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Sample records for anti-interleukin 10-specific small

  1. Anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody ixekizumab in chronic plaque psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardi, Craig; Matheson, Robert; Zachariae, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Type 17 helper T cells have been suggested to play a pathological role in psoriasis. They secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17A (also known as interleukin-17). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab (LY2439821), a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal...... antibody, for psoriasis treatment....

  2. Secukinumab, a human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis (FUTURE 2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInnes, Iain B.; Mease, Philip J.; Kirkham, Bruce; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Rahman, Proton; van der Heijde, Désirée; Landewé, Robert; Conaghan, Philip G.; Gottlieb, Alice B.; Richards, Hanno; Pricop, Luminita; Ligozio, Gregory; Patekar, Manmath; Mpofu, Shephard; Bird, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Nash, Peter; Zochling, Jane; de Vlam, Kurt; Langenaken, Christine; Geusens, Piet; Beaulieu, Andre; Tremblay, Jean-Luc; McCarthy, Tim; Papp, Kim; Poulin, Yves; Cohen, Martin; Galatikova, Dagmar; Dokoupilova, Eva; Dvorak, Zdenek; Mann, Herman; Sieper, Joachim; Spieler, Wolfgang; Kurthen, Reiner; Braun, Juergen; Wollenhaupt, Juergen; Tony, Hans-Peter; Schuch, Florian; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik; Rech, Juergen; Leszczynski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt; Szepietowski, Jacek; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Szymanska, Malgorzata; Stanislav, Marina; Nesmeyanova, Olga; Vezikova, Natalia; Ershova, Olga; Izmozherova, Nadezda; Zotkin, Eugeny; Petrova, Marianna; Kastanayan, Alexander; Yakupova, Svetlana; Agafina, Alina; Asavatanabodee, Paijit; Suwannalai, Parawee; Kerrane, Jerome; Tahir, Hasan; McInnes, Iain; Edwards, Christopher; Chinoy, Hector; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Kaul, Arvind; Sheeran, Thomas; Clunie, Gavin; Schechtman, Joy; Gaylis, Norman; Kaine, Jeffrey; Lawson, Jeffrey; El-Kadi, Hisham; Flint, Kathleen; Kivitz, Alan; Churchhill, Melvin; Sikes, David; Lowenstein, Mitchell; Halpert, Elias; Abdulky, Mary; Palmer, William; Codding, Christine; Legerton, Clarence; Singhal, Atul; Sunkureddi, Prashanth; Gough, William; Forman, Seth; Box, Jane; Khan, Mohamed; Barranco, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin 17A is a proinflammatory cytokine that is implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous secukinumab, a human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Methods In this phase 3,

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Anti-Interleukin-5 Therapy in Patients with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Ping Wang

    Full Text Available Recent trials have assessed the efficacy and safety of novel monoclonal antibodies such as reslizumab and benralizumab. However, the overall efficacy and safety anti-interleukin (IL 5 treatment in asthma have not been thoroughly assessed.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of anti-IL-5 treatment on patients with asthma published up to October 2016 in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL that reported pulmonary function, quality of life scores, asthmatic exacerbation rate, blood and sputum eosinophil counts, short-acting β-agonist (SABA rescue use, and adverse events were included. The pooled mean difference, and relative risks (RR, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random-effects models.Twenty studies involving 7100 patients were identified. Pooled analysis revealed significant improvements in FEV1 (first second forced expiratory volume (MD = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.06-0.12, I2 = 10%, FEV1% (MD = 3.75, 95% CI: 1.66-5.83, I2 = 19%, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ score (MD = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15-0.30, I2 = 0%, decreased blood, sputum eosinophils and asthmatic exacerbation (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59-0.73, I2 = 51%; peak expiratory flow (PEF (MD = 5.45, 95% CI: -2.83-13.72, I2 = 0%, histamine PC20 (MD = -0.62, 95% CI: -1.92-0.68, I2 = 0% or SABA rescue use (MD = -0.11, 95% CI: -0.3-0.07, I2 = 30% were unaffected; adverse events were not increased (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98, I2 = 46%. No publication bias was observed (Egger's P = 0.78.Anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal therapies for asthma could be safe for slightly improving FEV1 (or FEV1% of predicted value, quality of life, and reducing exacerbations risk and blood and sputum eosinophils, but have no significant effect on PEF, histamine PC20, and SABA rescue use. Further trials required to establish to clarify the optimal antibody for different patients.

  4. Anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies—basiliximab and daclizumab—for the prevention of acute rejection in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Sageshima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Junichiro Sageshima, Gaetano Ciancio, Linda Chen, George W Burke IIIDewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Division of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, The Lillian Jean Kaplan Renal Transplant Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: The use of antibody induction after kidney transplantation has increased from 25% to 63% in the past decade and roughly one half of the induction agent used is anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA, ie, basiliximab or daclizumab. When combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression, IL-2RAs have been shown to reduce the incidence of acute rejection, one of the predictors of poor graft survival, without increasing risks of infections and malignancies in kidney transplantation. For low-immunological-risk patients, IL-2RAs, as compared with lymphocyte-depleting antibodies, are equally efficacious and have better safety profiles. For high-risk patients, however, IL-2RAs may be inferior to lymphocyte-depleting antibodies for the prophylaxis of acute rejection. In an effort to reduce toxicities of other immunosuppressive medications without increasing the risk of acute rejection and chronic graft loss, IL-2RAs have often been combined with steroid- and CNI-sparing immunosuppression protocols. More data support the benefits of early steroid withdrawal with IL-2RA in low-risk patients, but preferred induction therapy for high-risk patients has yet to be determined. Although CNI-sparing protocols with IL-2RA may preserve renal function and improve long-term survival in selected patients, further studies are needed to identify those who benefit most from this strategy.Keywords: basiliximab, daclizumab, interleukin-2 receptor antagonist, kidney transplantation, monoclonal antibody

  5. Electronic effects in emission of core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to anti-Interleukin 10 antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintos Vazquez, A.L. [ESIME—Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Torchynska, T.V., E-mail: ttorch@esfm.ipn.mx [ESFM–Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Casas Espinola, J.L. [ESFM–Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Jaramillo Gómez, J.A.; Douda, J. [UPIITA–Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07320, México (Mexico)

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents a comparative study of the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering spectra of the core–shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in nonconjugated states and after the conjugation to anti-Interleukin 10 antibodies (anti-IL10). All optical measurements are performed on the dried droplets of the original solution of nonconjugated and bioconjugated QDs located on the Si substrate. CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission at 605 and 655 nm have been used. PL spectra of nonconjugated QDs are characterized by one Gaussian shape PL band related to the exciton emission in the CdSe core. PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs have changed essentially: the core PL band shifts into the high energy spectral range (“blue” sift) and becomes asymmetric. Additionally two new PL bands appear. A set of physical reasons has been proposed for the “blue” shift explanation for the core PL band in bioconjugated QDs. Then Raman scattering spectra have been studied with the aim to analyze the impact of elastic strains or the oxidation process at the QD bioconjugation. The variation of PL spectra versus excitation light intensities has been studied to analyze the exciton emission via excited states in QDs. Finally the PL spectrum transformation for the core emission in bioconjugated QDs has been attributed to the electronic quantum confined effects stimulated by the electric charges of bioconjugated antibodies. -- Highlights: • The conjugation of CdSe/ZnS QDs to anti-Interleukin 10 antibodies has been studied. • PL shift to high energy is detected in bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs. • The PL energy shift in bioconjugated QDs is stimulated by antibody electric charges. • The reasons of PL energy shift in bioconjugated QDs have been discussed.

  6. Biodistribution of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody in rat recipients of a heart allograft, and its use as a rejection marker in gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thedrez, P.; Paineau, J.; Jacques, Y.; Chatal, J.F.; Pelegrin, A.; Bouchaud, C.; Soulillou, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies have been shown to prevent allograft rejection. This paper reports on the biodistribution of a mouse MoAb directed at the 55 Kd alpha chain of rat interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) during allograft rejection. Only a low percentage (approximately 1%) of intact 125I-labeled MoAb was detected in the rejected graft, and irrelevant control IgG1 was found at a similar level. This suggests that most of the injected intact MoAb bound to graft tissue via its monomorphic Fc segment. In contrast, OX39 F(ab')2 fragments showed a preferential localization in the rejected allograft and did not bind to the LEW-to-LEW syngeneic heart graft. Irrelevant F(ab')2 did not concentrate in the allogeneic graft. Accordingly, F(ab')2 fragments from OX39 or irrelevant MoAb were used for gamma-scintigraphy on allograft recipients together with biodistribution studies. Results show that scintigraphy was able to detect allograft accumulation of 131I OX39 F(ab')2, whereas no imaging was obtained when OX39 F(ab')2 was used in the syngeneic combination or when irrelevant 131-IgG1 F(ab')2 was given to allograft recipients. This method, applied to the clinical situation, could be of interest for detection of early graft rejection episodes by immunoscintigraphy using reagents specific for activation determinants on lymphocyte membranes, such as anti-interleukin-2 receptor MoAb

  7. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates T- helper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Mérida

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60-70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nullens

    Full Text Available During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model.OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48 h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed.Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24 h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant.Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro-intestinal motility, suppress inflammation and

  9. Alteration of serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine level during biologic therapy for psoriasis: Possibility as a marker reflecting favorable response to anti-interleukin-17A agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Takashi; Honma, Masaru; Iinuma, Shin; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2018-06-01

    Biologics show great efficacy in treating psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The high cost and side-effects of biologics, dose-reduction, elongation of administration interval and suspension are possible options. However, there has been no reliable biomarker we can use when we consider these moderations in therapy. This study was conducted to test the possibility of using serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level as an indicator for step down of biologic therapy. Serum TARC level was measured in 70 psoriatic patients at Asahikawa Medical University, and a correlation of TARC and severity of skin lesions was analyzed. Referring to serum TARC level, psoriatic patients can be divided into two groups. One is a population in which serum TARC level is positively correlated with severity of skin lesions, and the other is a population with low psoriatic severity and high TARC level. Serum TARC level was higher in the group that achieved PASI-clear with biologics than in the group which did not achieve PASI-clear. Among biologics, the group treated with secukinumab, an anti-interleukin (IL)-17A agent, showed significantly higher TARC level compared with the group treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. In certain populations achieving PASI-clear, serum TARC level may be a potent marker reflecting better response to IL-17A inhibitors, and in this case step down of treatment for psoriasis is possible. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity investigation of a human anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody in non-naïve cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Gunn, George R; Marini, Joseph C; Shankar, Gopi; Han Hsu, Helen; Davis, Hugh M

    2015-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologic therapeutics, especially monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), in monkeys generally presents the most relevant predictive PK information for humans. However, human mAbs, xenogeneic proteins to monkeys, are likely to be immunogenic. Monkeys previously treated with a human mAb (non-naïve) may have developed antidrug antibodies (ADAs) that cross-react with another test mAb in subsequent studies. Unlike PK studies for small-molecule therapeutics, in which animals may be reused, naïve monkeys have been used almost exclusively for preclinical PK studies of biologic therapeutics to avoid potential pre-existing immunologic cross-reactivity issues. The propensity and extent of pre-existing ADAs have not been systematically investigated to date. In this study, the PK and immunogenicity of mAb A, a human anti-human interkeukin-17 mAb, were investigated in a colony of 31 cynomolgus monkeys previously exposed to other human mAbs against different targets. We screened the monkeys for pre-existing antibodies to mAb A prior to the PK study and showed that 44% of the monkeys had pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies to mAb A, which could affect the PK characterization of the antibody. In the subcolony of monkeys without measurable pre-existing ADAs, PK and immunogenicity of mAb A were successfully characterized. The impact of ADAs on mAb A PK was also demonstrated in the monkeys with pre-existing ADAs. Here we report the results and propose a pragmatic approach for the use of non-naïve monkeys when conducting PK studies of biologic therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: Characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurat, J.H.; Schifferli, J.; Steiger, G.; Dayer, J.M.; Didierjean, L.

    1991-01-01

    Since autoantibodies (Abs) to cytokines may modify their biologic activities, high-affinity binding factors for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha BF) were characterized in human sera. IL-1 alpha BF was identified as IgG (1) by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunodiffusion autoradiography, (2) by ligand-blotting method, (3) by ligand binding to affinity-immobilized serum IgG, and (4) by IgG affinity purification followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. IL-1 alpha binding activity resided in the F(ab)2 fragment. The apparent equilibrium constant was in the range of IgG found after immunization with conventional antigens (i.e., 10(-9) to 10(-10) mol/L). Anti-IL-1 alpha IgG auto-Abs represented only an extremely small fraction of total IgG (less than 1/10(-5)). Some sera with IL-1 alpha BF and purified IgG thereof were able to inhibit by 96% to 98% the binding of human recombinant IL-1 alpha to its receptor on murine thymoma EL4-6.1 cells, whereas other sera did not. When 125I-labeled anti-IL-1 alpha IgG complexes were injected into rats, they prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha several fold and altered its tissue distribution. The predominant class was IgG (12/19), mainly IgG4 (9/19), but in five of the sera, anti-IL-1 alpha IgA was also detected. In a screening of 271 sera, IL-1 alpha BF was detected in 17/98 normal subjects and was not more frequent in several control groups of patients, except in patients with Schnitzler's syndrome (fever, chronic urticaria, bone pain, and monoclonal IgM paraprotein) (6/9; p less than 0.005). The pathologic significance of these auto-Abs remains to be determined

  12. Pulmonary biology of anti-interleukin 5 antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Egan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin 5 (IL-5 is a critical cytokine for the maturation of eosinophil precursors to eosinophils in the bone marrow and those eosinophils then accumulate in the lungs during asthma. We have studied anti IL-5 antibodies on allergic responses in mice, guinea pigs and monkeys and are extending this experiment into humans with a humanized antibody. In a monkey model of pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperreactivity, we found that the TRFK-5 antibody blocked both responses for three months following a single dose of 0.3 mg/kg, i.v. This antibody also blocked lung eosinophilia in mice by inhibiting release from the bone marrow. To facilitate multiple dosing and to reduce immunogenicity in humans, we prepared Sch 55700, a humanized antibody against IL-5. Sch 55700 was also active against lung eosinophilia in allergic monkeys and mice and against pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. Furthermore, as opposed to steroids, Sch 55700 did not cause immunosuppression in guinea pigs. Studies with this antibody in humans will be critical to establishing the therapeutic potential of IL-5 inhibition.

  13. CD44v10, osteopontin and lymphoma growth retardation by a CD44v10-specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaptche, Amelie Pajip; Erb, Ulrike; Büchler, Markus Wolfgang; Zöller, Margot

    2014-09-01

    Blockade of CD44 is considered a therapeutic option for the elimination of leukemia-initiating cells. However, the application of anti-panCD44 can be burdened by severe side effects. We determined whether these side effects could be avoided by replacing anti-panCD44 with CD44 variant isoform (CD44v)-specific antibodies in CD44v-positive hematological malignancies using the EL4 thymoma and CD44v10-transfected EL4 (EL4-v10) as models. Subcutaneous growth of EL4 and EL4-v10 was equally well inhibited by the anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 antibodies, respectively. Ex vivo analysis indicated that natural killer cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity were the main effector mechanisms. Under local inflammation, the efficacy of anti-CD44v10 prolonged the survival time twofold compared with untreated, EL4-v10 tumor-bearing mice, and this was due to inflammation-induced expression of osteopontin (OPN). A high level of OPN in EL4-v10 tumors supported leukocyte recruitment and tumor-infiltrating T-cell activation. Taken together, in hematological malignancies expressing CD44v, anti-panCD44 can be replaced by CD44v-specific antibodies without a loss in efficacy. Furthermore, CD44v10-specific antibodies appear particularly advantageous in cutaneous leukemia therapy, as CD44v10 binding of OPN drives leukocyte recruitment and activation.

  14. Intravitreal injection of anti-Interleukin (IL)-6 antibody attenuates experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tode, Jan; Richert, Elisabeth; Koinzer, Stefan; Klettner, Alexa; Pickhinke, Ute; Garbers, Christoph; Rose-John, Stefan; Nölle, Bernhard; Roider, Johann

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of an intravitreally applied anti-IL-6 antibody for the treatment of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU was induced in female B10.RIII mice by Inter-Photoreceptor-Binding-Protein (IRBP) in complete Freund's adjuvant, boosted by Pertussis toxin. Single blinded intravitreal injections of anti-IL-6 antibody were applied 5-7days as well as 8-10days (3day interval) after EAU induction into the randomized treatment eye and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) into the fellow control eye. Clinical and fluorescein angiography scoring (6 EAU grades) was done at each injection day and at enucleation day 14. Enucleated eyes were either scored histologically (6 EAU grades) or examined by ELISA for levels of IL-6, IL-17 and IL-6 soluble Receptor (sIL-6R). Uveitis developed in all 12 mice. Clinical uveitis score was significantly reduced (p=0.035) in treated eyes (median 2.0, range 0-4.0, n=12) compared to the fellow control eyes (median 3.0, range 1.0-4.0, n=12). Angiography scores were reduced in 9/12 treated eyes and histological scores in 3/4 treated eyes compared to the fellow control eyes. Cytokine levels were determined in 8 mice, of which 4 responded to anti-IL-6 treatment and 4 did not respond. All mice responding to treatment had a significant reduction of IL-6 (ptreatment significantly attenuates experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice. EAU activity correlates with ocular IL-6 and IL-17 levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Makoto; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Zheng-Sheng, Yao; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hosono, Masako N.; Sakahara, Harumi; Imada, Kazunori; Okuma, Minoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered 125 I- and 111 In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using 111 In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL

  16. The anti-interleukin-1 in type 1 diabetes action trial--background and rationale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickersgill, Linda M S; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by an inflammatory destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been suggested to be effector molecules based on the observations that pro-inflammatory cytokines cause beta-cell apoptosis in vitro...... and aggravate diabetes in vivo, and that inhibition of the action of these cytokines reduce diabetes incidence in animal models of type 1 diabetes and islet graft destruction. This review presents the rationale for and design of a recently launched double-blind, multicenter, randomized clinical trial...... that investigates the effect of interleukin-1 antagonism on beta-cell function in subjects with T1D of recent-onset....

  17. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  18. Small Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  19. Small hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Tung, T.

    1995-01-01

    A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets

  20. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  1. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  2. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  3. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  4. Small millets, big potential

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    consumption of small millets, mainly due to limited productivity, high ... for effective integration of small millets in the ... replicated in other cities. ... to micro-, small- and medium-entrepreneurs producing millet-based ... and Activities Network,.

  5. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  6. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  7. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  8. Small Community Training & Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  9. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  10. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  11. 22 CFR 92.10 - Specific waiver in notarial certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... officer has reason to believe that material statements in a document presented for notarization are false... frivolous statements: Provided, That substantial and compelling reasons do not exist which impel restraining...) executed in connection with divorce proceedings. [22 FR 10858, Dec. 27, 1957, as amended at 60 FR 51723...

