusters have been developed over last 50 years. The variety of these devices can be divided into three main categories dependent on the mechanism of acceleration: (i) electrothermal, (ii) electrostatic and (iii) electromagnetic. Recent trends in space exploration associate with the paradigm shift towards small and efficient satellites, or micro- and nano-satellites. A particular example of microthruster considered in this paper is the micro-cathode arc thruster (µCAT). The µCAT is based on vacuum arc discharge. Thrust is produced when the arc discharge erodes some of the cathode at high velocity and is accelerated out the nozzle by a Lorentz force. The thrust amount is controlled by varying the frequency of pulses with demonstrated range to date of 1-50 Hz producing thrust ranging from 1 µN to 0.05 mN.

  11. Assessing prospects for small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear power plants, like that of many other technologies, has been characterized by substantial growth in spread, numbers, equipment and plant sizes, with economies of scale generally favouring the large plants. Small and medium sized nuclear power plants, or SMPRs, are generally understood to be plants below the sizes being exploited commercially in industrialized countries. Such plants could be more readily adapted to smaller electric grids, particularly in developing countries, fulfilling requirements of low load growth, or serve remote locations or special purposes. The SMPR range is currently understood as the 200 to 500 megawatt (MWe) size for the generation of electricity and sometimes smaller for process-steam and/or low-temperature heat supply. For statistical purposes a size limit of 600 MWe has been in use by IAEA for some years. By this criterion some 140 nuclear power plants, or more than one-third of the world total, could be considered SMPRs. However, most of them are rather old vintage. Prospects are assessed under headings: indications of revived interest; today's SMPR supply situation; evolving IAEA programme - new study; market indications; economic competitiveness and financing aspects. (author)

  12. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  13. Small Technology Business Incubation Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    This report contains a summary of typical business incubation needs of small technology companies. This document will serve as a guide in the design and implementation of services offered by the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), an incubator program being designed and developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the methodology used to perform the needs assessment and services proposed to meet the needs of client companies. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland.

  14. Small, moveable nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most reliable projections indicate that by the year 2000 approximately 25% of the world's electrical energy and possibly 10% of its process heat for industry will be provided by nuclear power plants. Whilst much of this will come from large nuclear steam raising units-in excess of 900 M.W.(e)-an increasing proportion will be provided from small modular plant, designed for portabiity or mobility. The technical, environmental and economic parameters of such a plant which will usually be of a size around 600 M.W.(e) or less and which in general terms derives its basic design features from nuclear marine propulsion units is reviewed. If suitably standardised, such a nuclear plant, mounted on barges, installed in ships or even airlifted into difficult locations, could provide an attractive solution to the energy problems of developing countries or remote communities. Apart from electrical energy production, the units could operate in a duplex mode to supply steam for central heating, sea-water or bore water distillation or industrial process heat. (Author)

  15. Limited small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the prognosis of patients with limited small cell lung cancer (LSCLC) not achieving complete response (CR) to induction combination chemotherapy (ICC) but who achieve CR after thoracic irradiation (TI). Twenty-four patients had CRs to ICC (CR- ICC) of two cycles of cytoxan, Adriamycin, and vincristine alternating with two cycles of cisplatin with VP-16. Another 24 had CR after consolidation with subsequent T1 (CR-T1): 45 Gy in daily fractions of 2.5 Gy or twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy. The CR-ICC and CR-TI patients had similar prognostic factors and treatment. Comparing CR-ICC and CR-TI, survival was 40% versus 26% at 2 years and 35% versus 4% at 5 years (P < .05). There were eight (33%) long-term survivors (≥3 years) in the CR-ICC group versus three (13%) in the CR-TI group. Local control for CR-ICC patients was 59% at 5 years versus 21% for the CR-TI patients (not significant). Freedom from DM for the CR-ICC patients was 41% at 5 years versus 8% for the CR-TI patients (P < .05)

  16. The small world of psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Borsboom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are highly comorbid: people having one disorder are likely to have another as well. We explain empirical comorbidity patterns based on a network model of psychiatric symptoms, derived from an analysis of symptom overlap in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that a half of the symptoms in the DSM-IV network are connected, b the architecture of these connections conforms to a small world structure, featuring a high degree of clustering but a short average path length, and c distances between disorders in this structure predict empirical comorbidity rates. Network simulations of Major Depressive Episode and Generalized Anxiety Disorder show that the model faithfully reproduces empirical population statistics for these disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In the network model, mental disorders are inherently complex. This explains the limited successes of genetic, neuroscientific, and etiological approaches to unravel their causes. We outline a psychosystems approach to investigate the structure and dynamics of mental disorders.

  17. Small drops from large nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Said Mohamed, Ahmed; Castrejon-Pita, Jose Rafael; Herrada, Miguel Angel

    2015-11-01

    We report experimental and numerical results of the generation of drops which are significantly smaller than the nozzle from which they are generated. The system consists of a cylindrical reservoir and two endplates. One plate is a thin metal sheet with a small orifice in its centre which acts as the nozzle. The other end consists of a piston which moves by the action of an elecromechanical actuator which in turn is driven by sine-shape pull-mode pulses. The meniscus (formed at the nozzle) is thus first overturned, forming a cavity. This cavity collapses and a thin and fast jet emerges from its centre. Under appropriate conditions the tip of this jet breaks up and produces a single diminutive drop. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results was found. Also, a series of experiments were performed in order to study the effects that the pulse amplitude and width, together with variations in the liquid properties, have over the final size of the droplet. Based on these experiments, a predictive law for the droplet size has been derived. This work was funded by the Royal Society (University Research Fellowship and Research Grant), the John Fell Fund (Oxford University Press), the Ministry of Science and Education (DPI2013-46485 Spain), and the Junta de Andalucia (P08-TEP-31704128 Spain).

  18. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  19. Small business development: who pays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, D

    1985-11-01

    This article traces the trends in the aid community towards income generation and small business projects in developing countries since the 1950s. 1 of the great weakness of the development assistance community in the area of income generation remains the lack of analysis of population differentiation in the communities in which they work. A very different approach to the problem of the informal sector and income generation is one that responds directly to the needs of poor communities. Institutions working within poor communities and supporting multi-sectoral development while strengthening local organizations are much better situated to respond to the diverse needs of the community than are single-sector organizations with only 1 skill or service to offer. To assist significant numbers of poor people, particularly women, grouping of some sort is essential. This is not to say that group enterprise development is an easy process. The intensive and costly organizational and management assistance required to prepare a poor group for credit must be weighed along with the potential for creating a basis of long-range change within the community. To work with individual family enterprizes in a community can also have important social and economic effects, although the long-range impact may be more limited. Today, more than ever, the poor face the challenge of creating new survival mechanisms within their communities. Development agencies and assistance programs have the responsibility to help rather than hinder this process. PMID:12267640

  20. Small is beautiful, and dry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHERIDAN; John

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of plant and animal species have been observed to have superhydrophobic surfaces that lead to various novel behaviors. These observations have inspired attempts to create artificial superhydrophobic surfaces, given that such surfaces have multitudinous applications. Superhydrophobicity is an enhanced effect of surface roughness and there are known relationships that correlate surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, based on the underlying physics. However, while these examples demonstrate the level of roughness they tell us little about the independence of this effect in terms of its scale. Thus, they are not capable of explaining why such naturally occurring surfaces commonly have micron-submicron sizes. Here we report on the discovery of a new relation, its physical basis and its experimental verification. The results reveal that scaling-down roughness into the micro-submicron range is a unique and elegant strategy to not only achieve superhydrophobicity but also to increase its stability against environmental disturbances. This new relation takes into account the previously overlooked but key fact that the accumulated line energy arising from the numerous solid-water-air intersections that can be distributed over the apparent contact area, when air packets are trapped at small scales on the surface, can dramatically increase as the roughness scale shrinks. This term can in fact become the dominant contributor to the surface energy and so becomes crucial for accomplishing superhydrophobicity. These findings guide fabrication of stable super water-repellant surfaces.

  1. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluše Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena „algal bloom“ appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  2. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  3. Mastering Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A complete, winning approach to the number one small business solution. Do you have 75 or fewer users or devices on your small-business network? Find out how to integrate everything you need for your mini-enterprise with Microsoft's new Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server, a custom collection of server and management technologies designed to help small operations run smoothly without a giant IT department. This comprehensive guide shows you how to master all SBS components as well as handle integration with other Microsoft technologies.: Focuses on Windows Server 2008 Small Business Serv

  4. CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

  5. New developments in small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fifty years since nuclear fission was discovered, nuclear energy has emerged to play an increasingly important role in meeting global energy needs. At the recent World Energy Conference in Montreal, 1989 September, experts agreed that nuclear power will continue to be an essential part of the future energy mix. The demand for economic and reliable energy sources is driven by the growth in the world's population and the essential role energy plays in industrial development. Global energy requirements, expected to double over the next 40 years, will seriously challenge suppliers in their ability to meet the demand. Ultimately, efficient energy utilization will become singularly important. Industrialization and economic development manifest themselves in urbanization. Urban dwellers consume significantly more energy per capita compared with their rural neighbours. Consequently, concentrated and environmentally acceptable energy sources, combined with efficient distribution systems, are now recognized as essential to meet urban energy demands. In considering the alternatives that will meet these requirements, nuclear energy qualifies as both a concentrated and environmentally benign source. Nuclear electricity generation is a mature technology that paves the way for other applications. If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified, and appropriately designed and sized reactors developed as an investment in the future. To meet this potential, new small reactor concepts are being developed to satisfy the expected energy demands, while also displaying characteristics that address current public concerns for providing minimal environmental impact. Concepts ranging in sized from 10 MW(t) to 1000 MW(t) are being pursued in a number of countries, including Canada, USA, UK, China, and

  6. Quality Control in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, L. F.

    2008-11-01

    The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

  7. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  8. EFFECT OF MARKET ORIENTATION ON SMALL BUSINESS PERORMANCE IN SMALL TOWN IN MALAYSIA: AN EMPRICAL STUDY ON MALAYSIAN SMALL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masroor ALAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on market orientation, and performance was related to big firms. In this study, based on the theoretical framework, a model was developed to investigate the effect of market orientation on business performance in small firms. To test the relationships among the variables, data from 53 small firms in the small town of Chunglun at Sintok, Kedah was used. The findings show that the three components of market orientation are related positive to business performance of small firms. The further analysis also confirmed that customer orientation and competitor orientation are strong predictors of small firm performance. The findings of this study confirm that market orientation behavior also applies to small firms.

