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Sample records for anti-interleukin 10-specific small

  1. Toxocara canis: Het effect van behandeling met anti-interleukine-5 en anti-interleukine-4 op immunologische en ontstekingsparameters in de longen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs J; Pitstra B; Rouws C; Rees E van; Savelkoul HFJ; LPM; VUA/celbiologie en immunologie; EUR/MF

    1995-01-01

    De toenames van eosinofiele granulocyten en IgE concentraties in Toxocara canis geinfecteerde BALB/c muizen werden geblokkeerd door behandeling met ratte-hybridoma cellen die respectievelijk anti-interleukine-5 (anti-IL-5) en anti-IL-4 produceerden. Doel was het effect te bestuderen van deze blo

  2. Anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody ixekizumab in chronic plaque psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardi, Craig; Matheson, Robert; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Type 17 helper T cells have been suggested to play a pathological role in psoriasis. They secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17A (also known as interleukin-17). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab (LY2439821), a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal...

  3. Prolongation of Cardiac Allograft Survival in Rats by Treatment with Anti-Interleukin 2 Antiserum

    OpenAIRE

    Osaki, Toshihide; Sakagami, Kenichi; Orita,Kunzo

    1988-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) is the obligatory signal for both T cell mitogenesis and in vitro generation of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). An investigation was made to determine whether an antibody directed against IL2 would suppress the rejection reaction of rat cardiac allografts. Rabbit anti-interleukin 2 (anti-IL2) antiserum was obtained by immunizing at 2 week intervals over a period of 8 weeks with 10(6) U of recombinant human IL2 along with complete Freund's adjuvant. The bioassay...

  4. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier la

  5. Prolongation of Cardiac Allograft Survival in Rats by Treatment with Anti-Interleukin 2 Antiserum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaki,Toshihide

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is the obligatory signal for both T cell mitogenesis and in vitro generation of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. An investigation was made to determine whether an antibody directed against IL2 would suppress the rejection reaction of rat cardiac allografts. Rabbit anti-interleukin 2 (anti-IL2 antiserum was obtained by immunizing at 2 week intervals over a period of 8 weeks with 10(6 U of recombinant human IL2 along with complete Freund's adjuvant. The bioassay for inhibition of IL2 activity by anti-IL2 antiserum was carried out in conjunction with the IL2-dependent cytotoxic T cell (CTLL cell assay. Cardiac allografts of F344 rats were heterotopically transplanted into ACI rats. Seven daily doses of 1 ml of anti-IL2 antiserum were administered intravenously following transplantation. IL2-driven [3H]thymidine incorporation in CTLL cells was significantly inhibited by rabbit anti-IL2 antiserum. Graft survival in the anti-IL2 serum-treated group was significantly prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion compared to control groups. In conclusion, these results indicate that rabbit anti-IL2 antiserum may prove to be of significant value as an immunosuppressive agent in clinical organ transplantation.

  6. Epitope Mapping of Anti-Interleukin-13 Neutralizing Antibody CNTO607

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    Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina; Wu, Sheng-Jiun; Luo, Jinquan; Kang, James; O' Neil, Karyn; Gilliland, Gary L.; (Centocor)

    2009-06-24

    CNTO607 is a neutralizing anti-interleukin-13 (IL-13) human monoclonal antibody obtained from a phage display library. To determine how this antibody inhibits the biological effect of IL-13, we determined the binding epitope by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of the complex between CNTO607 Fab and IL-13 reveals the antibody epitope at the surface formed by helices A and D of IL-13. This epitope overlaps with the IL-4Ralpha/IL-13Ralpha1 receptor-binding site, which explains the neutralizing effect of CNTO607. The extensive antibody interface covers an area of 1000 A(2), which is consistent with the high binding affinity. The key features of the interface are the charge and shape complementarity of the molecules that include two hydrophobic pockets on IL-13 that accommodate Phe32 [complementarity-determining region (CDR) L2] and Trp100a (CDR H3) and a number of salt bridges between basic residues of IL-13 and acidic residues of the antibody. Comparison with the structure of the free Fab shows that the CDR residues do not change their conformation upon complex formation, with the exception of two residues in CDR H3, Trp100a and Asp100b, which change rotamer conformations. To evaluate the relative contribution of the epitope residues to CNTO607 binding, we performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the A-D region of IL-13. This study confirmed the primary role of electrostatic interactions for antigen recognition.

  7. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti- interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, L.; Hilvering, B; Pavord, ID

    2015-01-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma ...

  8. Effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody treatment on the survival of rat cardiac allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody (anti-IL2 MoAb) and the accumulation of intravenously administered 125I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb were examined in heterotopic rat cardiac allografts. Mouse anti-human recombinant IL2 MoAb was obtained by the hybridoma technique. The anti-IL2 MoAb, termed 8H-10, was an IgG2a which inhibited IL2-driven [3H]TdR incorporation in cytolytic T lymphocyte line cells at a dilution of 2(6). 8H-10 was injected iv at a dose of 200 micrograms/day for 8 consecutive days, beginning on the day of transplantation. Hearts from F344 rats (RT11v1) were transplanted into ACI recipient rats (RT1av1). The mean survival time was 7.6 +/- 0.8 days in untreated controls, 9.0 +/- 1.2 days in additional controls treated with mouse anti-sheep red blood cell monoclonal antibody, and 25.3 +/- 18.4 days in the anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10)-treated group (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the accumulation of intravenously administered 125I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10) was specifically seen in the grafted heart. In conclusion, these results suggest that IL2 may play an important role in allograft rejection and that anti-IL2 MoAb may serve as a useful immunosuppressive agent in clinical transplantation

  9. Use of the VH6-1 gene segment to code for anti-interleukin-18 autoantibodies in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiumentseva, Marina; Morozova, Vera; Zakabunin, Aleksandr; Korobko, Denis; Malkova, Nadezhda; Filipenko, Maksim; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether levels and repertoires of anti-interleukin-18 (IL-18) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) differ in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy donors (HDs). IL-18 concentration in MS patients' sera was higher than in HD, but the level of anti-IL-18 auto-Abs was lower in MS patients. Correlation patterns of IL-18/anti-IL-18 auto-Abs system differed in HD and MS patients, so we have compared segment composition of the anti-IL-18 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) selected from MS and naïve phage display libraries. Considerable differences between anti-IL-18 auto-Abs of these libraries were found. MS panel contained auto-Abs displaying both signs of "fetal" and somatically hypermutated repertoires. Naïve panel mainly contained the naïve antibodies. These variations from the norm are possible results of abnormal regulation of the repertoire perhaps determined by remodeling of the molecular mechanisms involved in the V(D)J recombination and/or abnormal selection by antigen in MS pathogenesis. PMID:26743536

  10. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates thelper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mérida, S.; Sancho Tello, M.; Navea, A; Almansa, Inmaculada; Muriach Saurí, María; Bosch Morell, F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology...

  11. Anti-Interleukin-1 Strategies in the Treatment of the Septic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Dinarello

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The septic shock syndrome has recently been termed the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. It is an acute illness characterized by generalized activation of the endothelium. The most severe and most common form of the syndrome is found in patients wilh shock due to Gram-negative sepsis. In this overview. both animal and limited human data are considered for the contribution of the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1 to this syndrome. Cytokines are small molecular weight, endogenously produced proteins with multiple biological effects. Laboratory investigations suggest that IL-1 plays a critical role in SIRS by promoting the biochemical and clinical characteristics of SIRS. The biochemical changes induced by IL-1 are similar to those of tumour necrosis factor (TNF and include increased synthesis of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, platelet activating factor and endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Togelher, IL-1 and TNF appear to act in a synergistic fashion in a variety of disease models. particularly SRIS. Specific blockade of IL-1 using soluble IL-1 receptors or IL-1 receptor antagonist suggests that blocking this cytokine may be useful in treating human SIRS.

  12. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5α receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor α) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments. PMID:25900924

  13. Anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies—basiliximab and daclizumab—for the prevention of acute rejection in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Sageshima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Junichiro Sageshima, Gaetano Ciancio, Linda Chen, George W Burke IIIDewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Division of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, The Lillian Jean Kaplan Renal Transplant Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: The use of antibody induction after kidney transplantation has increased from 25% to 63% in the past decade and roughly one half of the induction agent used is anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA, ie, basiliximab or daclizumab. When combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression, IL-2RAs have been shown to reduce the incidence of acute rejection, one of the predictors of poor graft survival, without increasing risks of infections and malignancies in kidney transplantation. For low-immunological-risk patients, IL-2RAs, as compared with lymphocyte-depleting antibodies, are equally efficacious and have better safety profiles. For high-risk patients, however, IL-2RAs may be inferior to lymphocyte-depleting antibodies for the prophylaxis of acute rejection. In an effort to reduce toxicities of other immunosuppressive medications without increasing the risk of acute rejection and chronic graft loss, IL-2RAs have often been combined with steroid- and CNI-sparing immunosuppression protocols. More data support the benefits of early steroid withdrawal with IL-2RA in low-risk patients, but preferred induction therapy for high-risk patients has yet to be determined. Although CNI-sparing protocols with IL-2RA may preserve renal function and improve long-term survival in selected patients, further studies are needed to identify those who benefit most from this strategy.Keywords: basiliximab, daclizumab, interleukin-2 receptor antagonist, kidney transplantation, monoclonal antibody

  14. Monitoring anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody treatment for rheumatoid arthritis by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the hand and power Doppler ultrasonography of the finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamishima, Tamotsu; Terae, Satoshi [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sapporo (Japan); Tanimura, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Masato; Matsuhashi, Megumi; Fukae, Jun; Hagiwara, Hiromi; Narita, Akihiro; Aoki, Yuko [Hokkaido Medical Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Sapporo (Japan); Kon, Yujiro [St Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Kosaka, Naoki [Tokeidai Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Atsumi, Tatsuya [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    To compare quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) with conventional measures of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with the anti-interleukin 6 (anti-IL 6) receptor antibody tocilizumab in terms of responsiveness at a few months to disease activity and ability to predict structural damage at 1 year. A cohort of patients with RA (n = 29) was evaluated clinically including disease activity score 28 (DAS28) and by semiquantitative (SQ-) and quantitative (Q-) PDUS (bilateral metacarpophalangeal joints) and MRI (one hand and wrist) at initiation of treatment with anti-IL 6 receptor antibody agents and after 2 and 5 months. Conventional radiography for both hands and wrists was performed at baseline and at 12 months. Responsiveness was assessed by standardized response means (SRM). Areas under the curve (AUC) for measures at baseline, 2 and 5 months were correlated with structural damage at 1 year. Among the laboratory and clinical parameters, DAS28-ESR was the most responsive with a large effect size of SRM. Structural damage progressions for radiography and MR erosion were correlated with AUC of MR bone erosion and Q-PDUS, respectively. In the evaluation of disease activity in RA patients in the first few months after starting anti-IL 6 receptor antibody tocilizumab treatment, the semiquantitative MR bone erosion score of the hand and quantitative value for power Doppler signal in the finger joint were both responsive and predictive of structural damage progression at 1 year. (orig.)

  15. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates T- helper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Mérida

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60-70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nullens

    Full Text Available During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model.OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48 h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed.Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24 h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant.Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro-intestinal motility, suppress inflammation and

  17. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: Characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia)

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    Saurat, J.H.; Schifferli, J.; Steiger, G.; Dayer, J.M.; Didierjean, L. (Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-08-01

    Since autoantibodies (Abs) to cytokines may modify their biologic activities, high-affinity binding factors for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha BF) were characterized in human sera. IL-1 alpha BF was identified as IgG (1) by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunodiffusion autoradiography, (2) by ligand-blotting method, (3) by ligand binding to affinity-immobilized serum IgG, and (4) by IgG affinity purification followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. IL-1 alpha binding activity resided in the F(ab)2 fragment. The apparent equilibrium constant was in the range of IgG found after immunization with conventional antigens (i.e., 10(-9) to 10(-10) mol/L). Anti-IL-1 alpha IgG auto-Abs represented only an extremely small fraction of total IgG (less than 1/10(-5)). Some sera with IL-1 alpha BF and purified IgG thereof were able to inhibit by 96% to 98% the binding of human recombinant IL-1 alpha to its receptor on murine thymoma EL4-6.1 cells, whereas other sera did not. When 125I-labeled anti-IL-1 alpha IgG complexes were injected into rats, they prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha several fold and altered its tissue distribution. The predominant class was IgG (12/19), mainly IgG4 (9/19), but in five of the sera, anti-IL-1 alpha IgA was also detected. In a screening of 271 sera, IL-1 alpha BF was detected in 17/98 normal subjects and was not more frequent in several control groups of patients, except in patients with Schnitzler's syndrome (fever, chronic urticaria, bone pain, and monoclonal IgM paraprotein) (6/9; p less than 0.005). The pathologic significance of these auto-Abs remains to be determined.

  18. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: Characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since autoantibodies (Abs) to cytokines may modify their biologic activities, high-affinity binding factors for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha BF) were characterized in human sera. IL-1 alpha BF was identified as IgG (1) by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunodiffusion autoradiography, (2) by ligand-blotting method, (3) by ligand binding to affinity-immobilized serum IgG, and (4) by IgG affinity purification followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. IL-1 alpha binding activity resided in the F(ab)2 fragment. The apparent equilibrium constant was in the range of IgG found after immunization with conventional antigens (i.e., 10(-9) to 10(-10) mol/L). Anti-IL-1 alpha IgG auto-Abs represented only an extremely small fraction of total IgG (less than 1/10(-5)). Some sera with IL-1 alpha BF and purified IgG thereof were able to inhibit by 96% to 98% the binding of human recombinant IL-1 alpha to its receptor on murine thymoma EL4-6.1 cells, whereas other sera did not. When 125I-labeled anti-IL-1 alpha IgG complexes were injected into rats, they prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha several fold and altered its tissue distribution. The predominant class was IgG (12/19), mainly IgG4 (9/19), but in five of the sera, anti-IL-1 alpha IgA was also detected. In a screening of 271 sera, IL-1 alpha BF was detected in 17/98 normal subjects and was not more frequent in several control groups of patients, except in patients with Schnitzler's syndrome (fever, chronic urticaria, bone pain, and monoclonal IgM paraprotein) (6/9; p less than 0.005). The pathologic significance of these auto-Abs remains to be determined

  19. Effects of interleukin-18 and Anti-interleukin-18-mAb on Experimental immunological Liver Fibrosis induced by Repeatedly Administered Concanavalin A and its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-wen Tan; Jian-cheng Wu; Yun Ye; Li Chen; Peng-li Pai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevention of IL-18 or anti-IL-18-mAb to the immune liver fibrosis model induced by repeated injection of concanavalin A in BALB/c mice and its mechanism. Methods Total of 120 BALB/c mice were divided into four groups, control group mice (Ga) were injected weekly with normal saline, concanavalin A group was divided into Gb, Gc, Gd. All mice were injected with concanavalin A (15 mg/kg) once a week. Moreover, Gc, Gd mice were injected weekly with IL-18 (7.5 mg/kg) and anti-IL-18-mAb (10 mg/kg) 2 hours before treatment with concanavalin A, respectively. Twenty-four hours after concanavalin A challenge at 1, 5, 12 and 20 weeks, 3 mice were killed by vena orbitalis, repectively. The sera were storaged at 4℃for detecting of up TNF-αand IFN-γby ELISA. The liver of mice in different groups were excised and fixed in 10%formalin for HE staining and Masson staining or frozen in liquid nitrogen for immunohistochemical staining forα-SMA. After extracting of total RNA from liver tissue, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 A messenger RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Products were electrophoresed on agrose gel containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. Densitometric RT-PCR data were standardized withβ-actin signals. Results After experiment, the number of dead mice of Ga, Gb, Gc and Gd were 0, 6, 15 and 3, respectively. There were significant difference on each group (P<0.05). At the fifth week of experiment, hepatocellular necrosis in IL-18 administered group mice had become widespread throughout the lobule. Evidence of liver fibrosis was observed during this period. However, at the twelfth week of experimemt, bridging fibrosis and large fibrosis strip in the parenchyma with hepatocellular necrosis was detectable in Gb, but at twentieth week, only the small fibrosis strip had been found in anti-IL-18-mAb administered group mice by HE staining and Masson staining. The serum levels of TNF-αand IFN

  20. Pulmonary biology of anti-interleukin 5 antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egan RW

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin 5 (IL-5 is a critical cytokine for the maturation of eosinophil precursors to eosinophils in the bone marrow and those eosinophils then accumulate in the lungs during asthma. We have studied anti IL-5 antibodies on allergic responses in mice, guinea pigs and monkeys and are extending this experiment into humans with a humanized antibody. In a monkey model of pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperreactivity, we found that the TRFK-5 antibody blocked both responses for three months following a single dose of 0.3 mg/kg, i.v. This antibody also blocked lung eosinophilia in mice by inhibiting release from the bone marrow. To facilitate multiple dosing and to reduce immunogenicity in humans, we prepared Sch 55700, a humanized antibody against IL-5. Sch 55700 was also active against lung eosinophilia in allergic monkeys and mice and against pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. Furthermore, as opposed to steroids, Sch 55700 did not cause immunosuppression in guinea pigs. Studies with this antibody in humans will be critical to establishing the therapeutic potential of IL-5 inhibition.

  1. Anti-interleukin-1 therapy in the management of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-02-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in humans. Current treatment options to control the pain and inflammation of acute and chronic gout include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, and corticosteroids. However, patients are commonly unresponsive to, intolerant of, or have contraindications to current treatments. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a major role in mediating gouty inflammation. This role of IL-1 has led investigators to explore a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit IL-1 signal transduction. IL-1 inhibitors currently in trials for gout include anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab. Anakinra is an IL‑1 receptor antagonist that inhibits the activity of both IL‑1α and IL‑1β, rilonacept is a soluble decoy receptor and canakinumab is an anti‑IL‑1β monoclonal antibody. In case cohorts, anakinra was found to be efficacious in combating acute gout pain and inflammation, whereas rilonacept has been found to be efficacious for reducing the risk of recurrent attacks. Canakinumab has been shown to be efficacious in both reducing pain and inflammation in acute attacks, and for reducing the risk of recurrent attacks. All three IL-1 inhibitors are generally well tolerated. This article reviews the current IL-1 inhibitors and the results of trials in which they have been tested for the management of acute and chronic gouty inflammation.

  2. Therapeutic uses of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sujin; Tanaka, Toshio; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine-targeted therapy has generated a paradigm shift in the treatment of several immune-mediated diseases. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was initially identified as B-cell stimulatory factor 2, is a prototypical cytokine with wide-ranging biological effects on immune cells such as B and T cells, on hepatocytes, hematopoietic cells, vascular endothelial cells and on many others. IL-6 is thus crucially involved in the regulation of immune responses, hematopoiesis and inflammation. When infections and tissue injuries occur, IL-6 is promptly synthesized and performs a protective role in host defense against such stresses and traumas. However, excessive production of IL-6 during this emergent process induces potentially fatal complications, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and dysregulated, persistently high expression of IL-6 causes the onset or development of various chronic immune-mediated disorders. For these reasons, IL-6 blockade was expected to become a novel therapeutic strategy for various diseases characterized by IL-6 overproduction. Indeed, worldwide clinical trials of tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, have successfully proved its outstanding efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Castleman disease, leading to the approval of tocilizumab for the treatment of these diseases. Moreover, various reports regarding off-label use of tocilizumab strongly suggest that it will be widely applicable for acute, severe complications such as SIRS and cytokine-release syndrome and other refractory chronic immune-mediated diseases. PMID:25142313

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah A; Minthorn, Elisabeth A; Beerahee, Misba

    2011-04-01

    Mepolizumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG1/κ) targeting human interleukin-5 (IL-5), a key haematopoietin needed for eosinophil development and function. Mepolizumab blocks human IL-5 from binding to the α-chain of the IL-5 receptor complex on the eosinophil cell surface, thereby inhibiting IL-5 signalling. The pharmacokinetics of mepolizumab have been evaluated in clinical studies at doses of 0.05-10 mg/kg and at 250 mg, 750 mg and 1500 mg. Mepolizumab was eliminated slowly, with mean initial and terminal phase half-life values of approximately 2 and 20 days, respectively. Plasma clearance ranged from 0.064 to 0.163 mL/h/kg and steady-state volume of distribution ranged from 49 to 93 mL/kg. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional and time independent. Estimates based on a two-compartment intravenous infusion model from patients with asthma or healthy subjects following single doses predicted mepolizumab plasma concentrations in multiple-dose studies involving patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), asthma or eosinophilic oesophagitis. The absolute bioavailability of mepolizumab was 64-75% following subcutaneous injection and 81% following intramuscular injection. Peripheral blood eosinophil levels decreased in healthy subjects and patients with HES, asthma, eosinophilic oesophagitis or atopic dermatitis after intravenous mepolizumab infusion and subcutaneous injection. Reductions in eosinophil counts in oesophagus, sputum, skin, bone marrow, nasal lavage fluid and/or bronchial mucosa after treatment with mepolizumab were observed in placebo-controlled studies in various indications. The relationship between percentage change from baseline in blood eosinophils and mepolizumab plasma concentrations was described by an indirect pharmacological response model. The estimated maximal decrease in eosinophil count was approximately 85% from baseline and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was approximately 0.45 μg/mL. PMID:21348536

  4. Administration of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody prolongs cardiac allograft survival in mice

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Administration of the monoclonal antibody M7/20, which binds to the murine interleukin-2 (IL) receptor, significantly prolongs cardiac allograft survival in two H-2-incompatible strain combinations of inbred mice. The results support the important role of the IL-2 receptor in the mechanism of graft rejection, and suggest its suitability as a target for immunosuppressive therapy.