  12. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  13. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  14. Small but super

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages between large and small gas utility companies. It discusses areas of construction, gaining markets, technology advances, pricing, and customer service. The paper includes discussions from four chairmen of small utility companies whom describe their perceived position among the larger companies. It also describes methods which small companies use to unite for state and nationally significant issues to voice their opinions

  15. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  16. Minijets at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    Nonperturbative pomeron exchange at high energy includes minijet production. Minijets are jets whose transverse momentum is so small that they are difficult, or even impossible, to detect experimentally. At moderate Q 2 it is responsible for the small-x behaviour of νW 2 . Hence minijet production should be a feature of deep inelastic scattering at small x. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs

  17. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  18. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  19. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  20. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  1. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  2. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  3. Small x physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The QCD expectations concerning the small x limit of parton distributions where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the evolutions equations in the small x region, the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implantations of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L and discuss specific processes sensitive to the small x physics such as heavy quark production, deep inelastic diffraction and jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. A brief review of nuclear shadowing in the inelastic lepton nucleus scattering at small x is also presented. (author). 86 refs, 29 figs

  4. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wei-xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1 the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2 the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3 the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4 the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5 the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6 the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright’s staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P<0.05, and eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte infiltration and edema were significantly reduced or absent in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues (P<0.05 in the combined 0.1% anti-IL-1β- and TNF-α IgY-treated guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  5. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-Xu, Hu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Hui-Ping, Wei; Wen-Ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang; Guo-Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  6. Improvement of reduced serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients treated with the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shoko; Naruto, Takuya; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; Yokota, Shumpei

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) patients during both the active and the remission phases to investigate how the growth cartilage turnover changed under tocilizumab treatment. Specimens were collected from 201 healthy children under 16 years of age with no growth impairment, and paired sera were collected from 11 sJIA patients treated with tocilizumab. Disease activity was assessed from white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and ferritin, and the COMP concentration was determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum COMP concentrations were found independent of age, and the mean value in healthy children was 17.74+/-5.6 U/L. The mean serum COMP in sJIA patients during the active phase was 10.75+/-3.9 U/L, lower than that of healthy children. The mean serum COMP in the remission phase (14.89+/-3.9 U/L) was significantly higher than that in the active period (P<0.05). These results suggested that in sJIA patients, a reduced serum COMP concentration is a useful marker of active disease and growth impairment, and that the growth cartilage turnover suppressed during the active phase is improved in the remission phase under tocilizumab treatment.

  7. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  8. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-01-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  9. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  10. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  11. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  12. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  13. Analysis of small leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Hofmann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with 'small leaks' are described and requirements are derived for experimental facilities and computer codes. Based on these requirements, a valuation of the existing experimental facilities and codes is presented. Facilities for integral tests in relatively large scale (ex. LOFT) are suitable for small leak test in principle, however minor changes (instrumentation, secondary side) are necessary for the evaluation of certain phenomena. The 'advanced blowdown codes' are capable of describing most of the phenomena occurring during small leak events, however a substantial amount of code development and verification is still needed. In addition, the use of transient codes in small leak analysis is demonstrated. There are some areas (neutronics feedback, influence of control system) in which the use of transient codes is possible and advantageous. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  14. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  15. Small Bowel Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pouchings in the wall of the colon), or cancer. Upper GI (esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) bleeding is most often due ... begins transmitting images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel to a ... Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  16. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  17. UNDERSTANDING SMALL BUSINESS SCAMS

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAEL T. SCHAPER; PAUL WEBER

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  18. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  19. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  1. Vaksvikelva small hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Loe, Daniel Aarset

    2017-01-01

    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  2. How small is a small cloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  3. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  4. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  5. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  6. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  7. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  8. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  9. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  10. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  11. Small bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Low-fiber diet Preventing falls Small bowel resection - discharge Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge When ...

  12. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Corat, E.J.; Minucci, M.A.S.; Leite, V.S.F.O.

    1986-09-01

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author) [pt

  13. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  14. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. On small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, N.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is presented of zero-point motion effects on the binding energy of a small cluster of identical particles interacting through short range attractive-repulsive forces. The model is appropriate to a discussion of both Van der Waals as well as nuclear forces. (Author) [pt

  16. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  17. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  19. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  20. Small Schools, Real Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Patricia A.; Lear, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Small school size (fewer than 400 students) makes possible success-enhancing structures and practices: strong, ongoing student/adult and home/school relationships; flat organizational structure; concentration on a few goals; ongoing, site-specific professional development; a respectful culture; and community engagement. Implementation barriers are…

  1. Small intestinal motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  2. Small hydro in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available hydro, the author has started an online database of small hydropower projects in eastern and southern Africa. The main aim of the database is to catalogue the current situation and to make that accessible to policymakers, project developers, as well...

  3. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  4. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  5. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  6. Small steps for hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  7. Small reactor operating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    There is a potential need for small reactors in the future for applications such as district heating, electricity production at remote sites, and desalination. Nuclear power can provide these at low cost and with insignificant pollution. The economies required by the small scale application, and/or the remote location, require a review of the size and location of the operating staff. Current concepts range all the way from reactors which are fully automatic, and need no local attention for days or weeks, to those with reduced local staff. In general the less dependent a reactor is on local human intervention, the greater its dependence on intrinsic safety features such as passive decay heat removal, low-stored energy and limited reactivity speed and depth in the control systems. A case study of the design and licensing of the SLOWPOKE Energy System heating reactor is presented. (author)

  8. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  9. Programming in the Small

    OpenAIRE

    Gersten, David B.; Langer, Steve G.

    2010-01-01

    Academic medical centers, in general, and radiation oncology research, in particular, rely heavily on custom software tools and applications. The code development is typically the responsibility of a single individual or at most a small team. Often these individuals are not professional programmers but physicists, students, and physicians. While they possess domain expertise and algorithm knowledge, they often are not fully aware of general “safe coding” practices—nor do they need the full co...

  10. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  11. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... As published, the final regulations contain two points where the word ``small'' was inadvertently... and procedure, Government procurement, Government property, Loan programs-business, Small businesses...

  12. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  13. The small library manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  14. The Small Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  15. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  16. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  17. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  18. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  19. Data: Big and Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Going with small ICBMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Support for the small ICBM (SICBM) is coming from government bureaucrats, contractors, MX opponents, ''build-down'' supporters, and those who have no confidence in arms control. Despite this support, which the author sees as a failure of administration policies, the SICBM has most of the technological and basing drawbacks of the MX. Mobile and superhardening basing techniques are as questionable for the SICBM as for the MX. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the claim that their deployment will increase stability and enhance the arms control process

  1. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  2. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Superconductivity of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavens, C.R.; Fenton, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Eliashberg gap equations are used to investigate the contribution of surface-phonon softening to the size dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) of small metallic particles. Because of our limited quantitative knowledge of phonon spectra and electron-phonon coupling in the surface region, the effect cannot be calculated with certainty. Previous calculations which agree with experiment depend on a fortuitous choice of input parameters which cannot be justified at present. For this reason the absence of any observable size effect for T/sub c/ in Pb is especially important. This null effect is obtained in Pb if the electron-phonon coupling strength is the same in the surface region as in the bulk. This assumption can be tested experimentally because it means that the energy gap of Pb should not be independent of particle size but rather should increase significantly with decreasing radius. Hence, measurement of the size dependence of the energy gap for well-characterized small particles of Pb could provide information regarding the importance of the phonon-softening mechanism, at least for Pb

  4. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  5. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  6. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  7. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  8. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  9. [Is allastrim small pox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiexeira, L A

    2000-01-01

    Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of Sao Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de Sao Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emilio Ribas, director of the Servico Sanitario, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  10. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  11. Tumor of small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lobo, Elmer Jair; Rubio Vargas, Romulo; Cecilia Hani, Albis

    2009-01-01

    Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is performed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepithelial lesion with neoplasia appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small

  12. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  13. Brighter for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  14. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  15. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  16. THE COMPUTER AND SMALL BUSINESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The place of the computer in small business is investigated with respect to what type of problems it can solve for small business and how the small...firm can acquire time on one. The decision-making process and the importance of information is discussed in relation to small business . Several...applications of computers are examined to show how the firm can use the computer in day-to-day business operations. The capabilities of a digital computer

  17. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  18. Modified Small Business Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Belayet Ali; Oveget Das; Md. Shamim Hossain

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers some likely threats and effectivesteps for a secure small business. It also involves a flowchart tocomprehend the overall small business network security easilyand we identify a set of security issues and applyappropriate techniques to satisfy the correspondingsecurity requirements. In respect of all, this document isstrong enough for any small business network security.

  19. SBA - Dynamic Small Business Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile View Print Exit Help DSBS Quick Market Search TM OnLine DSBS Welcome to the Dynamic Small Business relating to 8(a) Business Development, HUBZone or Small Disadvantaged Business status. The SBA strongly recommends that contracting officers diligently review a bidder's small business self-certification before

  20. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  1. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  2. Small-cell osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeiken, J.; Raymond, A.K.; Ayala, A.G.; Benjamin, R.S.; Murray, J.A.; Carrasco, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Small-cell osteosarcoma, a subtype of osteogenic sarcoma, consists of sheets of round cells that produce an osteoid matrix. It may be confused with Ewing sarcoma if the osteoid matrix is not included in the biopsy. The distinctive radiographic features of an osteoblastic tumor and a pattern of permeative destruction will confirm the histologic diagnosis or indicate the true nature if tumor osteoid is not included in the histological sections. We add 13 patients to the 32 previously reported in the literature. Fourteen (31%) of the 45 are living and well, though three have been followed for only 2 months. The treatments have been so varied that a statistically significant evaluation cannot be developed. The radiographic features are not distinctive, but the diagnosis may be suggested when a tumor has osteoblastic features in the metaphysis and extends well down into the shaft with a pattern of permeative destruction. The radiographic features are especially important when limited biopsies reveal only sheets of round cells, thus suggesting Ewing sarcoma. The presence of an osteoid-producing tumor as evident by osteoblastic new bone formation will lead to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The technical reports contained in this collection of papers on research using small tokamaks fall into four main categories, i.e., (i) experimental work (heating, stability, plasma radial profiles, fluctuations and transport, confinement, ultra-low-q tokamaks, wall physics, a.o.), (ii) diagnostics (beam probes, laser scattering, X-ray tomography, laser interferometry, electron-cyclotron absorption and emission systems), (iii) theory (strong turbulence, effects of heating on stability, plasma beta limits, wave absorption, macrostability, low-q tokamak configurations and bootstrap currents, turbulent heating, stability of vortex flows, nonlinear islands growth, plasma-drift-induced anomalous transport, ergodic divertor design, a.o.), and (iv) new technical facilities (varistors applied to establish constant current and loop voltage in HT-6M), lower-hybrid-current-drive systems for HT-6B and HT-6M, radio-frequency systems for HT-6M ICR heating experimentation, and applications of fiber optics for visible and vacuum ultraviolet radiation detection as applied to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches. A total number of 51 papers are included in the collection. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907...

  5. Small 'l' leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jenni

    2009-05-01

    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  6. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  7. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project is presented. (author)

  8. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Bosco, E. Del; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, M.; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive coordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project, is presented

  9. SMALL BUSINESS: Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    agencies’ Offices of Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization, as well as officials from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , and other small business...being lower than anticipated by SBA. Officials from SBA, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council, the...certified as SDBs. Officials from SBA, two federal agencies’ Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the

  10. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The technical reports in this document were presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting ''Research on Small Tokamaks'', September 1990, in three sessions, viz., (1) Plasma Modes, Control, and Internal Phenomena, (2) Edge Phenomena, and (3) Advanced Configurations and New Facilities. In Section (1) experiments at controlling low mode number modes, feedback control using external coils, lower-hybrid current drive for the stabilization of sawtooth activity and continuous (1,1) mode, and unmodulated and fast modulated ECRH mode stabilization experiments were reported, as well as the relation to disruptions and transport of low m,n modes and magnetic island growth; static magnetic perturbations by helical windings causing mode locking and sawtooth suppression; island widths and frequency of the m=2 tearing mode; ultra-fast cooling due to pellet injection; and, finally, some papers on advanced diagnostics, i.e., lithium-beam activated charge-exchange spectroscopy, and detection through laser scattering of discrete Alfven waves. In Section (2), experimental edge physics results from a number of machines were presented (positive biasing on HYBTOK II enhancing the radial electric field and improving confinement; lower hybrid current drive on CASTOR improving global particle confinement, good current drive efficiency in HT-6B showing stabilization of sawteeth and Mirnov oscillations), as well as diagnostic developments (multi-chord time resolved soft and ultra-soft X-ray plasma radiation detection on MT-1; measurements on electron capture cross sections in multi-charged ion-atom collisions; development of a diagnostic neutral beam on Phaedrus-T). Theoretical papers discussed the influence of sheared flow and/or active feedback on edge microstability, large edge electric fields, and two-fluid modelling of non-ambipolar scrape-off layers. Section (3) contained (i) a proposal to construct a spherical tokamak ''Proto-Eta'', (ii) an analysis of ultra-low-q and runaway

  11. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  12. Unification, small and large

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-04-15

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  13. Unification, small and large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  14. Adult small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark R; Lalani, Nadim

    2013-06-01

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical condition that is often initially diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). The high rates of potential complications that are associated with an SBO make it essential for the emergency physician (EP) to make a timely and accurate diagnosis. The primary objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the history, physical examination, and imaging modalities associated with the diagnosis of SBO. The secondary objectives were to identify the prevalence of SBO in prospective ED-based studies of adult abdominal pain and to apply Pauker and Kassirer's threshold approach to clinical decision-making to the diagnosis and management of SBO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, major emergency medicine (EM) textbooks, and the bibliographies of selected articles were scanned for studies that assessed one or more components of the history, physical examination, or diagnostic imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of SBO. The selected articles underwent a quality assessment by two of the authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Data used to compile sensitivities and specificities were obtained from these studies and a meta-analysis was performed on those that examined the same historical component, physical examination technique, or diagnostic test. Separate information on the prevalence and management of SBO was used in conjunction with the meta-analysis findings of computed tomography (CT) to determine the test and treatment threshold. The prevalence of SBO in the ED was determined to be approximately 2% of all patients who present with abdominal pain. Having a previous history of abdominal surgery, constipation, abnormal bowel sounds, and/or abdominal distention on examination were the best history and physical examination predictors of SBO. X-ray was determined to be the least useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of SBO, with a pooled positive likelihood ratio (+LR

  15. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  16. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  17. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  18. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...

  19. The perception of small crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  20. Optimising India's small hydro resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history is given of an initiation to develop small scale hydropower projects in the Himalayas. The experience of the Indian project managers in utilising international funds from the Global Environment Facility could serve as a model for other small remote communities in the rest of the world. Lessons learned are reported. (UK)

  1. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  2. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  3. Financial management for small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  4. The Perception of Small Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2010-01-01

    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savli, M.; Jamar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savli, M; Jamar, B [Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-06-15

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  7. What Is a Small Business?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome S. Osteryoung; Derek Newman

    1993-01-01

    This paper argues that a definition of small business is important for both research and governmental policy. A chronological history of definitions is discussed along with their limitations. A new definition of small business is advocated when a business has personal guarantees and has no public stock. This definition is measurable, meaningful, and congruent with the perceptions of the market system.

  8. Resourcing Change in Small Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources…

  9. Introduction: innovation and small business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small Business Economics on Innovation. What binds the papers together is either their focus on the effect of firm size on the causes and consequences of innovation or their focus on the role small firms play in reshaping the industrial

  10. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  11. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  12. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  13. Stellarator fields with small PS current at small rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    2001-01-01

    One aspect of the optimization concept of stellarators is the reduction of the normalized Pfirsch-Schlueter current density p arallel 2 / j p erpendikular 2 > 1/2 to a reasonable level but obeying other side conditions, e.g., concerning small bootstrap currents, good stability properties, reasonable aspect ratio, etc. This problem is addressed in the present work. Various stellarator vacuum field are given analytically for M 2, 3, 5, 10, 12 (M is the number of field period around the torus) where the PS-current density is reduced by more than a factor of ten to rather small values around 0.3 even at small i-values

  14. Editorial : entrepreneurship and small business development in small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Fairbairn, Te’o I. J.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the limited literature on successful small business and entrepreneurship in small islands, with a focus on Pacific and European research. It argues that the notable specific contribution of this collection is its focus on tangible examples of successful island entrepreneurship, and the specific challenges towards entrepreneurship faced by island people. This approach is micro-oriented and very close to the actual human entrepreneurs that lead and shine by exampl...

  15. Small bowel volvulus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.J.; Shackelford, G.D.; McAlister, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery. (orig.) [de

  16. Small Bowel Follow-Through

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Small bowel follow-through uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow ...

  17. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  18. Urban Waters Small Grants 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    General information on Urban Waters Small Grants is provided in this document. Grantees are listed by themes, including Environmental Justice, Water Quality, Job Training and Creation, and Green Infrastructure.

  19. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  20. Business Opportunities for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akio; Nishimura, Satoshi; Brown, Neil W.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the market potential and identifies a number of potential paths for developing the small nuclear reactor business. There are several potential opportunities identified and evaluated. Selecting a specific approach for the business development requires additional information related to a specific market and sources of capital to support the investment. If and how a market for small nuclear plants may develop is difficult to predict because of the complexity of the economic and institutional factors that will influence such development. Key factors are; economics, safety, proliferation resistance and investment risk. The economic and political interest of any of the identified markets is also dependent on successful demonstration of the safety and reliability of small nuclear reactor. Obtaining a US-NRC Standard Design approval would be an important development step toward establishing a market for small reactors. (authors)

  1. Severe small bowel radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J.; Santos, J.A.; Carrion, J.R.; Garcia, P.

    1989-01-01

    We have during recent years observed 8 patients with serious radiation injury to the small intestine. As the cases are quite illustrative, their symptomatology is briefly reported and the treatment and possible predisposing factors are analysed. (orig./MG)

  2. Small Satellite Mechanical Design Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Stewart

    1993-01-01

    The design approach used and the experience gained in the building of four small satellite payloads is explained. Specific recommendations are made and the lessons learned on the SAMPEX program are detailed.

  3. Urgent problems at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P. V.

    1999-01-01

    Regge theory provides an excellent fit to small-x structure-function data from Q 2 = 0 right up to the highest available values, but it also teaches us that conventional approaches to perturbative evolution are incorrect

  4. Morocco - Small-Scale Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  5. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  6. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  7. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  8. Radioactivity: ''small users, big problems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, C.

    1993-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there are at least one thousand small users of radioactivity in industry, in medicine, in higher education establishments and even schools. These users of small amounts of radioactivity, covering a wide variety of forms and applications, have difficulty in disposing of their wastes. Disposal provisions for users outside the nuclear industry, the practical problems they encounter and the future developments likely are discussed. (UK)

  9. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara [ICSGP (China); Masera, Diego [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  10. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  11. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  12. Who needs a small reactor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet.

    1991-01-01

    The opportunities and problems facing small reactors were debated at the Delhi seminar. It was established that these were markets where small reactors, producing heat as well as electricity, might be of use. Small combined heat and power reactors would be more useful in district heating than would large reactors, as their optimum heat production is in line with current district heating schemes. Most process heat requirements are below 900 o C and so may be provided by small nuclear plants. Several areas in electricity supply where small and medium sized reactors could find a market were also identified. Despite good reasons for favouring nuclear plants in these markets, such as no production of carbon dioxide, no need to use expensive oil or other scarce fossil fuels and flexibility, these are, however, disincentives to potential buyers. While serial production would decrease plant costs, the lead plants would bear heavy financial risks. Currently too many options in plant design make it difficult to present the advantages of small reactor technology. Siting reactors near centres of population would be problematical. The disposal of spent fuel and radioactive wastes would create problems in developing or non-nuclear countries. Over and above all these problems, however, was that of public acceptance. Some ways of overcoming these disincentives were discussed. (author)

  13. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... overall goal of simplification and maximization of benefits for small businesses, SBA proposed amendments... franchisee. F. Section 121.704--When SBA Determines Size and Eligibility SBA's proposed regulations for the...

  14. 75 FR 66411 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice: Availability of Compliance Guide. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is announcing the availability of a compliance guide for the Women...

  15. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business... Business Administration (SBA) is reopening the comment period for the Small Business Innovation Research...

  16. Maybe Small Is Too Small a Term: Introduction to Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Prevention research addressing health disparities often involves work with small population groups experiencing such disparities. The goals of this special section are to (1) address the question of what constitutes a small sample; (2) identify some of the key research design and analytic issues that arise in prevention research with small samples; (3) develop applied, problem-oriented, and methodologically innovative solutions to these design and analytic issues; and (4) evaluate the potential role of these innovative solutions in describing phenomena, testing theory, and evaluating interventions in prevention research. Through these efforts, we hope to promote broader application of these methodological innovations. We also seek whenever possible, to explore their implications in more general problems that appear in research with small samples but concern all areas of prevention research. This special section includes two sections. The first section aims to provide input for researchers at the design phase, while the second focuses on analysis. Each article describes an innovative solution to one or more challenges posed by the analysis of small samples, with special emphasis on testing for intervention effects in prevention research. A concluding article summarizes some of their broader implications, along with conclusions regarding future directions in research with small samples in prevention science. Finally, a commentary provides the perspective of the federal agencies that sponsored the conference that gave rise to this special section.