  9. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  10. Density of very small meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-08-01

    Knowing the density of meteoroids helps to determine the physical structure and gives insight into the composition of their parent bodies. The density of meteoroids can provide clues to their origins, whether cometary or asteroidal. Density helps also to characterize the risk meteoroids may pose to artificial satellites.Ceplecha (1968) calculated the density of small meteoroids based on a parameter KB (meteoroid beginning height) and classified them in four categories (A,B,C,D) with densities going from 2700 to 180 kgm-3.Babadzhanov(2002) applied a model based on quasi-continuous fragmentation (QCF) on 413 photographic Super-Schmidt meteors by solely fitting their light curves. Their densities range from 400 to 7800 kgm-3. Bellot Rubio et al. (2002) analyzed the same 413 photographic meteors assuming the single body theory based on meteoroid dynamical properties and found densities ranging from 400 to 4800 kgm-3. A thermal erosion model was used by Borovicka et al. (2007) to analyze, simultaneously, the observed decelerations and light curves of six Draconid meteors. The density was found to be 300 kgm-3, consistent with the fact that the Draconid meteors are porous aggregates of grains associated with the Jupiter-family-comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (Jacchia, L.G., 1950).We used the Campbell-Brown and Koschny (2004) model of meteoroid ablation to determine the density of faint meteoroids from the analysis of both observed decelerations and light curves of meteoroids (Kikwaya et al., 2009; Kikwaya et al., 2011). Our work was based on a collection of six and ninety-two sporadic meteors. The grain masses used in the modeling ranged from 10-12 Kg to 10-9 Kg. We computed the orbit of each meteoroid and determined its Tisserand parameter. We found that meteoroids with asteroidal orbits have bulk densities ranging from 3000-5000 kgm-3. Meteoroids consistent with HTC/NIC parents have bulk densities from 400 kgm-3 to 1600 kg m-3. JFC meteoroids were found to have surprisingly

  11. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...

  12. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business... OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and...

  13. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounted for more than 50%, and in Austria with more than 70% of lodging facilities and represent a generator of hotel business in a large number of European tourism countries, and great attention is given to the small enterpreneurs stimulating their growth with different measures of tourist and general economy politics. The author reflects on the Croatian experience of the small businesses in the hospitality through research of development of small family hotels and their importance for the improvement of the supply of the Croatian hotel industry which future is built on personal approach to guests and present trends in the tourism market. States that the role of the National Association of family and small hotels, which represents the specific interests of small hoteliers and enables the continuous improvement of the quality of their offerings, as well as measures to encourage small business development at the macro level. Based on the made analysis the measures of increasing the efficiency of small businesses in the Croatian hospitality are given.

  14. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    -intestinal biopsies, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal...... permeability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with CC and chronic diarrhoea participated in the study. Coeliac disease was excluded by small-bowel biopsy and/or serology. Intestinal permeability was assessed as urinary excretion (ratios) 2, 4 and 6 h after ingestion of 14C-labelled mannitol (14C......: No alterations in intestinal permeability in patients with CC could be demonstrated. Impairment of the integrity of the mucosa of the small bowel and the presence of a general dysfunction of the small intestine in patients with CC seem unlikely....

  15. Why Small Manufacturing Firms Shun DCF

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Joe; Burns, Richard; Denson, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Although there is ample literature on the use of capital budgeting techniques by small firms, there is practically no research available on why small firms don’t use discounted cash flow methods. This paper looks at this rationale issue in die light of Brigham's 10 hypodieses (in Fundamentals of Financial Management, sixth edition). Support is found primarily for Brigham’s ignorance hypothesis, but also for his other hypotheses concerning small firms’ short-run cash flow orientation, the comp...

  16. Small entrepreneurship in hospitality: Croatian experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Slobodan; Rot, Eddy; Pretula, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounte...

  17. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Ivanovic; Eddy Rot; Miroslav Pretula

    2013-01-01

    After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounte...

  18. Innovative Surge Systems for Small Hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Fredrik Staff

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic grid quality is stated to be unsatisfactory in regards to the quality of frequency. The increasing amount of unregulated hydropower, interconnecting cables and increased flow of power on the grid are reasons given by Statnett SF (2014). If the stability of the grid is to be improved, small hydropower plants may be required to provide stable energy to the grid, a requirement that small hydropower plants have been exempt from. Achieving regulation stability for small hydropower...

  19. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Coşkunoğlu, Esra Zeynep; Duran, Berkan; Çiftci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder a...

  20. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Esra Zeynep Coskunoglu; Berkan Duran; Egemen Ciftci

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder ...

  1. IPC Guide for Small Business Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); Internationale Projekt Consult GmbH (IPC)

    2011-01-01

    Specialized financial institutions (SFIs) have a clear interest in tapping the small business lending market, but frequently lack the know-how for doing so in a sustainable manner. This guide outlines the key conditions and steps SFIs need to take in order to set up and develop sustainable small business lending. These recommendations are based on IPC's substantial experience in assisting FIs in various regions around the world in implementing small business lending operations.

  2. An International Comparison of Small Business Employment

    OpenAIRE

    John Schmitt; Nathan Lane

    2009-01-01

    Contrary to popular perceptions, the United States has a much smaller small-business sector (as a share of total employment) than other countries at a comparable level of economic development, according to this new CEPR report. The authors observe that the undersized U.S. small business sector is consistent with the view that high health care costs discourage small business formation, since start-ups in other countries can tap into government-funded health care systems.

  3. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dukowicz, Andrew C.; Lacy, Brian E.; Levine, Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), defined as excessive bacteria in the small intestine, remains a poorly understood disease. Initially thought to occur in only a small number of patients, it is now apparent that this disorder is more prevalent than previously thought. Patients with SIBO vary in presentation, from being only mildly symptomatic to suffering from chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and malabsorption. A number of diagnostic tests are currently available, although the optim...

  4. Small Worlds: Strong Clustering in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Matthias R

    2007-01-01

    Small-worlds represent efficient communication networks that obey two distinguishing characteristics: a high clustering coefficient together with a small characteristic path length. This paper focuses on an interesting paradox, that removing links in a network can increase the overall clustering coefficient. Reckful Roaming, as introduced in this paper, is a 2-localized algorithm that takes advantage of this paradox in order to selectively remove superfluous links, this way optimizing the clustering coefficient while still retaining a sufficiently small characteristic path length.

  5. Primary Amyloidosis Presenting as Small Bowel Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jennifer; van Rosendaal, Guido; Cleary, Cynthia; Urbanski, Stefan; Woodman, Richard C.

    2004-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a pathological process which encompasses a spectrum of diseases that result from extracellular deposition of pathological fibrillar proteins. Clinical presentations vary depending on the organs involved. There is no documented case of amyloidosis presenting as small bowel encapsulation. A previously healthy 62-year-old man developed a small bowel obstruction in 1997. At surgery, a peculiar membrane encasing his entire small bowel was discovered. This appeared to have no vascula...

  6. Small is beautiful: Russian compact reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.; Perera, J.

    1994-06-30

    Large areas of Russian territory still have no centralized electricity supply making them particularly suitable for the small nuclear power plants described in this article. Thirty small reactor designs have been assessed each generating between 1 MWe and 150 MWe. Six designs were selected as winners, two in each section of small, medium and large designs, capable of producing low cost electricity, efficiently. These are described briefly. plans are underway for the construction of some of the design winners in remote locations. (UK).

  7. Vanraj Mini-Tractors: Is Small Beautiful?

    OpenAIRE

    Pratik Modi

    2008-01-01

    This case presents the dilemma of the decision maker in selecting the most appropriate market segment for Vanraj 10 HP mini-tractors — an innovation from a small farmer in Gujarat, India. Four market segments were identified: small and marginal farmers, large farmers, industries, and horticulture farmers. Vanraj was economical and possessed all the features of a big tractor. Mr. Trivedi, the decision maker, believed that the tractor would serve the needs of small and marginal farmers better, ...

  8. New Orthogonal Small Set Kasami Code Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Pramaita; I G.A.G.K. Diafari; DNKP Negara; Agus Dharma

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose the design of a new orthogonal small set Kasami code sequence generated using combination of non-orthogonal m-sequence and small set Kasami code sequence. The authors demonstrate that the proposed code sequence has comparable auto-correlation function (ACF), cross- correlation function (CCF), peak cross-correlation values with that of the existing orthogonal small set Kasami code sequence. Though the proposed code sequence has less code sequence sets than th...