  5. The anti-interleukin-1 in type 1 diabetes action trial--background and rationale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickersgill, Linda M S; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by an inflammatory destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been suggested to be effector molecules based on the observations that pro-inflammatory cytokines cause beta-cell apoptosis in vitro...... and aggravate diabetes in vivo, and that inhibition of the action of these cytokines reduce diabetes incidence in animal models of type 1 diabetes and islet graft destruction. This review presents the rationale for and design of a recently launched double-blind, multicenter, randomized clinical trial...... that investigates the effect of interleukin-1 antagonism on beta-cell function in subjects with T1D of recent-onset....

  6. Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Mihara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Masahiko Mihara1, Yoshiyuki Ohsugi2, Tadamitsu Kishimoto31Product Research Department, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Fuji-Gotemba Research Laboratories, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Interleukin (IL-6 has a variety of biological functions. For example, it stimulates the production of acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A and hepcidin which interferes with iron recycling and absorption, causing iron-deficient anemia, and augments expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in synovial cells, leading to neovascularization and osteoclast formation. IL-6 also acts on lymphocytes, not only on B cells to stimulate autoantibody production, but also on naïve T helper cells to promote Th17 cell differentiation. Thus, an imbalance between T cell subsets possibly contributes to development of rheumatoid arthritis. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, improves clinical symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis. Tocilizumab prevented radiographic progression of joint destruction by inhibiting cartilage/bone resorption. Tocilizumab also improved hematological abnormalities, including hypergammaglobulinemia, high levels of autoantibodies, and elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and acute-phase proteins. Importantly, tocilizumab improved quality of life by reducing systemic symptoms, including fatigue, anemia, anorexia, and fever. These findings have confirmed that hyperproduction of IL-6 is responsible for the above clinical symptoms, including joint destruction. Many patients treated with tocilizumab achieved clinical remission associated with decreased serum IL-6, suggesting that IL-6 enhances autoimmunity. Tocilizumab is a new therapeutic option for rheumatoid arthritis.Keywords: interleukin-6, tocilizumab, efficacy, safety, mode of action

  7. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered 125I- and 111In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using 111In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL

  8. Anti-interleukin-6 therapy through application of a monogenic protein inhibitor via gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Dieter; Braun, Gerald S; Maruta, Yuichi; Djudjaj, Sonja; van Roeyen, Claudia R; Martin, Ina V; Küster, Andrea; Schmitz-Van de Leur, Hildegard; Scheller, Jürgen; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Anti-cytokine therapies have substantially improved the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cytokine-targeting drugs are usually biologics such as antibodies or other engineered proteins. Production of biologics, however, is complex and intricate and therefore expensive which might limit therapeutic application. To overcome this limitation we developed a strategy that involves the design of an optimized, monogenic cytokine inhibitor and the protein producing capacity of the host. Here, we engineered and characterized a receptor fusion protein, mIL-6-RFP-Fc, for the inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-established target in anti-cytokine therapy. Upon application in mice mIL-6-RFP-Fc inhibited IL-6-induced activation of the transcription factor STAT3 and ERK1/2 kinases in liver and kidney. mIL-6-RFP-Fc is encoded by a single gene and therefore most relevant for gene transfer approaches. Gene transfer through hydrodynamic plasmid delivery in mice resulted in hepatic production and secretion of mIL-6-RFP-Fc into the blood in considerable amounts, blocked hepatic acute phase protein synthesis and improved kidney function in an ischemia and reperfusion injury model. Our study establishes receptor fusion proteins as promising agents in anti-cytokine therapies through gene therapeutic approaches for future targeted and cost-effective treatments. The strategy described here is applicable for many cytokines involved in inflammatory and other diseases. PMID:26423228

  9. Anti-Interleukin-6 Receptor Antibody Therapy-Induced Retinopathy in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asumi Tada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-human interleukin-6 (IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, is beneficial for treating autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The most common adverse event is upper respiratory tract infection; ocular side effects are rare. We describe a case of skin ulceration and bilateral retinopathy with multifocal cotton-wool spots and retinal hemorrhages in a patient with RA treated with tocilizumab. Tocilizumab administration increased the serum level of IL-6 without affecting the IL-8 levels. We could not exclude the possibility of blood coagulation or retinal vascular changes caused by tocilizumab. The current case highlights the need to consider that ocular adverse effects can develop in patients treated with tocilizumab.

  10. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  11. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Expands Regulatory T Cells and Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Stiffening

    OpenAIRE

    Beenish Majeed; Supannikar Tawinwung; Lance S. Eberson; SECOMB, TIMOTHY W.; Nicolas Larmonier; Larson, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive immune function is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Inhibition of T-lymphocyte function has been shown to reduce hypertension, target-organ damage, and vascular stiffness. To study the role of immune inhibitory cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), on vascular stiffness, we stimulated the proliferation of Treg lymphocytes in vivo using a novel cytokine immune complex of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody clone JES6-1 (mAbCD25). Thre...

  12. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction through Expansion of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells have protective effects in wound healing and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. We hypothesize that the interleukin- (IL- 2 complex comprising the recombinant mouse IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1 attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI through the expansion of Treg. Mice were subjected to surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and treated with either PBS or IL-2 complex. The IL-2 complex significantly attenuates ventricular remodeling, as demonstrated by reduced infarct size, improved left ventricular (LV function, and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The IL-2 complex increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, which may be recruited to the infarcted heart, and decreased the frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing CD4+ T helper (Th cells among the CD4+Foxp3− T cells in the spleen. Furthermore, the IL-2 complex inhibited the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines as well as macrophage infiltrates in the infarcted myocardium and induced the differentiation of macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype in border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our studies indicate that the IL-2 complex may serve as a promising therapeutic approach to attenuate adverse remodeling after MI through expanding Treg cells specifically.

  13. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction through Expansion of Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhipeng Zeng; Kunwu Yu; Long Chen; Weihua Li; Hong Xiao; Zhengrong Huang

    2016-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have protective effects in wound healing and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesize that the interleukin- (IL-) 2 complex comprising the recombinant mouse IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1) attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI through the expansion of Treg. Mice were subjected to surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and treated with either PBS or IL-2 complex. The IL-2 complex significant...

  14. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  15. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine

  16. Are Subject Small Clauses Really Small Clauses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Miori

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the ongoing debate over small clauses concerning the structure of the verb phrase in "I consider Bill smart." It is demonstrated that the subject constituent in question is not a small clause, but a Noun Phrase (NP), following Noun (N). It is shown that some peculiar phenomena under the small clause analysis are natural…

  17. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  18. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  19. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  20. Small bowel resection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incision is red, warm, swollen, or more painful Short of breath or chest pain Swollen legs or pain in your calves Alternative Names Small intestine surgery - discharge; Bowel resection - small intestine - discharge; Resection of ...

  1. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach to ... many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods ...

  2. Securitization and small business

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Small businesses have relied considerably on securitized markets for credit. The recent financial crisis led to a virtual cessation of securitization of some of the loans used by small businesses, such as commercial real estate mortgages, vehicle, and credit card loans. In addition, values of commercial and residential real estate, which small businesses often use as collateral for loans, dropped dramatically. As a consequence, small businesses may have experienced tighter credit conditions t...

  3. 22 CFR 92.10 - Specific waiver in notarial certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... officer has reason to believe that material statements in a document presented for notarization are false... frivolous statements: Provided, That substantial and compelling reasons do not exist which impel restraining...) executed in connection with divorce proceedings....

  4. Chairing a Small Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.

    Ten management problems for chairs of small departments in small colleges are discussed, along with problem-solving strategies for these administrators. Serious disagreements within a small and intimate department may create a country club culture in which differences are smoothed over and the personal idiosyncrasies of individual members are…

  5. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H;

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  6. Small Schools, Big Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Historically, small schools have played a very important role in the provision of schooling in Australia. Numerically, using an enrollment of 200 or less, small schools represent approximately 45% of the schools in Australia. Population growth and the consequences of this, in particular for food production, water and energy, mean that the…

  7. Development of Small Company

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The subject of bachelor thesis is analysis of possibilities and directions of the development of small company. It describes the structure of small company and the problems of its development. It analyses present economical, financial and business situation inside and outside the company. In the second part author introduces some proposals for improving several parts of company.

  8. Small Group Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Martin M.

    Learning in small groups is a practical way to bring about behavior change. The inquiry learning process is perceived to be the most natural and scientific way of learning. Skills developed include those of problem-solving task analysis, decision-making, value formation and adaptability. The art of small group interaction is developed. Factual…

  9. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  10. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  11. Wind: small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-10-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described.

  12. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen;

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  13. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  14. Small satellites - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. K.

    The present review of small satellites examines spacecraft activities in the U.K. and compiles a checklist of advantages and applications for the class. These advantages are illustrated with references to recent small satellite missions and technologies developed to facilitate such launches and projects. Specific programs examined include AMPTE-UKS, Viking, and the UoSAT program, and information is given regarding the Small Explorer program, the RAE Space Technology Research Vehicle, the AEA Argos Program, and space research programs in both Japan and India. Low-cost launches are shown to be available in the form of the Ariane Structure for Auxiliary Payloads, the Pegasus and Delta vehicles, and with the Shuttle Free-flying Getaway Special. Small-satellite technologies that play key roles in their effective implementation are: structure/thermal advances, attitude control systems, on-board communications, and power and data-handling systems.

  15. Small intestine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. The pyloric sphincter governs the passage of partly digested food ...

  16. Small Mammal Trapping 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal traps were placed in the Baring division and in the Edmunds division of Moosehom National Wildlife Refuge. There were a total of 98 traps set for up to...

  17. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Symptoms The most common symptoms are: Abdominal ...

  18. Small & Large Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the large intestine produces no digestive enzymes. Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. Functions of the large intestine include the absorption of water and electrolytes and the elimination of ...

  19. Small bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reconnect, your surgeon makes an opening called a stoma through the skin of your belly. The small ... of your belly. Stool will go through the stoma into a drainage bag outside your body. This ...

  20. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  1. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  2. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the IAEA-sponsored meeting held in Nice, France 10-11 October, 1988, contain the manuscripts of the 21 reports dealing with research using small tokamaks. The purpose of this meeting was to highlight some of the achievements of small tokamaks and alternative magnetic confinement concepts and assess the suitability of starting new programs, particularly in developing countries. Papers presented were either review papers, or were detailed descriptions of particular experiments or concepts. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. SMALL SCALE MORPHODYNAMICAL MODELLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Ditschke; O. Gothel; H. Weilbeer

    2001-01-01

    Long term morphological simulations using complete coupled models lead to very time consuming computations. Latteux (1995) presented modelling techniques developed for tidal current situations in order to reduce the computational effort. In this paper the applicability of such methods to small scale problems is investigated. It is pointed out that these methods can be transferred to small scale problems using the periodicity of the vortex shedding process.

  4. Small wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Castellano, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to develop a project on installing a small wind turbine at the University of Glyndwr in Wrexham Wales. Today are immersed in a world seeking clean energy for reduce greenhouse gases because this problem is becoming a global reality. So installing a small wind turbine at the university would provide large quantity of clean energy to supply a workshop and also reduce the expulsion of CO2 into the atmosphere. The main characteristic of the turbine under...

  5. UNDERSTANDING SMALL BUSINESS SCAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Schaper; PAUL WEBER

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  6. Gas Quenching Small Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Stratton

    2004-01-01

    Gas quenching is an environmentally friendly and effective way of quenching components. However it has not been possible to apply it to small components because of the difficulties of jigging. A method of gas quenching such small components is described in which they are levitated in a confined gas stream. The method is suitable for quenching low alloy steel components that weigh between 1 and 10g.

  7. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Small dams in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapel, C.K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mitchelmore, P. [Mitchelmore Engineering Co. Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Small dams are often used for irrigation, municipal water supplies and storm water management. Small dams outnumber large hydro-electric projects in Canada by a wide margin, and tend to be located closer to large population centres. Despite their lower profile with the general public, small dams frequently have high consequence classifications. This study discussed the distribution of various consequence classifications for small dams of varying heights. Databases from different Canadian provinces were used to develop sets of statistics on dam features, the distribution of risk, and other relevant information. Approximately 6000 dams were classified in the database. Of these, 444 were greater than 15 metres in height. A significant portion of with high consequence classifications qualified as small dams, and the majority of the high consequence dams were under 10 metres in height. The largest population of dam owners have limited resources available for adequate engineering design, construction supervision, and dam safety management programs. It was concluded that economical methods of estimating probable maximum flood (PMF) rates are needed for small dams. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. How Small are Small Stars Really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    VLT Interferometer Measures the Size of Proxima Centauri and Other Nearby Stars [1] Summary At a distance of only 4.2 light-years, Proxima Centauri is the nearest star to the Sun currently known [2]. It is visible as an 11-magnitude object in the southern constellation of Centaurus and is the faintest member of a triple system, together with Alpha Centauri , the brightest (double) star in this constellation. Proxima Centauri is a very-low-mass star, in fact barely massive enough to burn hydrogen to helium in its interior. It is about seven times smaller than the Sun, and the surface temperature is "only" about 3000 degrees, about half of that of our own star. Consequently, it is also much fainter - the intrinsic brightness is only 1/150th of that of our Sun. Low-mass stars are very interesting objects , also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with those of giant planets, like Jupiter in our solar system. A determination of the sizes of the smallest stars has been impossible until now because of their general faintness and lack of adequate instrumentation. However, astronomers have long been keen to move forward in this direction, since such measurements would provide indirect, crucial information about the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions. When the first observations with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI), combining the light from two of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL), were made one year ago ( ESO PR 23/01 ), interferometric measurements were also obtained of Proxima Centauri . They formed part of the VLTI commissioning and the data were soon released to the ESO community, cf. the special website. Now, an international team of astronomers from Switzerland, France and ESO/Chile has successfully analysed these observations by means of newly developed, advanced software. For the first time ever, they obtained a highly accurate measurement of the size of such a small star . Three other small stars were also

  10. MINERVA: Small Planets from Small Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Johnson, John Asher; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Swift, Jonathan; Bottom, Michael; Plavchan, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Muirhead, Philip S.; Herzig, Erich; Myles, Justin; Blake, Cullen H.; Eastman, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.; Lin, Brian; Zhao, Ming; Gardner, Paul; Falco, Emilio; Criswell, Stephen; Nava, Chantanelle; Robinson, Connor; Hedrick, Richard; Ivarsen, Kevin; Hjelstrom, Annie; Vera, Jon De; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that small planets are extremely common. It is likely that nearly every star in the sky hosts at least one rocky planet. We just need to look hard enough-but this requires vast amounts of telescope time. MINERVA (MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array) is a dedicated exoplanet observatory with the primary goal of discovering rocky, Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright, nearby stars. The MINERVA team is a collaboration among UNSW Australia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Penn State University, University of Montana, and the California Institute of Technology. The four-telescope MINERVA array will be sited at the F.L. Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins in Arizona, USA. Full science operations will begin in mid-2015 with all four telescopes and a stabilised spectrograph capable of high-precision Doppler velocity measurements. We will observe ~100 of the nearest, brightest, Sun-like stars every night for at least five years. Detailed simulations of the target list and survey strategy lead us to expect new low-mass planets.

  11. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  12. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  13. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.; Casteel, K.

    1997-12-01

    While safety standards in modern mechanised underground coal mines in Britain are good, so are standards in their smaller competitors using much older equipment. Working practices and conditions at several Federation of Independent Mines (FIM) operations are described, detailing the use of equipment and methods that would be considered obsolete in larger mines. Although these mines are small the high quality of the coal that they mine means that they are economic. Drilling equipment used in small mines, and scoops are also described. 7 photos. 1 tab.

  14. An Approach to Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: The Apoptotic Activity of Recombinant Anti-Interleukin-6 Monoclonal Antibodies in Intact Tumour Microenvironment of Breast Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shousha, S; Moaaz, M; Sheta, M; Motawea, M A

    2016-06-01

    Current work is one of our comprehensive preclinical studies, a new approach to breast cancer (BC) immunotherapy through induction of tumour cell apoptosis. Tumour growth is not just a result of uncontrolled cell proliferation but also of reduced apoptosis. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with metastatic BC and correlated with poor survival as it promotes growth of tumour-initiating cells during early tumorigenesis protecting these cells from apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the potential of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies to suppress IL-6 proliferative/anti-apoptotic activities in intact tumour microenvironment of BC. Fresh sterile tumour and normal breast tissue specimens were taken from 50 female Egyptian patients with BC undergoing radical mastectomy. A unique tissue culture system designed to provide cells of each intact tumour/normal tissue sample with its proper microenvironment either supplemented or not with anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies. To evaluate the apoptotic activity of anti-IL-6 as a novel candidate for BC treatment strategy, we compared its effects with those obtained using tumour necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL as an established apoptotic agent. Our results revealed that levels of either anti-IL-6- or TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the tumour or normal tissue cultures were significantly higher than those in their corresponding untreated ones (P Recombinant anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies could represent a novel effective element of immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for BC. The selectivity and anti-apoptotic potential of anti-IL-6 is highly hopeful in IL-6- abundant BC tumour microenvironment. PMID:26971879

  15. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  16. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded...

  17. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well...

  18. Libraries for Small Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda M.

    Presented are the very basic requirements for establishing a small special library operating under a limited budget. Physical plant organization, cataloging, book processing, circulation procedures, book selection and ordering and instructions for typists are covered. Although the practices discussed were established for a museum library, what is…

  19. Deburring small intersecting holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  20. Small hydrogen liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author)

  1. Small and Magical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ant genome study offers promising evidence in medical and anti-aging research While children often love observing ants happily for hours, grownups are more likely to ignore these small creatures. Some scientists, however, show greater interest in ants than children do.

  2. Small can be beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrand, Solveig (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier, 53, avenue des Martyrs, 38026, Grenoble Cedex (France)); Ravel, J.C. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier, 53, avenue des Martyrs, 38026, Grenoble Cedex (France))

    1994-12-15

    Small laboratories with limited financial means can use low-cost personal computers for many control applications. Examples of control systems developed at SARA are discussed, illustrating the evolution of the system in step with that of the PC, but each time with a considerable re-use of software. ((orig.))

  3. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, M.

    1994-09-01

    This article focusses on small hydroelectric power development in Finland. Legislative and financial incentives, and use of standard tubular turbines are discussed. The Vuotos reservoir project is described, and the preparation of an environmental assessment of the project is noted. (UK)

  4. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Small is Beatiful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Aldershaab Boje; Pleman, Allan; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The life and death of a small Danish software house developing ERP-software in collaboration with costumers is analysed.User producer relationships are central drivers in the company's history. This reactive development strategy creates a niche at the marketplace but produces internal...