  17. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  18. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huppert, Mark [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States); Cochrane, Ric [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  19. Small systems at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preghenella, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    In these proceedings, I report on a selection of recent LHC results in small systems from ALICE [1], ATLAS [2] and CMS [3] experiments. Due to the fact that the investigation of QCD in small systems at high multiplicity is becoming an increasingly large subject, interesting the heavy-ion community and more in general the high-energy physics community, not all the related topics can be discussed in this paper. The focus will be given to some of the measurements addressing the physics of collective phenomena in small systems and to the recent results on strangeness enhancement in proton-proton collisions. The reader must be informed that a large number of interesting results did not find space in the discussion reported here.

  20. Small Business Social Responsibility Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    approach and we propose for SME managers to investigate Foucault’s notion of “care of the self”. Originality/value: We conceptualize how SBSR is caught in a ‘governmentality dilemma’ where simultaneous expectations to govern others (e.g. through standards) and the self (e.g. through intrinsic motivations......) are confronting owner-managers’ ethos. We explain theoretically how small business managers respond to the challenge when they are required to formalize and display for external surveillance that which would otherwise be informal and part of the non-public or private sphere.......Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality...

  1. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  2. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  3. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business... Business Jobs Act of 2010, which pertain to small business subcontracting. SBA is proposing to amend its...

  4. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  5. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed; some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  6. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed, and some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  7. Connections for Small Vertex Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper is a first attempt at calssifying connections on small vertex models i.e., commuting squares of the form displayed in (1.2) below. ... obtain necessary conditions for two such `model connections' in (2, ) to be ... Current Issue : Vol.

  8. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  9. Effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.

    1986-01-01

    The term 'small radiation dosis' means doses of about (1 rem), fractions of one rem as well as doses of a few rem. Doses like these are encountered in various practical fields, e.g. in X-ray diagnosis, in the environment and in radiation protection rules. The knowledge about small doses is derived from the same two forces, on which the radiobiology of human beings nearly is based: interpretation of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data, as well as the experience from radiotherapy. Careful interpretation of Hiroshima dates do not provide any evidence that small doses can induce cancer, fetal malformations or genetic damage. Yet in radiotherapy of various diseases, e.g. inflammations, doses of about 1 Gy (100 rad) do no harm to the patients. According to a widespread hypothesis even very small doses may induce some types of radiation damage ('no threshold'). Nevertheless an alternative view is justified. At present no decision can be made between these two alternatives, but the usefullness of radiology is definitely better established than any damage calculated by theories or extrapolations. Based on experience any exaggerated fear of radiations can be met. (author)

  10. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure

  11. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  12. Small Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, A.; Rodriquez, E.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the crisis. It argues that SME productivity has risen substantially, at rates not far from those of larger firms. Case studies indicate that various mechanisms are at work, such as technology

  13. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  14. Radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueber, E.; Engelbrecht, V.

    1998-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in radiology of the small intestine, discussing diagnostic fundamentals in the general, introductory chapter and continuing with the specific modalities available and applicable for diagnostic evaluation of the various symptoms and lesions. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Small Molecule PET-Radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    This review describes several aspects required for the development of small molecule PET-tracers. Design and selection criteria are important to consider before starting to develop novel PET-tracers. Principles and latest trends in C-11 and F-18-radiochemistry are summarized. In addition an update

  16. Netbooks: Small but Powerful Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Netbooks, sometimes called "mini-notebooks," are lightweight, small, and low-priced computers. Some writers ridicule them by calling them "one of the hottest tech toys of the year" (Saltzman, 2008). Others enthusiastically embrace them as "my perfect new travel companion" (Grossman, 2009). Netbooks are not toys. They are honest-to-goodness real…

  17. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  18. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  19. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  20. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  1. Small Business Location and Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    As an approach to teaching small-business location and layout, this publication contains material for teaching one session of a basic course. The sections of the publication are as follows: (1) The Lesson Plan--an outline of the material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: an outline of the presentation, and a…

  2. A small step for mankind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, C.; Koymans, R.L.C.; Kuiper, R.; Dams, D.; Hannemann, U.; Steffen, M.

    2010-01-01

    For many programming languages, the only formal semantics published is an SOS big-step semantics. Such a semantics is not suited for investigations that observe intermediate states, such as invariant techniques. In this paper, a construction is proposed that generates automatically a small-step SOS

  3. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business

  4. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  5. Revolution in the Small Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Herbert K.

    1982-01-01

    Small and medium-sized institutions are seen as likely to experience major organizational change during the next few years in three areas: contracting out, academic franchising, and reacting to declining instruction. Colleges need to explore interinstitutional cooperation, new educational media, structural innovation, productivity improvement, and…

  6. Modular plants for small deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Moral, A.; Otero, J.L.; Suarez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The large investment required to recover uranium from small deposits is the greatest obstacle to their economic development. Various concepts (caravan mill, pure mill or semimobile mill) have been elaborated in different countries. Studies have also been made in Spain to develop a simple and economic flowsheet suitable for the beneficiation of small uranium deposits. An acid heap-leaching and solvent extraction process was chosen because there is already a great deal of experience of it in Spain. Modifications were necessary to make the equipment easy to transport and also to have a low and reusable investment when this flowsheet is used for small deposits. The aim was to develop a modular plant with all the elements fitted in compact units that needs little site preparation and little time and effort to connect the units. A standard small portable crushing plant can be borrowed and the mining operation and heap construction can be put to contract. There is a solvent extraction unit (150 m 3 /d) in continuous operation (24 h/d) and concentrate precipitation and handling facilities. The whole of the equipment is standard and as light as possible. Little civil engineering is required and the erection of the plant only needs a few months. The uranium capacity of these modular plants is between 35 and 50 t U 3 O 8 /a. Special consideration has been paid to regulations and the environmental aspects. (author)

  7. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  8. Disability Management in Small Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, David

    1991-01-01

    Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…

  9. Joint research using small tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Van Oost, G.; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, Martin; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 10 (2005), S245-S254 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference contributions. Vilamoura, 1.11.2004-6.11.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : small tokamaks * thermonuclear fusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.418, year: 2005

  10. How small is small? A short history of quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    All speak about quantum jumps, but scarcely anyone knows, what it is. The strange rules in the world of quanta evade from our imagination power: space and time are stirred together, mass becomes to energy and vice versa. Kenneth W. Ford has developed a unique approach, in order to explain these phenomena understandably and entertainingly: Otherwise than all other books on this theme illustrates ''How small is small?'' the laws of quantum physics by the picture of the particle family. We learn to know the quarks, the leptons, and bosons, and the residue of the kinship, and we get an outlook in the future of quantum theory. Kenneth W. Ford explains, why this theory revolutionized the physics of the 20th century. He presents the most important researchers and gives fascinating insights in the world ''below the surface''

  11. Small Bodies, Big Discoveries: NASA's Small Bodies Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.; Erickson, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is turning out to be a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system's unsung heroes, small bodies. This includes the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 / Siding Spring with Mars in October and the historic Rosetta mission with its Philae lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Beyond 2014, the much anticipated 2015 Pluto flyby by New Horizons and the February Dawn Mission arrival at Ceres will take center stage. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system's small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA's JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like "Eyes on the Solar System" and more. This talk will highlight NASA's focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies mission science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  12. Teaching Small Business Ownership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Topics discussed include integrating small business ownership with existing programs; establishing awareness, exploration, and orientation activities; and preparation for small business ownership. A curriculum guide developed for teaching small business ownership and management is also described. (TA)

  13. 78 FR 77352 - Small Business Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Associate Administrator for the Office of Small Business Programs shall nominate a qualified individual in... Small Business Programs shall assign a Small Business Technical Advisor to each contracting activity...

  14. Small Intestine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Other types of small intestine cancer are sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on small intestine cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  15. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  16. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  17. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... small business concerns owned and controlled by women, and to women wishing to start a small business... Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda] Part XVII Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda [[Page 79864

  18. Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL) is a facility designed to conduct experimental small-scale propulsion and power generation systems research....

  19. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. Going global - growing small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Going Global Energy Steering Committee was established to help small and medium-sized Canadian enterprises to compete in the electrical power industry in the Asia-Pacific region primarily, but also in Eastern Europe and Latin America. The aim is to provide market intelligence, and help with forming consortia for financing. A small to medium-sized business can be defined as one with 50 to 500 employees. Big businesses no longer have the same competitive advantages that they once had, because automated systems can make short production runs just as cost-effective as long ones, and because computerization, automation and rising productivity mean that fewer workers are required than formerly

  1. Tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gamboa, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses are performed to establish the cause of chronic abdominal pain in patients. Histological types are considered in patients with primary tumors of unknown origin. Benign and malignant neoplasms are described, including methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are cited. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for an acceptable outcome in patients with malignant small bowel tumors. Recurrence is provoked many deaths, suggesting the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  2. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Major scientific advances have been made over the past few years in the areas of small bowel physiology, pathology, microbiology and clinical sciences. Over 1000 papers have been reviewed and a selective number are considered here. Wherever possible, the clinical relevance of these advances have been identified. There have been a number of important and/or interesting developments in the past year that have clinical significance.

  3. Closing small open economy models

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt-Grohe, Stephanie; Uribe, Martín

    2001-01-01

    The small open economy model with incomplete asset markets features a steady state that depends on initial conditions and equilibrium dynamics that possess a random walk component. A number of modifications to the standard model have been proposed to induce stationarity. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of these alternative approaches. Five different specifications are considered: (1) A model with an endogenous discount factor (Uzawa-type preferences); (2) A model with a debt-ela...

  4. A small flat fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yijun; Wang Dalun; Chen Suhe

    1999-01-01

    With fission materials of depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, 239 Pu, and 237 Np, the authors have designed and made a series of small flat fission chamber. The authors narrated the construction of the fission chamber and its technological process of manufacture, and furthermore, the authors have measured and discussed the follow correct factor, self-absorption, boundary effect, threshold loss factor, bottom scatter and or so

  5. Small Scale Air Driven Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ESOI energy stored on invested IC integrated circuit RC radio controlled RPM revolutions per minute UPS uninterruptible power supply...used in microgrid systems. The additional electrical power produced could be enough to offset the power required to start up heavy machinery, or power...include automobile 3 turbochargers and small permanent magnet motors commonly used in remote controlled devices. The pairing of these two technologies

  6. Phillips Laboratory small satellite initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Mark K.; Imler, Thomas A.; Davis, Robert J.

    1993-09-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Space Experiments Directorate in conjunction with the Air Force Space Test Program (AF STP), Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA) and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), are managing five small satellite program initiatives: Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sponsored by SDIO, Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) sponsored by SDIO, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, TechSat sponsored by SDIO, and the Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus (ATSSB) sponsored by DARPA. Each of these spacecraft fulfills a unique set of program requirements. These program requirements range from a short-lived `one-of-a-kind' mission to the robust multi- mission role. Because of these diverging requirements, each program is driven to use a different design philosophy. But regardless of their design, there is the underlying fact that small satellites do not always equate to small missions. These spacecraft with their use of or ability to insert new technologies provide more capabilities and services for their respective payloads which allows the expansion of their mission role. These varying program efforts culminate in an ATSSB spacecraft bus approach that will support moderate size payloads, up to 500 pounds, in a large set of orbits while satisfying the `cheaper, faster, better' method of doing business. This technical paper provides an overview of each of the five spacecraft, focusing on the objectives, payoffs, technologies demonstrated, and program status.

  7. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David José Martínez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ~800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ~140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent role. However, new experimental data suggest that selective processes may be at operation as well for endosymbiotic prokaryotes at least during the first stages of genome reduction. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes have evolved diverse strategies for living with reduced gene sets inside a host-defined medium. These include utilization of host-encoded functions (some of them coded by genes acquired by gene transfer from the endosymbiont and/or other bacteria; metabolic complementation between co-symbionts; and forming consortiums with other bacteria within the host. Recent genome sequencing projects of intracellular mutualistic bacteria showed that previously believed universal evolutionary trends like reduced G+C content and conservation of genome synteny are not always present in highly reduced genomes. Finally, the simplified molecular machinery of some of these organisms with small genomes may be used to aid in the design of artificial minimal cells. Here we review recent genomic discoveries of the biology of prokaryotes endowed with small gene sets and discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their peculiar nature.

  8. Small wind turbines - Technical sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication first proposes an overview of the technical context of small wind turbines (from less than 1 kW to 36 kW). It discusses issues related to mast height, indicates the various technologies in terms of machine geometry (vertical or horizontal axis), of mast and foundations, of mechanism of orientation with respect to the wind. It also outlines that power curves are not always reliable due to a lack of maturity of techniques and technologies. Other issues are discussed: wind characteristics, and the assessment of the national potential source. The next parts address the regulatory and economic context, environmental impacts (limited impact on landscape, noise), propose an overview of actors and market (supply and demand of small wind turbines in the USA and in France, actors involved in the chain value in France), and give some recommendations for the development of small wind turbines in France. The last part proposes a technical focus on self-consumption by professional in rural areas (production and consumption in farms)

  9. Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.

  10. Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sundrum, Raman [Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.

  11. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting: Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: This document... business subcontracting to implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. This correction...

  12. Small Business Programs - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal Office of the Joint Surgeon PARC Small Business Programs Chaplain Diversity NGB-GOMO Resources Legislative Liaison Small Business Programs Social Media State Websites Videos Featured Videos On Every Front ARNG Readiness Home : Leadership : Joint Staff : Special Staff : Small Business Programs Small Business

  13. Japanese Small Type Coastal Whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Fisher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2016 marks the 70th anniversary of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW as well as the 30th anniversary of the International Whaling Commission’s (IWC moratorium on commercial whaling. It also marks three decades of effort by Japan to overturn this ban. Its strategy to circumvent the moratorium by issuing permits to kill protected whales for scientific research is famous—even the subject of a 2014 lawsuit at the International Court of Justice. Less well known is Japan’s strategy to overturn the ban by persuading the Commission to authorise a category of commercial whaling known as Small Type Coastal Whaling (STCW that is conducted on minke and other small whales in Japanese waters but has never been regulated, or even formally recognised, by the IWC. For three decades Japan has sought STCW catch limits for four communities which it claims are still suffering distress as a result of the moratorium. While the Commission has rejected each proposal, mainly citing concerns that the commercial nature and purpose of STCW violates the moratorium, Japan has persisted, exhibiting great flexibility in its approach. Its tactics changed significantly in 2014; it no longer denied (or defended the commerciality of the hunt, but argued that it is irrelevant since it sought only a small exemption to the moratorium which would remain intact for all other populations. This is a perspective on Japan’s evolving STCW strategy and the risk that lifting, or modifying, the moratorium would pose to the conservation of whales.

  14. Turbulent diffusion of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.G.

    1977-11-01

    The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley

  15. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year, there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. More than 1500 papers were assessed in preparation for this review. Some were selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist. Relevant review articles have been highlighted, and important clinical learning points have been stressed. The topics are varied in scope, and wherever possible show a logical progression from basic physiology to pathophysiology to clinical disorders and management.

  16. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  17. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year, there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 1500 papers were assessed. Some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist. Relevant review articles have been highlighted, and important clinical learning points have been stressed. The topics are varied in scope and wherever possible show a logical progression from basic physiology to pathophysiology to clinical disorders and management.

  18. Apparatus for blending small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment

  19. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  20. Theory problems at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown how the standard methods of perturbative QCD are valid to extremely small x. The methods are valid provided a quantity we call the packing fraction of partons in a hadron is much less than one. One surprising consequence is that the cross-section for production of jets of a few GeV energy can be reliably calculated. Since this cross-section in tens of millibarns, the phenomenology of minimum bias events at the SSC will be different than at lower energy; this will have a significant effect on the backgrounds for new physics events. 8 references

  1. Small Signal Loudspeaker Impedance Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Specifying the performance of audio amplifiers is typically done by playing sine waves into a pure ohmic load. However real loudspeaker impedances are not purely ohmic but characterized by the mechanical resonance between the mass of the diaphragm and the compliance of its suspension which vary...... from driver to driver. Therefore, a loudspeaker emulator capable of adjusting its impedance to that of a given driver is desired for measurement purposes. This paper proposes a loudspeaker emulator circuit for small signals. Simulations and experimental results are compared and show that it is possible...... to emulate the loudspeaker impedance with an electric circuit and that its resonance frequency can be changed by tuning two resistors....

  2. ATFSR: a small torsatron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Lacatski, J.T.; Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    A small (average minor radius anti a approx. = 1 m), moderate-aspect-ratio torsatron reactor based on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is proposed as a starting point for improved stellarator reactor designs. The major limitation of the compact size is the lack of space under the helical coils for the blanket and shield. Neoclassical confinement models for helically trapped particles show that a large electric potential (radial electric field) is necessary to achieve ignition in a device of this size, although high-Q operation is still attainable with more modest potentials

  3. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  4. GEF small grants programme - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the GEF small grants program which seeks to enhance the role of households and communities in conserving global biodiversity, mitigating global climate change, and protecting international waters. Grants up to $50k have been granted for projects in 33 countries, with plans for 12 other countries. The author describes the framework that the program works under, and the methodology followed in developing and planning projects. The approach to climate change concerns is to emphasize the development of non-carbon energy development activities to provide energy sources and economic development.

  5. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  6. Financial sector support for small business development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relationships between the financial sector and small businesses, and the small business policy framework in South Africa. The study also measures the perception of the Business Chambers and Commercial Banks on the effectiveness of financial sector support to small businesses in the Gauteng area through a questionnaire. The Small Business Development Policy of 1996 outlines the functions of various small business support institutions such as Ntsika Enterprise Promotion A...

  7. The marketing strategy of a small enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafilović Igor

    2008-01-01

    Small enterprise shows some specific characteristics which are necessary for creation of marketing strategy. The goal of this work is an attempt of marketing strategy analysis of the small enterprises. The necessary request of the analysis is to define the small enterprise. There have also been analyzed the specific orders for small enterpriser. Special part of work is dedicated to a small enterprises management strategy and the other one to their marketing communications. There are mentioned...

  8. Arthritis is inhibited in Borrelia-primed and infected interleukin-17A-deficient mice after administration of anti-gamma-interferon, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha and anti-interleukin-6 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Schell, Ronald F

    2017-08-31

    The role that cytokines play in the induction of Lyme arthritis is gradually being delineated. We showed previously that severe arthritis developed in a T-cell-driven murine model, even in mice lacking interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and administered anti-gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) antibody. Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two pro-inflammatory cytokines, were detected in cultures of popliteal lymph node cells obtained from these mice. We hypothesized that concomitantly administered anti-IL-6, anti-TNF-α and anti-IFN-γ antibodies would inhibit the development of arthritis in IL-17A-deficient mice. Our results showed that swelling of the hind paws and histopathological changes consistent with arthritis were significantly reduced in IL-17A-deficient mice that administered the three anti-cytokine antibodies. These results suggest that treatment with multiple anti-cytokine antibodies can abrogate the induction of Lyme arthritis in mice. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Small gauge vitrectomy: Recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Khanduja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small gauge vitrectomy, also known as minimally invasive vitreous surgery (MIVS, is a classic example of progress in biomedical engineering. Disparity in conjunctival and scleral wound location and reduction in wound diameter are its core principles. Fluidic changes include increased pressure head loss with consequent reduction in infusional flow rate and use of higher aspiration vacuum at the cutter port. Increase An increase in port open/port closed time maintains an adequate rate of vitreous removal. High Intensity Discharge (HID lamps maintain adequate illumination in spite of a decrease in the number of fiberoptic fibers. The advantages of MIVS are, a shorter surgical time, minimal conjunctival damage, and early postoperative recovery. Most complications are centered on wound stability and risk of postoperative hypotony, endophthalmitis, and port site retinal break formation. MIVS is suited in most cases, however, it can cause dehiscence of recent cataract wounds. Retraction of the infusion cannula in the suprachoroidal space may occur in eyes with scleral thinning. As a lot has been published and discussed about sutureless vitrectomy a review of this subject is necessary. A PubMed search was performed in December 2011 with terms small gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, and 27 gauge vitrectomy, which were revised in August 2012. There were no restrictions on the date of publication but it was restricted to articles in English or other languages, if there abstracts were available in English.