  9. Tweezers for Chimeras in Small Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Iryna; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Zakharova, Anna; Wolfrum, Matthias; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-03-01

    We propose a control scheme which can stabilize and fix the position of chimera states in small networks. Chimeras consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics in systems of nonlocally coupled identical oscillators. Chimera states are generally difficult to observe in small networks due to their short lifetime and erratic drifting of the spatial position of the incoherent domain. The control scheme, like a tweezer, might be useful in experiments, where usually only small networks can be realized.

  10. Small Package Transportation Companies: An Exploratory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Lee WILLIAMS; Nabil RAZZOUK; Victoria SEITZ

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the evaluative criteria used when choosing small-package transportation companies, the level of importance of selected criteria, and how selected package carriers are perceived by small business decision makers. Methodology: Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires from a total of 31 decision makers in small businesses. The self-administered questionnaire was designed with four sections that handled separate but related topics. Questions from all four sec...

  11. Hydro climatic ranking of small Mediterranean islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubenkov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Islands are specific environments whose natural features form the basis of social and economic development. It is particularly distinct on small islands. In hydrological terms, these are islands with surface areas between 100 and 1000 km2. There are 40 small islands in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of these have very limited water resources, due to their geological structure and precipitation regime. This paper outlines the basic geographical and climatic features of small Mediterranean islan...

  12. Small animal dentistry in Canada: 1994 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Haws, I J; Anthony, J .M.

    1996-01-01

    Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and complia...

  13. Success Essentials of Yiwu Small Commodity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find the success factors of Yiwu Small Commodity Market. Beside this main objective, the historical reasons of Yiwu Small Commodity Market’s formation also have been analyzed. The purpose was to integrate the historical reasons and internal reasons together to get more comprehensive analysis results of Yiwu market. During the process of research, interviews of five shopkeepers in Yiwu Small Commodity Market were done. The interviews were held in April 2...

  14. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. The following findings emerged from the study: • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small no...

  15. Dynamic capabilities in small software firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kivelä, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation we study dynamic capabilities in small software firms. Small software firms find themselves in highly complex and turbulent environments that require dynamic capabilities to build, integrate and configure resources. While the literature describes a portfolio of such dynamic capabilities that can help firms to adapt to changing conditions, we could not find many definitions, models and studies on these capabilities suitable with particular focus on small software firms. Fu...

  16. Small firm subsistence and market dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jeroen; Péli, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    In many markets, large and small firms coexist. As large firms can in principle out-compete small ones, the actual presence of the latter asks for an explanation. In ours, we focus on the dimensionality of markets, which can change as a consequence of product innovations, preference elaboration or institutions. We show that increasing market dimensionality substantially enlarges the market periphery relative to the market center, which creates new potential niches for small firms. We thereby provide a parsimonious explanation for small firm subsistence.

  17. Small Business Support in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Karmašová, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the master´s thesis „Small business support in the Czech republic“ is to carry out analysis of current system of Small business based on a created scope of knowledge necessary for orientation in the respective topic, find deficiencies and suggest innovations. The first part is focused on history, on small and medium enterprise terms definition and the evolution of small business in the Czech Republic in the years 2000 - 2007. The second part is attended to analysis of particu...

  18. ATLAS- lowering the muon small wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS - the two muon small wheels lowered into the cavern Like briefly separated twin sisters, ATLAS’s small wheels were once again united at the experiment’s surface building at Point 1 on St Valentine’s Day. The lowering of the small wheels into the tunnel will mark the end of the installation of detector components for the experiment. At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern.

  19. Brain networks: small-worlds, after all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its introduction, the ‘small-world’ effect has played a central role in network science, particularly in the analysis of the complex networks of the nervous system. From the cellular level to that of interconnected cortical regions, many analyses have revealed small-world properties in the networks of the brain. In this work, we revisit the quantification of small-worldness in neural graphs. We find that neural graphs fall into the ‘borderline’ regime of small-worldness, residing close to that of a random graph, especially when the degree sequence of the network is taken into account. We then apply recently introducted analytical expressions for clustering and distance measures, to study this borderline small-worldness regime. We derive theoretical bounds for the minimal and maximal small-worldness index for a given graph, and by semi-analytical means, study the small-worldness index itself. With this approach, we find that graphs with small-worldness equivalent to that observed in experimental data are dominated by their random component. These results provide the first thorough analysis suggesting that neural graphs may reside far away from the maximally small-world regime. (paper)

  20. Hidden layers of human small RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daub Carsten O

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small RNA attracts increasing interest based on the discovery of RNA silencing and the rapid progress of our understanding of these phenomena. Although recent studies suggest the possible existence of yet undiscovered types of small RNAs in higher organisms, many studies to profile small RNA have focused on miRNA and/or siRNA rather than on the exploration of additional classes of RNAs. Results Here, we explored human small RNAs by unbiased sequencing of RNAs with sizes of 19–40 nt. We provide substantial evidences for the existence of independent classes of small RNAs. Our data shows that well-characterized non-coding RNA, such as tRNA, snoRNA, and snRNA are cleaved at sites specific to the class of ncRNA. In particular, tRNA cleavage is regulated depending on tRNA type and tissue expression. We also found small RNAs mapped to genomic regions that are transcribed in both directions by bidirectional promoters, indicating that the small RNAs are a product of dsRNA formation and their subsequent cleavage. Their partial similarity with ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs suggests unrevealed functions of ribosomal DNA or interstitial rRNA. Further examination revealed six novel miRNAs. Conclusion Our results underscore the complexity of the small RNA world and the biogenesis of small RNAs.

  1. Small wind planning and building successful installations

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Nolan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive guide to achieving successful small wind installations. It is a comprehensive information resource from one of the world's most experienced small wind professionals, covering all the key issues for small wind system development, from site and machine selection to international standards compliance. Engineers who are tasked with planning and developing these small wind systems, from choosing the best site and accurately estimating likely power output to obtaining proper permitting and troubleshooting operational inefficiencies, will find this book an ess

  2. Role of Small Airways in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkas, Lindsay K; Martin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory condition of both the small and large airways. Recently the small airways have gained attention as studies have shown significant inflammation in the small airways in all severities of asthma. This inflammation has correlated with peripheral airway resistance and as a result, noninvasive methods to reliably measure small airways have been pursued. In addition, recent changes in asthma inhalers have led to alterations in drug formulations and the development of extrafine particle inhalers that improve delivery to the distal airways. PMID:27401620

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS CREDIT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the national economy, providing 60% of revenues in foreign countries. In Russia, this sector is developing slowly due to lack of funding. In connection with the development of small business, lending is growing in popularity in this sphere. The state develops a variety of programs to support small businesses in the form of public and private lending institutions, venture capital funds, credit unions. However, the volume of lending to small business remains relatively low, due to mistrust of banks and credit organizations in the sphere of small business. Nevertheless, it is here, according to statistics, the debt on loans is only 1.5% of the total. The article describes the features of small business lending, it analyzes the dynamics of the volume of loans granted, and the amount of debt, identifies main obstacles to obtaining loans to entrepreneurs, gives the analysis of credit conditions of small business in Russia and Germany. The problem of credit was considered from two perspectives: from the perspective of credit institutions and the banks themselves. We have developed measures to improve credit conditions, which must take into account not only credit institutions but also the state. It is necessary to provide tax incentives, encouraging the establishment and development of insurance business associations, to support the creation of specialized banks lending to small businesses, the development of cooperation of small and large banks to increase bank lending and reduce credit risks

  4. The Innovation Types Evaluation of Small Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-jie; TANG Bing-yong; Ronald K. Mitchell; XING Xi-rong

    2002-01-01

    The technology innovation and technology innovation capability plays an important role in management study of small business's growth and development. In this paper, the types of innovation in small business are discussed. Then, a hierarchy comprehensive fuzzy index system evaluating the types of small businesses is proposed. Because of the fuzziness of 15 factors used to analyze the small business, L-R fuzzy number is applied to describe the basic fuzzy state index. Furthermore, the corresponding fuzzy evaluation algorithm is designed. An application example indicated the effects of the methods.

  5. Graduate Employment and Small Businesses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Matlay, Harry

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary China, there are two far-reaching developments that impact directly on graduate employment: (a) a highly entrepreneurial and rapidly growing small business sector and (b) a rapidly expanding higher education sector. Paradoxically, while the small business sector continues to suffer from acute skills shortages, new graduates are…

  6. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  7. Hate Speech on Small College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    A study identified and evaluated the approach of small colleges in dealing with hate speech and/or verbal harassment incidents. A questionnaire was sent to the Dean of Students at 200 randomly-selected small (500-2000 students), private, liberal arts colleges and universities. Responses were received from 132 institutions, for a response rate of…

  8. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk ... day and for how long you have smoked. Being around the smoke ...

  9. Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

  10. Gravity Compensation Technique Uses Small dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollow, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Small dc servomotor powered by simple constant-current source and with suitable gearing used to cancel effect of gravity upon load. Lead-screw positioning system has load counterbalanced by small supplementary motor powered by constant current source. Motor lighter and more compact alternative to counterbalance. Used in variety of mechanical systems where load positioned or accelerated in vertical plane.