  6. Small Windmills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.

    1980-01-01

    The report describes a project for small windmills funded by the Ministry of Energy. The test plant is described and a survey of Danish windmills is presented. Some requirements for windmills are mentioned and regulations governing the interface between grid-connected windmills and the electric...

  7. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  8. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  9. [Small intestine bacterial overgrowth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Ki, E L; Roduit, J; Delarive, J; Guyot, J; Michetti, P; Dorta, G

    2010-01-27

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by nutrient malabsorption and excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It typically presents with diarrhea, flatulence and a syndrome of malabsorption (steatorrhea, macrocytic anemia). However, it may be asymptomatic in the eldery. A high index of suspicion is necessary in order to differentiate SIBO from other similar presenting disorders such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance or the irritable bowel syndrome. A search for predisposing factor is thus necessary. These factors may be anatomical (stenosis, blind loop), or functional (intestinal hypomotility, achlorydria). The hydrogen breath test is the most frequently used diagnostic test although it lacks standardisation. The treatment of SIBO consists of eliminating predisposing factors and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. PMID:20214190

  10. Small steps for hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Peter [SOWIWAS GmbH, Managua (Nicaragua)

    1998-04-01

    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  11. Small steps for hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  12. Small Business Innovations (MISER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, CA, developed the Series 120 and 122 non-planner diode pumped ring lasers based on a low noise ring laser with voltage tuning that they delivered to Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The voltage tuning feature allows "phase-locking" the lasers, making them "electronic," similar to radio and microwave electronic oscillators. The Series 120 and 122 can be applied to fiber sensing, coherent communications and laser radar.

  13. Small Business Innovations (Photodetector)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxx, Inc. of Princeton, NJ, developed the Epitaxx Near Infrared Room Temperature Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) Photodetector based on their Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract work to develop a linear detector array for satellite imaging applications using InGaAs alloys that didn't need to be cooled to (difficult and expensive) cryogenic temperatures. The photodetectors can be used for remote sensing, fiber optic and laser position-sensing applications.

  14. Think Small Go Big

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤维维

    2006-01-01

    Vepoo公司在创立之前,经历了三次创业转型。用他们的话来说,从“think big go small”转到“think small go big”用了一年的时间。这期间他们耗尽了初期筹备资金,幸运的是在最后一刻迎来了黎明的曙光。

  15. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  16. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  17. Small and Magical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2011-01-01

    While children often love observing ants happily for hours,grown-ups are more likely to ignore these small creatures.Some scientists,however,show greater interest in ants than children do.One of them is Zhang Guojie,Associate Director of the Bioinformatics Center and Leader of Genome Projects in BGI.BG1 is China's largest genome and bioinformatics analysis center in Shenzhen,in south China's Guangdong Province.

  18. Leadership in Small Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Younger

    2010-01-01

    Multi-agent simulation was used to study several styles of leadership in small societies. Populations of 50 and100 agents inhabited a bounded landscape containing a fixed number of food sources. Agents moved about the landscape in search of food, mated, produced offspring, and died either of hunger or at a predetermined maximum age. Leadership models focused on the collection and redistribution of food. The simulations suggest that individual households were more effective at meeting their ne...

  19. When small is beautiful. Boom time for small hydro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, John

    2002-08-01

    Although small hydropower projects generally contribute a small proportion of most nations' electricity needs their importance often exceeds their size. The author, a freelance industrial journalist considers prospects for small hydro, how such schemes are benefiting communities throughout the world and why some countries are more successfully using small hydro than others. (Author)

  20. The small library manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  1. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  2. Business Small company

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    This diploma work deals with a Business Small company. The work moves on the concrete company, which is analyzed and on the basis of analyses the new strategy is formulated. At the theoretical part, summary of solving problems is introduced. It’s needed for the analytic part of work. At the beginning, business is defined in economic terms. Found in this part are basic concepts that are linked to business. From the general definition of business the work fluently proceeds to more concrete...

  3. Small changes for works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology indicates that genetic information from DNA is transmitted to RNA,and then translated into proteins that play various roles during all physiological and pathological processes.However,most of the proteins have to make small chemical changes on their amino acid chains,so-called post-translational modifications,before they start to work.The collection of four articles in this issue presents timely developments in the area of protein modifications,ranging from how proteins carry out their biological functions based on protein modifications to what are molecular mechanisms of protein modifications.

  4. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  5. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  6. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  7. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  8. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  9. Securitization of Small Business Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Beshouri, Christopher P.; Peter J. Nigro

    1995-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential impact of securitization in improving small businesses’ access to credit. It begins by examining the nature of small business lending and the factors that make banks the primary providers of credit to small businesses. The paper then examines the conditions under which the benefits of securitization are fully realized and whether the nature of small business lend­ing satisfies those conditions. We argue that certain characteristics of small firm finance, espe...

  10. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  11. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F.; Kast, Brian A.; Kniskern, Marc W.; Rose, Scott E.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Woods, James W.; Greene, Ronald W.

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  12. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  13. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  14. Seminar on small PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first of the three papers presented, reviews the history of small and medium power reactors. Although the category includes all reactors with an output up to 600MWe, the concentration is on the range 250-300MWe. Their suitability for developing countries and their economic aspects are discussed. The other two papers are concerned with the construction, transportation, installation and management of the Shore Test Facility for the prototype of the PWR 2, a reactor designed for use in submarines. The test facility was built at Barrow-in-Furness and then moved to its site in Caithness, Scotland. The methods used to move the enormous loads involved are described in detail. The construction and installation was planned over 5 years and involved a large number of people from the construction company, the Royal Navy and the contractors who operate the facility. The project management is described. (U.K.)

  15. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  16. Small rover exploration capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make the vehicles easier to handle, safer to use and more efficient in the field to cross an obstacle. The final recommendation is to use winches and ramps, which already are widely used by quad drivers. We report on the extension of the reachable areas if such tools were available. This work has been supported by ILEWG, EuroMoonMars and the Austrian Space Forum (OEWF).

  17. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  18. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  19. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  20. Quality and the Small School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Edwin P., Ed.

    The 1965-1968 progress report of the Western States Small Schools Project focuses on the problem and challenge posed by small schools, which have thus far lacked the depth of resources compared to urban schools. The goals of the project are to assist small schools to: (1) provide individualized programs of career selection education; (2) develop…

  1. Modified Small Business Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Belayet Ali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers some likely threats and effectivesteps for a secure small business. It also involves a flowchart tocomprehend the overall small business network security easilyand we identify a set of security issues and applyappropriate techniques to satisfy the correspondingsecurity requirements. In respect of all, this document isstrong enough for any small business network security.

  2. Small Stirling Cycle Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Schreiber, Jeffery

    2005-02-01

    The Stirling convertor concept continues to be a viable potential candidate for various space power applications at electrical power levels ranging from greater than 100 KW to on the order of 10+watts. Various development efforts, both in the past and currently underway, have clearly demonstrated the potential for long operating life of this concept, its high efficiency in comparison to alternative power systems (>50% of Carnot based on electric power out to heat in), and its excellent specific power characteristics. A truly unique attribute of the Stirling convertor is the ability to maintain many of these same advantages at significantly lower electrical power levels (on the order of 1 watt and below). This provides the opportunity for a wider range of potential space power applications and the use of alternative heat sources operating at dramatically lower hot-end temperatures (about 250 °C vs. current values of about 650 °C). An overview of low-power Stirling convertors and related Stirling cooler technology is provided with an emphasis on assessing the technical maturity of this concept's key components at the low power level of interest. A conceptual design of a small, 1-watt (electrical output) Stirling convertor utilizing multiple Low Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit heat sources will be described. Key technical issues in the development of this power level Stirling convertor are discussed.

  3. Small Hydropower in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.EOKRANEFE; S.OWOLABI

    2002-01-01

    Nigeria is the most populaous black nation in the world. It has an area of 913,072 square kilometres. The country population is about 120 million. There are three major languages, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, although there is still more than 380 dialects in local languages. There are large number of household on the African continent that are unelectrified.In Nigeria about 70 million people remain literally in the dark without access to electricity. The majority of these numbers are in the rural areas. This workshop is apt in a number of ways. It is a joint effort between government, private sector, the academic and other practitioners in small hydro power station, it is also a promotion of business and industrial activities as well as development of renewable energy resources. I wish to commend the organizers of this workshop. The focus of the workshop is relevant to the agenda of the Federal Ministry of Power and Steel and aspirations of the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide regular and steady electricity to majority of Nigerians before the end of year 2001.

  4. Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Erica B; Jalal, Shadia I

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive cancer of neuroendocrine origin, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. Patients typically present with a short duration of symptoms and frequently (60-65 %) with metastatic disease. SCLC is a heterogeneous disease including extremely chemosensitive and chemoresistant clones. For this reason, a high percentage of patients respond to first-line chemotherapy but rapidly succumb to the disease. SCLC is generally divided into two stages, limited and extensive. Standard treatment of limited stage disease includes combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for four cycles, thoracic radiation initiated early with the first cycle of chemotherapy, and consideration of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in the subset of patients with good response. Surgery may play a role in TNM stages I and II. In extensive disease, platinum agents and etoposide, used in combination, are again the first-line standard of care in the USA. However, thoracic radiation therapy is used predominately in patients where local control is important and PCI is of uncertain benefit. Despite these treatments, prognosis remains poor and novel therapies are needed to improve survival in this disease. PMID:27535400

  5. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  6. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical reports contained in this collection of papers on research using small tokamaks fall into four main categories, i.e., (i) experimental work (heating, stability, plasma radial profiles, fluctuations and transport, confinement, ultra-low-q tokamaks, wall physics, a.o.), (ii) diagnostics (beam probes, laser scattering, X-ray tomography, laser interferometry, electron-cyclotron absorption and emission systems), (iii) theory (strong turbulence, effects of heating on stability, plasma beta limits, wave absorption, macrostability, low-q tokamak configurations and bootstrap currents, turbulent heating, stability of vortex flows, nonlinear islands growth, plasma-drift-induced anomalous transport, ergodic divertor design, a.o.), and (iv) new technical facilities (varistors applied to establish constant current and loop voltage in HT-6M), lower-hybrid-current-drive systems for HT-6B and HT-6M, radio-frequency systems for HT-6M ICR heating experimentation, and applications of fiber optics for visible and vacuum ultraviolet radiation detection as applied to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches. A total number of 51 papers are included in the collection. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section...

  8. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  9. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 deg. C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 deg. C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  10. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  11. Joint research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive coordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project, is presented

  12. Regular Small-World Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-Yun; MAO Bao-Hua; HAO Hai-Ming; GAO Jian-Zhi; YANG Jie-Jiao

    2009-01-01

    According to the deficiencies in Watts and Strogatz's small-world network model, we present a new regular model to establish the small-world network. Besides the property of the small-world, this model has other properties such as accuracy in controlling the average shortest path length L, and the average clustering coefficient C, also regular network topology as well as enhanced network robustness. This method improves the construction of the small-world network essentially, so that the regular small-world network closely resembles the actual network. We also present studies on the relationships among the quantities of a variety of edges, L and C in regular small-world network in detail. This research lays the foundation for the establishment of the regular small-world network and acts as a good guidance for further research of this model and its applications.

  13. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs. The proposed rule would implement... technological constraints, participation is limited to 125 registrants for the Webinar. If demand...

  14. Small Bowel Hamartoma: A Huge Diverticulum of Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Ebdewi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A-20-year old male, with no significant medical history, presented with clinical features mimicking a perforated acute appendicitis. Because of features of peritonitis, a laparotomy was performed which showed a segment of small bowel with multiple large diverticula and mesenteric cysts. A segmental small bowel resection was performed. The patient made an uneventful recovery from surgery. Histology revealed features of a small bowel hamartoma.

  15. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical reports in this document were presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting ''Research on Small Tokamaks'', September 1990, in three sessions, viz., (1) Plasma Modes, Control, and Internal Phenomena, (2) Edge Phenomena, and (3) Advanced Configurations and New Facilities. In Section (1) experiments at controlling low mode number modes, feedback control using external coils, lower-hybrid current drive for the stabilization of sawtooth activity and continuous (1,1) mode, and unmodulated and fast modulated ECRH mode stabilization experiments were reported, as well as the relation to disruptions and transport of low m,n modes and magnetic island growth; static magnetic perturbations by helical windings causing mode locking and sawtooth suppression; island widths and frequency of the m=2 tearing mode; ultra-fast cooling due to pellet injection; and, finally, some papers on advanced diagnostics, i.e., lithium-beam activated charge-exchange spectroscopy, and detection through laser scattering of discrete Alfven waves. In Section (2), experimental edge physics results from a number of machines were presented (positive biasing on HYBTOK II enhancing the radial electric field and improving confinement; lower hybrid current drive on CASTOR improving global particle confinement, good current drive efficiency in HT-6B showing stabilization of sawteeth and Mirnov oscillations), as well as diagnostic developments (multi-chord time resolved soft and ultra-soft X-ray plasma radiation detection on MT-1; measurements on electron capture cross sections in multi-charged ion-atom collisions; development of a diagnostic neutral beam on Phaedrus-T). Theoretical papers discussed the influence of sheared flow and/or active feedback on edge microstability, large edge electric fields, and two-fluid modelling of non-ambipolar scrape-off layers. Section (3) contained (i) a proposal to construct a spherical tokamak ''Proto-Eta'', (ii) an analysis of ultra-low-q and runaway

  16. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  17. Small Spacecraft Activities at JPL

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ross

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief technical description of some of the small spacecraft concepts prepared by JPL for various sponsors. Some of JPL's work in microspacecraft is presented. The paper contains brief technical descriptions of the following four small spacecraft conceptual designs: 1) Lunar GAS, 2) Polar Mesoscale Explorer, 3) DARPA SHF and 4) Discovery. Since 1986, JPL has studied more than 10 small spacecraft including those to be presented here.

  18. Leadership in a small enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Palmgren, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Leadership is often seen as the premier force behind the success and failure of enterprises and the well-being of the personnel. In spite of the vast amount of studies on leadership, leadership in small enterprises has seldom been in focus in leadership research. The increasing importance of small firms to the economic growth and competitiveness raises questions about the role and practice of leadership in small enterprises. This study aims to deepen our understanding of leadership as a socia...

  19. Sustainability for a Small Country

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Geoff W.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective in this paper is to promote thinking on what "sustainable development" or "ecologically sustainable development" means for a small trading country. After a brief acknowledgement of some of the diverse literature on sustainability, there is a consideration of some realities facing a small trading economy. The balance of the paper comprises a discussion of the scope for a small country to enhance sustainability. This is done under several headings, corresponding to different ...

  20. Investigation on a Small Oscillogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A small oscillogram, one end of which was substituted by a bright point caused by the redox of an appropriate depolarizer and the other end of which was the redox of Hg or the redox of supporting electrolyte cation, was investigated in this paper. Experimental results of application of the small oscillogram to oscillographic determination of cefoperazone showed that the small oscillogram was more stable, sensitive, and less interference than classical oscillogram.

  1. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  2. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  3. How Small Is a Billionth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John

    2007-01-01

    Children's natural curiosity about numbers, big and small can lead to exploring place-value ideas. But how can these abstract concepts be experienced more concretely? This article presents some practical approaches for conceptualising very small numbers using linear models, area models, volume models, and diagrams.

  4. Resourcing Change in Small Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources for school-community…

  5. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  6. Small bowel obstruction- a surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jeffrey Daniel; Cp, Ganesh Babu; M, Balachandar; M, Ramanathan

    2015-01-01

    Trans - omental hernia is very rare, accounting to 1-4% of all internal hernias which is an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction. Here we present a case report of a small bowel obstruction in a female due to trans - omental hernia presenting with central abdominal pain, distension and bilious vomiting. She had no previous history of trauma, surgery. Plain X-ray abdomen erect showed multiple air fluid levels with dilated small bowel loops. Emergency laparotomy revealed a segment of congested small bowel loop (ileum) through a defect in greater omentum. On table the herniated bowel loop was reduced and the defect in greater omentum was closed primarily. There was no necessity for bowel resection as it regained normal colour after reduction. Postoperative period was uneventful with complete resolution of symptoms. This case is presented for its rarity and its importance in clinical differential diagnosis of acute abdomen due to small bowel obstruction.

  7. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. DATES: Effective February 20, 2013 and is applicable beginning January..., or Edsel Brown, Assistant Director, Office of Technology, at (202) 205-7343, or...

  8. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business... Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. This rule implements provisions of the National Defense... Edsel Brown, Assistant Director, Office of Technology, at (202) 205-7343. You may also email...

  9. Board Effectiveness in Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Söderqvist, Anette; WÀgar, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates boards of directors in small firms and explores the link between board effectiveness and the composition, roles and working styles of the boards. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyses data from a telephone survey of boards in 45 small firms. The survey included both the CEO and the chairperson of the board. Findings: The study identifies three groups of small firms: ‘paperboards’, ‘professional boards’, and ‘management ...

  10. Small Sat Analysis Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Low-Cost Small Spacecraft Program is focused on the technologies, subsystems, methodologies, and mission concepts for space missions which lower the...

  11. Quantum Small-world Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zong-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2011-01-01

    Quantum networks are critical to quantum communication and distributed quantum computing. Here we propose a small-world model of large-scale quantum repeater networks, where "small-world" is a fundamental concept rooted in complex networks, which describe a broad range of real systems. The core of the model is to relate the hierarchical fashion of measurements to coarse-graining process, when quantum repeater protocols are implemented. We demonstrate that quantum repeater networks with fractal structure can be enlarged with certain length scale in geographic space, while preserving topology by performing renormalization. Actually, renormalization here serves as an organizing principle determining the distribution of long-range entangled links over quantum networks, which gives rise to fractal to small-world transition. Furthermore, by iterative implementation of renormalization on the former coarse-grained network, we eventually obtain an onion-like, hierarchical quantum small-world network, where the distanc...

  12. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  13. Public Relations for Small Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Edward H.; Lott, Chester N.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses economically feasible and sensible methods of school-community relations for implementation in small schools; a multifaceted communication approach should be implemented which includes news releases, newsletters, advisory committees, and internal communication. (Author/LC)

  14. Small Probe Reentry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), and its research partner, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo (CPSLO), will develop an integrated Small Probe Reentry System (SPRS) for low...

  15. Development project of small accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project is demonstration of a small proton and heavy ion synchrotron and a small hard X-ray photon radiation source by using new technology and application of them to therapy, diagnosis, material science and life science. In this paper, a part of small proton and heavy ion synchrotron is discussed. Nine organizations joined in this project. There are four development themes such as optimization of laser-ion 100 TW class source target, beam storage and cooling device, small synchrotron ring and FFAG accelerator. Outline and contents of development of them are explained. This project is planning to generate a few MeV/u carbon ions in fully ionized states by impact of laser with about 100 TW output. 3 T maximum bending magnetic field using normal conduction AC magnet will be actualized for synchrotron with 200 MeV proton beam. (S.Y.)

  16. Small Sat Analysis Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop Small Satellite Analysis Laboratory (SatLab): A simulation-of-simulations framework to integrate component and engineering simulations into a single larger...

  17. JPL Small Body Database Browser

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL Small-Body Database Browser provides data for all known asteroids and many comets. Newly discovered objects and their orbits are added on a daily basis....

  18. Small for gestational age (SGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called intrauterine growth restriction. The most common definition of small for gestational age (SGA) is a ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Small Bowel Review - Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, ABR; Wild, G.

    1997-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the study of the small bowel. Part I of this two-part review of the small bowel examines carbohydrates, including brush border membrane hydrolysis and sugar transport; amino acids, dipeptides, proteins and food allergy, with a focus on glutamine, peptides and macromolecules, and nucleosides, nucleotides and polyamines; salt and water absorption, and diarrhea, including antidiarrheal therapy and oral rehydration treatment; lipids (digestion and absorption...