  10. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  11. Small nuclear reactors for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, K.

    1978-01-01

    Small nuclear reactors are considered to have an output of not more than 400MW thermal. Since they can produce steam at much higher conditions than needed by the brine heater of a multi-flash desalination unit, it may be economically advantageous to use small reactors for a dual-purpose installation of appropriate size, producing both electricity and desalted water, rather than for a single-purpose desalination plant only. Different combinations of dual-purpose arrangements are possible depending principally on the ratio of electricity to water output required. The costs of the installation as well as of the products are critically dependent on this ratio. For minimum investment costs, the components of the dual-purpose installation should be of a standardised design based on normal commercial power plant practice. This then imposes some restrictions on the plant arrangement but, on the other hand, it facilitates selection of the components. Depending on the electricity to water ratio to be achieved, the conventional part of the installation - essentially the turbines - will form a combination of back-pressure and condensing machines. Each ratio will probably lead to an optimum combination. In the economic evaluation of this arrangement, a distinction must be made between single-purpose and dual-purpose installations. The relationship between output and unit costs of electricity and water will be different for the two cases, but the relation can be expressed in general terms to provide guidelines for selecting the best dimensions for the plant. (author)

  12. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  13. Cogeneration for small SAGD projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albion, Stuart [AMEC BDR Limited (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    As many SAGD projects are being developed in remote locations, the supply of a steady source of power to them becomes an important question. Connecting these remote facilities to a grid can often be difficult and costly. This presentation, by AMEC BDR Limited, promotes the use of cogeneration in small SAGD projects. Cogeneration is the generation of two forms of energy from one fuel source. In this particular case, the energy forms would be electricity and heat. In many SAGD projects, a gas turbine system is used to generate the electricity, while a heat recovery system is utilized to generate steam. The use of cogeneration systems in SAGD projects, as opposed to using separate heat and electricity systems, has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of energy lost, the amount of emissions and power costs, in addition to ensuring that there is a reliable supply of steam and electricity.

  14. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amorena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease.

  15. Forming parts over small radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S K; Hughes, D J; Pereira, M P; Rolfe, B F

    2016-01-01

    Stamping simulations usually make the plane stress simplifying assumption. However, this becomes less valid when material draws around features with radius to sheet thickness ratios less than 20. Pereira, Yan and Rolfe (Wear, Vol.265, p.1687 (2008)) predicted that out-of-plane stress equivalent to material yield can occur because a line contact forms briefly at the start of the draw process. The high transient stress can cause high rates of tool wear and may cause the ‘die impact line’ cosmetic defect. In this work, we present residual strain results of a channel section that was drawn over a small radius. Using the neutron source at the Institut Laue-Langevin, in-plane and out-of-plane strains were measured in the channel part to show some support for the conclusions of Pereira et. al. (paper)

  16. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  18. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  19. The Nothuesli small hydro project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.; Jorde, K.

    2008-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the project for a small 16-kilowatt hydro plant on the Gonzenbaechli stream in eastern Switzerland. The site, which was used even before 1860 for obtaining power from the stream is briefly described, as are the present remains of earlier installations. An old Francis turbine has been retrieved and could possibly be reused. Water-flow figures and fall-heights are noted. Design flows and residual water quantities required by legislation are noted and discussed, as are the geology and topology of the catchment area. The proposals for a new hydro-power plant are described, including the apparatus proposed with a power of 20 kVA. Environmental aspects are also discussed, as are the investment costs and the economic viability of the project. The paper is completed with a comprehensive appendix, including detailed cost estimates.

  20. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  1. Holography in small bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoq, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on an experiment to determine the total charm cross section at different incident momenta using the small, heavy liquid bubble chamber HOBC. Holography in liquid hydrogen is also tested using the holographic lexan bubble chamber HOLEBC with the aim of preparing a future holographic experiment in hydrogen. The high intensity tests show that more than 100 incident tracks per hologram do not cause a dramatic effect on the picture quality. Hydrogen is more favorable than freon as the bubble growth is much slower in hydrogen. An advantage of holography is to have the maximum resolution in the full volume of the bubble chamber, which allows a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 10 compared to classical optics as 100 tracks per hologram look reasonable. Holograms are not more difficult to analyze than classical optics high-resolution pictures. The results show that holography is a very powerful technique which can be used in very high resolution particle physics experiments

  2. The marketing strategy of a small enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafilović Igor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Small enterprise shows some specific characteristics which are necessary for creation of marketing strategy. The goal of this work is an attempt of marketing strategy analysis of the small enterprises. The necessary request of the analysis is to define the small enterprise. There have also been analyzed the specific orders for small enterpriser. Special part of work is dedicated to a small enterprises management strategy and the other one to their marketing communications. There are mentioned some specific advantages and problems of the small enterprises, too.

  3. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business...

  4. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  5. Chemisorption and Reactions of Small Molecules on Small Gold Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Bond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of supported gold particles for a number of oxidations and hydrogenations starts to increase dramatically as the size falls below ~3 nm. This is accompanied by an increased propensity to chemisorption, especially of oxygen and hydrogen. The explanation for these phenomena has to be sought in kinetic analysis that connects catalytic activity with the strength and extent of chemisorption of the reactants, the latter depending on the electronic structure of the gold atoms constituting the active centre. Examination of the changes to the utilisation of electrons as particle size is decreased points to loss of metallic character at about 3 nm, as energy bands are replaced by levels, and a band gap appears. Detailed consideration of the Arrhenius parameters (E and ln A for CO oxidation points clearly to a step-change in activity at the point where metallic character is lost, as opposed to there being a monotonic dependence of rate on a physical property such as the fraction of atoms at corners or edges of particles. The deplorable scarcity of kinetic information on other reactions makes extension of this analysis difficult, but non-metallic behaviour is an unavoidable property of very small gold particles, and therefore cannot be ignored when seeking to explain their exceptional activity.

  6. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  7. Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater The NESC has provided of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management Agencies, The Office of Wastewater Management at EPA, in cooperation with the Global Environment and

  8. Small Proteins Can No Longer Be Ignored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Gisela; Wolf, Yuri I.; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Small proteins, here defined as proteins of 50 amino acids or less in the absence of processing, have traditionally been overlooked due to challenges in their annotation and biochemical detection. In the past several years however, increasing numbers of small proteins have been identified either through the realization that mutations in “intergenic” regions actually are within unannotated small protein genes, or through the discovery that some small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) encode small proteins. These insights together with comparative sequence analysis indicate that tens if not hundreds of small proteins are synthesized in a given organism. This review will summarize what has been learned about the functions of several of these bacterial small proteins, most of which act at the membrane, illustrating the astonishing range of processes in which the small proteins act and pointing to several general conclusions. Important questions for future studies of these overlooked proteins also will be discussed. PMID:24606146

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS CREDIT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Klimova N. V.; Shapovalova G. I.

    2015-01-01

    Small business is the basis for the development of the national economy, providing 60% of revenues in foreign countries. In Russia, this sector is developing slowly due to lack of funding. In connection with the development of small business, lending is growing in popularity in this sphere. The state develops a variety of programs to support small businesses in the form of public and private lending institutions, venture capital funds, credit unions. However, the volume of lending to small bu...

  10. 76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 29 February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status... Regulations#0;#0; [[Page 8222

  11. Small head size after atomic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Mulvihill, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of children exposed to nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki showed small head size and mental retardation when exposure occurred less than 18 weeks of gestational age. Increased frequency of small head size occurred when maternal exposure was 10 to 19 rad. Tables and graphs are presented to show relationships between dose, gestational age, and frequency of small head size

  12. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  13. Small Business Management Training Tools Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    This directory is designed to assist in the identification of supplementary materials to support program development for small businesses. Following introductory comments and an overview of small business management training, section I lists training tools available from the Small Business Administration (SBA). Section II provides descriptions and…

  14. 27 CFR 19.912 - Small plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small plants. 19.912... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.912 Small plants. Persons wishing to establish a small plant shall apply for a permit as provided in this...

  15. 7 CFR 201.42 - Small containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small containers. 201.42 Section 201.42 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.42 Small containers. In sampling seed in small containers that it is not practical to sample as required in § 201.41, a portion of one unopened container or...

  16. Mutual Guarantee Institutions and Small Business Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Columba, F.; Gambacorta, L.; Mistrulli, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A large literature showed that small firms experience difficulties in accessing the credit market due to informational asymmetries; these may be mitigated by collateral or relationship lending, possibilities often precluded to small business. We investigate the effect on small business finance of an

  17. Informal Learning of Women Small Business Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate women small business owners' informal learning behaviour. There is limited qualitative research that examines women small business owners' learning process and this study aims to address this gap. The study was driven by the following research questions: "Do women small business owners…

  18. Using small XML elements to support relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); T.H.W. Westerveld (Thijs); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractSmall XML elements are often estimated relevant by the retrieval model but they are not desirable retrieval units. This paper presents a generic model that exploits the information obtained from small elements. We identify relationships between small and relevant elements and use this

  19. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Strategic Planning, Small Business Administration, 409 Third Street SW, Washington, DC 20416 Phone: 202 205... Protest and Appeal Regulations 294 Small Business Size Standards: Retail Trade Industries 3245-AF69 295... STANDARDS: RETAIL TRADE INDUSTRIES Legal Authority: 15 USC 632(a) Abstract: The U.S. Small Business...

  20. Understanding the statistics of small risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1983-10-01

    Monte Carlo analyses are used to show what inferences can and cannot be drawn when either a very small number of accidents result from a considerable exposure or where a very small number of people, down to a single individual, are exposed to small added risks. The distinction between relative and absolute uncertainty is illustrated. No new statistical principles are involved

  1. Addressing Youth Employment Through Micro- and Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Employment Through Micro- and Small-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia. Youth unemployment has emerged as a key challenge facing developing and ... to youth to start small businesses and to youth-led micro- and small-enterprises. ... the barriers and challenges young Ethiopian men and women face in the labour ...

  2. 12 CFR 16.8 - Small issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small issues. 16.8 Section 16.8 Banks and....8 Small issues. (a) The OCC will deem offers and sales of bank issued securities that satisfy the requirements of Commission Regulation A (17 CFR part 230, Regulation A—Conditional Small Issues Exemption) to...

  3. Oesophagostomosis, moniaziasis and trichuriasis of small ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, the intestines (small and large intestines) were collected from 300 small ruminants (200 goats and 100 sheep) at necropsy and examined by the Hansen and Perry method. Out of the 300 small ruminants examined during the study period, the intestines revealed the presence of Oesophagostomum sp, ...

  4. Why are small software organisations different?

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Ita; Gresse von Wangenheim, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Small software organizations independently financed and organized companies with fewer than 50 employees are fundamental to many national economies' growth. In the US, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Finland, Ireland, Hungary, and many other countries, small companies represent up to 85 percent of all software organizations. However, to persist and grow, small software companies need efficient, effective software engineering solutions.

  5. Helicity evolution at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    We construct small-x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g 1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of α s ln 2  (1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of α s ln (1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-N c and large-N c   N f limits. As a cross-check, in the ladder approximation, our equations map onto the same ladder limit of the infrared evolution equations for the g 1 structure function derived previously by Bartels, Ermolaev and Ryskin http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002880050285.

  6. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  7. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  8. Safety activities in small businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Raymond C.; Cunningham, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Workplace injuries occur at higher rates in smaller firms than in larger firms, and the number of workplace safety activities appear to be inversely associated with those rates. Predictors of safety activities are rarely studied. Methods This study uses data from a national random survey of firms (n = 722) with less than 250 employees conducted in 2002. Results We found that, regardless of firm size or industry, safety activities were more common in 2002 than they were in a similar 1983 study. Having had an OSHA inspection in the last five years and firm size were stronger predictors of safety activities than industry hazardousness and manager’s perceptions of hazardousness. All four variables were significant predictors (β range .19 to .28; R2 = .27). Conclusions Further progress in the prevention of injuries in small firms will require attention to factors likely subsumed within the firm size variable, especially the relative lack of slack resources that might be devoted to safety activities. PMID:26339124

  9. Small business development: who pays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, D

    1985-11-01

    This article traces the trends in the aid community towards income generation and small business projects in developing countries since the 1950s. 1 of the great weakness of the development assistance community in the area of income generation remains the lack of analysis of population differentiation in the communities in which they work. A very different approach to the problem of the informal sector and income generation is one that responds directly to the needs of poor communities. Institutions working within poor communities and supporting multi-sectoral development while strengthening local organizations are much better situated to respond to the diverse needs of the community than are single-sector organizations with only 1 skill or service to offer. To assist significant numbers of poor people, particularly women, grouping of some sort is essential. This is not to say that group enterprise development is an easy process. The intensive and costly organizational and management assistance required to prepare a poor group for credit must be weighed along with the potential for creating a basis of long-range change within the community. To work with individual family enterprizes in a community can also have important social and economic effects, although the long-range impact may be more limited. Today, more than ever, the poor face the challenge of creating new survival mechanisms within their communities. Development agencies and assistance programs have the responsibility to help rather than hinder this process.

  10. A small mass tachyon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohly, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Tachyons of very small mass, m, have been assumed to satisfy a Proca-like equation, approximately but not exactly, so that the Lorentz gauge condition can be retained as in the photon case. THe tachyon fields therefore have four non-zero conjugate momenta, making invariance manifest. On introducing particle operators, two consistent, theories are found, a particle theory and a 'non-particle' theory, depending on which version of the Reinterpretation Principle one applies. The particle theory is relativistically invariant, gauge invariant, and also causal in the naive sense. While the vacuum is not invariant, using RIP, the fields and Fock space of physical tachyon states is invariant. The Lorentz gauge is satisfied by restricting states to those meeting a Gupta-Bleuler condition. Physical states can further be modified to travel symmetrically in time, and thus, will not violate causality. Under this restriction, a time symmetric tachyon sent backwards in time by Lorentz transformation becomes a tachyon going forward in time, but in the opposite direction

  11. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  12. Mastering Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A complete, winning approach to the number one small business solution. Do you have 75 or fewer users or devices on your small-business network? Find out how to integrate everything you need for your mini-enterprise with Microsoft's new Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server, a custom collection of server and management technologies designed to help small operations run smoothly without a giant IT department. This comprehensive guide shows you how to master all SBS components as well as handle integration with other Microsoft technologies.: Focuses on Windows Server 2008 Small Business Serv

  13. Small silencing RNAs: an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Zamore, Phillip D

    2009-02-01

    Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNA classes have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, their modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate. There is a growing realization that, despite their differences, these distinct small RNA pathways are interconnected, and that small RNA pathways compete and collaborate as they regulate genes and protect the genome from external and internal threats.

  14. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies......, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  15. New developments in small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.; Reed, A.

    1990-08-01

    During the fifty years since nuclear fission was discovered, nuclear energy has emerged to play an increasingly important role in meeting global energy needs. At the recent World Energy Conference in Montreal, 1989 September, experts agreed that nuclear power will continue to be an essential part of the future energy mix. The demand for economic and reliable energy sources is driven by the growth in the world's population and the essential role energy plays in industrial development. Global energy requirements, expected to double over the next 40 years, will seriously challenge suppliers in their ability to meet the demand. Ultimately, efficient energy utilization will become singularly important. Industrialization and economic development manifest themselves in urbanization. Urban dwellers consume significantly more energy per capita compared with their rural neighbours. Consequently, concentrated and environmentally acceptable energy sources, combined with efficient distribution systems, are now recognized as essential to meet urban energy demands. In considering the alternatives that will meet these requirements, nuclear energy qualifies as both a concentrated and environmentally benign source. Nuclear electricity generation is a mature technology that paves the way for other applications. If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified, and appropriately designed and sized reactors developed as an investment in the future. To meet this potential, new small reactor concepts are being developed to satisfy the expected energy demands, while also displaying characteristics that address current public concerns for providing minimal environmental impact. Concepts ranging in sized from 10 MW(t) to 1000 MW(t) are being pursued in a number of countries, including Canada, USA, UK, China, and

  16. A novel Direct Small World network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain degree of redundancy and low efficiency of existing computer networks.This paper presents a novel Direct Small World network model in order to optimize networks.In this model,several nodes construct a regular network.Then,randomly choose and replot some nodes to generate Direct Small World network iteratively.There is no change in average distance and clustering coefficient.However,the network performance,such as hops,is improved.The experiments prove that compared to traditional small world network,the degree,average of degree centrality and average of closeness centrality are lower in Direct Small World network.This illustrates that the nodes in Direct Small World networks are closer than Watts-Strogatz small world network model.The Direct Small World can be used not only in the communication of the community information,but also in the research of epidemics.

  17. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T 2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  18. EFFECT OF MARKET ORIENTATION ON SMALL BUSINESS PERORMANCE IN SMALL TOWN IN MALAYSIA: AN EMPRICAL STUDY ON MALAYSIAN SMALL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masroor ALAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on market orientation, and performance was related to big firms. In this study, based on the theoretical framework, a model was developed to investigate the effect of market orientation on business performance in small firms. To test the relationships among the variables, data from 53 small firms in the small town of Chunglun at Sintok, Kedah was used. The findings show that the three components of market orientation are related positive to business performance of small firms. The further analysis also confirmed that customer orientation and competitor orientation are strong predictors of small firm performance. The findings of this study confirm that market orientation behavior also applies to small firms.

  19. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  20. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounted for more than 50%, and in Austria with more than 70% of lodging facilities and represent a generator of hotel business in a large number of European tourism countries, and great attention is given to the small enterpreneurs stimulating their growth with different measures of tourist and general economy politics. The author reflects on the Croatian experience of the small businesses in the hospitality through research of development of small family hotels and their importance for the improvement of the supply of the Croatian hotel industry which future is built on personal approach to guests and present trends in the tourism market. States that the role of the National Association of family and small hotels, which represents the specific interests of small hoteliers and enables the continuous improvement of the quality of their offerings, as well as measures to encourage small business development at the macro level. Based on the made analysis the measures of increasing the efficiency of small businesses in the Croatian hospitality are given.

  1. 76 FR 22667 - Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...] Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry Establishments That... production of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products with respect to Salmonella and other pathogens... This document provides small and very small meat and poultry establishments \\1\\ that manufacture RTE...

  2. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give small...

  3. Technological transfer. 2. Through developing small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrie, T W; Leslie, D

    1978-12-01

    The transfer of small businesses to developing countries is proposed as the most effective way to build upon existing capabilities and small resources while benefiting the largest number of people. Labor-intensive small businesses require little capital investment and can bring immediate progress to both urban and rural areas. One drawback to this approach is the need for organizational effort by the government, although the Civil Service in India has been able to fill this function. Small businesses can be promoted through tax exemptions or benefits, the restriction of some manufacturing to small-scale industries, and government support of equipment research. This approach is less disruptive of social patterns and lifestyles than urbanization and its associated costs while still providing the opportunity for an improved standard of living. Electrification can be handled at the village level with diesel generators or by central power plants, although consumer cooperatives have worked better than the small business concept in this area.

  4. Total Productivity Management in Small Industries

    OpenAIRE

    FARAJPOUR-KHANAPOSHTANI, Ghassem; HAYATI, Seyyed Iman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The importance of small businesses and SME's has been well established in the literature of the world economy. Thus, both industrialized and developing countries, development, support of small businesses as part and parcel of their productivity strategies have. Small industries are a major driver of employment, economic growth and productivity. About 80% of all companies in the world are less than 10 cases of human resources, so 95% of industries in the UK, Spain and Finland and 94 ...