  11. Small solid angle device setup and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantize the weight of Uranium-plate accurately, the small solid angle device was redesigned. To fit the requirement of homogeneity check, the sliding base was introduced in the design. This paper presents the detailed application of small solid angle device setup and quantization of Uranium-plate and homogeneity check. (authors)

  12. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. On the efficiency of very small refrigerators

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, and thus demonstrate that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

  14. Small States, Nationalism and Institutional Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses theories of small states (e.g. Katzenstein) and nationalism (e.g. Gellner) to explain why Denmark and Ireland responded to the 2008 financial crisis in different ways. In Denmark, a coordinated market economy with considerable corporatism and state intervention, the private sector...... of nationalism whereas Ireland did not. Lessons for the theories of small states and nationalism are explored...

  15. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  16. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  17. Agility in a small software firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Mathiassen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Small software firms are vulnerable to environmental uncertainty. While agile methods and other technologies offer suggestions to this challenge, we know little about how these firms combine project and firm level capabilities to effectively respond to changes. On this backdrop, we examine a small...

  18. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  19. Does small business need a financial fix?

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine A. Samolyk; Rebecca Wetmore Humes

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of several proposals that would promote additional lending to the small business sector, some through direct government intervention and others by changing existing regulations to promote the market's allocation of credit. The authors argue that market-oriented initiatives are the preferred approach for improving a small-business credit crunch.

  20. Small business credit scoring and credit availability

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Allen N.; Frame, W. Scott

    2005-01-01

    U.S. commercial banks are increasingly using credit scoring models to underwrite small business credits. This paper discusses this technology, evaluates the research findings on the effects of this technology on small business credit availability, and links these findings to a number of research and public policy issues.

  1. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively in a variety of…

  2. The marketing of the small enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Zajfertová, Alena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the marketing of a small enterprise, and it's position and importance on the market. It will also include an analysis of the informational and financial support of the EU. For the practical part there was chosen a small enterprise Nana Vogue, which is specialised in luxurious clothing.

  3. 78 FR 42391 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... implement provisions of the Jobs Act which pertain to small business subcontracting. 76 FR 61626. Section...'' (a contract for which a small business subcontracting plan is required), a prime contractor must..., reopening the comment period for an additional 30 days, until to January 6, 2012. 76 FR 74749. The...

  4. 78 FR 77352 - Small Business Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... process. Background NASA's small business policy, published August 17, 1993 [58 FR 43554], was established..., Small Business Programs [62 FR 36707, July 9, 1997, as amended at 64 FR 25215, May 11, 1999; 65 FR 38777... Provisions and Contract Clauses [62 FR 36733, July 9, 1997; 62 FR 40309, July 28, 1997, as amended at 64......

  5. Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-wei; YUAN Lin; Hu Hong-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma is a special type of tumor which is usually found in the lungs. However, it is very rare in extra pulmonary tissues, especially in epididymis. One case of small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the right epididymis, with partial differentiation to adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma is reported as follows.

  6. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  7. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  9. Business environment and Russian Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    Rubzova, O.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with factors hampering the development of small business in the monopoly-dominated Russian economy. It is suggested that more activism on the part of small business organizations is required to foresee the enforcement of the legislation promoting competition

  10. Hidden layers of human small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Yukari; Sandelin, Albin; Katayama, Shintaro; Fukuda, Shiro; Daub, Carsten O; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Yasuda, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small RNA attracts increasing interest based on the discovery of RNA silencing and the rapid progress of our understanding of these phenomena. Although recent studies suggest the possible existence of yet undiscovered types of small RNAs in higher organisms, many studies to profile sm...

  11. Theory of small-depth channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion channeling at small depths is studied on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation solved for the distribution function of ions in the channel. The expressions for the flux and oscillation peak width as functions of depth are obtained which are valid for whatever small depths of penetration

  12. Superconductivity Enhancements in Small Metallic Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Renrong; Chen, Zhi Qian; Zhu, Shun Quan

    The reasons for superconductivity enhancement in small metallic grains including hundreds of thousand electrons are investigated by solving the generalized gap equation based on BCS mean field theory. The analysis suggests that the superconductivity enhancement in small metallic grains are the results caused by the pairing correlation and the level statistics in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) and the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE).

  13. Arteriovenous Malformation Detected by Small Bowel Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Fujii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding that originates in the small intestine is often difficult to diagnose. When successful diagnosis reveals a lesion that can be localized preoperatively, the laparoscopic approach is an appropriate and beneficial treatment modality for small bowel resection. A 69-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of gastrointestinal bleeding and symptomatic transfusion-dependent anemia. Upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Double-balloon endoscopy established the source of the bleeding as a 0.5-cm polypoid mass appearing as a submucosal tumor with redness and pulsation in the lower ileum, suggesting a vascular lesion. Laparoscopic small bowel resection was successful in removing the mass in the ileum. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Preoperative small bowel endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing the cause and localization of arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine.

  14. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare tumor that exhibits aggressive behavior and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all primary bladder tumors. Small cell carcinoma generally occurs in the lung, accounting for 25% of all pulmonary malignancies. SCCUB exhibits a similar microscopic and immunohistochemical appearance to that of small cell carcinoma of the lung. There is no consensus about the standard therapy, owing to its rarity. Surgical resection seems to be the mainstay of treatment for patients with limited stage, together with neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has same small effect for palliative purposes, as well as being an alternative to radical cystectomy. Patients with advanced stage, although given platinum-based chemotherapy, have a poor prognosis. We herein review epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological features, and current management of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (author)

  15. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs

  16. Encouraging the Domestic Small Turbine Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state incentives for home-based renewables in the domestic market continue to grow and change creating opportunities for the small wind turbine market. Tracking the opportunities to get small wind turbines included in incentive policies and developing a proactive industry approach is important because market changes can occur anytime. There are near-term opportunities to work with states in developing their strategies for disbursing system benefit charges, adding tags to existing policies for other small renewables to include small wind, and developing state-wide net metering programs. Other opportunities to improve the domestic market exist but will be quite challenging to implement. Other opportunities include federal tax credits, state wind access laws, equipment verification for specific states, and leasing programs for small wind turbines

  17. Small-molecule-dependent split aptamer ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashwani K; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2011-08-17

    Here we describe the first use of small-molecule binding to direct a chemical reaction between two nucleic acid strands. The reported reaction is a ligation between two fragments of a DNA split aptamer using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Utilizing the split aptamer for cocaine, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of cocaine concentrations and is compatible with complex biological fluids such as human blood serum. Moreover, studies of split aptamer ligation at varying salt concentrations and using structurally similar analogues of cocaine have revealed new insight into the assembly and small-molecule binding properties of the cocaine split aptamer. The ability to translate the presence of a small-molecule target into the output of DNA ligation is anticipated to enable the development of new, broadly applicable small-molecule detection assays. PMID:21761903

  18. Small Science: Small is Beautiful: Challenges and Perspectives of Nano/Meso/Microscience (Small 16/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, Markus

    2016-04-01

    On page 2107, M. Antonietti presents current and future trends in 'small science', and why these are at the core of current scientific developments. The cover artwork connects the macroscopic world, an apparent splash of carbon black powder, with the microscopic structure of diverse carbon allotropes to "construct" the powder. At the second glance, groups of little scientists enter the "World of SMALL" to observe and engineer reality, together, beyond the scales. Original Artwork of Yoobin Chun, Korea: The world of SMALL, 2015. PMID:27101417

  19. Small x Phenomenology summary of the 3rd Lund Small x Workshop in 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, J R; Bartels, J; Barnafoldi, G G; Chachamis, G; Collins, J; Grindhammer, G; Gustafson, G; Hansson, M; Ingelman, G; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Knutsson, A; Kowalski, H; Kutak, K; Kyrieleis, A; Lévai, Peter; Lipatov, A; Loennblad, L; Lublinsky, M; Marchesini, G; Milcewicz, I; Risler, C; Sabio Vera, Agustin; Sjoedahl, M; Stasto, A M; Turnau, J; Watt, G; Zotov, N P; Andersen, Jeppe R; Baranov, Serguei; Bartels, Jochen; Barnafoldi, Gergely G.; Chachamis, Grigorios; Collins, John; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gustafson, Goesta; Hansson, Magnus; Ingelman, Gunnar; Jung, Hannes; Joensson, Leif; Knutsson, Albert; Kowalski, Henri; Kutak, Krzysztof; Kyrieleis, Albrecht; Levai, Peter; Lipatov, Artem; Loennblad, Leif; Lublinsky, Michael; Marchesini, Giuseppe; Milcewicz, Izabela; Risler, Christiane; Sabio-Vera, Agustin; Sjoedahl, Malin; Stasto, Anna; Turnau, Jacek; Watt, Graeme; Zotov, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status.

  20. Small x phenomenology. Summary of the 3rd Lund small x workshop in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status. (Orig.)

  1. Small-x phenomenology - Summary of the 3rd Lund small-x workshop in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status. (orig.)

  2. Small x phenomenology. Summary of the 3rd Lund small x workshop in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.R. [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Baranov, S. [Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (DE). FRG] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status. (Orig.)

  3. RURAL SMALL BUSINESS FINANCE: EVIDENCE FROM THE 1998 SURVEY OF SMALL BUSINESS FINANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Cole R.