  20. Small windpower systems are beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, A.

    1988-11-01

    Today's small wind turbine generators perform well and reliably, thanks to brushless alternators, composite blades and protection against high winds. Wind turbines of such dimensions would often be employed for battery chargers. Bigger, geared machines, with rotors of up to 17 m diameter, driving synchronous or induction generators, would be coupled with diesel sets for supplying small communities. Battery chargers, island and hybrid systems and possible sites are discussed.

  1. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  2. Small

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Joseph

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

  3. Small bowel faeces sign in patients without small bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, S.L. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)]. E-mail: stacylynnjacobs@yahoo.com; Rozenblit, A. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Ricci, Z. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Roberts, J. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Milikow, D. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Chernyak, V. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Wolf, E. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Aim: To evaluate frequency and clinical relevance of the 'small bowel faeces' sign (SBFS) on computed tomography (CT) in patients with and without small bowel obstruction (SBO) presenting with acute abdominal or acute abdominal and flank pain. Methods: Abdominal CTs of consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with abdominal or flank pain over a 6 month period were retrospectively reviewed by six radiologists, independently, for the presence of the SBFS. Examinations with positive SBFS were further evaluated in consensus by three radiologists, blinded to the final diagnosis. The small bowel was graded as non-dilated (<2.5 cm) and mildly (2.5-2.9 cm), moderately (3-4 cm) or severely (>4 cm) dilated. The location of SBFS and presence of distal small bowel collapse indicative of SBO was recorded. Imaging findings were subsequently correlated with the final diagnosis via chart review and compared between patients with and without SBO. Results: Of 1642 CT examinations, a positive SBFS was found in 100 (6%) studies. Of 100 patients with a positive SBFS, 32 (32%) had documented SBO. The remaining 68 patients had other non-obstructive diagnoses. SBFS was located in proximal, central, distal and multisegmental bowel loops in one (3.1%), eight (25.0%), 21 (65.6%) and two (6.3%) patients with SBO, and in zero (0%), 10 (14.7%), 53 (77.9%) and five (7.4%) of patients without SBO (p < 0.273). The small bowel was non-dilated and mildly, moderately or severely dilated in one (3%), five (16%), 20 (62%) and six (19%) patients with SBO, and in 61(90%), seven (10%), zero (0%) and zero (0%) patients without SBO. Normal or mildly dilated small bowel was seen in all (100%) patients without SBO, but only in six (19%) of 32 patients with SBO (p < 0.0001). Moderate or severe small bowel dilatation was seen in 26 (81%) patients with SBO (p < 0.0001), but it was absent in patients without SBO. Distal small bowel collapse was found in 27 (84.4%) of 32 patients with

  4. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurniawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

  5. Small satellites for tropical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Marie-Jose; Bonn, Ferdinand

    1993-11-01

    A number of mission studies were performed to assess the suitability of small satellite systems for tropical data acquisition. These studies took into account the specifics of the tropical user communities and were focused on remote sensing and resource management issues. The requirements and potential solutions for four application areas are discussed. For monitoring of forest and agricultural vegetation, a small synthetic aperture radar is considered with P, C, or X band imaging, possibly supplemented by a high resolution multispectral imager. The radar would have the capability to monitor below cloud cover which is often found in tropical regions. Optical, microwave, or spectrographic imaging would also be useful in small satellites for disaster monitoring (notably of floods), land management, and air pollution monitoring. A small satellite with data storage and forwarding capability is also envisioned to collect data from dependable, low-power, and low-cost ground sensors via a simple ultrahigh frequency uplink and download the data on a very high frequency downlink. All the small satellites would be launched in low inclination orbits to ensure a number of consecutive passes over the targeted tropical area.

  6. Small-ductprimarysclerosingcholangitis withhepatocellularcarcinomarequiringliver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharif Ali; Veena Shah

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease, which usually affects young adults and is diagnosed by cholangiography. On a few occasions, the disease either starts in or exclusively involves the small intrahepatic bile ducts, referred to as small-duct PSC. METHODS: A 31-year-old man presented with severe hematemesis secondary to liver cirrhosis. Over a course of 8 years, his liver decompensated and required an orthotopic liver transplantation. In this report we discuss his disease presentation, course of management, and the post-transplantation course of manage-ment, and review the morphologic diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of the disease with large-duct type and other diseases that involve small intrahepatic bile ducts. RESULTS:The patient's explanted liver showed changes of PSC affecting only the small- and medium-sized bile ducts in addition to three incidental nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Small-duct PSC has a substantially better prognosis than the large-duct type, with less chance of developing cirrhosis and an equal risk for developing hepato-cellular carcinoma, but no increased risk for developing cholangiocarcinoma. Treatment seems to help relieve the symptoms but not necessarily improve survival. Liver transplantation remains the ultimate cure.

  7. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huppert, Mark [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States); Cochrane, Ric [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  8. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  9. Small Business Social Responsibility Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    ) are confronting owner-managers’ ethos. We explain theoretically how small business managers respond to the challenge when they are required to formalize and display for external surveillance that which would otherwise be informal and part of the non-public or private sphere.......Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality...... to develop a theoretical explanation for SBSR communication. Findings: Our analysis conceptualizes the ‘governmentality dilemma’ as SBSR managers face two simultaneous and potentially counterproductive expectations: responding to externally prescribed expectations, norms and standards such as branding, codes...

  10. Studies in small field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore some issues in slow roll inflation in situations where field excursions are small compared to Mp. We argue that for small field inflation, minimizing fine tuning requires low energy supersymmetry and a tightly constrained structure. Hybrid inflation is almost an inevitable outcome. The resulting theory can be described in terms of a supersymmetric low energy effective action and inflation completely characterized in terms of a small number of parameters. Demanding slow roll inflation significantly constrains these parameters. In this context, the generic level of fine tuning can be described as a function of the number of light fields, there is an upper bound on the scale of inflation, and an (almost) universal prediction for the spectral index. Models of this type need not suffer from a cosmological moduli problem

  11. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m2) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Appropriate technology for small turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Walch, E.

    1981-11-01

    The investment costs of small-scale hydro plants are relatively high; of these the electro-mechanical equipment is generally a high proportion. One way of reducing these costs is to use information and experience gained in the manufacture of equipment for large plants, avoiding expensive testing and assessment. To exploit this experience, a standard program has been developed which can be applied quickly and easily for the design of small turbines. In this way the best choice of turbines and configurations can be determined rapidly for any site.

  13. Particles in small volume injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  14. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  15. Small Signal Loudspeaker Impedance Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    from driver to driver. Therefore, a loudspeaker emulator capable of adjusting its impedance to that of a given driver is desired for measurement purposes. This paper proposes a loudspeaker emulator circuit for small signals. Simulations and experimental results are compared and show that it is possible...

  16. Exact completions and small sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Shulman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We prove a general theorem which includes most notions of "exact completion". The theorem is that "k-ary exact categories" are a reflective sub-2-category of "k-ary sites", for any regular cardinal k. A k-ary exact category is an exact category with disjoint and universal k-small coproducts, and a k-ary site is a site whose covering sieves are generated by k-small families and which satisfies a weak size condition. For different values of k, this includes the exact completions of a regular category or a category with (weak) finite limits; the pretopos completion of a coherent category; and the category of sheaves on a small site. For a large site with k the size of the universe, it gives a well-behaved "category of small sheaves". Along the way, we define a slightly generalized notion of "morphism of sites", and show that k-ary sites are equivalent to a type of "enhanced allegory".

  17. Microwave Levitation Of Small Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave radiation in resonant cavities used to levitate small objects, according to proposal. Feedback control and atmosphere not needed. Technique conceived for use in experiments on processing of materials in low gravitation of outer space, also used in normal Earth gravitation, albeit under some limitations.

  18. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business tran

  19. Economics: An Emerging Small World?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); M.J. van der Leij (Marco); J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the small world hypothesis. The first part of the paper presents empirical evidence on the evolution of a particular world: the world of journal publishing economists during the period 1970-2000. We find that in the 1970's the world of economics was a collection of is

  20. Small Turing universal signal machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durand-Lose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing signal machines as small as possible able to perform any computation (in the classical understanding. After presenting signal machines, it is shown how to get universal ones from Turing machines, cellular-automata and cyclic tag systems. Finally a halting universal signal machine with 13 meta-signals and 21 collision rules is presented.

  1. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  2. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  3. Small bowel transplantation: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron); E. Heineman (Erik); R.L. Marquet (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSmall bowel transplantation (SBT) would, in theory, be the treatment of choice for patients suffering from the short bowel syndrome. Although SBT has been done with a considerable degree of success in some centers [36,145], it is by no means an established or widely applicable therapy fo

  4. Sonography of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Nylund; Svein (φ)degaard; Trygve Hausken; Geir Folvik; Gülen Arslan Lied; Ivan Viola; Helwig Hauser; Odd-Helge Gilja

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial resolution. The method has limitations with penetration in obesity and with intestinal air impairing image quality. The flexibility ultrasonography offers the examiner also implies that a systematic approach during scanning is needed. This paper reviews the basic scanning techniques and new modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, strain rate imaging, hydrosonography, allergosonography, endoscopic sonography and nutritional imaging, and the literature on disease-specific findings in the small intestine. Some of these methods have shown clinical benefit, while others are under research and development to establish their role in the diagnostic repertoire. However, along with improved overall image quality of new ultrasound scanners, these methods have enabled more anatomical and physiological changes in the small intestine to be observed. Accordingly, ultrasound of the small intestine is an attractive clinical tool to study patients with a range of diseases.

  5. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  6. Economics : An emerging small world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goyal, S; van der Leij, MJ; Moraga-Gonzalez, JL

    2006-01-01

    We study the evolution of social distance among economists over the period 1970-2000. While the number of economists has more than doubled, the distance between them, which was already small, has declined significantly. The key to understanding the short average distances is the observation that eco

  7. Small store presence in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover, a

  8. Small rocket research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven; Biaglow, James

    1993-01-01

    Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion include apogee kick, delta-V, de-orbit, drag makeup, final insertions, north-south stationkeeping, orbit change/trim, perigee kick, and reboost. The program encompasses efforts on earth-storable, space storable, and cryogenic propellants. The earth-storable propellants include nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as an oxidizer with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) or anhydrous hydrazine (AH) as fuels. The space storable propellants include liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer with hydrazine or hydrocarbons such as liquid methane, ethane, and ethanol as fuels. Cryogenic propellants are LOX or gaseous oxygen (GOX) as oxidizers and liquid or gaseous hydrogen as fuels. Improved performance and lifetime for small chemical rockets are sought through the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, the introduction of high temperature materials to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency, and improved component designs to optimize performance. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Results indicate that modeling of the injector and combustion process in small rockets needs improvement. High temperature materials require the development of fabrication processes, a durability data base in both laboratory and rocket environments, and basic engineering property data such as strength, creep, fatigue, and work hardening properties at both room and elevated temperature. Promising materials under development include iridium-coated rhenium and a

  9. Small Bodies, Big Discoveries: NASA's Small Bodies Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.; Erickson, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is turning out to be a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system's unsung heroes, small bodies. This includes the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 / Siding Spring with Mars in October and the historic Rosetta mission with its Philae lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Beyond 2014, the much anticipated 2015 Pluto flyby by New Horizons and the February Dawn Mission arrival at Ceres will take center stage. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system's small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA's JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like "Eyes on the Solar System" and more. This talk will highlight NASA's focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies mission science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  10. Small is beautiful: models of small neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Damon G; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Modeling has contributed a great deal to our understanding of how individual neurons and neuronal networks function. In this review, we focus on models of the small neuronal networks of invertebrates, especially rhythmically active CPG networks. Models have elucidated many aspects of these networks, from identifying key interacting membrane properties to pointing out gaps in our understanding, for example missing neurons. Even the complex CPGs of vertebrates, such as those that underlie respiration, have been reduced to small network models to great effect. Modeling of these networks spans from simplified models, which are amenable to mathematical analyses, to very complicated biophysical models. Some researchers have now adopted a population approach, where they generate and analyze many related models that differ in a few to several judiciously chosen free parameters; often these parameters show variability across animals and thus justify the approach. Models of small neuronal networks will continue to expand and refine our understanding of how neuronal networks in all animals program motor output, process sensory information and learn. PMID:22364687

  11. Small is beautiful: models of small neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Damon G; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2012-08-01

    Modeling has contributed a great deal to our understanding of how individual neurons and neuronal networks function. In this review, we focus on models of the small neuronal networks of invertebrates, especially rhythmically active CPG networks. Models have elucidated many aspects of these networks, from identifying key interacting membrane properties to pointing out gaps in our understanding, for example missing neurons. Even the complex CPGs of vertebrates, such as those that underlie respiration, have been reduced to small network models to great effect. Modeling of these networks spans from simplified models, which are amenable to mathematical analyses, to very complicated biophysical models. Some researchers have now adopted a population approach, where they generate and analyze many related models that differ in a few to several judiciously chosen free parameters; often these parameters show variability across animals and thus justify the approach. Models of small neuronal networks will continue to expand and refine our understanding of how neuronal networks in all animals program motor output, process sensory information and learn.

  12. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  13. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  15. Propulsion Challenges for Small Spacecraft: 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadim Zakirov; LI Luming

    2006-01-01

    Small (<100 kg) spacecrafts are being developed in many countries but their propulsion systems still have many challenges. Although there is demand for small spacecraft propulsion, the number of missions at present is small due to several commercial and technical reasons. Poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion systems is one of the main reasons for the small number of missions. Several reasons are given for the poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion. Suggested improvements focus on small spacecraft and propulsion hardware mass optimization rather than on specific impulse enhancement. Propellantless propulsion systems are also recommended for small spacecraft interplanetary missions.

  16. Remotely sensed small reservoir monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; Annor, Frank; Iannini, Lorenzo; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    A new 'growing' maximum likelihood classification algorithm for small reservoir delineation has been developed and is tested with Radarsat-2 data for reservoirs in the semi-arid Upper East Region, Ghana. The delineation algorithm is able to find the land-water boundary from SAR imagery for different weather and environmental conditions. As such, the algorithm allows for remote sensed operational monitoring of small reservoirs. Multipurpose small reservoirs (1-100 ha) are important for many livelihoods in rural semi-arid West Africa. In order to manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage fluctuation. Several studies on remotely sensed reservoir mapping have recently been published, but no single method yields good results for all weather and environmental conditions. Detection of small reservoirs from optical satellite imagery using supervised maximum likelihood classification is a well proved method. The application of this method for the monitoring of small reservoirs is however limited because of its dependence on cloud-free day-acquisitions. Delineation from SAR images is promising, but because of difficulties with wind induced Bragg-scattering and low contrast between the water surface and the dried-out surroundings at the end of the dry season, only quasi manual methods have been applied successfully. A smart combination of optical satellite based detection combined with a delineation method for SAR imagery is proposed. From the optical satellite based small reservoir detection the reservoir window is determined in which the 'growing' maximum likelihood classification on SAR images is performed. A water-class seed and land-class seed are implemented and grown dependent on the likelihood of a pixel to belong to one class. The likelihood is calculated based on the probability distributions of the growing land and water populations. Combinations of single

  17. Small-for-sizesyndromeinlivingdonorliver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shintaro Yagi; Shinji Uemoto

    2012-01-01

    When the graft volume is too small to satisfy the recipient's metabolic demand, the recipient may thus experience small-for-size syndrome (SFSS). Because the occurrence of SFSS is determined by not only the liver graft volume but also a combination of multiple negative factors, the deifnitions of small-for-size graft (SFSG) and SFSS are different in each institute and at each time. In the clinical setting, surgical inlfow modulation and maximizing the graft outlfow are keys to overcoming SFSS. Accordingly, relatively smaller-sized grafts can be used with surgical modiifcation and pharmacological manipulation targeting portal circulation and liver graft quality. Therefore, the focus of the SFSG issue is now shifting from how to obtain a larger graft from the living donor to how to manage the use of a smaller graft to save the recipient, considering donor safety to be a priority.

  18. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  19. Small black holes on cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders

  20. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  1. Going global - growing small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Going Global Energy Steering Committee was established to help small and medium-sized Canadian enterprises to compete in the electrical power industry in the Asia-Pacific region primarily, but also in Eastern Europe and Latin America. The aim is to provide market intelligence, and help with forming consortia for financing. A small to medium-sized business can be defined as one with 50 to 500 employees. Big businesses no longer have the same competitive advantages that they once had, because automated systems can make short production runs just as cost-effective as long ones, and because computerization, automation and rising productivity mean that fewer workers are required than formerly

  2. Trust Propagation in Small Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Chen, Yong;

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of a massive, networked infrastructure of diverse entities partaking in collaborative applications with each other increases more and more with the proliferation of mobile devices and the development of ad hoc networking technologies. In this context, traditional security measures...... do not scale well. We aim to develop trust-based security mechanisms using small world concepts to optimise formation and propagation of trust amongst entities in these vast networks. In this regard, we surmise that in a very large mobile ad hoc network, trust, risk, and recommendations can...... be propagated through relatively short paths connecting entities. Our work describes the design of trust-formation and risk-assessment systems, as well as that of an entity recognition scheme, within the context of the small world network topology....

  3. Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari

    2016-01-01

    A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.

  4. Parton distributions at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the recent data for deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and related processes, in which we pay particular attention to the forms of the parton distributions at very small x. We discuss in detail, and we incorporate in the analysis, the theoretical QCD results leading to the singular x-1/2 type of behaviour of the gluon and sea quark distributions, as well as the modifications due to shadowing effects. We find the QCD shadowing corrections are significant for x ''approx -3 even though the parton distributions are below their saturation limit. We give predictions for the structure functions F2 and FL accessible at HERA, and for W and Z productions up to linear hard core pinch devices (LHC) and superconducting supercollider (SSC) energies. We discuss the possibility of experiments at these colliders probing the parton distributions in the very small x region. (author)

  5. Deployable Reflectors for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Rory; Taylor, Robert; Keller, Philip; Codell, Dana; Adams, Larry

    2007-01-01

    A key limitation for future Small Satellite communications and radar missions will be available antenna reflector aperture. Two types of reflectors are dominant for satellite RF systems today, rigid, single-piece reflectors and deployable mesh reflectors. Single-piece reflectors are limited to the aperture that fits inside a launch vehicle without packaging the reflective surface. Mesh reflectors have become the workhorse of the deployable reflector market, however these reflectors are expens...

  6. Metagenomic small molecule discovery methods

    OpenAIRE

    Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Milshteyn, Aleksandr; Brady, Sean F

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches to natural product discovery provide the means of harvesting bioactive small molecules synthesized by environmental bacteria without the requirement of first culturing these organisms. Advances in sequencing technologies and general metagenomic methods are beginning to provide the tools necessary to unlock the unexplored biosynthetic potential encoded by the genomes of uncultured environmental bacteria. Here, we highlight recent advances in sequence- and functional- bas...

  7. Small gauge vitrectomy: Recent update

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeet Khanduja; Ashish Kakkar; Saptrishi Majumdar; Rajpal Vohra; Satpal Garg

    2013-01-01

    Small gauge vitrectomy, also known as minimally invasive vitreous surgery (MIVS), is a classic example of progress in biomedical engineering. Disparity in conjunctival and scleral wound location and reduction in wound diameter are its core principles. Fluidic changes include increased pressure head loss with consequent reduction in infusional flow rate and use of higher aspiration vacuum at the cutter port. Increase An increase in port open/port closed time maintains an adequate rate of vitre...

  8. Small Business Innovations (Robotic Wrist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. Minneapolis, MN, developed the Omni-Wrist actuator, which has a 25-pound capacity, 180 degrees of pitch/yaw, and 360 degrees of roll. Company literature calls it "the first successful singularity-free high-precision (robotic) wrist." Applications include spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, welding and a variety of nuclear industry, aerospace and military uses.

  9. Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

  10. Small Business Innovations (Integrated Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.

  11. Twisted Yangians of small rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Nicolas; Regelskis, Vidas; Wendlandt, Curtis

    2016-04-01

    We study quantized enveloping algebras called twisted Yangians associated with the symmetric pairs of types CI, BDI, and DIII (in Cartan's classification) when the rank is small. We establish isomorphisms between these twisted Yangians and the well known Olshanskii's twisted Yangians of types AI and AII, and also with the Molev-Ragoucy reflection algebras associated with symmetric pairs of type AIII. We also construct isomorphisms with twisted Yangians in Drinfeld's original presentation.