  5. Market experiences with small wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Deijl, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the marketing experiences of Lagerwey Windturbines with the exploitation of small wind turbines. Attention is paid to the market mechanisms which effect the sale and implementation of small wind turbines: payback of surplus power, provincial and regional subsidies, grid connection costs, energy prices, and flexible solutions for grid connections. Also problems with municipalities with regard to regulations or construction licenses are discussed. Some recommendations are given to stimulate the market for small wind turbines. 1 fig., 1 ref

  6. 14th Annual Small Business Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    Government Contracting, Small Business Administration 5:45 pm - 7:45 pm RECEPTION IN DISPLAY AREA 14TH ANNUAL SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE...as a lobbyist for a large multi-national conglomerate that included among its subsidiaries movie companies, sports teams, financial services companies...Past Performance /Small Business Participation > M.1 Basis of Award: The Government plans to award a single contract for the Fighting Trailer

  7. Brain networks: small-worlds, after all?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Lyle; Destexhe, Alain; Rudolph-Lilith, Michelle [Unité de Neurosciences, Information et Complexité (UNIC), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-10-01

    Since its introduction, the ‘small-world’ effect has played a central role in network science, particularly in the analysis of the complex networks of the nervous system. From the cellular level to that of interconnected cortical regions, many analyses have revealed small-world properties in the networks of the brain. In this work, we revisit the quantification of small-worldness in neural graphs. We find that neural graphs fall into the ‘borderline’ regime of small-worldness, residing close to that of a random graph, especially when the degree sequence of the network is taken into account. We then apply recently introducted analytical expressions for clustering and distance measures, to study this borderline small-worldness regime. We derive theoretical bounds for the minimal and maximal small-worldness index for a given graph, and by semi-analytical means, study the small-worldness index itself. With this approach, we find that graphs with small-worldness equivalent to that observed in experimental data are dominated by their random component. These results provide the first thorough analysis suggesting that neural graphs may reside far away from the maximally small-world regime. (paper)

  8. Structural peculiarities in magnetic small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneda, K.; Morrish, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Nanostructured magnetic materials, consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites, are currently a developing subject. Evidence has been accumulating that they possess properties that can differ substantially from those of bulk materials. This paper illustrates how Moessbauer spectroscopy can yield useful information on the structural peculiarities associated with these small particles. As illustrations, metallic iron and iron-oxide systems are considered in detail. The subjects discussed include: (1) Phase stabilities in small particles, (2) deformed or nonsymmetric atomic arrangements in small particles, and (3) peculiar magnetic structures or non-collinear spin arrangements in small magnetic oxide particles that are correlated with lower specific magnetizations as compared to the bulk values. (orig.)

  9. Small wind planning and building successful installations

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Nolan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive guide to achieving successful small wind installations. It is a comprehensive information resource from one of the world's most experienced small wind professionals, covering all the key issues for small wind system development, from site and machine selection to international standards compliance. Engineers who are tasked with planning and developing these small wind systems, from choosing the best site and accurately estimating likely power output to obtaining proper permitting and troubleshooting operational inefficiencies, will find this book an ess

  10. Brain networks: small-worlds, after all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Lyle; Destexhe, Alain; Rudolph-Lilith, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction, the ‘small-world’ effect has played a central role in network science, particularly in the analysis of the complex networks of the nervous system. From the cellular level to that of interconnected cortical regions, many analyses have revealed small-world properties in the networks of the brain. In this work, we revisit the quantification of small-worldness in neural graphs. We find that neural graphs fall into the ‘borderline’ regime of small-worldness, residing close to that of a random graph, especially when the degree sequence of the network is taken into account. We then apply recently introducted analytical expressions for clustering and distance measures, to study this borderline small-worldness regime. We derive theoretical bounds for the minimal and maximal small-worldness index for a given graph, and by semi-analytical means, study the small-worldness index itself. With this approach, we find that graphs with small-worldness equivalent to that observed in experimental data are dominated by their random component. These results provide the first thorough analysis suggesting that neural graphs may reside far away from the maximally small-world regime. (paper)

  11. Advanced Deployable Structural Systems for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Straubel, Marco; Wilkie, W. Keats; Zander, Martin E.; Fernandez, Juan M.; Hillebrandt, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges for small satellites is packaging and reliable deployment of structural booms and arrays used for power, communication, and scientific instruments. The lack of reliable and efficient boom and membrane deployment concepts for small satellites is addressed in this work through a collaborative project between NASA and DLR. The paper provides a state of the art overview on existing spacecraft deployable appendages, the special requirements for small satellites, and initial concepts for deployable booms and arrays needed for various small satellite applications. The goal is to enhance deployable boom predictability and ground testability, develop designs that are tolerant of manufacturing imperfections, and incorporate simple and reliable deployment systems.

  12. FACTORS CRISIS OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it became clear that Russia needs not only economic growth, but also economic growth of a certain quality. Re¬gions are not an exception, since they are the most vulnerable to changes in market conditions resource exports. The main economic indicators for larger regions of the country should become entrepreneurs. The main economic indicators for larger regions of the country should become entrepreneurs. Not accidentally retrospective analysis of the evolutionary development of small business shows that the most important role in the economic development of Europe and America have played and continue to play a small business. Results of activity of small businesses are generally positive; the country saw an increase in the main indicators: the number of small enterprises, the average number of employees in small enterprises, turnover of small businesses and investments in fixed assets. The statistics of recent years show a decline of interest in the business population. Number of small businesses created in the last few years there has been a downward trend, while the proportion of surviving for three years after their registration is low. The greatest negative impact on the business affairs of the factors of regulatory and administrative regulation of small business, corruption and bribery of officials and the activities of control and inspection bodies. Addressing these challenges will require proper coordination of regional and local resources in building infrastructure, forming investment mechanisms to support small enterprises, the development of the entrepreneurial potential of the population.

  13. Brexit and small states in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders; Thorhallsson, Baldur

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to unpack how Brexit influences small states in Europe. The main argument is that while all small states are negatively affected by the British decision to invoke Article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon and thereby to effectuate the outcome of the British 2016-referendum on ...

  14. OSH management in small and micro enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are widely acknowledged as the backbone of the European economy. According to EUROSTAT statistics [1], [2], 29.6% of the EU employees work in micro enterprises (<10 employees), while 20.6 % are employed in small firms (<50 employees). Indeed, half of the

  15. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.; Ross, Don

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in statements of this calibration puzzle is that small-stakes risk aversion is observed over all levels of wealth...

  16. Allosteric small-molecule kinase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Nielsen, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    current barriers of kinase inhibitors, including poor selectivity and emergence of drug resistance. In spite of the small number of identified allosteric inhibitors in comparison with that of inhibitors targeting the ATP pocket, encouraging results, such as the FDA-approval of the first small...

  17. Enumeration of small collections violates Weber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, H; Franconeri, S L

    2014-02-01

    In a phenomenon called subitizing, we can immediately generate exact counts of small collections (one to three objects), in contrast to larger collections, for which we must either create rough estimates or serially count. A parsimonious explanation for this advantage for small collections is that noisy representations of small collections are more tolerable, due to the larger relative differences between consecutive numbers (e.g., 2 vs. 3 is a 50 % increase, but 10 vs. 11 is only a 10 % increase). In contrast, the advantage could stem from the fact that small-collection enumeration is more precise, relying on a unique mechanism. Here, we present two experiments that conclusively showed that the enumeration of small collections is indeed "superprecise." Participants compared numerosity within either small or large visual collections in conditions in which the relative differences were controlled (e.g., performance for 2 vs. 3 was compared with performance for 20 vs. 30). Small-number comparison was still faster and more accurate, across both "more-fewer" judgments (Exp. 1), and "same-different" judgments (Exp. 2). We then reviewed the remaining potential mechanisms that might underlie this superprecision for small collections, including the greater diagnostic value of visual features that correlate with number and a limited capacity for visually individuating objects.

  18. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenological image of diseases, development anomalies, various diseases of the small intestine is presented. Roentgenological semiotics of chronic enterocolotis, absorption failure syndrome, Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, abdominal actinomycosis, carcenoid, benign tumors, small intestine cancer, is given. To state final correct diagnosis a complex investigation, comprising angiography, computer tomography and ultrasound diagnosis, is necessary

  19. 76 FR 28623 - Small Business Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... workers and create two out of every three new private sector jobs. Small businesses embody the promise of... American competitiveness abroad and create good jobs here at home. We continue to create opportunities for... contributions of small businesses to the competitiveness of the American economy with appropriate programs and...

  20. Gravity Compensation Technique Uses Small dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollow, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Small dc servomotor powered by simple constant-current source and with suitable gearing used to cancel effect of gravity upon load. Lead-screw positioning system has load counterbalanced by small supplementary motor powered by constant current source. Motor lighter and more compact alternative to counterbalance. Used in variety of mechanical systems where load positioned or accelerated in vertical plane.

  1. Prospect of small modular reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huailin; Zhu Qingyuan; Wang Suli; Xia Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Small modular reactor has the advantages of modular construction, enhanced safety/robustness from simplified designs, better ecomonic, clean and carbon free, compatible with the needs of smaller utilities and diversified application. In this paper, the prospect of small modular reactor is discussed from technology development status, constraints, economic. (authors)

  2. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  3. Hate Speech on Small College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    A study identified and evaluated the approach of small colleges in dealing with hate speech and/or verbal harassment incidents. A questionnaire was sent to the Dean of Students at 200 randomly-selected small (500-2000 students), private, liberal arts colleges and universities. Responses were received from 132 institutions, for a response rate of…

  4. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  5. Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

    This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

  6. Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

  7. Pulp quality from small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Myers; S. Kumar; R.R. Gustafson; R.J. Barbour; S.M. Abubakr

    1997-01-01

    Kraft and thermomechanical (TMP) pulps were prepared and evaluated from lodgepole pine and mixed Douglas-fir/western larch sawmill residue chips; lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch submerchantable logs; and lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch small trees and tops. Kraft pulp from small trees and tops was identical to that from submerchantable...

  8. Energy efficient design of cognitive small cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildemeersch, Matthias; Wildemeersch, Matthias; Quek, Tony Q.S.; Rabbachin, Alberto; Slump, Cornelis H.; Huang, Aiping; Kim, Dong-In; Mueller, P.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous networks consisting of a macrocell tier and a small cell tier are considered an attractive solution to cope with the fierce increase of mobile traffic demand. Nevertheless, a massive deployment of small cell access points (SAPs) leads also to a considerable increase in energy

  9. Competitive analysis of small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, L.S.; Placido, R.

    1990-01-01

    The agreement between CPFL/UNICAMP/EFEI for developing energetic planning of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants construction is described. Some notions for showing the more economic alternative between decide by Small Hydroelectric Power Plants construction and continue supply the market by inter ligated system generation are shown in this stage of the agreement. (author)

  10. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  11. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Li, D.; Qin, P.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks

  12. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  13. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilization of Small Businesses in Navy Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    10 2.   DOD Procurement Scorecard ...........................................................11 3. D.  GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE...Firms conducting business with the federal government are required to take into account small-business concerns in the acquisition process. Subpart 19.7...including increased loan provisions, higher lending limits, tax cuts for small businesses, and implements several of the Task Forces’ recommendations

  16. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  17. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  18. Endovascular treatment of very small intracranial aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskandar, A; Nepper-Rasmussen, J

    2011-01-01

    to large aneurysms (> 3 mm). However the data also suggest that endovascular treatment of very small aneurysms might be associated with an increased risk of procedural ruptures and mortality. At nine-month follow-up results indicate significantly less compaction in the very small aneurysms....... endovascular treatment was attempted in 956 consecutive intracranial aneurysms. Of 956 aneurysms, 111 aneurysms were very small aneurysms with a maximal diameter of 3 mm or less. We conducted a retrospective analysis of angiographic and clinical outcome following coiling of very small aneurysms...... aneurysms and less than 90% aneurysm occlusion in six aneurysms. Complications occurred in the treatment of 15 aneurysms, including eight procedural ruptures, six thromboembolic events and one case of early hemorrhage. Compared with larger aneurysms, treatment of very small aneurysms was associated...

  19. Small cell networks deployment, management, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Claussen, Holger; Ho, Lester; Razavi, Rouzbeh; Kucera, Stepan

    2018-01-01

    Small Cell Networks: Deployment, Management, and Optimization addresses key problems of the cellular network evolution towards HetNets. It focuses on the latest developments in heterogeneous and small cell networks, as well as their deployment, operation, and maintenance. It also covers the full spectrum of the topic, from academic, research, and business to the practice of HetNets in a coherent manner. Additionally, it provides complete and practical guidelines to vendors and operators interested in deploying small cells. The first comprehensive book written by well-known researchers and engineers from Nokia Bell Labs, Small Cell Networks begins with an introduction to the subject--offering chapters on capacity scaling and key requirements of future networks. It then moves on to sections on coverage and capacity optimization, and interference management. From there, the book covers mobility management, energy efficiency, and small cell deployment, ending with a section devoted to future trends and applicat...

  20. Encouraging the Domestic Small Turbine Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, T.

    2001-01-01

    The state incentives for home-based renewables in the domestic market continue to grow and change creating opportunities for the small wind turbine market. Tracking the opportunities to get small wind turbines included in incentive policies and developing a proactive industry approach is important because market changes can occur anytime. There are near-term opportunities to work with states in developing their strategies for disbursing system benefit charges, adding tags to existing policies for other small renewables to include small wind, and developing state-wide net metering programs. Other opportunities to improve the domestic market exist but will be quite challenging to implement. Other opportunities include federal tax credits, state wind access laws, equipment verification for specific states, and leasing programs for small wind turbines

  1. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs

  2. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Li, Daqing; Qin, Pengju; Liu, Chaoran; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Feilong

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  3. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    Full Text Available Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  4. Arteriovenous Malformation Detected by Small Bowel Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Fujii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding that originates in the small intestine is often difficult to diagnose. When successful diagnosis reveals a lesion that can be localized preoperatively, the laparoscopic approach is an appropriate and beneficial treatment modality for small bowel resection. A 69-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of gastrointestinal bleeding and symptomatic transfusion-dependent anemia. Upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Double-balloon endoscopy established the source of the bleeding as a 0.5-cm polypoid mass appearing as a submucosal tumor with redness and pulsation in the lower ileum, suggesting a vascular lesion. Laparoscopic small bowel resection was successful in removing the mass in the ileum. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Preoperative small bowel endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing the cause and localization of arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine.

  5. Small x phenomenology. Summary of the 3rd Lund small x workshop in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.R. [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Baranov, S. [Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (DE). FRG] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status. (Orig.)

  6. Small x phenomenology. Summary of the 3rd Lund small x workshop in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.R.; Baranov, S.; Bartels, J.

    2006-04-01

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status. (Orig.)

  7. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerns about credit quality, undue concentrations in the bank's portfolio of residential real estate, small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems...

  8. Potential Markets for Small Reactors. Annex XI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    The electricity cost of a small power generation plant is generally higher than that of a large scale power plant due to economies of scale. In order to survey the market for small nuclear power plants, the competitive object is not a large scale power plant but a small fossil fuel power generation plant. Large scale power generation plants are not required in all countries and regions of the world. There are many regions where the electricity cost is high because of the cost of fuel transport to remote places. Medium or small power generation plants could turn out to also be preferable from the viewpoints of electrical power demand and distribution cost. For example, the electricity costs in many small cities or towns of the Alaskan and Hawaiian Islands are higher than on the mainland. The electricity costs in the two peninsulas (Baja California and Yucatan) in Mexico are high because, owing to the limited power demand in these regions, small and medium sized fossil fuel power generation plants have been installed there, and the costs of fuel, fuel transport and power transmission appear to be relatively high. Owing to such situations, a market for small and medium sized nuclear reactors exists, and there are certain regions and areas in the world where such reactors can compete with the alternatives.

  9. Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.

  10. Pseudolisthesis secondary to small L5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini, Mehrdad Mohammad; Foroughi, Amin Aboulhassani

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and objective: Small AP diameter of L5 can mimic spondylolisthesis in lumbosacral MRI. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of small L5 mimicking spondylolisthesis in lumbosacral MRI of the patients referred to an imaging center by any symptoms. Association between small anteroposterior diameter of L5 and presence and absence of unilateral or bilateral spondylolysis at L5 were also evaluated. Materials and methods: 2000 lumbosacral MRI of the patients referred to an imaging center for any reasons were evaluated. The posterior step of L5 was measured and the cases with posterior step of more than 2 mm were selected. These cases were evaluated for presence or absence of spondylolysis. Results: Small anteroposterior diameters of L5 were detected in 38 cases (2%), mimicking the spondylolisthesis in lumbosacral MRI. The prevalence of small L5 in lumbosacral MRI of the patients referred by any symptoms was about 2%. In these selected cases, 6 (15.8%) show unilateral spondylolysis and 5 (13.1%) show bilateral spondylolysis. Conclusion: Pseudospondylolisthesis secondary to small AP diameter of L5 has prevalence of about 2% in lumbosacral MRI of cases referred for any reasons and can be overlooked in reporting of LS MRI. There was an association between small anteroposterior diameter of L5 and presence of spondylolysis at L5.

  11. Optimisation of Investment Resources at Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Iryna B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the process of optimisation of the structure of investment resources, development of criteria and stages of optimisation of volumes of investment resources for small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article characterises the process of transformation of investment resources into assets and liabilities of the balances of small enterprises and conducts calculation of the structure of sources of formation of investment resources in Ukraine at small enterprises by types of economic activity in 2011. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the structure of investment resources of small enterprises the article forms main groups of criteria of optimisation in the context of individual small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article offers an algorithm and step-by-step scheme of optimisation of investment resources at small enterprises in the form of a multi-stage process of management of investment resources in the context of increase of their mobility and rate of transformation of existing resources into investments. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of a structural and logic scheme of optimisation of volumes of investment resources at small enterprises.

  12. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium of...

  13. 77 FR 46909 - Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION...) and Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) Policy Directives. These amendments implement... to Edsel Brown, Assistant Director, Office of Technology, U.S. Small Business Administrator, 409...

  14. Small Business Management. Getting a Small Business Management Education Program Started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of materials was developed to assist with the dissemination of the Minnesota model for small business management education, five sections of information are presented. The first of five sections is on small business management needs assessment and describes a method of determining the number of small businesses that would constitute a…

  15. Small Business Goes To College. College and University Courses in Small Business Management and Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert O.

    The movement of small business management courses into college and university curricula is discussed. The present state of small business management courses, the objectives of the courses, the variety of courses being offered, and teacher and student reaction to the courses are examined. A historical overview of small business courses at higher…

  16. Small is working: small turbines are part of the wind boom, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the growth in the use of small wind turbines, and discusses the trends in the manufacture of the turbines. Small turbine technology is examined, with details given of turbine configurations, the merits of two or three blades, blade materials, orientation, robustness, overspeed control, electric generators, and the current market for small wind turbines

  17. Non-small-bowel abnormalities identified during small bowel capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemakers, Reinier; Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of non-small-bowel abnormalities in patients referred for small bowel capsule endoscopy, this single center study was performed. METHODS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy is an accepted technique to investigate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This is defined as

  18. Not Too Small To Care: Small Businesses and Child Care. National Advisory Panel Exchange #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Caroline; Reisman, Barbara

    This report of the Child Care Action Committee's National Advisory Panel profiles 29 small businesses employing under 250 workers in 15 states which offer child care benefits to their employees. These businesses do not constitute a representative sample of small businesses. A series of factors for small businesses to consider when planning a child…

  19. Can we trust small x resummation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Altarelli, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Amaldi' , Universita Roma Tre and INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma, Italy, CERN, Department of Physics, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Ball, Richard D. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    We review the current status of small x resummation of evolution of parton distributions and of deep-inelastic coefficient functions. We show that the resummed perturbative expansion is stable, robust upon different treatments of subleading terms, and that it matches smoothly to the unresummed perturbative expansions, with corrections which are of the same order as the typical NNLO ones in the HERA kinematic region. We discuss different approaches to small x resummation: we show that the ambiguities in the resummation procedure are small, provided all parametrically enhanced terms are included in the resummation and properly matched.