    2003-01-01

    The 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances provides robust information on the financing of small businesses including an overview of their firm's organization, financial characteristics, and credit use. Information from the survey is used in this study to compare the financial characteristics of urban and rural small businesses. Overall, rural small businesses have very similar financial characteristics, access to technology and financial services, sources of financial capital, and creditwort...

  4. The Impact of the Small Business Lending Fund on Community Bank Lending to Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Dean F. Amel; Traci L. Mach

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis, total outstanding loans to businesses by commercial banks dropped off substantially. Large loans outstanding began to rebound by the third quarter of 2010 and essentially returned to their previous growth trajectory while small loans outstanding continued to decline. Furthermore, much of the drop in small business loans outstanding was evident at community banks. To address this perceived lack of supply of credit to small businesses, the Small Business Lending ...

  5. Optimisation of Investment Resources at Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Iryna B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the process of optimisation of the structure of investment resources, development of criteria and stages of optimisation of volumes of investment resources for small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article characterises the process of transformation of investment resources into assets and liabilities of the balances of small enterprises and conducts calculation of the structure of sources of formation of investment resources in Ukraine at small enterprises by types of economic activity in 2011. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the structure of investment resources of small enterprises the article forms main groups of criteria of optimisation in the context of individual small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article offers an algorithm and step-by-step scheme of optimisation of investment resources at small enterprises in the form of a multi-stage process of management of investment resources in the context of increase of their mobility and rate of transformation of existing resources into investments. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of a structural and logic scheme of optimisation of volumes of investment resources at small enterprises.

  6. Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.

  7. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium...

  8. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utilization of small... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns..., provide the following information to the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization...

  9. PORTFOLIO DECISIONS OF SMALL AGRIBUSINESSES: EVIDENCE FROM THE 1993 NATIONAL SURVEY OF SMALL BUSINESS FINANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Marionette; Park, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    This study develops a model for the financial portfolio allocations of small businesses and identifies the financial decisions of small agribusiness firms to develop optimal portfolio strategies. We will compare the performance of two econometric models in identifying firm and owner characteristics that influence asset and liability holdings in small agribusinesses.

  10. Method and system for small scale pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  11. Nonlinear tracking control of small electrical machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a methodology to design simple and effective high-performance tracking controllers for small AC electrical machines. By taking advantages of the two-time-scale property of small electrical machines, a second-order nonlinear dynamical model is derived from a singular perturbation formulation of the full-order model of a small electrical machine. A globally stable, maximum-torque adaptive controller is developed based on this reduced-order model. Simulation results show that this controller is comparable to controllers based on the full model. In addition, this controller is computationally very simple and requires fewer sensory measurements for feedback purposes

  12. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Cicek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder arising in an unusual localization. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 604-608

  13. Radiotherapy for Small Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Kurokawa, Yasushi; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Abiko, Seisho; Shiroyama, Yujiro; Kamiryo, Toshifumi; Nakano, Shigeki; Eguchi, Yuuki; Tsurutani, Toru; Ito, Haruhide

    1991-01-01

    The result of two types of radiation therapy for small cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were analyzed, and the indications and limitations of radiation therapy for small AVMs discussed. Four patients with small AVMs received radiation therapy. There were three males and one female, ranging in age from 7 to 44 years with an average of 29 years. One cerebral AVM was located in the right thalamus, two were in the left central sulcus and one was in the left parietal lobe. Three AVMs wer...

  14. Dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C. V.; Coyne, G. V.; Magalhaes, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss simultaneous dust model fits to our extinction and polarization data for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using existing dust models. Dust model fits to the wavelength dependent polarization are possible for stars with small lambda(sub max). They generally imply size distributions which are narrower and have smaller average sizes compared to those in the Galaxy. The best fits for the extinction curves are obtained with a power law size distribution. The typical, monotonic SMC extinction curve can be well fit with graphite and silicate grains if a small fraction of the SMC carbon is locked up in the grains. Amorphous carbon and silicate grains also fit the data well.

  15. Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navard, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

  16. Editorial: Small Business and Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Ramsey; Lynn M. Martin; Patrick Ibbotson; Craig M Parker

    2009-01-01

    We are pleased to present this AJIS featured theme on Small Business and Information Systems, which is the result of a merger between AJIS and the Journal of Information Systems and Small Business. The co-editors of both journals felt that the merger would help raise the profile of small business research in Australia (since AJIS is more highly recognised than JISSB) and that it would increase the number of publications in AJIS. It is also a global featured theme, with papers from Australia, ...

  17. Small bowel intubation using guide wire: use in decompression of small bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel intubation is a useful method in the non-operative decompression of small bowel obstruction and enteral hyperalimentation in malnourished patients. We have tried small bowel intubation with Ventrol tube guided by small bowel enteroclysis guide wire (Bilbao-Dotter wire) in 12 patients. Ten cases were successfully intubated. In 11 cases of bowel obstruction, 9 cases were intubated and 8 cases were effectively drained. One malnourished patient was improved in nutritional state after enteral hyperalimentation through the intubated tube. We believe this method is an easy and time-saving method in the small bowel decompression

  18. PRODUCTION CYCLES REENGINEERING ON SMALL PROCESSING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    РЕЗЕР А.В.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents problems of production cycles reengineering on small processing enterprises and, also, the most common issues which appear in production reengineering on this type of enterprises due to present economic condition in Russian Federation.

  19. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  20. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected ... TUESDAY, May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the ...

  1. JPL Small Body Database Search Engine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use this search engine to generate custom tables of orbital and/or physical parameters for all asteroids and comets (or a specified sub-set) in our small-body...

  2. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses need to...

  3. On the Clustering of Europa's Small Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhaus, E. B.; Chapman, C. R.; Merline, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of Europa's small craters and find that many are too tightly clustered to result from random, primary impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Small and medium power reactors 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC follows the publication of TECDOC-347 Small and Medium Power Reactors Project Initiation Study - Phase I published in 1985 and TECDOC-376 Small and Medium Power Reactors 1985 published in 1986. It is mainly intended for decision makers in Developing Member States interested in embarking on a nuclear power programme. It consists of two parts: 1) Guidelines for the Introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in Developing Countries. These Guidelines were established during the Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 15 May 1987. Their purpose is to review key aspects relating to the introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in developing countries; 2) Up-dated Information on SMPR Concepts Contributed by Supplier Industries. According to the recommendations of the Second Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, this part contains the up-dated information formerly published in Annex I of the above mentioned TECDOC-347. Figs

  5. Malignant tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical symptoms, kind and localization of the neoplasm are studied in 17 patients with malignant tumors of the small intestine. The treatment, evolution and survival rate are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  6. Small-boat Cetacean Surveys Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains multiple spreadsheets that hold data collected during each small-boat survey project conducted by the PIFSC CRP. This includes a summary of...

  7. Make Projects Small Form Factor PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, Duane

    2006-01-01

    Shoebox sized and smaller, small-form-factor PCs can pack as much computing muscle as a full-sized desktop computer. They consumer less power, have few or no moving parts, and are very quiet. Whether you plan to use one as a standalone PC or want to embed it in your next hacking project, a small-form-factor PC can be a lot of fun to build. Make Projects: Small Form Factor PCs is the only book available that shows you how to build small-form-factor PCs -- from kits and from scratch -- that are more interesting and more personalized than what a full-sized PC can give you. Included in the book

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Small Network Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Small Networking Equipment that are effective...

  9. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer an excellent combination of simplicity, performance and wet system mass for small satellites (<100 kg, <50 watts) requiring mN level...

  10. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer the best combination of simplicity, performance, wet system mass and power consumption for small satellites (<100kg, <50Watts)...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeab, Dhafer A., E-mail: dhafer_ahmed@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Campus, Imperial College NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Dick, Elizabeth; Sergot, Antoni A.; Sundblon, Lauren; Gedroyc, Wady [Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Campus, Imperial College NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel (MR Enterography, or MRE) is becoming increasingly popular as the first imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of small bowel diseases. The inherent advantages of MRI, including excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability and lack of ionising radiation are well known. In addition, the use of luminal contrast agents in MRE has the added advantage of demonstrating the lumen and the wall directly, something not possible to achieve with conventional small bowel barium follow-through imaging. This review will highlight recent technical advances to this low cost, simple technique which is easily achievable in all hospitals. It will also review normal and abnormal radiological findings and highlight the value of this technique to both the clinician and patient alike in the investigation of small bowel disease.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel (MR Enterography, or MRE) is becoming increasingly popular as the first imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of small bowel diseases. The inherent advantages of MRI, including excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability and lack of ionising radiation are well known. In addition, the use of luminal contrast agents in MRE has the added advantage of demonstrating the lumen and the wall directly, something not possible to achieve with conventional small bowel barium follow-through imaging. This review will highlight recent technical advances to this low cost, simple technique which is easily achievable in all hospitals. It will also review normal and abnormal radiological findings and highlight the value of this technique to both the clinician and patient alike in the investigation of small bowel disease.

  13. A small beautiful outlook; Kleine schoene Aussicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tilman

    2009-06-15

    Small wind power plants increasingly are popular in the Federal Republic of Germany. Authorities, missing quality control as well as promotion still restrain their spreading. But the technology makes progresses. For the first time political support makes signs.