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan; Bures; Jiri; Cyrany; Darina; Kohoutova; Miroslav; Frstl; Stanislav; Rejchrt; Jaroslav; Kvetina; Viktor; Vorisek; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymi-crobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO).SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. There...

  13. Design of small table saws

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is the engineering design of a small table circular saw according to the specified parameters. At first, the types of machines available on the market are named and analyzed in detail. Afterwards, the engineering design of the machine is created. The following part is concerned with the individual parts,, tilting of the saw blade, maximum cutting pull through linkage with motion screw and checking of deformation of he critical parts of the machine. The previously s...

  14. The small world of psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Denny Borsboom; Cramer, Angélique O. J.; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Sacha Epskamp; Waldorp, Lourens J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are highly comorbid: people having one disorder are likely to have another as well. We explain empirical comorbidity patterns based on a network model of psychiatric symptoms, derived from an analysis of symptom overlap in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that a) half of the symptoms in the DSM-IV network are connected, b) the architecture of these connections conforms to a small world structure, fe...

  15. Rhapsody on small processor platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Per-Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Rhapsody is a Model-Driven Development (MDD) tool for embedded and real-time system design. The purpose of this thesis is to determine if Rhapsody can be used for software development on small processor platforms such as the Atmel AVR. Rhapsody is normally used on platforms running an operating system. Therefore certain adaptations are needed in order to use it on platforms without an operating system. These adaptations and their affect on the usability of the tool, advantages and disadvantag...

  16. Manual on small earth dams

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Tim

    2015-01-01

    "This publication fills a void of practical guidelines for the construction of small earth dams. It presents readers with sound, reliable and practical source material to improve dam siting and design capacity in rural areas, to introduce a beneficiary and gender sensitive approach and to enhance safety and competence in construction. A section also provides convenient guidance on costing, drafting tenders and awarding contracts. The manual is primarily aimed at technicians and others with kn...

  17. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cano, David J.; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Partida-Martínez, Laila P.; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Delaye, Luis

    2015-01-01

    As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ∼800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ∼140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent ...

  18. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    OpenAIRE

    David José Martínez-Cano; Mariana eReyes-Prieto; Esperanza eMartinez-Romero; Laila Pamela Partida-Martinez; Amparo eLatorre; Andres eMoya; Luis eDelaye

    2015-01-01

    As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ~800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ~140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent ...

  19. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.H.L. [North District Hospital, Fanling, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Radiology Department; Ong, K.L. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Accident and Emergency Department; Au, Y.M.C. [Princess Margarete Hospital, Kowloon, (Hong Kong). Department of Radiology

    1998-11-01

    The present report describes a rare case of primary desmoplastic small cell tumour of the recto-sigmoid colon with hepatic metastases and lymphadenopathy. There are no pathognomonic radiological features and often their features overlap with other diseases including lymphoma. Histology is necessary to confirm this diagnosis. Unfortunately despite aggressive therapy, the prognosis for this disease is poor. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 8 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  1. Chronic Hemodialysis in Small Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novljan, Gregor; Rus, Rina R; Premru, Vladimir; Ponikvar, Rafael; Battelino, Nina

    2016-06-01

    When peritoneal dialysis is inapplicable, chronic hemodialysis (HD) becomes the only available treatment option in small children. Due to small patient size, central venous catheters (CVC) are mainly used for vascular access. Over the past 4 years, four children weighing less than 15 kg received chronic HD in our unit. A total of 848 dialysis sessions were performed. Altogether, 21 catheters were inserted. In all but one occasion, uncuffed catheters were used. Catheter revision was performed 15 times during the study period, either due to infection or catheter malfunction. The median number of catheter revisions and the median line survival was 3.0/patient-year and 53 days (range; 6-373 days), respectively. There were 14 episodes of catheter related infections requiring 11 CVC revisions (78.6%). The median rate of line infections was 2.8/patient-year. Chronic HD in small children is demanding and labor intensive. Issues pertain mainly to CVCs and limit its long-term use. PMID:27312919

  2. Superconductivity of small metal grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Renrong; CHEN; Zhiqian; ZHU; Shunquan

    2005-01-01

    The formulas of the energy gap and superconducting critical temperature appropriate for systems with both odd and even number of electrons are derived; the bases of the derivations are BCS theory and energy level statistics. Numerical results qualitatively agree with the experimental phenomena. i.e., the superconductivity of small metallic grains will first enhance then decrease to zero when the grain are getting smaller and smaller. The calculations indicate that the above phenomena happen in the metallic grains belonging to Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) and Gaussian Unitary ensemble (GUE) with zero spin; The superconductivity of small metallic grains in Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE) will monotonically decrease to zero with the decreasing of the grain size. The analyses suggest that the superconductivity enhancements come from pairing and the balance of the strengths between spin-orbital coupling and external magnetic field. In order to take the latter into account, it is necessary to include the level statistics given by Random Matrix Theory (RMT) in describing small metallic grains.

  3. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  4. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David José Martínez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ~800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ~140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent role. However, new experimental data suggest that selective processes may be at operation as well for endosymbiotic prokaryotes at least during the first stages of genome reduction. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes have evolved diverse strategies for living with reduced gene sets inside a host-defined medium. These include utilization of host-encoded functions (some of them coded by genes acquired by gene transfer from the endosymbiont and/or other bacteria; metabolic complementation between co-symbionts; and forming consortiums with other bacteria within the host. Recent genome sequencing projects of intracellular mutualistic bacteria showed that previously believed universal evolutionary trends like reduced G+C content and conservation of genome synteny are not always present in highly reduced genomes. Finally, the simplified molecular machinery of some of these organisms with small genomes may be used to aid in the design of artificial minimal cells. Here we review recent genomic discoveries of the biology of prokaryotes endowed with small gene sets and discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their peculiar nature.

  5. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program Commercialization Benchmark for the 11 participating agencies for public...

  6. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting: Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small..., 2013 (78 FR 42391). The document amended SBA's regulations governing small business subcontracting...

  7. 78 FR 42391 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA or Agency) is amending.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dean Koppel, U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of...

  8. Small Group Communication in the 1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neer, Michael R., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This special edition of "Communication" brings together the work of nine leading scholars of small group communication. The following topics are discussed: (1) small group communication research in the 1980s; (2) unanswered questions in research on communication in the small group; (3) emerging trends in small group research; (4) structure in…

  9. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA or Agency) is... submissions: Dean Koppel, U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Government Contracting, 409...

  10. Japanese Small Type Coastal Whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Fisher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2016 marks the 70th anniversary of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW as well as the 30th anniversary of the International Whaling Commission’s (IWC moratorium on commercial whaling. It also marks three decades of effort by Japan to overturn this ban. Its strategy to circumvent the moratorium by issuing permits to kill protected whales for scientific research is famous—even the subject of a 2014 lawsuit at the International Court of Justice. Less well known is Japan’s strategy to overturn the ban by persuading the Commission to authorise a category of commercial whaling known as Small Type Coastal Whaling (STCW that is conducted on minke and other small whales in Japanese waters but has never been regulated, or even formally recognised, by the IWC. For three decades Japan has sought STCW catch limits for four communities which it claims are still suffering distress as a result of the moratorium. While the Commission has rejected each proposal, mainly citing concerns that the commercial nature and purpose of STCW violates the moratorium, Japan has persisted, exhibiting great flexibility in its approach. Its tactics changed significantly in 2014; it no longer denied (or defended the commerciality of the hunt, but argued that it is irrelevant since it sought only a small exemption to the moratorium which would remain intact for all other populations. This is a perspective on Japan’s evolving STCW strategy and the risk that lifting, or modifying, the moratorium would pose to the conservation of whales.

  11. GEF small grants programme - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the GEF small grants program which seeks to enhance the role of households and communities in conserving global biodiversity, mitigating global climate change, and protecting international waters. Grants up to $50k have been granted for projects in 33 countries, with plans for 12 other countries. The author describes the framework that the program works under, and the methodology followed in developing and planning projects. The approach to climate change concerns is to emphasize the development of non-carbon energy development activities to provide energy sources and economic development.

  12. Small Bowel Imaging: an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimola, Jordi; Panés, Julián

    2016-07-01

    Bowel imaging had experienced relevant technical advances during the last decade. The developments in the field of cross-sectional imaging had a particular impact on the assessment of Crohn's disease. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a review of the main progress of cross-sectional imaging in the assessment of Crohn's disease and other small bowel diseases with relevance in clinical practice and in research. Also, we outline the technical advances, trends, and potential contributions of new technological cross-sectional imaging improvements that may have potential impact and contribution in the near future. PMID:27315216

  13. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for the stored energies obtained through the vector spherical wave theory, it is shown that a magnetic-coated metal core reduces the internal stored energy of both TM1m and TE1m modes simultaneously, so that a self-resonant antenna with the Q approaching the fundamental minimum is created. Numerical results...

  14. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Major scientific advances have been made over the past few years in the areas of small bowel physiology, pathology, microbiology and clinical sciences. Over 1000 papers have been reviewed and a selective number are considered here. Wherever possible, the clinical relevance of these advances have been identified. Topics discussed are enterocyte proliferation and growth factors; amino acids, peptides and allergies; motility; salt and water absorption and secretion – diarrhea; vitamins and minerals; early development and ageing of the intestine; and ethanol effects.

  15. Small helical flux compression amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, explosively compressed, magnetic flux transducers with many closely spaced helical turns are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The analysis is limited to linear operation, but takes into account load influence, proximity effects, and switching delays. The latter are due to retarded breakdown in the wire insulation and to the finite decay time of the magnetic field in the wire. More than 150 experiments showed considerable data scatter. Shots which exhibited low clocking and high amplification were in good agreement with the theory. The main conclusion is that device performance is limited not only by flux loss, but by flux remaining in the generator after compression

  16. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year, there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. More than 1500 papers were assessed in preparation for this review. Some were selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist. Relevant review articles have been highlighted, and important clinical learning points have been stressed. The topics are varied in scope, and wherever possible show a logical progression from basic physiology to pathophysiology to clinical disorders and management.

  17. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  18. Small intestinal tophus mimicking tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Katoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 72 year old male with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 and previous gouty arthritis presented with weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Ultrasound and CT scanning of the abdomen revealed a circumscribed tumor mass of the jejunum, 3.7 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination of the resected jejunum revealed the tumor to be a gouty tophus. To the best of our knowledge, three cases of tophi in the large intestine have previously been reported but none in the small intestine.

  19. Fuzzy Small Submodule and Jacobson -Radical

    OpenAIRE

    Saifur Rahman; Helen K. Saikia

    2011-01-01

    Using the notion of fuzzy small submodules of a module, we introduce the concept of fuzzy coessential extension of a fuzzy submodule of a module. We attempt to investigate various properties of fuzzy small submodules of a module. A necessary and sufficient condition for fuzzy small submodules is established. We investigate the nature of fuzzy small submodules of a module under fuzzy direct sum. Fuzzy small submodules of a module are characterized in terms of fuzzy quotient modules. This chara...

  20. Railgun launch of small bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobyshevski, E.M.; Zhukov, B.G.; Sakharov, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst.

    1995-01-01

    The small body launching using gas or plasma faces the fundamental problem caused by excess energy loss due to great wall surface/volume of the barrel ratio. That is why the efficiency of the plasma armature (PA) railgun acceleration is maximum for 8--10 mm-size bodies and drops as their size decreases. For the nuclear fusion applications, where {number_sign}1--2 mm-size pellets at 5--10 km/s velocity are desirable, one is forced to search for compromise between the body size (3--4 mm) and its velocity (3 km/s). Under these conditions, EM launchers did not demonstrate an advantage over the light-gas guns. When elaborating the {number_sign}1 mm railgun, the authors made use of the ideology of the body launching at constant acceleration close to the body strength or the electrode skin-layer explosion limits. That shortened the barrel length sufficiently. The system becomes highly compact thus permitting rapid test of new operation modes and different modifications of the design including the magnetic field augmentation. As a result of these refinements, the difficulties caused by the catastrophic supply of mass ablated from the electrodes were overcome and regimes of {number_sign}1 mm body non-sabot speed-up to 4.5 km/s were found. Potentialities of the small system created are far from being exhausted.

  1. Small gauge vitrectomy: Recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Khanduja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small gauge vitrectomy, also known as minimally invasive vitreous surgery (MIVS, is a classic example of progress in biomedical engineering. Disparity in conjunctival and scleral wound location and reduction in wound diameter are its core principles. Fluidic changes include increased pressure head loss with consequent reduction in infusional flow rate and use of higher aspiration vacuum at the cutter port. Increase An increase in port open/port closed time maintains an adequate rate of vitreous removal. High Intensity Discharge (HID lamps maintain adequate illumination in spite of a decrease in the number of fiberoptic fibers. The advantages of MIVS are, a shorter surgical time, minimal conjunctival damage, and early postoperative recovery. Most complications are centered on wound stability and risk of postoperative hypotony, endophthalmitis, and port site retinal break formation. MIVS is suited in most cases, however, it can cause dehiscence of recent cataract wounds. Retraction of the infusion cannula in the suprachoroidal space may occur in eyes with scleral thinning. As a lot has been published and discussed about sutureless vitrectomy a review of this subject is necessary. A PubMed search was performed in December 2011 with terms small gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, and 27 gauge vitrectomy, which were revised in August 2012. There were no restrictions on the date of publication but it was restricted to articles in English or other languages, if there abstracts were available in English.

  2. Small RNA in rice genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生

    2002-01-01

    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  3. Management of Small Vessel Vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Rigante, Donato; Venerito, Vincenzo; Emmi, Giacomo; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Lapadula, Giovanni; Iannone, Florenzo; Cantarini, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation mediated by cells of the immune system and necrosis are the most striking features observed at the histologic level in patients with vasculitides, clinical entities classified according to pathologic findings involving different organs, to etiology, or to size of vessels involved. Small vessel vasculitides (SVV) are a peculiar group of systemic disorders electively involving small intraparenchymal arteries, arterioles, capillaries, or venules and leading to different levels of vascular obstruction, tissue ischemia and risk of infarction; they can be divided into anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides and immune complex vasculitides. Despite the significant advances in understanding the whole disease process and pathophysiology of SVV, strong efforts are still needed to draft, share and spread guidelines in the therapeutic management of these protean disorders. After an accurate evaluation of different open or double-blind trials and cohort studies in this review, we analyze the actual medical tools suggested for treating granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis. PMID:27118389

  4. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  5. Small Molecules Target Carcinogenic Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2009-03-01

    An ingenious cellular mechanism of effecting protein localization is prenylation: the covalent attachment of a hydrophobic prenyl group to a protein that facilitates protein association with cell membranes. Fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate whether the oncogenic Stat3 protein can undergo artificial prenylation via high-affinity prenylated small-molecule binding agents and thus be rendered inactive by localization at the plasma membrane instead of nucleus. The measurements were performed on a home-built instrument capable of recording simultaneously several optical parameters (lifetime, polarization, color, etc) and with single-molecule sensitivity. A pH-invariant fluorescein derivative with double moiety was designed to bridge a prenyl group and a small peptide that binds Stat3 with high affinity. Confocal fluorescence images show effective localization of the ligand to the membrane of liposomes. Stat3 predominantly localizes at the membrane only in the presence of the prenylated ligand. Single-molecule FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) between donor-labeled prenylated agents and acceptor-labeled, surface tethered Stat3 protein is used to determine the dynamic heterogeneity of the protein-ligand interaction and follow individual binding-unbinding events in real time. The data indicates that molecules can effect protein localization, validating a therapeutic design that influences protein activity via induced localization.

  6. Small crater populations on Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; O'Brien, D P; Schenk, P; Mottola, S; De Sanctis, M C; Kring, D A; Williams, D A; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Dawn mission has extensively examined the surface of asteroid Vesta, the second most massive body in the main belt. The high quality of the gathered data provides us with an unique opportunity to determine the surface and internal properties of one of the most important and intriguing main belt asteroids (MBAs). In this paper, we focus on the size frequency distributions (SFDs) of sub-kilometer impact craters observed at high spatial resolution on several selected young terrains on Vesta. These small crater populations offer an excellent opportunity to determine the nature of their asteroidal precursors (namely MBAs) at sizes that are not directly observable from ground-based telescopes (i.e., below ~100 m diameter). Moreover, unlike many other MBA surfaces observed by spacecraft thus far, the young terrains examined had crater spatial densities that were far from empirical saturation. Overall, we find that the cumulative power-law index (slope) of small crater SFDs on Vesta is fairly consistent with...

  7. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  8. Amyloidosis of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kala, Zdenek [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: zkala@tiscali.cz; Valek, Vlastimil [Department of Radiology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Kysela, Petr [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: pkysel@email.cz

    2007-07-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by forming pathological protein deposits - amyloid - in many organs and tissues. This decreases their functionality. The aim of this small study was to determine, whether the radiological picture of the small intestine involvement in amyloidosis is in some sense specific as sometimes described in literature giving rise to high suspicion for the disease in symptomatic patients. Material and methods: The prospective study comprising seven patients hospitalized in surgical department is presented together with a survey on the disease, its appearance in radiological imaging. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound (ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe, no contrast enhancement, supine position), abdominal CT (Somatom Plus, Siemens, single detector, conventional abdominal CT protocol) and enteroclysis (Micropaque suspension 300 ml, application rate of 75 ml/min, dilution with HP-7000 being 1:1 and HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min.). Results: The amyloid deposits in the small intestine could be visualized in five of seven patients with the disease. Enteroclysis revealed a diffuse slowed down intestinal motility with an obstruction-like picture in all of our seven patients. The intestinal secretion was normal, plicae were getting polyp-like shape in five of them forming so called 'thumb printing' picture. CT showed thickening of the intestinal wall due to deposits with poor blood supply and contrast retention in five of seven patients. Ultrasound visualized thickened, hypoechoic nodular plicae and slowed down motility in these five patients. The most striking finding was the pathological deposits in the intestinal wall were highly hypo-vascular. However, this picture is very similar to that of ischemic enteritis. All seven patients had proven amyloid deposits from bioptic specimens. Conclusion: The diagnosis of amyloidosis must be supported by bioptic examination as it has no pathognomic

  9. Mental retardation, premature balding, small genitalia, small acra and small patellae in brothers: Confirmation of an entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Vandersteen; R.C. Hennekam

    2010-01-01

    We describe two brothers with moderate to severe mental retardation, short stature, an unusual skull shape, early anterior balding, unusual facial morphology, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, small genitalia, and small patellae. The older sib had generalized hypotonia without focal neurological abnor

  10. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amorena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease.

  11. Small FDIRC Designs and Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, B; Va'vra, J

    2016-01-01

    In this article we explore the angular resolution limits attainable in small FDIRC designs taking advantage of the new highly pixelated detectors that are now available. Since the basic FDIRC design concept attains its particle separation performance mostly in the angular domain as measured by two-dimensional pixels, this paper relies primarily on a pixel-based analysis, with additional chromatic corrections using the time domain, requiring single photon timing resolution at a level of 100-200ps only. This approach differs from other modern DIRC design concepts such as TOP or TORCH detectors, whose separation performances rely more strongly on time-dependent analyses. We find excellent single photon resolution with a geometry where individual bars are coupled to a single plate, coupled to cylindrical lens focusing.

  12. Small Business Innovations (Mass Microbalance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Femtometrics of Costa Mesa, CA, developed the Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. The product is described as "the next generation of aerosol mass microbalance technology," because a new type of sensor, the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) piezoelectric crystal, offers mass resolution two orders of magnitude greater than the Quartz Crystal Microbalance cascade impactor (QCM) (used at Langley since 1979 for collection and measurement of aerosol particles in the upper atmosphere). The Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance, which provides a 400-fold increase in mass sensitivity per unit area over the QCM, can be used for real-time particle monitoring in clean rooms, measuring chemical vapors in very low concentrations, measuring target chemicals in the stratosphere and in industry as a toxic vapor monitor.