  20. Can we trust small x resummation?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ball, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    We review the current status of small x resummation of evolution of parton distributions and of deep-inelastic coefficient functions. We show that the resummed perturbative expansion is stable, robust upon different treatments of subleading terms, and that it matches smoothly to the unresummed perturbative expansions, with corrections which are of the same order as the typical NNLO ones in the HERA kinematic region. We discuss different approaches to small x resummation: we show that the ambiguities in the resummation procedure are small, provided all parametrically enhanced terms are included in the resummation and properly matched.

  1. Estimation of Poverty in Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Bikauskaite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative techniques of poverty estimation is needed to better implement, monitor and determine national areas where support is most required. The problem of small area estimation (SAE is the production of reliable estimates in areas with small samples. The precision of estimates in strata deteriorates (i.e. the precision decreases when the standard deviation increases, if the sample size is smaller. In these cases traditional direct estimators may be not precise and therefore pointless. Currently there are many indirect methods for SAE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze several diff erent types of techniques which produce small area estimates of poverty.

  2. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Pervez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  3. Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Pervez; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  4. Zero curvature-surface driven small objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous migration of small objects driven by surface tension on a catenoid, formed by a layer of soap constrained by two rings. Although the average curvature of the catenoid is zero at each point, the small objects always migrate to the position near the ring. The force and energy analyses have been performed to uncover the mechanism, and it is found that the small objects distort the local shape of the liquid film, thus making the whole system energetically favorable. These findings provide some inspiration to design microfluidics, aquatic robotics, and miniature boats.

  5. The paradoxes of small Public Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    and to what extent these small projects are sound businesses and represent operable units for the clients and citizens. Cases are developed within education and healthcare. The analysis suggests that another type of economy apparently is in play. It is thus characteristic within education projects in UK...... profound and longitudinal examples to rule out this thesis of “cradle- conditions”. In the paper these results is discussed vis a vis the development of the European public sector. It is potentially very important for local small units in the public services if small PPP are feasible. It is thus promising...

  6. Differential diagnosis of small solid pancreatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph Frank; Sahai, Anand Vasante; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage. Little is known about the incidental finding of early-stage PDAC. The aim of the current study was to determine the etiology of small solid pancreatic lesions (≤15 mm) to optimize clinical......-enhanced US allowed differential diagnosis of PDAC and non-PDAC in 189 of 219 patients (86%). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 40% of patients with small solid pancreatic lesions had very early stage PDAC. Approximately 60% of small solid pancreatic lesions ≤15 mm are not PDAC and, therefore, do not require radical...

  7. Small hydroelectric power stations and their reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenski, Miroslav

    1999-01-01

    Construction of a small hydroelectric power station provides additional amounts of electric energy, engages a private capital, revives investment activities and promotes the use of renewable energy sources. Transmission losses are reduced, a voltage of higher quality is achieved and idle power is compensated by the generation of electricity in the small hydroelectric power stations and at the place of consumption. Legislation and technical regulations, however, require a multidisciplinary approach, defining of complex spaces and environmental protection. Unfortunately, complete documents should be prepared for small,hydroelectric plants just as for big ones what is a long procedure and many of those papers are unnecessary or even superfluous. (Author)

  8. Small scale smugglers in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale part-time smugglers are embedded in the migrant community itself. They work in the United States for several months before returning to their place of origin to organize, with the help of several assistants, a small group of migrants, who are transported where the coyotes themselves are going. This article analyses small-scale smuggling carried out by Tamaulipas' polleros, who transport to the United States, one or a few times per year, migrants from their hometowns or other neighboring areas in order to be employed in the farming sector.

  9. NPP Krsko small break LOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, B.; Petelin, S.; Peterlin, G.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric analysis of small break loss of coolant accident for the Krsko NPP was calculated by using RELAP5/MOD1 computer code. The model that was used in our calculations has been improved over several years and was previously tested in simulation (s) of start-up tests and known NPP Krsko transients. In our calculations we modelled automatic actions initiated by control, safety and protection systems. We also modelled the required operator actions as specified in emergency operating instructions. In small-break LOCA calculations, we varied break sizes in the cold leg. The influence of steam generator tube plugging on small break LOCA accidents was also analysed. (author)

  10. Why small-scale cannabis growers stay small: five mechanisms that prevent small-scale growers from going large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersvik, Eirik; Sandberg, Sveinung; Pedersen, Willy

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 15-20 years, domestic cultivation of cannabis has been established in a number of European countries. New techniques have made such cultivation easier; however, the bulk of growers remain small-scale. In this study, we explore the factors that prevent small-scale growers from increasing their production. The study is based on 1 year of ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted with 45 Norwegian cannabis growers, 10 of whom were growing on a large-scale and 35 on a small-scale. The study identifies five mechanisms that prevent small-scale indoor growers from going large-scale. First, large-scale operations involve a number of people, large sums of money, a high work-load and a high risk of detection, and thus demand a higher level of organizational skills than for small growing operations. Second, financial assets are needed to start a large 'grow-site'. Housing rent, electricity, equipment and nutrients are expensive. Third, to be able to sell large quantities of cannabis, growers need access to an illegal distribution network and knowledge of how to act according to black market norms and structures. Fourth, large-scale operations require advanced horticultural skills to maximize yield and quality, which demands greater skills and knowledge than does small-scale cultivation. Fifth, small-scale growers are often embedded in the 'cannabis culture', which emphasizes anti-commercialism, anti-violence and ecological and community values. Hence, starting up large-scale production will imply having to renegotiate or abandon these values. Going from small- to large-scale cannabis production is a demanding task-ideologically, technically, economically and personally. The many obstacles that small-scale growers face and the lack of interest and motivation for going large-scale suggest that the risk of a 'slippery slope' from small-scale to large-scale growing is limited. Possible political implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright

  11. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  12. [Premalignant conditions of the small bowel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastich, P

    2013-01-01

    Small intestinal dysplastic lesions are rare and difficult to detect before they progress to cancer. New investigative modalities, such as capsule endoscopy and doubleballoon enteroscopy, are very promising in search for premalignant lesions. Screening patients at high-risk for small bowel neoplasia is the only sensible approach. Duodenal adenoma represents the most easily accessible tumors with the possibility of curative endoscopic resection. Due to the strong association of the small bowel and colonic adenomas, it is always necessary to perform colonoscopy. In young patients, the exclusion of familial polyposis by genetic testing is always mandatory. Patients with celiac disease are especially at risk of developing nonHodgkins lymphomas and adenocarcinomas. There is a high-risk of ampuloma and other adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Patients with prolonged and complicated course of Crohns disease, Peutz Jeghers syndrome and patients with ileoanal pouch have higher risk of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine.

  13. Small Form Factor RFID Applicator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed development of a small form factor Astrobee dedicated RFID label applicator will allow current and future free flying vehicles to place RFID labels...

  14. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  15. SmallSat Common Electronics Board (SCEB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a low-power general-purpose SmallSat Common Electronics Board (SCEB).  The SCEB design will be based on input received from a group of...

  16. Origins of collectivity in small systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Björn

    2017-11-01

    We review recent developments in the theoretical description and understanding of multi-particle correlation measurements in collisions of small projectiles (p/d/3He) with heavy nuclei (Au, Pb) as well as proton+proton collisions. We focus on whether the physical processes responsible for the observed long range rapidity correlations and their azimuthal structure are the same in small systems as in heavy ion collisions. In the latter they are interpreted as generated by the initial spatial geometry being transformed into momentum correlations by strong final state interactions. However, explicit calculations show that also initial state momentum correlations are present and could contribute to observables in small systems. If strong final state interactions are present in small systems, recent developments show that results are sensitive to the shape of the proton and its fluctuations.

  17. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Fabian [Aachen Univ. (RWTH) (Germany). Chair of Experimental Molecular Imaging; Pichler, Bernd J. (eds.) [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Lab. for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation

    2011-07-01

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  18. An evaluation of small businesses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad karimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important and fundamental issues, employment is an indicator of development and welfare in any country. Due to the rapid growth of population over the past decades in Iran, investigating unemployment and the obstacles hindering employment is of paramount importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used and a group of experts were interviewed in order to identify four groups of legal, economic, social as well as individual factors, which could improve or hinder the growth of small businesses and self-employment. In this paper, having determined the factors influencing the expansion or downsizing the small businesses, the entrepreneurs, agents supporting small businesses, and the members of employment groups in Mazandaran Province, Iran rated the four categories. Finally, the most important growth factors or challenges faced by small businesses from the three aforementioned perspectives were compared.

  19. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  20. Small-x resummation from HELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford, England (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Peraro, Tiziano [The University of Edinburgh, Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Small-x logarithmic enhancements arising from high-energy gluon emissions affect both the evolution of collinearly-factorized parton densities and partonic coefficient functions. With the higher collider energy reached by the LHC, the prospect of a future high-energy collider, and the recent deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) results at small-x from HERA, providing phenomenological tools for performing small-x resummation has become of great relevance. In this paper we discuss a framework to perform small-x resummation for both parton evolution and partonic coefficient functions and we describe its implementation in a computer code named High-Energy Large Logarithms (HELL). We present resummed and matched results for the DGLAP splitting functions and, as a proof of principle, for the massless structure functions in DIS. Furthermore, we discuss the uncertainty from subleading terms on our results. (orig.)

  1. Small Screen Use and Driving Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Paul; Strayer, David L

    2017-11-01

    The increased availability of "small screens," wireless devices with Internet-enabled connections, and their associated applications has almost overnight changed the way that we interact with our phones. The current work outlines some of the aspects of this problem as it relates to the influence of small screens on driving safety. Small screens are highly compelling to drivers, both for the information they convey and because the ability to ignore them while driving is impaired by cognitive resources used by the driving task itself. However, much is unknown about why people make choices to multitask while driving. Given the safety risks, it is recommended that parents, the public, and regulators take a stand against the use of Internet-enabled small screens unrelated to driving when the vehicle is in motion. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  3. Robust small area prediction for counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray

    2015-06-01

    A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Small and medium power reactors 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This TECDOC follows the publication of TECDOC-347 Small and Medium Power Reactors Project Initiation Study - Phase I published in 1985 and TECDOC-376 Small and Medium Power Reactors 1985 published in 1986. It is mainly intended for decision makers in Developing Member States interested in embarking on a nuclear power programme. It consists of two parts: 1) Guidelines for the Introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in Developing Countries. These Guidelines were established during the Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 15 May 1987. Their purpose is to review key aspects relating to the introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in developing countries; 2) Up-dated Information on SMPR Concepts Contributed by Supplier Industries. According to the recommendations of the Second Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, this part contains the up-dated information formerly published in Annex I of the above mentioned TECDOC-347. Figs

  5. Reusable Communication Infrastructure for Small Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive communications reference architecture that is applicable to a wide variety of small satellite...

  6. Smartphone Video Guidance Sensor for Small Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Smartphone Video Guidance Sensor(SVGS) for Small Satellites will provide a low-cost,integrated rendezvous & proximity operations sensor system to allow an...

  7. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer an excellent combination of simplicity, performance and wet system mass for small satellites (<100 kg, <50 watts) requiring mN level...

  8. Good prospects for Portuguese small hydro industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betamio de Almeida, A.; Serranho, H.

    2000-01-01

    The article outlines the history of hydro in Portugal and discusses the current position of small-scale hydro with particular reference to the Portuguese Small Hydro Association (AMPH). Encouraged by legislation, and the Valoren community programme (which defined investment incentives), many new small hydro projects sprang up in Portugal in the 1990s. In some areas of Portugal the water levels were higher than the urban centres where the water is required: how the problems of integrating power and water were addressed is described. The integration of power and irrigation schemes is also mentioned. In the wake of great expansion in the Portuguese hydro industry, there was a sharp reduction (in 1995-6) and the reasons for that are listed. The 1999 tariff was such that it is likely that small hydro will provide 3.8% of the electric power consumed nationally by 2010

  9. Proceedings: Small Wind Turbine Systems, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Small wind turbine technology is discussed. Systems development, test programs, utility interface issues, safety and reliability programs, applications, and marketing are discussed. For individual titles, see N83-23723 through N83-23741.

  10. Small molecule probes for cellular death machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qian, Lihui; Yuan, Junying

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of our understanding about the regulated cell death mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The application of chemical biological approaches had played a major role in driving these exciting discoveries. The discovery and use of small molecule probes in cell death research has not only revealed significant insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell death but also provided new drug targets and lead drug candidates for developing therapeutics of human diseases with huge unmet need. Here, we provide an overview of small molecule modulators for necroptosis and ferroptosis, two non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms, and discuss the molecular pathways and relevant pathophysiological mechanisms revealed by the judicial applications of such small molecule probes. We suggest that the development and applications of small molecule probes for non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms provide an outstanding example showcasing the power of chemical biology in exploring novel biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cooperative and networking strategies in small business

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, João

    2017-01-01

    The book aims to collect the most recent research and best practices in the cooperative and networking small business field identifying new theoretical models and describing the relationship between cooperation and networks in the small business strategy context. It examines different concepts and analytical techniques better understand the links between cooperative strategies and networks in small business. It also studies the existing economic conditions of network and strategic implications to small business from the point of view of their internal and external consistency. Cooperation and networks is a fashionable topic. It is receiving increasing attention in popular management publications, as well as specialized academic journals. Cooperation between firms and industries is a means of leveraging and aggregating knowledge also generating direct benefits in terms of innovation, productivity and competitiveness. Various options and decisions made within the framework of strategic alliances may be identifi...

  12. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  13. Decision Support on Small size Passive Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Popukaylo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A construction technique of adequate mathematical models for small size passive samples, in conditions when classical probabilistic-statis\\-tical methods do not allow obtaining valid conclusions was developed.

  14. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in 2006. With the current economic and political situation in Zimbabwe improving, the drive by the Government to encourage independent power producers, the prospects for the development of small hydropower are promising....

  15. New markets for small-scale hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The market for small and medium sized hydro-electric power plant is more attractive than ever. The boom in Europe has increasingly spread to the emerging countries, and here too small hydro plays an important ecological role. In addition to new plant rehabilitation of 'historical' plant is now a major factor. The last few years have seen a market shift from single machine components to complete plant and systems, requiring a strategy re-think on the part of larger companies. Following the influx of private capital into the power industry, business conditions have also undergone a thorough transformation. In place of 'fast money', hydro power offers the prospect of earning longer-term, sustainable money'. The term small-scale hydro-electric power (or simply 'small hydro') is used slightly differently depending on the country and market. Here, it is used to denote plant with turbines up to 10 MW. (Author)

  16. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  17. Small and Medium Enterprises and Biopharmaceutical Innovations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights ... are challenges facing African Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in biopharmaceutical industry, the ... Network for Drug and Diagnostics recognizes .... functionality is in place, integration into the.

  18. Van small talk naar een waardevolle buurtgemeenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Baukje; Ghorashi, H.; Kovacs, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Light communities ontstaan doordat mensen samen gemeenschappelijke problemen willen oplossen. Sociologen Halleh Ghorashi, Baukje Reitsma en Zsuzsa Kovacs onderzochten de betekenis van de Amsterdamse community Meevaart. De zeer diverse bewoners blijken via small talk betekenisvolle contacten aan te

  19. Primary small bowel anastomosis in generalised peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, JS; van Goor, Harry; Bleichrodt, RP

    Objective: To find out if primary small bowel anastomosis of the bowel is safe in patients with generalised peritonitis who are treated by planned relaparotomies. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects. 10 Patients with generalised purulent peritonitis

  20. Make Projects Small Form Factor PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, Duane

    2006-01-01

    Shoebox sized and smaller, small-form-factor PCs can pack as much computing muscle as a full-sized desktop computer. They consumer less power, have few or no moving parts, and are very quiet. Whether you plan to use one as a standalone PC or want to embed it in your next hacking project, a small-form-factor PC can be a lot of fun to build. Make Projects: Small Form Factor PCs is the only book available that shows you how to build small-form-factor PCs -- from kits and from scratch -- that are more interesting and more personalized than what a full-sized PC can give you. Included in the book

  1. Small Optics Laser Damage Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This specification defines the requirements and procedure for laser damage testing of coatings and bare surfaces designated for small optics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  2. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer the best combination of simplicity, performance, wet system mass and power consumption for small satellites (<100kg, <50Watts)...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Small Network Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Small Networking Equipment that are effective as...

  4. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  5. A case of small vessel vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mahashabde

    2014-01-01

    We are reporting a case of un-specified small vessel vasculitis, which was diagnosed on the basis of positive perinuclear anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA P MPO done by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA.

  6. Small modular reactors are 'crucial technology'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2018-03-01

    Small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) offer a way for the UK to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation, while allowing the country to meet the expected increase in demand for electricity from electric vehicles and other uses.

  7. Small-boat Cetacean Surveys Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains multiple spreadsheets that hold data collected during each small-boat survey project conducted by the PIFSC CRP. This includes a summary of the...

  8. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Pichler, Bernd J.

    2011-01-01

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  9. Future directions of small research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    In prognosticating future perspectives, it is important to realize that the current number of small reactors throughout the world is not overly large and will undoubtedly decrease or at best remain constant in future generations. To survive and remain productive, small reactor facilities must concentrate on work that is unique and that cannot be performed as well by other instruments. Wherever possible, these facilities should develop some form of collaboration with universities and medical center investigators. Future development will continue and will flourish in neutron activation analysis and its applications for a diversity of fields. Fundamental research such as hot atom chemistry will continue to use neutrons from small research reactors. Finally, training of power reactor operators can be an important source of revenue for the small facility in addition to performing an important service to the nuclear power industry

  10. Chemical Transfer (Single Small-Scale) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Chemical Transfer Facility (CTF)  is the only U.S. single small-scale  facility, a single repository for the Army’s...

  11. Small Business and the Risk Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet helps small businesses comply with the regulation requiring companies that use regulated substances, hazardous chemical such as ammonia and chlorine, to develop a risk management plan, to help prevent accidental toxic or flammable releases.

  12. Small and medium power reactors 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    This TECDOC follows the publication of TECDOC-347: Small and Medium Power Reactors (SMPR) Project Initiation Study, Phase 1, published in 1985 and TECDOC-376: Small and Medium Power Reactors 1985 published in 1986. It is mainly intended for decision makers in Developing Member States interested in embarking on a nuclear power program. It consists of two parts: (1) guidelines for the introduction of small and medium power reactors in developing countries. These Guidelines were established during the Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 15 May 1987. Their purpose is to review key aspects relating to the introduction of small and medium power reactors in developing countries; (2) up-dated information on SMPR Concepts Contributed by Supplier Industries. According to the recommendations of the Second Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, this part contains the up-dated information formerly published in Annex 1 of the above mentioned TECDOC-347.

  13. Entrepreneurship and small business development in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The government's development strategies emphasize the role of SMEs in job ... their performance and the circumstances in which small business entrepreneurs ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  14. Interferometric study of the small magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, G.; Carranza, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hα interferometric observations of the general radial velocity field in the small magellanic cloud are being carried out. We present preliminary results in reasonable agreement with H I measurements. (author)

  15. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F; Joergensen, P F [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  16. The BCRA’s Small Economic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Elosegui; Guillermo Escudé; Lorena Garegnani; Juan Martín Sotes Paladino

    2007-01-01

    The use of macroeconomic forecasting models is a common practice in central banks for monetary policy design, for the analysis of the current economic developments and for medium and long term forecasts. Among those models, the small-scale macroeconomic models stand out. Though relatively simple, they are structured and take into account the transmission mechanisms that relate the main variables of interest: the interest rate, the exchange rate, GDP and inflation. The Small Economic Model (ME...