  14. New markets for small-scale hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for small and medium sized hydro-electric power plant is more attractive than ever. The boom in Europe has increasingly spread to the emerging countries, and here too small hydro plays an important ecological role. In addition to new plant rehabilitation of 'historical' plant is now a major factor. The last few years have seen a market shift from single machine components to complete plant and systems, requiring a strategy re-think on the part of larger companies. Following the influx of private capital into the power industry, business conditions have also undergone a thorough transformation. In place of 'fast money', hydro power offers the prospect of earning longer-term, sustainable money'. The term small-scale hydro-electric power (or simply 'small hydro') is used slightly differently depending on the country and market. Here, it is used to denote plant with turbines up to 10 MW. (Author)

  15. Experience with small-gap undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past year, we have gained some experience with small-gap undulators through operation of the NSLS Prototype Small-Gap Undulator (PSGU). PSGU is a small R ampersand D insertion device intended for investigation of the fundamental limitations of small-gap devices. At the same time, PSGU aptly demonstrates the enhanced performance offered by such devices, through generation of radiation with a 16 mm period pure-permanent-magnet undulator. In what follows, we present a brief description of PSGU and a summary of operating experience to date. This includes a spectrum of the undulator radiation produced at a 5.6 mm magnet gap, and the appearance of operational limitations, namely lifetime degradation, beam instabilities, and increased bremsstrahlung radiation

  16. Small company mergers--good for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Bains, William

    2006-11-01

    An analysis of 105 mergers among small UK biotech companies over a 10-year period shows that the improvement of shareholder positions, rather than product pipelines or business opportunities, is the main motivation for such transactions. PMID:17093475

  17. The ubiquity of small-world networks

    CERN Document Server

    Telesford, Qawi K; Hayasaka, Satoru; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Small-world networks by Watts and Strogatz are a class of networks that are highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs. These characteristics result in networks with unique properties of regional specialization with efficient information transfer. Social networks are intuitive examples of this organization with cliques or clusters of friends being interconnected, but each person is really only 5-6 people away from anyone else. While this qualitative definition has prevailed in network science theory, in application, the standard quantitative application is to compare path length (a surrogate measure of distributed processing) and clustering (a surrogate measure of regional specialization) to an equivalent random network. It is demonstrated here that comparing network clustering to that of a random network can result in aberrant findings and networks once thought to exhibit small-world properties may not. We propose a new small-world metric, {\\omega}...

  18. Enhancing Adult Learning through Cooperative Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a structured form of small group work based on interdependence, accountability, group processing, and social skills. In continuing education, cooperative learning can positively affect achievement, multiethnic relationships, self-esteem, retention, and attitudes. (SK)

  19. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude;

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  20. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements for...

  1. An evaluation of small businesses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad karimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important and fundamental issues, employment is an indicator of development and welfare in any country. Due to the rapid growth of population over the past decades in Iran, investigating unemployment and the obstacles hindering employment is of paramount importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used and a group of experts were interviewed in order to identify four groups of legal, economic, social as well as individual factors, which could improve or hinder the growth of small businesses and self-employment. In this paper, having determined the factors influencing the expansion or downsizing the small businesses, the entrepreneurs, agents supporting small businesses, and the members of employment groups in Mazandaran Province, Iran rated the four categories. Finally, the most important growth factors or challenges faced by small businesses from the three aforementioned perspectives were compared.

  2. Small-$x$ resummation from HELL

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Small-$x$ logarithmic enhancements arising from high-energy gluon emissions affect both the evolution of collinearly-factorized parton densities and partonic coefficient functions. With the higher collider energy reached by the LHC, the prospect of a future high-energy collider, and the recent deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) results at small-$x$ from HERA, providing phenomenological tools for performing small-$x$ resummation has become of great relevance. In this paper we discuss a framework to perform small-$x$ resummation for both parton evolution and partonic coefficient functions and we describe its implementation in a computer code named High-Energy Large Logarithms (HELL). We present resummed and matched results for the DGLAP splitting functions and, as a proof of principle, for the massless structure functions in DIS.

  3. Large & Small: Exploring the Laws of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates how both large entities (such as stars and galaxies) and small entities (such as fundamental particles) obey the same physical laws. Discusses quantum mechanics, Newton's laws, and general relativity. (MLH)

  4. Small Satellite Transceiver for Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a small, light-weight, low-cost transceivers capable of establishing satellite communications links for telemetry and...

  5. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  6. A new small satellite goes into orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On 5 November, 2008,a rocket launched the Chuangxin-1(02), a small satellite built by the Shanghai Engineering Center for MicroSatellite under the CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, into its preset orbit.

  7. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  8. Developing a Small Business Regulatory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThank you for inviting me to share my thoughts on what the government is doing to reduce the burden on small business. I also look forward to hearing the other speakers talk about how to make the regulatory system more responsive and relevant to business needs.It is more than a year since the fall of Lehman Brothers and the beginning of the Australian Government’s response to the global financial crisis.Today, the Australian economy is showing encouraging signs of recovery. The Government’s policy responses have been largely responsible for placing Australia in a better position than most countries around the world.The Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO (released earlier this month showed that the economy is performing much better than was forecast in the last Budget — MYEFO shows that Australia is the only advanced economy to have recorded positive growth through the year to June 2009. MYEFO also upgraded the growth forecasts for the following two years with consequental falls in the expected peak unemployment rate.Although this is good news, the GFC has clearly affected, and is continuing to impact on, small business.A number of Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry surveys have reported large falls in small business confidence and conditions throughout 2008 and early 2009. However, the August ACCI Small Business Survey reports that, while conditions for small business are expected to remain challenging, conditions are stabilising.This good news is supported by the most recent Commonwealth Bank – ACCI Business Expectations Survey, which shows that small, medium and large businesses are expecting business conditions to improve significantly during this quarter.It is true that small businesses succeed or fail on the creativity, ingenuity, innovation and imagination of their owners and staff. It is also true that small businesses are notoriously time poor. When considering ways to improve the regulatory

  9. XY model in small-world networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Beom Jun; Hong, H.; Holme, Petter; Jeon, Gun Sang; Minnhagen, Petter; Choi, M. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The phase transition in the XY model on one-dimensional small-world networks is investigated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that long-range order is present at finite temperatures, even for very small values of the rewiring probability, suggesting a finite-temperature transition for any nonzero rewiring probability. Nature of the phase transition is discussed in comparison with the globally-coupled XY model.

  10. Small Satellite Mars Missions using Electric Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Price, ME; Wells, NS; Ball, AJ; Zarnecki, JC; Taylor, FW

    2004-01-01

    Two small satellite concepts are presented for low cost Mars system exploration. Both concepts use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to move from a low velocity Earth escape orbit to captured Mars orbits, and so are able to make use of smaller launcher vehicles, while still providing significant payload accommodation, despite their small size. Both missions achieve their Mars system operational orbits in less than 20 months from launch. The Mars Global Atmosphere Survey (MGAS) mission design ha...

  11. Surgery for small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyos, Alberto; DeCamp, Malcolm M

    2014-11-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprises approximately 14% of all lung cancer cases. Most patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and are therefore treated nonoperatively with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. A small subset of patients with SCLC present with early-stage disease and will benefit from surgical resection plus chemotherapy. The rationale for radiotherapy in these patients remains controversial. PMID:25441133

  12. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  13. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  14. Design of a Peruvian Small Satellite Network

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Romero, Juan Martin

    2010-01-01

    A national concept for the implementation of a network of ground stations for small satellite missions is being designed. This network shall support the newly conceived small satellite program in Peru. Currently Peruvian engineers conduct investigations on how to carry out this challenging project, which is expected to gain not only Peru but also the Peruvian industry. The proposed network shall be supported not only by Peruvian government institutions, but also by national and international ...

  15. Tracheal metastasis of small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    De, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    Endotracheal metastases of primary lung cancer are rare. Only one case of tracheal metastasis from small cell lung cancer has been reported in literature. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old woman who was admitted for sudden-onset breathlessness with respiratory failure and required ventilatory support. Endotracheal growth was identified during bronchoscopy, and biopsy revealed endotracheal metastasis of small cell lung cancer.

  16. Human Resource Development in a Small Company

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik Mojca; Kermc Dušanka

    2013-01-01

    The small business sector is often overlooked in human resource development researches, despite representing a large portion of the total economy. Very few studies exist on the subject of human resources development needs analysis in small organisations. Development plans remain mostly unwritten, which can lead to the impression that development is not being implemented or planned and is therefore not valid. This paper presents case study of the existing human resource development system in a...

  17. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome in children

    OpenAIRE

    Siniewicz-Luzeńczyk, Katarzyna; Bik-Gawin, Agnieszka; Zeman, Krzysztof; Bąk-Romaniszyn, Leokadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) is defined as an increased number of nonpathogenic bacteria over 105 organisms in 1 millilitre of small intestine content. The most common predisposing factors include, among others, gut motility disorders and chronic use of proton pump inhibitors. The results of recent studies indicate the importance of SIBO in gastrointestinal diseases. Aim To assess the prevalence of SIBO in children with abdominal pain. Material and method...

  18. Small Businesses and the Shadow Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Nastav; Štefan Bojnec

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates causalities between small businesses and the shadow economy in ten New Member States of the European Union in the years 2000–2005. The transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with deregulation and privatization of economic activities, has yielded new opportunities for small businesses, new entrepreneurial ideas, and new income sources in these countries. Yet, rigid legislation, high tax wedges, and transaction costs of government institutions have incr...