  13. Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Catalyst Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    2001-06-04

    The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team identified Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP) as an alternative to replace the In-Tank Precipitation Facility at the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy discontinued operation of the In-Tank Precipitation facility due to the potential for catalytic decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate. The STTP applies the same process chemistry for removal of cesium from the radioactive wastes but at a controlled lower temperature and in a smaller facility that offers engineering features to mitigate potential for a catalytic reaction. However, additional understanding of the catalytic reaction, through further experimental investigation, is needed to better define the potential for a reaction to occur in the proposed facility.

  14. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  15. Mycoplasmas: small but perfectly formed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin NICHOLAS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mycoplasmas stems from their importance as serious animal and human pathogens, their frequent contamination of cell lines and, because of their small size, for their use as models of the minimal cell concept.They have traditionally been seen as highly host specific but this is being reviewed in view of recent detections of animal mycoplasmas in unlikely hosts including humans. Some highlights include:Mycoplasmas, containing as few as 450 genes, are the smallest free-living organisms on the planetThey were the first synthetically created life formsWhile the majority of mycoplasmas are harmless, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE have listed 4 mycoplasma diseases because of their serious socio-economic impacts10-15% of cell lines used for virus research are contaminated with mycoplasma Are they the real the causes of TSEs and other undiagnosed human conditions?

  16. Small Cell Network Topology Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oppolzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential problems in a mobile network with small cells is that there is only a limited number of (PCIs available. Due to this fact, operators face the inevitable need for reusing (PCIs. In our contribution, we are dealing with a (PCI assignment to FAPs in three different topologies. The first model places FAPs randomly within the network while respecting overlapping defined. The second model places FAPs in a grid without other restrictions. The third model forms a grid as well, although buildings and roads are taken into account and (FAPs are always inside buildings. The proposed models are compared and a conclusion is made based on simulation results.

  17. Semitransparent peroral small bowel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emons, D.

    1981-10-01

    171 follow-through examinations of the small bowel performed in children and adolescents with a large contrast medium meal and the high voltage-low density barium technique (10 to 25 g BaSO/sub 4//100 ml, depending on age), are described. A ready made suspension, diluted with water, proved unsatisfactory. Coating properties and stability of the diluted, weak suspension were then greatly improved by hydroxyethylcellulose as a thickening agent and in addition by premedication of the patient with cimetidine. Pure cellulose solution instead of the last portion of barium prevented thickening in the ileum. The procedure has the well known advantages of a large contrast medium meal without the problem of overly dense superpositions.

  18. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  19. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  20. Evaluation of small reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPRI small reactor design program requires a procedure to analyze the economic benefits of specific design improvements suggested by the participating contractors, and to evaluate the total impacts of a new plant design on nuclear power generation costs. To that purpose, an analysis procedure is now being developed by EPRI and its participating contractors. This procedure involves the use of two separate costing models: 1. A top-down total generation cost model that integrates, in a relatively simplified manner, capital operating and fuel expenses, to yield total unit costs on an annual as well as on a lifetime levelized basis. A bottoms-up model that enables the analysis of specific system changes on station capital costs. Using a detailed reference plant cost breakdown, proposed design improvements can be measured against the reference data for their economic benefits

  1. Small boiler uses waste coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  2. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  3. Chemisorption and Reactions of Small Molecules on Small Gold Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Bond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of supported gold particles for a number of oxidations and hydrogenations starts to increase dramatically as the size falls below ~3 nm. This is accompanied by an increased propensity to chemisorption, especially of oxygen and hydrogen. The explanation for these phenomena has to be sought in kinetic analysis that connects catalytic activity with the strength and extent of chemisorption of the reactants, the latter depending on the electronic structure of the gold atoms constituting the active centre. Examination of the changes to the utilisation of electrons as particle size is decreased points to loss of metallic character at about 3 nm, as energy bands are replaced by levels, and a band gap appears. Detailed consideration of the Arrhenius parameters (E and ln A for CO oxidation points clearly to a step-change in activity at the point where metallic character is lost, as opposed to there being a monotonic dependence of rate on a physical property such as the fraction of atoms at corners or edges of particles. The deplorable scarcity of kinetic information on other reactions makes extension of this analysis difficult, but non-metallic behaviour is an unavoidable property of very small gold particles, and therefore cannot be ignored when seeking to explain their exceptional activity.

  4. Beam Coupling Impedances of Small Discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    2000-01-01

    A general derivation of the beam coupling impedances produced by small discontinuities on the wall of the vacuum chamber of an accelerator is reviewed. A collection of analytical formulas for the impedances of small obstacles is presented.

  5. New Funding Opportunities for Small Businesses Announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program recently announced $8 million in new contract funding opportunities to assist small businesses with cancer research and technology development. The 12 new contract funding opp

  6. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Small Intestine Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Or More after Being Diagnosed with Small Intestine Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  7. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small...

  8. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  9. Is small business a safety problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Tore J

    2003-01-01

    Common beliefs in relation to safety in small business are of two types; a) small businesses are more unsafe, apply unsafe practices, and thus have a higher incidence of occupational injury and a higher average severity of injury, and b) small business have poor knowledge of, and exhibit low compliance with, laws, rules and regulations, and are increasingly difficult to control. A survey of 100 small business operators in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia was undertaken. Ten different indus...

  10. Marketing Channels Used by Small Tennessee Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Tegegne, Fisseha; Pasirayi, Simbarashe; Singh, Surendra P.; Ekanem, Enefiok P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges that small farmers face is marketing their products. National and international markets are difficult to tap into for small farmers due to their inability to compete with large farm operators that dominate these markets. The objective of this study was to examine marketing channels used by small Tennessee Farmers. A mail survey was sent to 250 selected small farmers in Tennessee. Ninety-two completed responses, representing about 37% response rate, were received. Ove...

  11. Myoglobin in pelagic small cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolar, M L; Suarez, P; Ponganis, P J; Kooyman, G L

    1999-02-01

    Although myoglobin (Mb) is considered to contribute significantly to the oxygen and diving capacity of marine mammals, few data are available for cetaceans. Cetacean by-catch in the tuna driftnet fisheries in the Sulu Sea, Philippines, afforded the opportunity to examine Mb content and distribution, and to determine muscle mass composition, in Fraser's (Lagenodelphis hosei) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins and a pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). Age was estimated by body length determination. Stomach contents were analyzed for the presence or absence of milk and solid foods. It was hypothesized (a) that Mb concentration ([Mb]) would be higher in Fraser's and spinner dolphins than in other small cetaceans because of the known mesopelagic distribution of their prey, (b) that [Mb] would vary among different muscles according to function during diving, and (c) that [Mb] would increase with age during development. The results were as follows. (1) Myoglobin concentrations of the longissimus muscle in adult Fraser's (6.8-7.2 g 100 g-1 muscle) and spinner (5-6 g 100 g-1 muscle) dolphins and in an immature pygmy killer whale (5.7 g 100 g-1 muscle) were higher than those reported previously for small cetaceans. (2) [Mb] varied significantly among the different muscle types in adult dolphins but not in calves; in adults, swimming muscles had significantly higher [Mb] than did non-swimming muscles, contained 82-86 % of total Mb, and constituted 75-80 % of total muscle mass. (3) Myoglobin concentrations in Fraser's and spinner dolphins increased with size and age and were 3-4 times greater in adults than in calves. The high Mb concentrations measured in the primary locomotory muscles of these pelagic dolphins are consistent with the known mesopelagic foraging behaviour of Fraser's and spinner dolphins and suggest that the pygmy killer whale is also a deep-diving species. The high Mb concentrations in epaxial, hypaxial and abdominal muscle groups also support

  12. 77 FR 46909 - Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) Policy... technology@sba.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Information SBA is publishing Policy...

  13. 27 CFR 19.912 - Small plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small plants. 19.912... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.912 Small plants. Persons wishing to establish a small plant shall apply for a permit as provided in...

  14. Understanding the statistics of small risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo analyses are used to show what inferences can and cannot be drawn when either a very small number of accidents result from a considerable exposure or where a very small number of people, down to a single individual, are exposed to small added risks. The distinction between relative and absolute uncertainty is illustrated. No new statistical principles are involved

  15. 7 CFR 201.42 - Small containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small containers. 201.42 Section 201.42 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.42 Small containers. In sampling seed in small containers that it is not practical to sample as required in § 201.41, a portion of one unopened container...

  16. Mutual Guarantee Institutions and Small Business Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Columba, F.; Gambacorta, L.; Mistrulli, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A large literature showed that small firms experience difficulties in accessing the credit market due to informational asymmetries; these may be mitigated by collateral or relationship lending, possibilities often precluded to small business. We investigate the effect on small business finance of an

  17. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  18. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  19. Assessing prospects for small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear power plants, like that of many other technologies, has been characterized by substantial growth in spread, numbers, equipment and plant sizes, with economies of scale generally favouring the large plants. Small and medium sized nuclear power plants, or SMPRs, are generally understood to be plants below the sizes being exploited commercially in industrialized countries. Such plants could be more readily adapted to smaller electric grids, particularly in developing countries, fulfilling requirements of low load growth, or serve remote locations or special purposes. The SMPR range is currently understood as the 200 to 500 megawatt (MWe) size for the generation of electricity and sometimes smaller for process-steam and/or low-temperature heat supply. For statistical purposes a size limit of 600 MWe has been in use by IAEA for some years. By this criterion some 140 nuclear power plants, or more than one-third of the world total, could be considered SMPRs. However, most of them are rather old vintage. Prospects are assessed under headings: indications of revived interest; today's SMPR supply situation; evolving IAEA programme - new study; market indications; economic competitiveness and financing aspects. (author)

  20. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  1. The small world of psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Borsboom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are highly comorbid: people having one disorder are likely to have another as well. We explain empirical comorbidity patterns based on a network model of psychiatric symptoms, derived from an analysis of symptom overlap in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that a half of the symptoms in the DSM-IV network are connected, b the architecture of these connections conforms to a small world structure, featuring a high degree of clustering but a short average path length, and c distances between disorders in this structure predict empirical comorbidity rates. Network simulations of Major Depressive Episode and Generalized Anxiety Disorder show that the model faithfully reproduces empirical population statistics for these disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In the network model, mental disorders are inherently complex. This explains the limited successes of genetic, neuroscientific, and etiological approaches to unravel their causes. We outline a psychosystems approach to investigate the structure and dynamics of mental disorders.

  2. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluše Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena „algal bloom“ appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  3. Small Technology Business Incubation Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    This report contains a summary of typical business incubation needs of small technology companies. This document will serve as a guide in the design and implementation of services offered by the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), an incubator program being designed and developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the methodology used to perform the needs assessment and services proposed to meet the needs of client companies. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland.

  4. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  5. Small drops from large nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Said Mohamed, Ahmed; Castrejon-Pita, Jose Rafael; Herrada, Miguel Angel

    2015-11-01

    We report experimental and numerical results of the generation of drops which are significantly smaller than the nozzle from which they are generated. The system consists of a cylindrical reservoir and two endplates. One plate is a thin metal sheet with a small orifice in its centre which acts as the nozzle. The other end consists of a piston which moves by the action of an elecromechanical actuator which in turn is driven by sine-shape pull-mode pulses. The meniscus (formed at the nozzle) is thus first overturned, forming a cavity. This cavity collapses and a thin and fast jet emerges from its centre. Under appropriate conditions the tip of this jet breaks up and produces a single diminutive drop. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results was found. Also, a series of experiments were performed in order to study the effects that the pulse amplitude and width, together with variations in the liquid properties, have over the final size of the droplet. Based on these experiments, a predictive law for the droplet size has been derived. This work was funded by the Royal Society (University Research Fellowship and Research Grant), the John Fell Fund (Oxford University Press), the Ministry of Science and Education (DPI2013-46485 Spain), and the Junta de Andalucia (P08-TEP-31704128 Spain).

  6. Small is beautiful, and dry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHERIDAN; John

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of plant and animal species have been observed to have superhydrophobic surfaces that lead to various novel behaviors. These observations have inspired attempts to create artificial superhydrophobic surfaces, given that such surfaces have multitudinous applications. Superhydrophobicity is an enhanced effect of surface roughness and there are known relationships that correlate surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, based on the underlying physics. However, while these examples demonstrate the level of roughness they tell us little about the independence of this effect in terms of its scale. Thus, they are not capable of explaining why such naturally occurring surfaces commonly have micron-submicron sizes. Here we report on the discovery of a new relation, its physical basis and its experimental verification. The results reveal that scaling-down roughness into the micro-submicron range is a unique and elegant strategy to not only achieve superhydrophobicity but also to increase its stability against environmental disturbances. This new relation takes into account the previously overlooked but key fact that the accumulated line energy arising from the numerous solid-water-air intersections that can be distributed over the apparent contact area, when air packets are trapped at small scales on the surface, can dramatically increase as the roughness scale shrinks. This term can in fact become the dominant contributor to the surface energy and so becomes crucial for accomplishing superhydrophobicity. These findings guide fabrication of stable super water-repellant surfaces.

  7. XP in a Small Software Development Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babb, Jeffry; Hoda, Rashina; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While small software development shops have trended towards the adoption of Agile methods, local conditions and high iteration pressure typically cause adaptations and appropriations of Agile methods. This paper shares evidence from a study concerning how a small software development company adop...... most sustainable for small shop teams, with process maintenance and viability as a goal, are highlighted.......While small software development shops have trended towards the adoption of Agile methods, local conditions and high iteration pressure typically cause adaptations and appropriations of Agile methods. This paper shares evidence from a study concerning how a small software development company adopts...

  8. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  9. New developments in small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fifty years since nuclear fission was discovered, nuclear energy has emerged to play an increasingly important role in meeting global energy needs. At the recent World Energy Conference in Montreal, 1989 September, experts agreed that nuclear power will continue to be an essential part of the future energy mix. The demand for economic and reliable energy sources is driven by the growth in the world's population and the essential role energy plays in industrial development. Global energy requirements, expected to double over the next 40 years, will seriously challenge suppliers in their ability to meet the demand. Ultimately, efficient energy utilization will become singularly important. Industrialization and economic development manifest themselves in urbanization. Urban dwellers consume significantly more energy per capita compared with their rural neighbours. Consequently, concentrated and environmentally acceptable energy sources, combined with efficient distribution systems, are now recognized as essential to meet urban energy demands. In considering the alternatives that will meet these requirements, nuclear energy qualifies as both a concentrated and environmentally benign source. Nuclear electricity generation is a mature technology that paves the way for other applications. If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified, and appropriately designed and sized reactors developed as an investment in the future. To meet this potential, new small reactor concepts are being developed to satisfy the expected energy demands, while also displaying characteristics that address current public concerns for providing minimal environmental impact. Concepts ranging in sized from 10 MW(t) to 1000 MW(t) are being pursued in a number of countries, including Canada, USA, UK, China, and

  10. Large and small photovoltaic powerplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, Daniel

    The installed base of photovoltaic power plants in the United States has roughly doubled every 1 to 2 years between 2008 and 2015. The primary economic drivers of this are government mandates for renewable power, falling prices for all PV system components, 3rd party ownership models, and a generous tariff scheme known as net-metering. Other drivers include a desire for decreasing the environmental impact of electricity generation and a desire for some degree of independence from the local electric utility. The result is that in coming years, PV power will move from being a minor niche to a mainstream source of energy. As additional PV power comes online this will create challenges for the electric grid operators. We examine some problems related to large scale adoption of PV power in the United States. We do this by first discussing questions of reliability and efficiency at the PV system level. We measure the output of a fleet of small PV systems installed at Tucson Electric Power, and we characterize the degradation of those PV systems over several years. We develop methods to predict energy output from PV systems and quantify the impact of negatives such as partial shading, inverter inefficiency and malfunction of bypass diodes. Later we characterize the variability from large PV systems, including fleets of geographically diverse utility scale power plants. We also consider the power and energy requirements needed to smooth those systems, both from the perspective of an individual system and as a fleet. Finally we report on experiments from a utility scale PV plus battery hybrid system deployed near Tucson, Arizona where we characterize the ability of this system to produce smoothly ramping power as well as production of ancillary energy services such as frequency response.

  11. EFFECT OF MARKET ORIENTATION ON SMALL BUSINESS PERORMANCE IN SMALL TOWN IN MALAYSIA: AN EMPRICAL STUDY ON MALAYSIAN SMALL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masroor ALAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on market orientation, and performance was related to big firms. In this study, based on the theoretical framework, a model was developed to investigate the effect of market orientation on business performance in small firms. To test the relationships among the variables, data from 53 small firms in the small town of Chunglun at Sintok, Kedah was used. The findings show that the three components of market orientation are related positive to business performance of small firms. The further analysis also confirmed that customer orientation and competitor orientation are strong predictors of small firm performance. The findings of this study confirm that market orientation behavior also applies to small firms.

  12. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  13. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... period for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR... Street SW., Washington, DC 20416; or send an email to Technology@sba.gov . Highlight the information...

  14. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. 32.7 Section 32.7 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. (a) Residential real...

  15. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...

  16. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounted for more than 50%, and in Austria with more than 70% of lodging facilities and represent a generator of hotel business in a large number of European tourism countries, and great attention is given to the small enterpreneurs stimulating their growth with different measures of tourist and general economy politics. The author reflects on the Croatian experience of the small businesses in the hospitality through research of development of small family hotels and their importance for the improvement of the supply of the Croatian hotel industry which future is built on personal approach to guests and present trends in the tourism market. States that the role of the National Association of family and small hotels, which represents the specific interests of small hoteliers and enables the continuous improvement of the quality of their offerings, as well as measures to encourage small business development at the macro level. Based on the made analysis the measures of increasing the efficiency of small businesses in the Croatian hospitality are given.

  17. Why Small Manufacturing Firms Shun DCF

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Joe; Burns, Richard; Denson, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Although there is ample literature on the use of capital budgeting techniques by small firms, there is practically no research available on why small firms don’t use discounted cash flow methods. This paper looks at this rationale issue in die light of Brigham's 10 hypodieses (in Fundamentals of Financial Management, sixth edition). Support is found primarily for Brigham’s ignorance hypothesis, but also for his other hypotheses concerning small firms’ short-run cash flow orientation, the comp...

  18. Small Package Transportation Companies: An Exploratory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Lee WILLIAMS; Nabil RAZZOUK; Victoria SEITZ

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the evaluative criteria used when choosing small-package transportation companies, the level of importance of selected criteria, and how selected package carriers are perceived by small business decision makers. Methodology: Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires from a total of 31 decision makers in small businesses. The self-administered questionnaire was designed with four sections that handled separate but related topics. Questions from all four sec...

  19. Small animal dentistry in Canada: 1994 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Haws, I J; Anthony, J .M.

    1996-01-01

    Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and complia...

  20. Success Essentials of Yiwu Small Commodity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find the success factors of Yiwu Small Commodity Market. Beside this main objective, the historical reasons of Yiwu Small Commodity Market’s formation also have been analyzed. The purpose was to integrate the historical reasons and internal reasons together to get more comprehensive analysis results of Yiwu market. During the process of research, interviews of five shopkeepers in Yiwu Small Commodity Market were done. The interviews were held in April 2...

  1. Tweezers for Chimeras in Small Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Iryna; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Zakharova, Anna; Wolfrum, Matthias; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-03-01

    We propose a control scheme which can stabilize and fix the position of chimera states in small networks. Chimeras consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics in systems of nonlocally coupled identical oscillators. Chimera states are generally difficult to observe in small networks due to their short lifetime and erratic drifting of the spatial position of the incoherent domain. The control scheme, like a tweezer, might be useful in experiments, where usually only small networks can be realized.

  2. Small entrepreneurship in hospitality: Croatian experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Slobodan; Rot, Eddy; Pretula, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounte...

  3. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Ivanovic; Eddy Rot; Miroslav Pretula

    2013-01-01

    After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounte...

  4. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. The following findings emerged from the study: • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small no...

  5. Hydro climatic ranking of small Mediterranean islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubenkov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Islands are specific environments whose natural features form the basis of social and economic development. It is particularly distinct on small islands. In hydrological terms, these are islands with surface areas between 100 and 1000 km2. There are 40 small islands in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of these have very limited water resources, due to their geological structure and precipitation regime. This paper outlines the basic geographical and climatic features of small Mediterranean islan...