  17. Small Satellite Constellations for Geospace Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The recent National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey (DS) identified community-consensus science priorities for the decade spanning 2013 - 2022. In this talk, we discuss the ways by which small satellite constellations are already and may soon accelerate progress toward achieving many of these science targets. The DS outlined four overarching science goals: (1) determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment; (2) determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs; (3) determine the interaction of the Sun with the solar system and the interstellar medium; and, (4) discover and characterize fundamental processes that occur both within the heliosphere and throughout the universe. These DS science goals provide the context for key science challenges in the three connected parts of the system that encompass all of solar and space physics, herein referred to as geospace: the Sun and heliosphere; the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere system; and, the coupled atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The DS further presented the role that small satellites play in resolving many of these science challenges, with a particular emphasis on the role that constellations of small satellites will play. While once considered by many as being "futuristic" or even "unrealizable", constellations of small satellites are already making important contributions to geospace science and with the promise for more to come. Using the DS as a guidepost, in this presentation, we outline representative small satellite constellation missions alread underway, some in development, and others notionally proposed over the next several years that employ small satellite constellations to tackle large science imperatives. Finally, we give examples of key small satellite technologies in development that will potentially enable great scientific

  18. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  19. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, A.D.; Thomas, M.W.; Rouse, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    A brief introduction to the technique of small-angle neutron scattering is given. The layout and operation of the small-angle scattering spectrometer, mounted on the AERE PLUTO reactor, is also described. Results obtained using the spectrometer are presented for three materials (doped uranium dioxide, Magnox cladding and nitrided steel) of interest to Springfields Nuclear Power Development Laboratories. The results obtained are discussed in relation to other known data for these materials. (author)

  20. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  1. WHAT IS NEW AT SMALL X*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    2000-01-01

    The authors discuss some recent developments in small x physics. Current understanding of small x physics is that pQCD works at HERA and the Tevatron, but perhaps even better than expected. There is much flexibility in parton distributions to hide interesting new effects. Indeed, there are strong hints from HERA that one is on the threshold of a new regime of truly high parton densities, where one may expect qualitative changes in the behavior of distributions

  2. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  3. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  4. Design and construction of small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yasuo

    1992-01-01

    Small size reactors are considered to have many advantages over large-sized reactors. But at the same time, small size reactors show eventual disadvantages in economy. In this paper one of the possibilities to improve its basic disadvantage will be discussed from a manufacturer's point of view. The stress will be placed on the possibility and possible effects of adoption of Computer Aided Engineering. (author). 2 figs

  5. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murino, Alberto; Despott, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice.

  6. Small Computer Applications for Base Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    research on small computer utili- zation at bse level organizatins , This research effort studies whether small computers and commercial softure can assist...Doe has made !solid contributions to the full range of departmental activity. His demonstrated leadership skills and administrative ability warrent his...outstanding professionalism and leadership abilities were evidenced by his superb performance as unit key worker In the 1980 Combined Federal CauMign

  7. The Ethical Perceptions of Small Business Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Muzaffer

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an investigation into the ethical perceptions of small business owner/managers. The study has been conducted in Northwest region of Turkey and is the first investigation of ethical perceptions in Turkey. More than 99 percent of the companies in Turkey are small businesses and they play a key role in driving sustainable economic growth and job creation. However, they remain the largely unexplored area of ethics. Most of the findings of this stu...

  8. SQIMSO: Quality Improvement for Small Software Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Rabih Zeineddine; Nashat Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Software quality improvement process remains incomplete if it is not initiated and conducted through a wide improvement program that considers process quality improvement, product quality improvement and evolution of human resources. But, small software organizations are not capable of bearing the cost of establishing software process improvement programs. In this work, we propose a new software quality improvement model for small organizations, SQIMSO, based on three ...

  9. Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Muneera R.

    2017-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestines may involve either the small bowel or colon. In the pediatric population, small bowel volvulus is more common, while in the adult population, colonic volvulus is more often seen. The two most common types of colonic volvulus include sigmoid and cecal volvulus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative, otherwise bowel ischemia may ensue. Treatment often involves emergent surgical exploration and bowel resection. PMID:28144211

  10. Entrepreneurial Orientation in Small Established Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middel, Rick; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Laugen, Bjørge Timenes

    2010-01-01

    While research findings have provided important insights on radical innovation for small start-ups and large established organizations, there is still a gap in knowledge on the ability of the well-established small firm to engage in radical innovation. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge b......-taking and autonomy plays a very important role, and that the three dimensions are often intertwined....

  11. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  12. Small polaron hopping in magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Liu, N.L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In a number of magnetic insulators it has been hypothesized that the charge carriers form small polarons. The transfer of an electron between magnetic sites and how the magnetic nature of the material affects the rate which characterizes small-polaron hops between magnetic sites were studied. The basic transfer processes are addressed from a many-electron point in which the itinerant electron is treated as indistinguishable from those which contribute unpaired spins at the magnetic sites

  13. Catastrophic Instability of Small Lovelock Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    We study the stability of static black holes in Lovelock theory which is a natural higher dimensional generalization of Einstein theory. We show that Lovelock black holes are stable under vector perturbations in all dimensions. However, we prove that small Lovelock black holes are unstable under tensor perturbations in even-dimensions and under scalar perturbations in odd-dimensions. Therefore, we can conclude that small Lovelock black holes are unstable in any dimensions. The instability is ...

  14. Imaging of small amounts of pleural fluid. Part one - small pleural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocijancic, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Small pleural effusions are not readily identified on conventional radiographic views of the chest, but may be an important finding, sometimes leading, via thoracocentesis, to a definitive diagnosis of pleural carcinomatosis, infection or transudate. A small meniscus sign and a medial displacement of the costophrenic angle are the only subtle signs of small accumulations of fluid on posteroanterior chest X-rays. On lateral views the finding of a small meniscus sign in the posterior costophrenic angle is the sign of small pleural effusion. Conclusions. Lateral decubitus chest radiographs were used for many years for the diagnosis of small pleural effusions. In last decades ultrasonography of pleural space becomes a leading real-time method for demonstrating small pleural effusions. (author)

  15. Transabdominal Ultrasonography of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of double balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT, and MRI enterography is transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS underestimated method for evaluation of small bowel pathology. As often initial imagine method in abdominal complaints, nowadays has TUS much better diagnostic potential than two decades ago. High-resolution ultrasound probes with harmonic imaging significantly improve resolution of bowel wall in real time, with possibility to asses bowel peristalsis. Color flow doppler enables evaluation of intramural bowel vascularisation, pulse wave doppler helps to quantificate flow in coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography with oral contrast fluid, as well as contrast enhanced ultrasonography with intravenous microbubble contrast also improves small bowel imaging. We present a review of small intestine pathology that should be detected during ultrasound examinations, discuss technical requirements, advantages and limitations of TUS, typical ultrasound signs of Crohn's disease, ileus, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, tumours, ischemic and haemorrhagic conditions of small bowel. In the hands of experienced investigator, despite some significant limitations(obesity, meteorism, is transabdominal ultrasonography reliable, noninvasive and inexpensive alternative method to computerised tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in small bowel examination.

  16. Identifying New Small Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Caitlin E; Kelly, John P; Burke, Brittany N; Lein, Christina D; Oufiero, Christopher E; Sanchez, Joseph F; Wimmers, Larry E; Hearn, David J; Abuikhdair, Fatimeh J; Barnhart, Kathryn R; Duley, Michelle L; Ernst, Sarah E G; Kenerson, Briana A; Serafin, Aubrey J; Hemm, Matthew R

    2018-04-12

    The number of small proteins (SPs) encoded in the Escherichia coli genome is unknown, as current bioinformatics and biochemical techniques make short gene and small protein identification challenging. One method of small protein identification involves adding an epitope tag to the 3' end of a short open reading frame (sORF) on the chromosome, with synthesis confirmed by immunoblot assays. In this study, this strategy was used to identify new E. coli small proteins, tagging 80 sORFs in the E. coli genome, and assayed for protein synthesis. The selected sORFs represent diverse sequence characteristics, including degrees of sORF conservation, predicted transmembrane domains, sORF direction with respect to flanking genes, ribosome binding site (RBS) prediction, and ribosome profiling results. Of 80 sORFs, 36 resulted in encoded synthesized proteins-a 45% success rate. Modeling of detected versus non-detected small proteins analysis showed predictions based on RBS prediction, transcription data, and ribosome profiling had statistically-significant correlation with protein synthesis; however, there was no correlation between current sORF annotation and protein synthesis. These results suggest substantial numbers of small proteins remain undiscovered in E. coli, and existing bioinformatics techniques must continue to improve to facilitate identification. © 2018 The Authors. Proteomics Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Towson University.

  17. Hidden layers of human small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    small RNA have focused on miRNA and/or siRNA rather than on the exploration of additional classes of RNAs. RESULTS: Here, we explored human small RNAs by unbiased sequencing of RNAs with sizes of 19-40 nt. We provide substantial evidences for the existence of independent classes of small RNAs. Our data......BACKGROUND: Small RNA attracts increasing interest based on the discovery of RNA silencing and the rapid progress of our understanding of these phenomena. Although recent studies suggest the possible existence of yet undiscovered types of small RNAs in higher organisms, many studies to profile...... shows that well-characterized non-coding RNA, such as tRNA, snoRNA, and snRNA are cleaved at sites specific to the class of ncRNA. In particular, tRNA cleavage is regulated depending on tRNA type and tissue expression. We also found small RNAs mapped to genomic regions that are transcribed in both...

  18. Experience with small-gap undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, P.; Krinsky, S.

    1996-01-01

    Small-gap undulators offer enhanced performance as synchrotron radiation sources, by providing extended tuning range and the possibility of higher photon energies via short-period, small-gap devices. Challenges associated with the operation of small-gap undulators arise from their requirement for small beam apertures and the resulting possibility of lifetime degradation, beam instabilities, and radiation hazards. To investigate these fundamental limitations, we have constructed an R ampersand D small-gap undulator for the X13 straight section of the NSLS 2.584 GeV X-ray Ring and have tested it during studies shifts and normal user shifts during the last year. This device, the NSLS prototype small-gap undulator (PSGU), consists of a variable-aperture vacuum chamber and a 16-mm-period pure-permanent-magnet undulator, both mounted to a common elevator base stage. The design output spectrum of 2.5 keV in the fundamental (and 7.5 keV in the third harmonic) was obtained with a magnet gap of 5.6 mm and an electron beam aperture of 2.5 mm. The partial lifetime contribution for these parameters was observed to be about 40 hr. Details of the synchrotron radiation output spectrum, lifetime dependence on aperture, and bremsstrahlung radiation production will be presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Role of Small RNAs in Trypanosomatid Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares-Lacerda, Leandra; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites survive and replicate in the host by using mechanisms that aim to establish a successful infection and ensure parasite survival. Evidence points to microRNAs as new players in the host-parasite interplay. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that control proteins levels via post-transcriptional gene down-regulation, either within the cells where they were produced or in other cells via intercellular transfer. These microRNAs can be modulated in host cells during infection and are among the growing group of small regulatory RNAs, for which many classes have been described, including the transfer RNA-derived small RNAs. Parasites can either manipulate microRNAs to evade host-driven damage and/or transfer small RNAs to host cells. In this mini-review, we present evidence for the involvement of small RNAs, such as microRNAs, in trypanosomatid infections which lack RNA interference. We highlight both microRNA profile alterations in host cells during those infections and the horizontal transfer of small RNAs and proteins from parasites to the host by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles in a cell communication mechanism. PMID:27065454

  20. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-28

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  1. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  2. Radiographer performed single contrast small bowel enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert L.; Slack, Nicola; Harvey, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the technical success and reporting sensitivity of radiographer performed small bowel enteroclysis (SBE) undertaken by a specialist radiographer according to a standard technique [Nolan DJ, Cadman PJ. The small bowel enema made easy. Clinical Radiology 1987;38(3):295-301]. Methods: Patients (1413) had 1646 SBE in 10 years from May 1992 to April 2002. The original request card and the separate radiographer and consultant radiologist reports were reviewed. Where the radiology reports were discordant or inconclusive, the clinical notes were also reviewed. Results: Patients (1022) X-ray films were available. Nine hundred and forty-three (93.3%) SBEs had been successfully completed. Radiographer and consultant radiologist reporting had a 99.3% concordance. There was a 98.4% sensitivity for Crohn's disease (181 of 184 cases where Crohn's disease was the clinical final diagnosis). Overall reporting sensitivity was 93.7% although correct 'probably normal and abnormal' reporting bias suggests a sensitivity of 96.9%. Sixty of 943 (6.4%) reports were inconclusive. Of 1022 patients, 68 (6.6%) of small bowel intubations were not achieved, or else consent was withdrawn at the time of the procedure. Conclusion: Specialist radiographers can perform small bowel enteroclysis with a reporting sensitivity equal to that of a consultant radiologist. Radiographers accustomed to providing an SBE service become skilled at passing fine bore feeding tubes into the small bowel and can provide this service also

  3. Toward Generalization of Iterative Small Molecule Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jonathan W; Blair, Daniel J; Burke, Martin D

    2018-02-01

    Small molecules have extensive untapped potential to benefit society, but access to this potential is too often restricted by limitations inherent to the customized approach currently used to synthesize this class of chemical matter. In contrast, the "building block approach", i.e., generalized iterative assembly of interchangeable parts, has now proven to be a highly efficient and flexible way to construct things ranging all the way from skyscrapers to macromolecules to artificial intelligence algorithms. The structural redundancy found in many small molecules suggests that they possess a similar capacity for generalized building block-based construction. It is also encouraging that many customized iterative synthesis methods have been developed that improve access to specific classes of small molecules. There has also been substantial recent progress toward the iterative assembly of many different types of small molecules, including complex natural products, pharmaceuticals, biological probes, and materials, using common building blocks and coupling chemistry. Collectively, these advances suggest that a generalized building block approach for small molecule synthesis may be within reach.

  4. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  5. Toward Generalization of Iterative Small Molecule Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jonathan W.; Blair, Daniel J.; Burke, Martin D.

    2018-01-01

    Small molecules have extensive untapped potential to benefit society, but access to this potential is too often restricted by limitations inherent to the customized approach currently used to synthesize this class of chemical matter. In contrast, the “building block approach”, i.e., generalized iterative assembly of interchangeable parts, has now proven to be a highly efficient and flexible way to construct things ranging all the way from skyscrapers to macromolecules to artificial intelligence algorithms. The structural redundancy found in many small molecules suggests that they possess a similar capacity for generalized building block-based construction. It is also encouraging that many customized iterative synthesis methods have been developed that improve access to specific classes of small molecules. There has also been substantial recent progress toward the iterative assembly of many different types of small molecules, including complex natural products, pharmaceuticals, biological probes, and materials, using common building blocks and coupling chemistry. Collectively, these advances suggest that a generalized building block approach for small molecule synthesis may be within reach. PMID:29696152

  6. Spin State Estimation of Tumbling Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Russell, Ryan P.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that a non-trivial percentage of small bodies that future missions may visit are in non-principal axis rotation (i.e. "tumbling"). The primary contribution of this paper is the application of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) method to estimate the small body spin state, mass, and moments of inertia; the spacecraft position and velocity; and the surface landmark locations. The method uses optical landmark measurements, and an example scenario based on the Rosetta mission is used. The SLAM method proves effective, with order of magnitude decreases in the spacecraft and small body spin state errors after less than a quarter of the comet characterization phase. The SLAM method converges nicely for initial small body angular velocity errors several times larger than the true rates (effectively having no a priori knowledge of the angular velocity). Surface landmark generation and identification are not treated in this work, but significant errors in the initial body-fixed landmark positions are effectively estimated. The algorithm remains effective for a range of different truth spin states, masses, and center of mass offsets that correspond to expected tumbling small bodies throughout the solar system.

  7. Exploring Managerial Commitment towards SPI in Small and Very Small Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory V.; Basri, Shuib; Coleman, Gerry

    This paper compares and contrasts the results of two similar studies into the software process practices in Irish Small and Very Small Enterprises. The first study contains rich findings in relation to the role and influence of managerial experience and style, with particular respect to the company founder and software development managers in small to medium seized enterprises (SMEs), whilst the second study contains extensive findings in relation to people and management involvement / commitment and SPI goal planning in very small enterprises (VSEs). By combining these results of these two studies of Irish SMEs/VSEs we can develop a rich picture of managerial commitment towards SPI and in particular explore the similarities between Small and Very Small Enterprises.

  8. IMPLEMENTING SMALL AND MEDIUM IT PROJECTS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix DUMITRESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is essential nowadays for all companies. Small enterprises are an important part of the economy and this article aims at providing some useful insight in implementing modern IT projects to their benefit. Due to the limited funding available for the IT infrastructure in most start-ups and small businesses, the projects should be adapted to fulfill the needs of the company for the lowest cost. The paper will start by defining small and medium project management theory and outlining the target of the study, small and medium sized companies. Next it will show a number of case studies of IT projects implemented in different types of small companies in Romania. Based on these implementations the article will draw some conclusions relevant to most small companies which need to design or improve their IT infrastructure.

  9. Establishing a Small Enterprise in Varkaus and Factors behind Success and Failure of Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Primary objectives of this thesis were to aid future entrepreneurs by describing the basic procedure of establishing an enterprise and the key issues to be considered during business establishment process. Second topic of this research was the key factors which lead a small business to its success or failure. These success and failure factors of small businesses were identified by conducting a qualitative research through participation of small business owners in Varkaus and neighbouring area...

  10. Edward jenner and the small pox vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A

    2011-01-01

    Edward Jenner, who discovered that it is possible to vaccinate against Small Pox using material from Cow Pox, is rightly the man who started the science of immunology. However, over the passage of time many of the details surrounding his astounding discovery have been lost or forgotten. Also, the environment within which Jenner worked as a physician in the countryside, and the state of the art of medicine and society are difficult to appreciate today. It is important to recall that people were still being bled at the time, to relieve the presence of evil humors. Accordingly, this review details Jenner's discovery and attempts to place it in historical context. Also, the vaccine that Jenner used, which decreased the prevalence of Small Pox worldwide in his own time, and later was used to eradicate Small Pox altogether, is discussed in light of recent data.

  11. Edward Jenner and the small pox vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Edward Jenner, who discovered that it is possible to vaccinate against Small Pox using material from Cow Pox, is rightly the man who started the science of immunology. However, over the passage of time many of the details surrounding his astounding discovery have been lost or forgotten. Also, the environment within which Jenner worked as a physician in the countryside, and the state of the art of medicine and society are difficult to appreciate today. It is important to recall that people were still being bled at the time, to relieve the presence of evil humors. Accordingly, this review details Jenner’s discovery and attempts to place it in historical context. Also, the vaccine that Jenner used, which decreased the prevelance of Small Pox worldwide in his own time, and later was used to eradicate Small Pox altogether, is discussed in light of recent data.

  12. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  13. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.; Elie, X.; Vercasson, M.; Nedelec, J.

    1974-01-01

    Conventionally, valves for sodium pipes smaller than 125 mm in diameter are called ''small sodium valves''. However, this limit should rather be considered as the lower limit o ''large sodium valves''. In fact, both the largest sizes of small valves and the smallest of large valves can be found in the range of 125-300 mm in diameter. Thus what is said about small valves also applies, for a few valve types, above the 125 mm limit. Sodium valves are described here in a general manner, with no manufacturing details except when necessary for understanding valve behavior. Operating experience is pointed out wherever possible. Finally, some information is given about ongoing or proposed development plans. (U.S.)

  14. Small gliomas; Metabolism and blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Shibasaki, Takashi; Horikoshi, Satoru; Ono, Nobuo; Zama, Akira; Kakegawa, Tohru; Ishiuchi, Shogo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-02-01

    Eight patients with small gliomas (6 low-grade and 2 high-grade) localized in a single gyrus or less than 2 cm diameter were investigated using positron tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. All three tumors examined demonstrated hypermetabolism of amino acids. High-grade gliomas demonstrated hypermetabolism of glucose and high blood flow, but normal or low oxygen metabolism. High-grade gliomas also showed accumulation of [sup 201]Tl chloride and high or low accumulation of [sup 123]I-isopropyl iodoamphetamine. These indications allow preoperative diagnosis of the malignancy of small gliomas, which is important because small gliomas with high-grade malignancy need more extensive removal and adjuvant therapy. (author).