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  20. Institutional Perspectives on Small Wind Energy Permitting

    OpenAIRE

    Wise-West, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The small wind energy market has experienced uneven growth over the past three decades in California. Drawing on a combination of engineering, institutional economics, and marine ornithology, my dissertation focuses on one of the most common reasons cited for small wind energy's uneven growth: local government permitting regimes. Local regulatory agencies aim to interpret existing public policy during the permitting process so that outcomes balance the costs and benefits of those interested i...

  1. The Ethical Perceptions of Small Business Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Muzaffer

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an investigation into the ethical perceptions of small business owner/managers. The study has been conducted in Northwest region of Turkey and is the first investigation of ethical perceptions in Turkey. More than 99 percent of the companies in Turkey are small businesses and they play a key role in driving sustainable economic growth and job creation. However, they remain the largely unexplored area of ethics. Most of the findings of this stu...

  2. Pauli-Limited Superconductivity in Small Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsager, M. C.; MacDonald, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    We report on an exploration of the mean-field phase diagram for Pauli-limited superconductivity in small metallic grains. Emphasis is placed on the crossover from the ultra-small grain limit where superconductivity disappears to the bulk thin-film limit as the single-particle level spacing in the grain decreases. We find that the maximum Zeeman coupling strength compatible with superconductivity increases with decreasing grain size, in spite of a monotonically decreasing condensation energy p...

  3. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  4. Investigating the small lung: which imaging procedure?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, I.; Helms, P

    1982-01-01

    Ventilation and perfusion radionuclide lung scans, using krypton 81m and technetium-99m macroaggregates, were performed together with a variety of other imaging procedures in 18 children aged between 1 week and 13 years in whom radiology had shown a small lung. Radionuclide scans provided an assessment of regional ventilation and perfusion unobtainable by other means, and 4 main categories of disturbed function could be seen in the radiological small lung--namely, absence of ventilation and p...

  5. The International Small Group Tree Planting Program

    OpenAIRE

    Institute for Environmental Innovation (I4EI); Clean Air Action Corporation (CAAC)

    2007-01-01

    The International Small Group Tree Planting program (TIST) empowers small groups of subsistence farmers in countries such as Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and India to reverse the devastating effects of deforestation, drought, and famine. Since 1999, TIST participants have been identifying local sustainable development goals that include tree planting and sustainable agriculture. TIST creates a communication and administrative structure that also addresses health (including HIV/AIDS), education, an...

  6. Small x Phenomenology Summary and Status

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S; Ciafaloni, Marcello; Collins, J; Davidsson, M; Gustafson, G; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Karlsson, M; Kimber, M A; Kotikov, A V; Kwiecinski, J; Loennblad, L; Miu, G; Salam, Gavin P; Seymour, Michael H; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Zotov, N P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the general status of our understanding of small x physics. It is based on presentations and discussions at an informal meeting on this topic held in Lund, Sweden, in March 2001. This document also marks the founding of an informal collaboration between experimentalists and theoreticians with a special interest in small x physics. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Bo Andersson, who died unexpectedly from a heart attack on March 4th, 2002.

  7. Small bowel emergency surgery: literature's review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Saverio Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emergency surgery of the small bowel represents a challenge for the surgeon, in the third millennium as well. There is a wide number of pathologies which involve the small bowel. The present review, by analyzing the recent and past literature, resumes the more commons. The aim of the present review is to provide the main indications to face the principal pathologies an emergency surgeon has to face with during his daily activity.

  8. A Tweezer for Chimeras in Small Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Omelchenko, Iryna; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Zakharova, Anna; Wolfrum, Matthias; Schoell, Eckehard

    2015-01-01

    We propose a control scheme which can stabilize and fix the position of chimera states in small networks. Chimeras consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics in systems of nonlocally coupled identical oscillators. Chimera states are generally difficult to observe in small networks due to their short lifetime and erratic drifting of the spatial position of the incoherent domain. The control scheme, like a tweezer, might be useful in experiments, where usually o...

  9. Towards Experience Management for Very Small Entities

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaud, Vincent; Saliou, Philippe; Laporte, Claude

    2011-01-01

    International audience The ISO/IEC 29110 standard: Lifecycle profiles for Very Small Entities, provides several Process Reference Models applicable to the vast majority of very small entities (defined by the ISO as "an entity (enterprise, organization, department or project) having up to 25 people") which do not develop critical software and share typical situational factors. An ISO/IEC 29110 pilot project has been established between the Software Engineering group at Brest University and ...

  10. Pathways to Naturally Small Dirac Neutrino Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    If neutrinos are truly Dirac fermions, the smallness of their masses may still be natural if certain symmetries exist beyond those of the standard model of quarks and leptons. We perform a systematic study of how this may occur at tree level and in one loop. We also propose a scotogenic version of the left-right gauge model with naturally small Dirac neutrino masses in one loop.

  11. Linguistic Summaries in Small Area Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Hudec

    2014-01-01

    Data collection in small area statistics also copes with missing values. In the municipal statistics we can recognize more or less similar municipalities and more or less dependent indicators. Therefore, an approach capable to process this uncertainty is desirable. Data produced in small area statistics are valuable source for users. Data dissemination which mimics human reasoning in searching and evaluation data could be a suitable solution. Thus, there is a space for improving both processe...

  12. Small schools and the pressure to consolidate.

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee Howley; Craig Howley

    2006-01-01

    Positioned in relationship to reform literature calling for small schools “by design” and interpreting data from a case study of a high performing but low-SES district in a Midwestern state, this paper provides a basis for making sense of the apparent divergence in policies governing schooling structures in rural and urban places. Its interpretation examines the way educational reformers work to valorize a multidimensional set of practices constituting “small school reform.” This reform packa...

  13. Non-Invasive Green Small Cell Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mawlawi, Baher; Bastug, Ejder; Nerguizian, Chahé; Azarian, Sylvain; Debbah, Mérouane

    2011-01-01

    Future low cost wireless networks are expected to provide high data rates with low power consumption. A dense deployment of distributed small-cells, within the existing network infrastructure, is one of the candidate solutions to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, the aggregate signal resulting from the transmission of these multiples small cells can be considered as an electromagnetic (EM) pollution for passive users who do not carry wireless devices. These users are victim of primary electro...

  14. Small-scale mechanical testing of materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya, Nagamani B; Alam, Md Zafir

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale mechanical testing of materials has gained prominence in the last decade or so due to the continuous miniaturization of components and devices in everyday application. This review describes the various micro-fabrication processes associated with the preparation of miniaturized specimens, geometries of test specimens and the small scale testing techniques used to determine the mechanical behaviour of materials at the length scales of a few hundred micro-meters and below. This is fo...

  15. Small is beautiful: customer driven software development

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Henrik A.B.; Koch, Christian; Pleman, Allan

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. The topics addressed in this paper is how networking can be used as a way for small software houses to enhances their innovative capabilities by using different kinds of collaboration in order to overcome the problems of lacking knowledge as well as resources in order to develop their software. In small software houses operating in markets with complex products such as ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems, networking is necessary in order to gain the needed know...

  16. Precision Radiotherapy for Small Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; KAZANZIDES, PETER

    2008-01-01

    Preclinical research using well characterized small animal models has provided tremendous benefits to medical research, enabling low cost, large scale trials with high statistical significance of observed effects. The goal of the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is to make those models available for the development and evaluation of novel radiation therapies. SARRP demonstrates the capabilities of delivering high resolution, sub-millimeter, optimally planned conformal radiatio...

  17. The small wind turbine field lab

    OpenAIRE

    Laveyne, Joannes; Van Wyngene, Karel; Kooning, Jeroen De; Van Ackere, Samuel; Van Eetvelde, Greet; Vandevelde, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The emerging market of small wind turbines (SWT) is characterised by a large variety of turbine types as well as turbine performance. The abundance of more ‘exotic’ types of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) next to the more traditional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) shows that this market is still developing. However, some technologies have proven to possess the same potential typically only found in larger wind turbines. To study the (lack of) performance of current small wind turbin...

  18. Do highways fragment small mammal populations?

    OpenAIRE

    Yale Conrey, Reesa C.; Mills, L. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Small mammal populations separated by highways may be partially or completely isolated from one another due to low dispersal capabilities, low probability of surviving highway crossing attempts, and/or avoidance of areas adjacent to highways. Threats to small mammals are problematic at the ecosystem level because of their importance as seed dispersers and their role as prey for predators, such as marten, wolverine, and raptors. Our objective is to determine how movement and gene flow are affe...

  19. 76 FR 74749 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...SBA is reopening the comment period for the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on October 5, 2011 at 76 FR 61626. In that rule SBA proposed to amend its regulations to implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act) pertaining to small business subcontracting. SBA proposed to amend its program regulations to provide for a ``covered contract'' (a contract for......

  20. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  1. WHAT IS NEW AT SMALL X*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss some recent developments in small x physics. Current understanding of small x physics is that pQCD works at HERA and the Tevatron, but perhaps even better than expected. There is much flexibility in parton distributions to hide interesting new effects. Indeed, there are strong hints from HERA that one is on the threshold of a new regime of truly high parton densities, where one may expect qualitative changes in the behavior of distributions

  2. SMALL BUSINESS SUPPORT POLICY IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Šneidere, Ruta; Būmane, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Economic growth is the important factor for improving competitiveness and to ensure the availability of financial resources at all stages of business development. The authors explore European Union activities to promote the development of small and medium enterprises, the Latvian business environment, the regulatory framework, the accounting regulatory framework for small and medium enterprises. The research study included an assessment of the business environment in the international context...