  6. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dukowicz, Andrew C.; Lacy, Brian E.; Levine, Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), defined as excessive bacteria in the small intestine, remains a poorly understood disease. Initially thought to occur in only a small number of patients, it is now apparent that this disorder is more prevalent than previously thought. Patients with SIBO vary in presentation, from being only mildly symptomatic to suffering from chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and malabsorption. A number of diagnostic tests are currently available, although the optim...

  7. Small Worlds: Strong Clustering in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Matthias R

    2007-01-01

    Small-worlds represent efficient communication networks that obey two distinguishing characteristics: a high clustering coefficient together with a small characteristic path length. This paper focuses on an interesting paradox, that removing links in a network can increase the overall clustering coefficient. Reckful Roaming, as introduced in this paper, is a 2-localized algorithm that takes advantage of this paradox in order to selectively remove superfluous links, this way optimizing the clustering coefficient while still retaining a sufficiently small characteristic path length.

  8. Small is beautiful: Russian compact reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.; Perera, J.

    1994-06-30

    Large areas of Russian territory still have no centralized electricity supply making them particularly suitable for the small nuclear power plants described in this article. Thirty small reactor designs have been assessed each generating between 1 MWe and 150 MWe. Six designs were selected as winners, two in each section of small, medium and large designs, capable of producing low cost electricity, efficiently. These are described briefly. plans are underway for the construction of some of the design winners in remote locations. (UK).

  9. Vanraj Mini-Tractors: Is Small Beautiful?

    OpenAIRE

    Pratik Modi

    2008-01-01

    This case presents the dilemma of the decision maker in selecting the most appropriate market segment for Vanraj 10 HP mini-tractors — an innovation from a small farmer in Gujarat, India. Four market segments were identified: small and marginal farmers, large farmers, industries, and horticulture farmers. Vanraj was economical and possessed all the features of a big tractor. Mr. Trivedi, the decision maker, believed that the tractor would serve the needs of small and marginal farmers better, ...

  10. New Orthogonal Small Set Kasami Code Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Pramaita; I G.A.G.K. Diafari; DNKP Negara; Agus Dharma

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose the design of a new orthogonal small set Kasami code sequence generated using combination of non-orthogonal m-sequence and small set Kasami code sequence. The authors demonstrate that the proposed code sequence has comparable auto-correlation function (ACF), cross- correlation function (CCF), peak cross-correlation values with that of the existing orthogonal small set Kasami code sequence. Though the proposed code sequence has less code sequence sets than th...

  11. Dynamic capabilities in small software firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kivelä, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation we study dynamic capabilities in small software firms. Small software firms find themselves in highly complex and turbulent environments that require dynamic capabilities to build, integrate and configure resources. While the literature describes a portfolio of such dynamic capabilities that can help firms to adapt to changing conditions, we could not find many definitions, models and studies on these capabilities suitable with particular focus on small software firms. Fu...

  12. Small wind planning and building successful installations

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Nolan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive guide to achieving successful small wind installations. It is a comprehensive information resource from one of the world's most experienced small wind professionals, covering all the key issues for small wind system development, from site and machine selection to international standards compliance. Engineers who are tasked with planning and developing these small wind systems, from choosing the best site and accurately estimating likely power output to obtaining proper permitting and troubleshooting operational inefficiencies, will find this book an ess

  13. ATLAS- lowering the muon small wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS - the two muon small wheels lowered into the cavern Like briefly separated twin sisters, ATLAS’s small wheels were once again united at the experiment’s surface building at Point 1 on St Valentine’s Day. The lowering of the small wheels into the tunnel will mark the end of the installation of detector components for the experiment. At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern.

  14. The Innovation Types Evaluation of Small Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-jie; TANG Bing-yong; Ronald K. Mitchell; XING Xi-rong

    2002-01-01

    The technology innovation and technology innovation capability plays an important role in management study of small business's growth and development. In this paper, the types of innovation in small business are discussed. Then, a hierarchy comprehensive fuzzy index system evaluating the types of small businesses is proposed. Because of the fuzziness of 15 factors used to analyze the small business, L-R fuzzy number is applied to describe the basic fuzzy state index. Furthermore, the corresponding fuzzy evaluation algorithm is designed. An application example indicated the effects of the methods.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS CREDIT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the national economy, providing 60% of revenues in foreign countries. In Russia, this sector is developing slowly due to lack of funding. In connection with the development of small business, lending is growing in popularity in this sphere. The state develops a variety of programs to support small businesses in the form of public and private lending institutions, venture capital funds, credit unions. However, the volume of lending to small business remains relatively low, due to mistrust of banks and credit organizations in the sphere of small business. Nevertheless, it is here, according to statistics, the debt on loans is only 1.5% of the total. The article describes the features of small business lending, it analyzes the dynamics of the volume of loans granted, and the amount of debt, identifies main obstacles to obtaining loans to entrepreneurs, gives the analysis of credit conditions of small business in Russia and Germany. The problem of credit was considered from two perspectives: from the perspective of credit institutions and the banks themselves. We have developed measures to improve credit conditions, which must take into account not only credit institutions but also the state. It is necessary to provide tax incentives, encouraging the establishment and development of insurance business associations, to support the creation of specialized banks lending to small businesses, the development of cooperation of small and large banks to increase bank lending and reduce credit risks

  16. Small firm subsistence and market dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jeroen; Péli, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    In many markets, large and small firms coexist. As large firms can in principle out-compete small ones, the actual presence of the latter asks for an explanation. In ours, we focus on the dimensionality of markets, which can change as a consequence of product innovations, preference elaboration or institutions. We show that increasing market dimensionality substantially enlarges the market periphery relative to the market center, which creates new potential niches for small firms. We thereby provide a parsimonious explanation for small firm subsistence.

  17. Role of Small Airways in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkas, Lindsay K; Martin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory condition of both the small and large airways. Recently the small airways have gained attention as studies have shown significant inflammation in the small airways in all severities of asthma. This inflammation has correlated with peripheral airway resistance and as a result, noninvasive methods to reliably measure small airways have been pursued. In addition, recent changes in asthma inhalers have led to alterations in drug formulations and the development of extrafine particle inhalers that improve delivery to the distal airways. PMID:27401620

  18. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestin......OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...

  19. Small business executives and health insurance: findings from a national survey of very small firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin; Brodie, Mollyann; Levitt, Larry

    2003-09-01

    Previous researchers have documented that very small businesses (3-24 workers) are less likely to offer employees health insurance than larger corporations. This study supplements previous findings on the prevalence of health insurance among small firms. The authors also attempt to illuminate reasons behind coverage decisions by interviewing small business owners and executives, who most often make health benefits decisions on behalf of their employees. The study examines attitudes about health insurance, opinions, and practices in these very small firms, and the response of small business owners to policy alternatives designed to expand coverage in small businesses.

  20. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  1. Graduate Employment and Small Businesses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Matlay, Harry

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary China, there are two far-reaching developments that impact directly on graduate employment: (a) a highly entrepreneurial and rapidly growing small business sector and (b) a rapidly expanding higher education sector. Paradoxically, while the small business sector continues to suffer from acute skills shortages, new graduates are…

  2. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Nico; Reinhard, Stijn; Bets, van L.K.J.; Kuhlman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. However, at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems. I

  3. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  4. Hate Speech on Small College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    A study identified and evaluated the approach of small colleges in dealing with hate speech and/or verbal harassment incidents. A questionnaire was sent to the Dean of Students at 200 randomly-selected small (500-2000 students), private, liberal arts colleges and universities. Responses were received from 132 institutions, for a response rate of…

  5. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively in a variety of…

  6. Small solid angle device setup and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantize the weight of Uranium-plate accurately, the small solid angle device was redesigned. To fit the requirement of homogeneity check, the sliding base was introduced in the design. This paper presents the detailed application of small solid angle device setup and quantization of Uranium-plate and homogeneity check. (authors)

  7. The paradoxes of small Public Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    ). The research behind this paper sets out the challenge this size limit. The paper present quantitative and qualitative material on small PPP on the Italian and British real estate market. It is shown that small PPP (below 13,4 million euro) are widespread in the two investigated countries. It is thus...

  8. A High-performance Small Signal Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    According to questions in the design of high quality small signal amplifier, this paper gave a new-type high performance small signal amplifier. The paper selected the operational amplifier of ICL Company and designed a new-type circuit with simple, low cost and excellent performance.

  9. Small States, Nationalism and Institutional Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses theories of small states (e.g. Katzenstein) and nationalism (e.g. Gellner) to explain why Denmark and Ireland responded to the 2008 financial crisis in different ways. In Denmark, a coordinated market economy with considerable corporatism and state intervention, the private sector...... of nationalism whereas Ireland did not. Lessons for the theories of small states and nationalism are explored...

  10. Agility in a small software firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Mathiassen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Small software firms are vulnerable to environmental uncertainty. While agile methods and other technologies offer suggestions to this challenge, we know little about how these firms combine project and firm level capabilities to effectively respond to changes. On this backdrop, we examine a small...

  11. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  12. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  13. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  14. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk ... day and for how long you have smoked. Being around the smoke ...

  15. 77 FR 72999 - Small Brewers Bond Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... definition as to who is a ``small'' brewer. However, for taxpayers whose annual alcohol excise tax liability... 24, 2011 (76 FR 52862). In adopting the quarterly tax payment provisions, T.D. TTB-41 also made... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 25 RIN 1513-AB94 Small Brewers Bond Reduction...

  16. Business environment and Russian Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    Rubzova, O.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with factors hampering the development of small business in the monopoly-dominated Russian economy. It is suggested that more activism on the part of small business organizations is required to foresee the enforcement of the legislation promoting competition

  17. E-Learning in Small Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Sally

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the existing and potential role of electronic learning in small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs). Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could create new forms of learning, particularly appealing to small organisations, to overcome traditional barriers such as lack of financial resources, time,…

  18. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  19. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  20. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

  2. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Li, D.; Qin, P.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks

  3. 78 FR 77352 - Small Business Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... process. Background NASA's small business policy, published August 17, 1993 [58 FR 43554], was established..., Small Business Programs [62 FR 36707, July 9, 1997, as amended at 64 FR 25215, May 11, 1999; 65 FR 38777, June 22, 2000; 65 FR 58932, Oct. 3, 2000; 67 FR 53947, Oct. 23, 2001; 69 FR 21765, Apr. 22, 2004],...

  4. Working with Cooperative Small Groups. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diversified small groups in the classroom provide a good opportunity for students to share information and ideas with each other. The research on cooperative small groups points out the benefits of these interactions and describes the process as a powerful forum for developing students' critical thinking and higher-order skills: (1) Cooperative…

  5. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies...

  6. Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-wei; YUAN Lin; Hu Hong-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma is a special type of tumor which is usually found in the lungs. However, it is very rare in extra pulmonary tissues, especially in epididymis. One case of small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the right epididymis, with partial differentiation to adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma is reported as follows.

  7. Theory of small-depth channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion channeling at small depths is studied on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation solved for the distribution function of ions in the channel. The expressions for the flux and oscillation peak width as functions of depth are obtained which are valid for whatever small depths of penetration

  8. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  9. A Model of Small Group Facilitator Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Judith A.; Jin, Sungmi; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    This study used small group theory, quantitative and qualitative data collected from experienced practicing facilitators at three points of time, and a building block process of collection, analysis, further collection, and consolidation to develop a model of small group facilitator competencies. The proposed model has five components:…

  10. Arteriovenous Malformation Detected by Small Bowel Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Fujii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding that originates in the small intestine is often difficult to diagnose. When successful diagnosis reveals a lesion that can be localized preoperatively, the laparoscopic approach is an appropriate and beneficial treatment modality for small bowel resection. A 69-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of gastrointestinal bleeding and symptomatic transfusion-dependent anemia. Upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Double-balloon endoscopy established the source of the bleeding as a 0.5-cm polypoid mass appearing as a submucosal tumor with redness and pulsation in the lower ileum, suggesting a vascular lesion. Laparoscopic small bowel resection was successful in removing the mass in the ileum. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Preoperative small bowel endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing the cause and localization of arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine.

  11. Research progress of cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-dong JIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease refers to a group of pathological processes with various etiologies that affect small arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries of the brain. Recently, the researches of cerebral small vessel disease have got initial progressions, and a definite diagnosis of this disease is comfirmed by biopsy. Given the pathological material is difficult to obtain, clinicians should pay more attention to the imaging features and clinical manifestations. Correct understanding of imaging and clinical manifestations contributes to the early identification of cerebral small vessel disease. Herein, an overview is provided on the present status, common imaging features, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment of cerebral small vessel disease. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.003

  12. Generically large nongaussianity in small multifield inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramante, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame, IN, 46556 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    If forthcoming measurements of cosmic photon polarization restrict the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio to r<0.01, small field inflation will be a principal candidate for the origin of the universe. Here we show that small multifield inflation, without the hybrid mechanism, typically results in large squeezed nongaussianity. Small multifield potentials contain multiple flat field directions, often identified with the gauge invariant field directions in supersymmetric potentials. We find that unless these field directions have equal slopes, large nongaussianity arises. After identifying relevant differences between large and small two-field potentials, we demonstrate that the latter naturally fulfill the Byrnes-Choi-Hall large nongaussianity conditions. Computations of the primordial power spectrum, spectral index, and squeezed bispectrum, reveal that small two-field models which otherwise match observed primordial perturbations, produce excludably large nongaussianity if the inflatons’ field directions have unequal slopes.

  13. Small Science: Small is Beautiful: Challenges and Perspectives of Nano/Meso/Microscience (Small 16/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, Markus

    2016-04-01

    On page 2107, M. Antonietti presents current and future trends in 'small science', and why these are at the core of current scientific developments. The cover artwork connects the macroscopic world, an apparent splash of carbon black powder, with the microscopic structure of diverse carbon allotropes to "construct" the powder. At the second glance, groups of little scientists enter the "World of SMALL" to observe and engineer reality, together, beyond the scales. Original Artwork of Yoobin Chun, Korea: The world of SMALL, 2015. PMID:27101417

  14. Small x phenomenology. Summary of the 3rd Lund small x workshop in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.R. [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Baranov, S. [Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (DE). FRG] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status. (Orig.)

  15. Optimisation of Investment Resources at Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Iryna B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the process of optimisation of the structure of investment resources, development of criteria and stages of optimisation of volumes of investment resources for small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article characterises the process of transformation of investment resources into assets and liabilities of the balances of small enterprises and conducts calculation of the structure of sources of formation of investment resources in Ukraine at small enterprises by types of economic activity in 2011. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the structure of investment resources of small enterprises the article forms main groups of criteria of optimisation in the context of individual small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article offers an algorithm and step-by-step scheme of optimisation of investment resources at small enterprises in the form of a multi-stage process of management of investment resources in the context of increase of their mobility and rate of transformation of existing resources into investments. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of a structural and logic scheme of optimisation of volumes of investment resources at small enterprises.

  16. The Ethical Dilemma in Globalizing Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob C. Nganga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is largely a theoretical exposition of ethical challenges that stifle the participation of smallbusinesses in the global value chains with particular reference to businesses in developing countries. Smallbusinessclusters in developing economies, remain locked in low-quality products and low-income markets.With little innovation, small business lack capacity to produce goods that can attract foreign demand. Yet,small enterprises must provide productive employment for an increasing number of job-seekers in thesecountries. Innovation growth in small enterprises is normally limited to apprenticeship process and as such,results in a dead-end to progress of indigenous technology. To promote creation and growth of small business,efforts are required to put the small business clusters in a global value chain as this enhances possibilities ofnew market avenues and as well as benching market indigenous innovative efforts to international standards.Exposure of small business to global market also encourages networks formations which are conduits of skillsfor quality improvement and valuation of products from the sector. However, the quest for improving theparticipation and market share of small business is faced with challenges that stem from the way the process ofglobalization has taken place over time. To overcome these globalization challenges, policy makers mustcontend with ethical issues that require to be addressed through consultative efforts at international arena.

  17. Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.

  18. The ubiquity of small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesford, Qawi K; Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Small-world networks, according to Watts and Strogatz, are a class of networks that are "highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs." These characteristics result in networks with unique properties of regional specialization with efficient information transfer. Social networks are intuitive examples of this organization, in which cliques or clusters of friends being interconnected but each person is really only five or six people away from anyone else. Although this qualitative definition has prevailed in network science theory, in application, the standard quantitative application is to compare path length (a surrogate measure of distributed processing) and clustering (a surrogate measure of regional specialization) to an equivalent random network. It is demonstrated here that comparing network clustering to that of a random network can result in aberrant findings and that networks once thought to exhibit small-world properties may not. We propose a new small-world metric, ω (omega), which compares network clustering to an equivalent lattice network and path length to a random network, as Watts and Strogatz originally described. Example networks are presented that would be interpreted as small-world when clustering is compared to a random network but are not small-world according to ω. These findings have important implications in network science because small-world networks have unique topological properties, and it is critical to accurately distinguish them from networks without simultaneous high clustering and short path length. PMID:22432451

  19. Thinking Big about Getting Small: An Ideological Genealogy of Small-School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Background: Support for small schools, and specifically for the creation of small, autonomous schools of choice, has grown considerably in the past decade--particularly in the context of urban schooling. Funded by private and public monies, small-school initiatives have been implemented in most of the nation's city school districts and have become…

  20. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium...

  1. Radiotherapy for Small Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Kurokawa, Yasushi; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Abiko, Seisho; Shiroyama, Yujiro; Kamiryo, Toshifumi; Nakano, Shigeki; Eguchi, Yuuki; Tsurutani, Toru; Ito, Haruhide

    1991-01-01

    The result of two types of radiation therapy for small cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were analyzed, and the indications and limitations of radiation therapy for small AVMs discussed. Four patients with small AVMs received radiation therapy. There were three males and one female, ranging in age from 7 to 44 years with an average of 29 years. One cerebral AVM was located in the right thalamus, two were in the left central sulcus and one was in the left parietal lobe. Three AVMs wer...

  2. Nonlinear tracking control of small electrical machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a methodology to design simple and effective high-performance tracking controllers for small AC electrical machines. By taking advantages of the two-time-scale property of small electrical machines, a second-order nonlinear dynamical model is derived from a singular perturbation formulation of the full-order model of a small electrical machine. A globally stable, maximum-torque adaptive controller is developed based on this reduced-order model. Simulation results show that this controller is comparable to controllers based on the full model. In addition, this controller is computationally very simple and requires fewer sensory measurements for feedback purposes

  3. Dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C. V.; Coyne, G. V.; Magalhaes, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss simultaneous dust model fits to our extinction and polarization data for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using existing dust models. Dust model fits to the wavelength dependent polarization are possible for stars with small lambda(sub max). They generally imply size distributions which are narrower and have smaller average sizes compared to those in the Galaxy. The best fits for the extinction curves are obtained with a power law size distribution. The typical, monotonic SMC extinction curve can be well fit with graphite and silicate grains if a small fraction of the SMC carbon is locked up in the grains. Amorphous carbon and silicate grains also fit the data well.

  4. Editorial: Small Business and Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Ramsey; Lynn M. Martin; Patrick Ibbotson; Craig M Parker

    2009-01-01

    We are pleased to present this AJIS featured theme on Small Business and Information Systems, which is the result of a merger between AJIS and the Journal of Information Systems and Small Business. The co-editors of both journals felt that the merger would help raise the profile of small business research in Australia (since AJIS is more highly recognised than JISSB) and that it would increase the number of publications in AJIS. It is also a global featured theme, with papers from Australia, ...

  5. Method and system for small scale pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  6. A new small satellite goes into orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On 5 November, 2008,a rocket launched the Chuangxin-1(02), a small satellite built by the Shanghai Engineering Center for MicroSatellite under the CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, into its preset orbit.

  7. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  8. JPL Small Body Database Search Engine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use this search engine to generate custom tables of orbital and/or physical parameters for all asteroids and comets (or a specified sub-set) in our small-body...