  15. Small-sample-worth perturbation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It has been assumed that the perturbed region, R/sub p/, is large enough so that: (1) even without a great deal of biasing there is a substantial probability that an average source-neutron will enter it; and (2) once having entered, the neutron is likely to make several collisions in R/sub p/ during its lifetime. Unfortunately neither assumption is valid for the typical configurations one encounters in small-sample-worth experiments. In such experiments one measures the reactivity change which is induced when a very small void in a critical assembly is filled with a sample of some test-material. Only a minute fraction of the fission-source neutrons ever gets into the sample and, of those neutrons that do, most emerge uncollided. Monte Carlo small-sample perturbations computations are described

  16. Thermoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kruger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, constructed, and tested a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT scanner for imaging optical absorption in small animals in three dimensions. The device utilizes pulsed laser irradiation (680–1064 nm and a unique, 128-element transducer array. We quantified the isotropic spatial resolution of this scanner to be 0.35 mm. We describe a dual-wavelength subtraction technique for isolating optical dyes with TCT. Phantom experiments demonstrate that we can detect 5 fmol of a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green, ICG in a 1-ML volume using dual-wavelength subtraction. Initial TCT imaging in phantoms and in two sacrificed mice suggests that three-dimensional, optical absorption patterns in small animals can be detected with an order of magnitude better spatial resolution and an order of magnitude better low-contrast detectability in small animals when compared to fluorescence imaging or diffusion optical tomography.

  17. Scaling in small-world resistor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korniss, G.; Hastings, M.B.; Bassler, K.E.; Berryman, M.J.; Kozma, B.; Abbott, D.

    2006-01-01

    We study the effective resistance of small-world resistor networks. Utilizing recent analytic results for the propagator of the Edwards-Wilkinson process on small-world networks, we obtain the asymptotic behavior of the disorder-averaged two-point resistance in the large system-size limit. We find that the small-world structure suppresses large network resistances: both the average resistance and its standard deviation approaches a finite value in the large system-size limit for any non-zero density of random links. We also consider a scenario where the link conductance decays as a power of the length of the random links, l -α . In this case we find that the average effective system resistance diverges for any non-zero value of α

  18. Global warming and small island nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechte, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to raise sea levels, and this could be catastrophic for many small island nations. The threats of climate change are reviewed with emphasis on the impacts on women of these nations. Considerations include land and resource inheritance traditionally held by women, traditional gardening and fishing practices for which women are responsible, deterioration of ground water and consequent health problems, increased incidence of hurricanes, and the potential for large scale resettlement programs. The small, rich European states threatened by sea level rise, such as the Netherlands and Denmark, have been proactive in proposing CO 2 reduction targets that go well beyond the Montreal Protocol. However, the Danes and the Dutch have far greater resources than small Pacific island states, or Bangladesh or the Maldives. These countries' very survivial may depend on the political will of the wealthier nations to reduce their emissions and assist the less developed countries in dealing with the threat of sea level rise

  19. RNA as a small molecule druggable target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Noreen F; Smith, Graham F

    2017-12-01

    Small molecule drugs have readily been developed against many proteins in the human proteome, but RNA has remained an elusive target for drug discovery. Increasingly, we see that RNA, and to a lesser extent DNA elements, show a persistent tertiary structure responsible for many diverse and complex cellular functions. In this digest, we have summarized recent advances in screening approaches for RNA targets and outlined the discovery of novel, drug-like small molecules against RNA targets from various classes and therapeutic areas. The link of structure, function, and small-molecule Druggability validates now for the first time that RNA can be the targets of therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiologic examination of the small bowel: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, H.C.; Maglinte, D.D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Effective clinical imaging of the small intestine is accomplished only with methods capable of accurately demonstrating bowel morphology. The two major approaches to barium enema examination of this segment of gut - orally and enteroclysis - will be described and illustrated with short videotape presentations. Pursued vigorously and with interest, both methods can yield excellent results in an efficient manner. Careful execution of the examination rather than use of a particular methodology is probably the most important factor in realizing such results. However, each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and these will be presented and discussed. A cursory small bowel examination has no role in modern medicine. Radiologists assume primary responsibility for the diagnostic evaluation of the small bowel and should strive to refine and advance the accuracy of the examination

  1. Environmental certification for small hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S.; Seiler, B.; Dettli, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

  2. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  3. Small part ultrasound in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunsch, R.; Rohden, L. von; Cleaveland, R.; Aumann, V.

    2014-01-01

    Small-part sonography refers to the display of small, near-surface structures using high-frequency linear array transducers. Traditional applications for small part ultrasound imaging include visualization and differential diagnostic evaluation in unclear superficial bodily structures with solid, liquid and mixed texture, as well as similar structures in nearly superficial organs such as the thyroid glands and the testes. Furthermore indications in the head and neck regions are the assessment of the outer CSF spaces in infants, the sonography of the orbit, the sonography of the walls of the large neck vessels, the visualization of superficially situated lymph nodes and neoplasms. Clinical evidence concludes that sonography, having of all imaging modalities the highest spatial resolution in the millimeter- and micrometer range (100–1000 μm), can be considered the best suited technique for examining superficial pathological formations and near-surface organs. In addition, it delivers important information about characteristic, often pathognomonic tissue architecture in pathological processes

  4. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  5. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  6. Status of advanced small pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peipei; Zhou Yun

    2012-01-01

    In order to expand the nuclear power in energy and desalination, increase competitiveness in global nuclear power market, many developed countries with strong nuclear energy technology have realized the importance of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) and initiated heavy R and D programs in SMR. The Advanced Small Pressurized Water Reactor (ASPWR) is characterized by great advantages in safety and economy and can be used in remote power grid and replace mid/small size fossil plant economically. This paper reviews the history and current status of SMR and ASPWR, and also discusses the design concept, safety features and other advantages of ASPWR. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overall review of ASPWR technology in western countries, and to promote the R and D in ASPWR in China. (authors)

  7. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  8. Small part ultrasound in childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunsch, R., E-mail: R.Wunsch@kinderklinik-datteln.de [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Vestic Children' s Hospital Datteln, University of Witten/Herdecke, Dr.-Friedrich-Steiner-Strasse 5, D-45711 Datteln (Germany); Rohden, L. von, E-mail: l.vonrohden@gmx.de [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Klinik f. Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin – Kinderradiologie, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany); Cleaveland, R. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Vestic Children' s Hospital Datteln, University of Witten/Herdecke, Dr.-Friedrich-Steiner-Strasse 5, D-45711 Datteln (Germany); Aumann, V., E-mail: volker.aumann@med.ovgu.de [Department of Pediatric Haematology and Oncology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Universitätskinderklinik (H 10), Pädiatrische Hämatologie und Onkologie, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Small-part sonography refers to the display of small, near-surface structures using high-frequency linear array transducers. Traditional applications for small part ultrasound imaging include visualization and differential diagnostic evaluation in unclear superficial bodily structures with solid, liquid and mixed texture, as well as similar structures in nearly superficial organs such as the thyroid glands and the testes. Furthermore indications in the head and neck regions are the assessment of the outer CSF spaces in infants, the sonography of the orbit, the sonography of the walls of the large neck vessels, the visualization of superficially situated lymph nodes and neoplasms. Clinical evidence concludes that sonography, having of all imaging modalities the highest spatial resolution in the millimeter- and micrometer range (100–1000 μm), can be considered the best suited technique for examining superficial pathological formations and near-surface organs. In addition, it delivers important information about characteristic, often pathognomonic tissue architecture in pathological processes.

  9. Small and medium size nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mugrabi, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide up-to-date technical information relevant to the deployment of small and medium reactors (SMRs). It summarizes the status of SMRs and discusses areas of relevance to their utilization, including seawater desalination; and in particular their simplicity, their flexibility for a variety of applications and the use of passive safety features as fundamental to most of these designs. In response to important commercial developments, the energy range of small and medium reactors is now taken as being up to around 700 MW(e). Detailed information on SMR designs can be found in the IAEA report on The Design and Development Status of Small and Medium Reactor Systems 1995. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  11. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  12. Aerospace manpower transfer to small business enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a program to effect transfer of aerospace professional people from the ranks of the unemployed into gainful employment in the small business community was investigated. The effectiveness of accomplishing transfer of technology from the aerospace effort into the private sector through migration of people rather than products or hardware alone was also studied. Two basic methodologies were developed. One involves the matching of ex-aerospace professionals and small companies according to their mutual needs. A training and indoctrination program is aimed at familiarizing the professional with the small company environment, and a program of follow-up counseling is defined. The second methodology incorporates efforts to inform and arouse interest among the nonaerospace business community toward affirmative action programs that will serve mutual self-interests of the individuals, companies, and communities involved.

  13. Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields using customized small bowel displacement system (SBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D. H.; Huh, S. J.; Ahn, Y. C.; Kim, D. Y.; Wu, H. G.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, D. R.; Shin, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Authors designed a customized Small Bowel Displacement System(SBDS) to displace the small bowel from the pelvic radiation fields and minimize treatment-related bowel morbidities. From August 1995 to May 1996, 55 consecutive patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with the SBDS were included in this study. The SBDS consists of a customized styrofoam compression device which can displace the small bowel from the radiation fields and an individualized immobilization abdominal board for easy daily setup in prone position. After opacifying the small bowel with Barium, the patients were laid prone and posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) simulation films were taken with and without the SBDS. The areas of the small bowel included in the radiation fields with and without the SBDS were compared. Using the SBDS, the mean small bowel area was reduced by 59% on PA and 51% on LAT films (P=0.0001). In six patients (6/55, 11%), it was possible that no small bowel was included within the treatment fields. The mean upward displacement of the most caudal small bowel was 4.8 cm using the SBDS. Only 15% (8/55) of patients treated with the SBDS manifested diarrhea requiring medication. The SBDS is a novel method that can be used to displace the small bowel away from the treatment portal effectively and reduce the radiation therapy morbidities. Compliance with setup is excellent when the SBDS is used. (author)

  14. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  15. Risk management method for small photovoltaic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova Milena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is necessary for achieving the goals of the organization. There are many methods, approaches, and instruments in the literature concerning risk management. However, these are often highly specialized and transferring them to a different field can prove difficult. Therefore, managers often face situations where they have no tools to use for risk management. This is the case with small photovoltaic plants (according to a definition by the Bulgarian State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission small applies to systems with a total installed power of 200 kWp. There are some good practices in the energy field for minimizing risks, but they offer only partial risk prevention and are not sufficient. Therefore a new risk management method needs to be introduced. Small photovoltaic plants offer plenty of advantages in comparison to the other renewable energy sources which makes risk management in their case more important. There is no classification of risks for the exploitation of small photovoltaic systems in the available literature as well as to what degree the damages from those risks could spread. This makes risk analysis and evaluation necessary for obtaining information which could aid taking decisions for improving risk management. The owner of the invested capital takes a decision regarding the degree of acceptable risk for his organization and it must be protected depending on the goals set. Investors in small photovoltaic systems need to decide to what degree the existing risks can influence the goals previously set, the payback of the investment, and what is the acceptable level of damages for the investor. The purpose of this work is to present a risk management method, which currently does not exist in the Bulgaria, so that the risks and the damages that could occur during the exploitation of small photovoltaic plants could be identified and the investment in such technology – justified.

  16. Electromagnetic wave scattering by many small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by many small particles of arbitrary shapes is reduced rigorously to solving linear algebraic system of equations bypassing the usual usage of integral equations. The matrix elements of this linear algebraic system have physical meaning. They are expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic polarizability tensors. Analytical formulas are given for calculation of these tensors with any desired accuracy for homogeneous bodies of arbitrary shapes. An idea to create a 'smart' material by embedding many small particles in a given region is formulated

  17. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however......, is improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  18. Nucleon structure function at small χ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.M.

    1991-09-01

    This is a status report on the behaviour of deeply inelastic scattering in the low x region, where a new physics to be expected. It is bound to be theoretical review, since there is no data available at truely small values of x, say x -3 . New data from HERA are anticipated and I am viewing on this talk as summary of the theoretical situation in the region of small x, as is just before this new area of physics will be studied experimentally. This is an extended version of the talk which was presented at EP-HEP 91 Conference. (orig.)

  19. Radioaerosol lung imaging in small airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, T; Dorow, P; Felix, R

    1981-06-01

    Aerosol inhalation lung imaging was performed in 35 asymptomatic smokers who have been selected on the basis of abnormal findings in small airways pulmonary function tests. Qualitative (image inspection) and quantitative (aerosol distribution index = ADI) analysis of the radioaerosol lung patterns was accomplished. Compared to healthy subjects as well as to patients with chronic obstructive lung disease significant differences of mean aerosol distribution homogeneity were observed. A characteristic type of abnormal aerosol pattern, indicating peripheral airways obstruction, was found in 71% of the patients with small airways disease.

  20. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  1. XP in a Small Software Development Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babb, Jeffry; Hoda, Rashina; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While small software development shops have trended towards the adoption of Agile methods, local conditions and high iteration pressure typically cause adaptations and appropriations of Agile methods. This paper shares evidence from a study concerning how a small software development company adopts...... and adapts, XP to suit their business. Based on a Dialogical Action Research project, the study reflects on the conditions leading to Agile process adaptation, and why ad hoc and “a la carte” approaches may be problematic. Limitations and drawbacks to aspects of XP are also discussed. The Agile practices...

  2. Small is beautiful: customer driven software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik A.B.; Koch, Christian; Pleman, Allan

    1999-01-01

    to develop their software. In small software houses operating in markets with complex products such as ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems, networking is necessary in order to gain the needed knowledge and resources in the production development process. Network is not seen as a magic word but leads......Summary form only given. The topics addressed in this paper is how networking can be used as a way for small software houses to enhances their innovative capabilities by using different kinds of collaboration in order to overcome the problems of lacking knowledge as well as resources in order...

  3. Small satellites and space debris issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, M.; Kulik, S.; Agapov, V.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this report is the analysis of the tendencies in designing of small satellites (SS) and the effect of small satellites on space debris population. It is shown that SS to include nano- and pico-satellites should be considered as a particularly dangerous source of space debris when elaborating international standards and legal documents concerning the space debris problem, in particular "International Space Debris Mitigation Standard". These issues are in accordance with the IADC goals in its main activity areas and should be carefully considered within the IADC framework.

  4. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane.......Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...

  5. Small-Bolt Torque-Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    The device described here measures the torque-tension relationship for fasteners as small as #0. The small-bolt tester consists of a plate of high-strength steel into which three miniature load cells are recessed. The depth of the recess is sized so that the three load cells can be shimmed, the optimum height depending upon the test hardware. The three miniature load cells are arranged in an equilateral triangular configuration with the test bolt aligned with the centroid of the three. This is a kinematic arrangement.

  6. Economic targets for small PWR reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, J.

    1991-01-01

    Small reactors are likely to be less economic than large reactors, but the lower financial exposure with small reactors may be attractive to utilities contemplating a restart to a nuclear programme. New nuclear plant can be economic, but success will depend more on how the plant are built, rather than what type or size is built. A target for new plant for operation early in the next century should be a generation cost of 3p to 3.5 p/kWh. This corresponds to an overnight capital cost of Pound 1000/kWh to Pound 1100/kWh. (author)

  7. Design of small-molecule epigenetic modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiyappan, Boobalan

    2013-01-01

    The field of epigenetics has expanded rapidly to reveal multiple new targets for drug discovery. The functional elements of the epigenomic machinery can be catagorized as writers, erasers and readers, and together these elements control cellular gene expression and homeostasis. It is increasingly clear that aberrations in the epigenome can underly a variety of diseases, and thus discovery of small molecules that modulate the epigenome in a specific manner is a viable approach to the discovery of new therapeutic agents. In this Digest, the components of epigenetic control of gene expression will be briefly summarized, and efforts to identify small molecules that modulate epigenetic processes will be described. PMID:24300735

  8. Small libraries a handbook for successful management

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Sally Gardner

    2002-01-01

    ""A gem""--Booklist; ""outstanding""--Library Journal; ""indispensable, invaluable""--Midwest Book Review; ""one of the best...wonderful""--Wilson Library Bulletin. This fully revised and updated edition provides current information on automation and technology and on advocacy to help small public libraries strive to make available the same basic services as larger libraries. This book is written for the directors of these honest-to-goodness small libraries, providing both a philosophical as well as a common sense basis for decision making.

  9. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  10. Centrifugal compressor design options for small turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Evolutionary development of the small turbocharger centrifugal compressor over the past four decades has resulted in a finely honed turbomachinery component satisfying both thermodynamic and economic constraints. At this penultimate stage of development an appraisal was considered timely of the remaining design options that exist to enhance the performance characteristics and cost reduction features. This paper presents the results of an analytical study of various small centrifugal compressor design options, assessed in merit of both aerodynamic and manufacturing cost attributes, together with recommendations for future research avenues. (author)

  11. The interprofessional team as a small group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R A

    1975-01-01

    Conflicts in interprofessional teamwork may be as much explained by group process considerations as by the interaction of professional roles and statuses. This paper examines the interprofessional team as a small group, using a synthesis of sources from social psychology, social group work, T-group literature, management theory, and health team research. Eight issues are considered in relation to the team as a small group, namely, (a) the individual in the group, (b) team size, (c) group norms, (d) democracy, (e) decision making and conflict resolution, (f) communication and structure, (g) leadership, and (h) group harmony and its relationship to group productivity.

  12. Computed tomography features of small bowel volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Y.H.; Dunn, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    Small bowel volvulus is a cause of acute abdomen and commonly occurs in neonates and young infants. Although it is rare in adults in the Western world,' it is a relatively common surgical emergency in the Middle East, India and Central Africa. It is associated with a mortality rate of 10-67% and, hence, it is important to make an early diagnosis to expedite surgical intervention. Computed tomography has become an important imaging modality in diagnosis and a number of signs have been recognized in a handful of documented case reports. We describe a case of small bowel volvulus that illustrates these important CT signs. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of intermittent fasting plus intense stress on secretory IgA (SIgA) production and other mucosal parameters in the duodenum and ileum. Two groups of six mice, with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum for 12weeks, were submitted to a session of intense stress by a bout of forced swimming. Unstressed ad libitum fed or intermittently fasted groups were included as controls. After sacrifice, we evaluated intestinal SIgA and plasma adrenal hormones, lamina propria IgA+ plasma-cells, mRNA expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains in the liver and intestinal mucosa, as well as pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and Interferon-γ) and anti- (interleukin-2, -4, -10 and transforming growth factor-β) inflammatory cytokines in mucosal samples. Under intense stress, intermittent fasting down- or up-modulated the levels of most parameters in the duodenum and ileum, respectively while up-regulated corticosterone levels without affecting epinephrine. Our data suggest intermittent fasting plus intense stress elicited neuroendocrine pathways that differentially controlled IgA and pIgR expression in duodenum and ileum. These findings provide experimental foundations for a presumable impact of intermittent fasting under intense stress on the intestinal homeostasis or inflammation by triggering or reducing the IgA production in ileum or duodenum respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 5232 - Small Business Information Security Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Information Security Task Force AGENCY: U.S. Small... publish meeting minutes for the Small Business Information Security Task Force Meeting. DATES: 1 p.m... 2009, SBA submits the meeting minutes for the third meeting of the Small Business Information Security...

  15. 76 FR 69154 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 RIN 3245-AG23 Small Business Size and Status Integrity AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Proposed rule... implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act) pertaining to small business size and...

  16. 75 FR 77934 - Small Business Information Security Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Information Security Task Force AGENCY: U.S. Small... publish meeting minutes for the Small Business Information Security Task Force Meeting. DATES: 1 p.m... 2009, SBA submits the meeting minutes for the second meeting of the Small Business Information Security...

  17. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  18. 76 FR 12395 - Small Business Jobs Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Jobs Act Implementation AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) announces it is holding a series of public meetings on its implementation of the Small Business Jobs Act...

  19. 77 FR 72702 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG26 Small Business Size Standards: Information AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small Business Administration (SBA) is increasing the receipts based small business size standards for 15...

  20. 78 FR 77334 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... enrollment in the System of Award Management's (SAM) Dynamic Small Business Search database, and more firms... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG37 Small Business Size Standards: Construction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small...