  3. Determinants of Small Business lending in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Atout, Abdalmalek

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Palestine is a land which 80% economy is occupied with small and medium enterprises. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors that drive banks or other financial institutions‟ decisions to provide loans to small and medium enterprises‟ owners specifically in Palestine. In order to achieve the study aim six banks and four micro finance institutions have been chosen. Loan guarantee fund programs and donations, business size and inflation were used as independent variables tha...

  4. Effusion cytomorphology of small round cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhide Ikeda; Koji Tsuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Small round cell tumors (SRCTs) are a group of tumors composed of small, round, and uniform cells with high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios. The appearance of SRCT neoplastic cells in the effusion fluid is very rare. We reported the cytomorphological findings of SRCTs in effusion cytology, and performed statistical and mathematical analyses for a purpose to distinguish SRCTs. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the cytologic findings of effusion samples from 40 SRCT cases and...

  5. Feasibility of laparoscopy for small bowel obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    De Sol Angelo A; Migliaccio Carla; Delmonaco Pamela; Cattorini Lorenzo; Morelli Umberto; La Mura Francesco; Cirocchi Roberto; Farinella Eriberto; Cozzaglio Luca; Sciannameo Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Adherential pathology is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction does not have a clear role yet; surely it doesn't always represent only a therapeutic act, but it is always a diagnostic act, which doesn't interfere with abdominal wall integrity. Methods We performed a review without any language restrictions considering international literature indexed from 1980 to 2007 in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. We analyzed th...

  6. Star Tracker Cost Reduction for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Delabie, Tjorven; DE SCHUTTER, JORIS; Vandenbussche, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the great potential of small satellites has become ever clearer and small satellites are selected to perform increasingly complex missions. With this rise in mission complexity, the requirements on the Attitude Determination and Control System of the satellite increase as well. Of all the attitude determination sensors, the star tracker is by far the most accurate one. The accuracy of this sensor is in the order of arc seconds. The disadvantages of this sensor are that it...

  7. URANS flow stream in a small VAWT

    OpenAIRE

    BAYEUL-LAINE, Annie-Claude; Simonet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity and more and more with a renewable energy source character. Power production from wind turbines is affected by several conditions like wind speed, turbine speed, turbine design, turbulence, changes of wind direction, wake of previous turbines. These conditions are not always optimal and have negative effects on most turbines. The present wind turbine is a small one which allows to be used on roofs or in gardens to light small areas like publi...

  8. Ecologizing Industrialization in Chinese Small Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Lei

    2002-01-01

     For historical reasons, any policies that attempt to address issues of Chinese farmers, agriculture and rural society are doomed to be facing dilemmas. One typical example is the question how to protect the rural environment during the ongoing rapid industrialization and urbanization processes in rural China, driven by Township & Village Enterprises (TVEs) and Small Towns. The economic and social achievements of TVEs and Small Towns are celebrated and are widely regarded as magic weapons to ...

  9. Organizing small-scale scout trip abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Rautala, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by the Guides and Scouts of Finland (Suomen Partiolaiset – Finlands Scouter ry.) The thesis describes the organising process of a small-scale scout trip to the members of commissioning company. The Guides and Scouts of Finland directs the scout movement in Finland. The small-scale trips to national camps support the organisation’s objectives of educating world citizens. The objective of this thesis project was to plan and implemented well-organised trip to Bal...

  10. Transabdominal Ultrasonography of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of double balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT, and MRI enterography is transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS underestimated method for evaluation of small bowel pathology. As often initial imagine method in abdominal complaints, nowadays has TUS much better diagnostic potential than two decades ago. High-resolution ultrasound probes with harmonic imaging significantly improve resolution of bowel wall in real time, with possibility to asses bowel peristalsis. Color flow doppler enables evaluation of intramural bowel vascularisation, pulse wave doppler helps to quantificate flow in coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography with oral contrast fluid, as well as contrast enhanced ultrasonography with intravenous microbubble contrast also improves small bowel imaging. We present a review of small intestine pathology that should be detected during ultrasound examinations, discuss technical requirements, advantages and limitations of TUS, typical ultrasound signs of Crohn's disease, ileus, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, tumours, ischemic and haemorrhagic conditions of small bowel. In the hands of experienced investigator, despite some significant limitations(obesity, meteorism, is transabdominal ultrasonography reliable, noninvasive and inexpensive alternative method to computerised tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in small bowel examination.

  11. Auxin biology revealed by small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Robert, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates virtually every aspect of plant growth and development and unraveling its molecular and cellular modes of action is fundamental for plant biology research. Chemical genomics is the use of small molecules to modify protein functions. This approach currently rises as a powerful technology for basic research. Small compounds with auxin-like activities or affecting auxin-mediated biological processes have been widely used in auxin research. They can serve as a tool complementary to genetic and genomic methods, facilitating the identification of an array of components modulating auxin metabolism, transport and signaling. The employment of high-throughput screening technologies combined with informatics-based chemical design and organic chemical synthesis has since yielded many novel small molecules with more instantaneous, precise and specific functionalities. By applying those small molecules, novel molecular targets can be isolated to further understand and dissect auxin-related pathways and networks that otherwise are too complex to be elucidated only by gene-based methods. Here, we will review examples of recently characterized molecules used in auxin research, highlight the strategies of unraveling the mechanisms of these small molecules and discuss future perspectives of small molecule applications in auxin biology. PMID:24252105

  12. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  13. Venus small volcano classification and description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-03-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  14. FR901228 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Progressive Small Cell Lung Cancer or Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  15. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of intermittent fasting plus intense stress on secretory IgA (SIgA) production and other mucosal parameters in the duodenum and ileum. Two groups of six mice, with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum for 12weeks, were submitted to a session of intense stress by a bout of forced swimming. Unstressed ad libitum fed or intermittently fasted groups were included as controls. After sacrifice, we evaluated intestinal SIgA and plasma adrenal hormones, lamina propria IgA+ plasma-cells, mRNA expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains in the liver and intestinal mucosa, as well as pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and Interferon-γ) and anti- (interleukin-2, -4, -10 and transforming growth factor-β) inflammatory cytokines in mucosal samples. Under intense stress, intermittent fasting down- or up-modulated the levels of most parameters in the duodenum and ileum, respectively while up-regulated corticosterone levels without affecting epinephrine. Our data suggest intermittent fasting plus intense stress elicited neuroendocrine pathways that differentially controlled IgA and pIgR expression in duodenum and ileum. These findings provide experimental foundations for a presumable impact of intermittent fasting under intense stress on the intestinal homeostasis or inflammation by triggering or reducing the IgA production in ileum or duodenum respectively. PMID:26198915

  16. Small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yuichi; Gomi, Kuniyo; Endo, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Reika; Hayashi, Masashi; Nakanishi, Toru; Tateno, Ayumi; Yamamura, Eiichi; Asonuma, Kunio; Ino, Satoshi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Inoue, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi) ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST) was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:24455340

  17. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  18. Small field/beamlet dosimetry in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small radiation fields generally called beamlets less than 40 mm are used in many clinical situations in high technology radiotherapy techniques like 1) Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), Gamma Knife, X-Knife (micromultileaf) and Cyber Knife, 2) Intensity Modulated Radio Therapy (IMRT) with dynamic MLC and step and shoot fields where large beam may consist of small segments with different dose levels (e.g., IMRT). There are many grey areas reported in dosimetric measurements and modeling of small fields especially in the non-equilibrium region of shallow millimeter depths in the skin, below immobilization shell, in the rebuild-up/interface zone of mucosal in head and neck tumors and in the regions of high dose gradients and electronic disequilibrium. Type, size and positional accuracy of detector, linac source size and type of MLC have an impact on dosimetry of small fields. The present study is on the central axis percentage depth dose (CADD), profile measurements, output factors of 6MV in the first few millimeters from the surface down to 45 mm depth for small fields from 5 mm x 5 mm to 50 mm x 50 mm measured by various ion chambers and EBT Film with 100 mm x 100 mm as reference field. The results will be related to clinical situations encountered in IMRT

  19. IMPLEMENTING SMALL AND MEDIUM IT PROJECTS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix DUMITRESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is essential nowadays for all companies. Small enterprises are an important part of the economy and this article aims at providing some useful insight in implementing modern IT projects to their benefit. Due to the limited funding available for the IT infrastructure in most start-ups and small businesses, the projects should be adapted to fulfill the needs of the company for the lowest cost. The paper will start by defining small and medium project management theory and outlining the target of the study, small and medium sized companies. Next it will show a number of case studies of IT projects implemented in different types of small companies in Romania. Based on these implementations the article will draw some conclusions relevant to most small companies which need to design or improve their IT infrastructure.

  20. Small intestinal bacteria overgrowth decreases small intestinal motility in the NASH rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Chun Wu, Wei Zhao, Sheng Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between small intestinal motility and small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) in Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and to investigate the effect of SIBO on the pathogenesis of NASH in rats. The effect of cidomycin in alleviating severity of NASH is also studied.METHODS: Forty eight rats were randomly divided into NASH group (n = 16), cidomycin group (n = 16) and control group (n = 16). Then each group were subdivided into small intestinal motility group...