  9. Small-$x$ resummation from HELL

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Small-$x$ logarithmic enhancements arising from high-energy gluon emissions affect both the evolution of collinearly-factorized parton densities and partonic coefficient functions. With the higher collider energy reached by the LHC, the prospect of a future high-energy collider, and the recent deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) results at small-$x$ from HERA, providing phenomenological tools for performing small-$x$ resummation has become of great relevance. In this paper we discuss a framework to perform small-$x$ resummation for both parton evolution and partonic coefficient functions and we describe its implementation in a computer code named High-Energy Large Logarithms (HELL). We present resummed and matched results for the DGLAP splitting functions and, as a proof of principle, for the massless structure functions in DIS.

  10. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer the best combination of simplicity, performance, wet system mass and power consumption for small satellites (<100kg, <50Watts)...

  11. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  12. High Tc superconducting small loop antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Mehler, M.J.; Maclean, T.S.M.; Lancaster, M.J.; Gough, C.E. (Univ. of Birmingham (UK)); Alford, N. (I.C.I. Advanced Materials Div., Runcorn (UK))

    1989-12-01

    The improvement in the radiation efficiency of an electrically small loop antenna is analysed when it is fabricated from a superconductor, and experimental results for a liquid nitrogen cooled, ceramic superconducting loop at 450MHz are presented. (orig.).

  13. Site-specificity in small architectural interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Bruun Jespersen, Line

    2016-01-01

    This paper is investigating the concepts of site-specificity, place and experience as they have been interpreted in a number of projects with at strong emphasis on the characteristics of the site, in the form of small architectural or artistic interventions. The idea of site-specificity is re......-emerging in contemporary architectural discourse in a series of projects, in e.g. the Norwegian project ”National Tourist Roads”. The small architectural interventions consequently work with enhancing or framing the qualities of site and aim at being a mediating element between man and nature. In this paper two main...... specificity in the small architectural interventions. The paper concludes that the small architectural interventions operate with a narrow concept of site, and that the large variety of artistic strategies and types of site-specificity found in contemporary art could serve as inspiration to open up...

  14. Small company mergers--good for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Bains, William

    2006-11-01

    An analysis of 105 mergers among small UK biotech companies over a 10-year period shows that the improvement of shareholder positions, rather than product pipelines or business opportunities, is the main motivation for such transactions. PMID:17093475

  15. Make Projects Small Form Factor PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, Duane

    2006-01-01

    Shoebox sized and smaller, small-form-factor PCs can pack as much computing muscle as a full-sized desktop computer. They consumer less power, have few or no moving parts, and are very quiet. Whether you plan to use one as a standalone PC or want to embed it in your next hacking project, a small-form-factor PC can be a lot of fun to build. Make Projects: Small Form Factor PCs is the only book available that shows you how to build small-form-factor PCs -- from kits and from scratch -- that are more interesting and more personalized than what a full-sized PC can give you. Included in the book

  16. The ubiquity of small-world networks

    CERN Document Server

    Telesford, Qawi K; Hayasaka, Satoru; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Small-world networks by Watts and Strogatz are a class of networks that are highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs. These characteristics result in networks with unique properties of regional specialization with efficient information transfer. Social networks are intuitive examples of this organization with cliques or clusters of friends being interconnected, but each person is really only 5-6 people away from anyone else. While this qualitative definition has prevailed in network science theory, in application, the standard quantitative application is to compare path length (a surrogate measure of distributed processing) and clustering (a surrogate measure of regional specialization) to an equivalent random network. It is demonstrated here that comparing network clustering to that of a random network can result in aberrant findings and networks once thought to exhibit small-world properties may not. We propose a new small-world metric, {\\omega}...

  17. MWD tool for deep, small diameter boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buytaert, J.P.R.; Duckworth, A.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring a drilling parameters while drilling a borehole in an earth formation, wherein the borehole includes a small diameter deep borehole portion and a large diameter upper borehole portion. It includes small diameter drillstring means for drilling the deep borehole portion; sensor means, disposed within the small diameter drillstring means, for measuring a drilling parameter characteristic of the deep portion of the borehole while drilling the deep portion of the borehole and for providing sensor output signals indicative of the measured parameter; an upper drillstring portion extending between the surface of the formation and the small diameter drillstring means, the upper drillstring portion including a large diameter drillstring portion; data transmission means disposed within the large diameter drillstring portion and responsive to the sensor output.

  18. Small and medium power reactors 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC follows the publication of TECDOC-347 Small and Medium Power Reactors Project Initiation Study - Phase I published in 1985 and TECDOC-376 Small and Medium Power Reactors 1985 published in 1986. It is mainly intended for decision makers in Developing Member States interested in embarking on a nuclear power programme. It consists of two parts: 1) Guidelines for the Introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in Developing Countries. These Guidelines were established during the Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 15 May 1987. Their purpose is to review key aspects relating to the introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in developing countries; 2) Up-dated Information on SMPR Concepts Contributed by Supplier Industries. According to the recommendations of the Second Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, this part contains the up-dated information formerly published in Annex I of the above mentioned TECDOC-347. Figs

  19. Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-resistojets offer an excellent combination of simplicity, performance and wet system mass for small satellites (<100 kg, <50 watts) requiring mN level...

  20. Small-boat Cetacean Surveys Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains multiple spreadsheets that hold data collected during each small-boat survey project conducted by the PIFSC CRP. This includes a summary of...

  1. Multiband small zeroth-order metamaterial antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhli, Nabil; Choubani, Fethi; David, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A novel resonant metamaterial antenna based on the Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) model is presented. The proposed small antenna is designed to operate simultaneously over multiple wireless services (UMTS-WLAN-WIMAX)

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Small Network Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Small Networking Equipment that are effective...

  3. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses need to...

  4. A small beautiful outlook; Kleine schoene Aussicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tilman

    2009-06-15

    Small wind power plants increasingly are popular in the Federal Republic of Germany. Authorities, missing quality control as well as promotion still restrain their spreading. But the technology makes progresses. For the first time political support makes signs.

  5. Small Satellite Transceiver for Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a small, light-weight, low-cost transceivers capable of establishing satellite communications links for telemetry and...

  6. Experience with small-gap undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past year, we have gained some experience with small-gap undulators through operation of the NSLS Prototype Small-Gap Undulator (PSGU). PSGU is a small R ampersand D insertion device intended for investigation of the fundamental limitations of small-gap devices. At the same time, PSGU aptly demonstrates the enhanced performance offered by such devices, through generation of radiation with a 16 mm period pure-permanent-magnet undulator. In what follows, we present a brief description of PSGU and a summary of operating experience to date. This includes a spectrum of the undulator radiation produced at a 5.6 mm magnet gap, and the appearance of operational limitations, namely lifetime degradation, beam instabilities, and increased bremsstrahlung radiation

  7. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  8. Developing a Small Business Regulatory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThank you for inviting me to share my thoughts on what the government is doing to reduce the burden on small business. I also look forward to hearing the other speakers talk about how to make the regulatory system more responsive and relevant to business needs.It is more than a year since the fall of Lehman Brothers and the beginning of the Australian Government’s response to the global financial crisis.Today, the Australian economy is showing encouraging signs of recovery. The Government’s policy responses have been largely responsible for placing Australia in a better position than most countries around the world.The Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO (released earlier this month showed that the economy is performing much better than was forecast in the last Budget — MYEFO shows that Australia is the only advanced economy to have recorded positive growth through the year to June 2009. MYEFO also upgraded the growth forecasts for the following two years with consequental falls in the expected peak unemployment rate.Although this is good news, the GFC has clearly affected, and is continuing to impact on, small business.A number of Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry surveys have reported large falls in small business confidence and conditions throughout 2008 and early 2009. However, the August ACCI Small Business Survey reports that, while conditions for small business are expected to remain challenging, conditions are stabilising.This good news is supported by the most recent Commonwealth Bank – ACCI Business Expectations Survey, which shows that small, medium and large businesses are expecting business conditions to improve significantly during this quarter.It is true that small businesses succeed or fail on the creativity, ingenuity, innovation and imagination of their owners and staff. It is also true that small businesses are notoriously time poor. When considering ways to improve the regulatory

  9. Star Tracker Cost Reduction for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Delabie, Tjorven; DE SCHUTTER, JORIS; Vandenbussche, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the great potential of small satellites has become ever clearer and small satellites are selected to perform increasingly complex missions. With this rise in mission complexity, the requirements on the Attitude Determination and Control System of the satellite increase as well. Of all the attitude determination sensors, the star tracker is by far the most accurate one. The accuracy of this sensor is in the order of arc seconds. The disadvantages of this sensor are that it...

  10. Feasibility of laparoscopy for small bowel obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    De Sol Angelo A; Migliaccio Carla; Delmonaco Pamela; Cattorini Lorenzo; Morelli Umberto; La Mura Francesco; Cirocchi Roberto; Farinella Eriberto; Cozzaglio Luca; Sciannameo Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Adherential pathology is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction does not have a clear role yet; surely it doesn't always represent only a therapeutic act, but it is always a diagnostic act, which doesn't interfere with abdominal wall integrity. Methods We performed a review without any language restrictions considering international literature indexed from 1980 to 2007 in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. We analyzed th...

  11. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude;

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.......The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  12. Deployable Tensegrity Reflectors for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Tibert, A. G.; Pellegrino, S.

    2002-01-01

    Future small satellite missions require low-cost, precision reflector structures with large aperture that can be packaged in a small envelope. Existing furlable reflectors form a compact package which, although narrow, is too tall for many applications.An alternative approach is proposed, consisting of a deployable “tensegrity” prism forming a ring structure that deploys two identical cable nets (front and rear nets) interconnected by tension ties; the reflecting mesh is attached to the front...

  13. Transforming a small business: A learning intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article reports on a learning intervention in a brokers company with fewer than 50 employees. A rich description of the participants’ experience is provided. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the use of an experiential learning process during an organisation development (OD intervention in a small business by means of a case study.Motivation for the study: This study explored the important role of small businesses; the role of management; and, more specifically, organisation development models that were developed for large corporations; as these emphasise the need to study the purpose of organisation development interventions in small businesses.Research design, approach and method: The study reported on in this article was a qualitative case study in a small brokers company with 21 staff members. The data were analysed manually by means of qualitative content analysis.Main findings: The main finding of the research concerned how experiential learning intervention provided a space for participants to start exploring, and gradually changing the dynamics of their small business, by transforming their business into a more formal company.Practical/managerial implications: The primary implication is that experiential learning interventions that are operationalised, from a psychodynamic perspective, can be valuable when consulted by small businesses during their transformation towards becoming more formal companies.Contribution/value-add: This article contributes to the OD literature on small businesses, with fewer than 50 employees, by providing data on how the learning process, that commenced during an experiential learning intervention, assisted a small company to develop its identity towards that of a more formal company.

  14. Tracheal metastasis of small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    De, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    Endotracheal metastases of primary lung cancer are rare. Only one case of tracheal metastasis from small cell lung cancer has been reported in literature. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old woman who was admitted for sudden-onset breathlessness with respiratory failure and required ventilatory support. Endotracheal growth was identified during bronchoscopy, and biopsy revealed endotracheal metastasis of small cell lung cancer.

  15. 76 FR 74749 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...SBA is reopening the comment period for the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on October 5, 2011 at 76 FR 61626. In that rule SBA proposed to amend its regulations to implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act) pertaining to small business subcontracting. SBA proposed to amend its program regulations to provide for a ``covered contract'' (a contract for......

  16. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  17. Effusion cytomorphology of small round cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhide Ikeda; Koji Tsuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Small round cell tumors (SRCTs) are a group of tumors composed of small, round, and uniform cells with high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios. The appearance of SRCT neoplastic cells in the effusion fluid is very rare. We reported the cytomorphological findings of SRCTs in effusion cytology, and performed statistical and mathematical analyses for a purpose to distinguish SRCTs. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the cytologic findings of effusion samples from 40 SRCT cases and...

  18. Institutional Perspectives on Small Wind Energy Permitting

    OpenAIRE

    Wise-West, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The small wind energy market has experienced uneven growth over the past three decades in California. Drawing on a combination of engineering, institutional economics, and marine ornithology, my dissertation focuses on one of the most common reasons cited for small wind energy's uneven growth: local government permitting regimes. Local regulatory agencies aim to interpret existing public policy during the permitting process so that outcomes balance the costs and benefits of those interested i...

  19. The small (or large) modular CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneley, D.; Harvel, G. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This presentation outlines the design for small (or large) modular CANDU. The origins of this work go back many years to a comment by John Foster, then President of AECL CANDU. Foster noted that the CANDU reactor, with its many small fuel channels, was like a wood campfire. To make a bigger fire, just throw on some more logs (channels). If you want a smaller fire, just use fewer logs. The design process is greatly simplified.

  20. A small but nonzero cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y J

    1999-01-01

    Recent astrophysical observations seem to indicate that the cosmological constant is small but nonzero and positive. The old cosmological constant problem asks why it is so small; we must now ask, in addition, why it is nonzero, and why it is positive. In this essay, we try to kill these three metaphorical birds with one stone. That stone is the unimodular theory of gravity, which is the canonical theory of gravity, except for the way the cosmological constant arises in the theory.

  1. Small bowel emergency surgery: literature's review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Saverio Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emergency surgery of the small bowel represents a challenge for the surgeon, in the third millennium as well. There is a wide number of pathologies which involve the small bowel. The present review, by analyzing the recent and past literature, resumes the more commons. The aim of the present review is to provide the main indications to face the principal pathologies an emergency surgeon has to face with during his daily activity.

  2. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  3. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  4. Small x Phenomenology Summary and Status

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S; Ciafaloni, Marcello; Collins, J; Davidsson, M; Gustafson, G; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Karlsson, M; Kimber, M A; Kotikov, A V; Kwiecinski, J; Loennblad, L; Miu, G; Salam, Gavin P; Seymour, Michael H; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Zotov, N P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the general status of our understanding of small x physics. It is based on presentations and discussions at an informal meeting on this topic held in Lund, Sweden, in March 2001. This document also marks the founding of an informal collaboration between experimentalists and theoreticians with a special interest in small x physics. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Bo Andersson, who died unexpectedly from a heart attack on March 4th, 2002.

  5. Design of a Peruvian Small Satellite Network

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Romero, Juan Martin

    2010-01-01

    A national concept for the implementation of a network of ground stations for small satellite missions is being designed. This network shall support the newly conceived small satellite program in Peru. Currently Peruvian engineers conduct investigations on how to carry out this challenging project, which is expected to gain not only Peru but also the Peruvian industry. The proposed network shall be supported not only by Peruvian government institutions, but also by national and international ...

  6. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...... for establishing stewardship programs at the clinic level. The authors provide suggestions and approaches to overcome constraints and to move from theoretic concepts toward implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs in small animal clinics....

  7. Towards Experience Management for Very Small Entities

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaud, Vincent; Saliou, Philippe; Laporte, Claude

    2011-01-01

    International audience The ISO/IEC 29110 standard: Lifecycle profiles for Very Small Entities, provides several Process Reference Models applicable to the vast majority of very small entities (defined by the ISO as "an entity (enterprise, organization, department or project) having up to 25 people") which do not develop critical software and share typical situational factors. An ISO/IEC 29110 pilot project has been established between the Software Engineering group at Brest University and ...

  8. Determinants of Small Business lending in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Atout, Abdalmalek

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Palestine is a land which 80% economy is occupied with small and medium enterprises. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors that drive banks or other financial institutions‟ decisions to provide loans to small and medium enterprises‟ owners specifically in Palestine. In order to achieve the study aim six banks and four micro finance institutions have been chosen. Loan guarantee fund programs and donations, business size and inflation were used as independent variables tha...

  9. Investigating the small lung: which imaging procedure?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, I.; Helms, P

    1982-01-01

    Ventilation and perfusion radionuclide lung scans, using krypton 81m and technetium-99m macroaggregates, were performed together with a variety of other imaging procedures in 18 children aged between 1 week and 13 years in whom radiology had shown a small lung. Radionuclide scans provided an assessment of regional ventilation and perfusion unobtainable by other means, and 4 main categories of disturbed function could be seen in the radiological small lung--namely, absence of ventilation and p...

  10. The International Small Group Tree Planting Program

    OpenAIRE

    Institute for Environmental Innovation (I4EI); Clean Air Action Corporation (CAAC)

    2007-01-01

    The International Small Group Tree Planting program (TIST) empowers small groups of subsistence farmers in countries such as Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and India to reverse the devastating effects of deforestation, drought, and famine. Since 1999, TIST participants have been identifying local sustainable development goals that include tree planting and sustainable agriculture. TIST creates a communication and administrative structure that also addresses health (including HIV/AIDS), education, an...

  11. Analysis of Small Ions with Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Ramandeep; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Small inorganic ions are easily separated through capillary electrophoresis because they have a high charge-to-mass ratio and suffer little from some of the undesired phenomenon affecting higher molecular weight species like adsorption to the capillary wall, decomposition, and precipitation. This chapter is focused on the analysis of small ions other than metal ions using capillary electrophoresis. Methods are described for the determination of ions of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. PMID:27645739

  12. A Tweezer for Chimeras in Small Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Omelchenko, Iryna; Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Zakharova, Anna; Wolfrum, Matthias; Schoell, Eckehard

    2015-01-01

    We propose a control scheme which can stabilize and fix the position of chimera states in small networks. Chimeras consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics in systems of nonlocally coupled identical oscillators. Chimera states are generally difficult to observe in small networks due to their short lifetime and erratic drifting of the spatial position of the incoherent domain. The control scheme, like a tweezer, might be useful in experiments, where usually o...

  13. Small Satellite Mars Missions using Electric Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Price, ME; Wells, NS; Ball, AJ; Zarnecki, JC; Taylor, FW

    2004-01-01

    Two small satellite concepts are presented for low cost Mars system exploration. Both concepts use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to move from a low velocity Earth escape orbit to captured Mars orbits, and so are able to make use of smaller launcher vehicles, while still providing significant payload accommodation, despite their small size. Both missions achieve their Mars system operational orbits in less than 20 months from launch. The Mars Global Atmosphere Survey (MGAS) mission design ha...

  14. The Ethical Perceptions of Small Business Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Muzaffer

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an investigation into the ethical perceptions of small business owner/managers. The study has been conducted in Northwest region of Turkey and is the first investigation of ethical perceptions in Turkey. More than 99 percent of the companies in Turkey are small businesses and they play a key role in driving sustainable economic growth and job creation. However, they remain the largely unexplored area of ethics. Most of the findings of this stu...

  15. XY model in small-world networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Beom Jun; Hong, H.; Holme, Petter; Jeon, Gun Sang; Minnhagen, Petter; Choi, M. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The phase transition in the XY model on one-dimensional small-world networks is investigated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that long-range order is present at finite temperatures, even for very small values of the rewiring probability, suggesting a finite-temperature transition for any nonzero rewiring probability. Nature of the phase transition is discussed in comparison with the globally-coupled XY model.

  16. SMALL BUSINESS SUPPORT POLICY IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Šneidere, Ruta; Būmane, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Economic growth is the important factor for improving competitiveness and to ensure the availability of financial resources at all stages of business development. The authors explore European Union activities to promote the development of small and medium enterprises, the Latvian business environment, the regulatory framework, the accounting regulatory framework for small and medium enterprises. The research study included an assessment of the business environment in the international context...

  17. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  18. Linguistic Summaries in Small Area Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Hudec

    2014-01-01

    Data collection in small area statistics also copes with missing values. In the municipal statistics we can recognize more or less similar municipalities and more or less dependent indicators. Therefore, an approach capable to process this uncertainty is desirable. Data produced in small area statistics are valuable source for users. Data dissemination which mimics human reasoning in searching and evaluation data could be a suitable solution. Thus, there is a space for improving both processe...

  19. Small is beautiful: customer driven software development

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Henrik A.B.; Koch, Christian; Pleman, Allan

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. The topics addressed in this paper is how networking can be used as a way for small software houses to enhances their innovative capabilities by using different kinds of collaboration in order to overcome the problems of lacking knowledge as well as resources in order to develop their software. In small software houses operating in markets with complex products such as ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems, networking is necessary in order to gain the needed know...

  20. Precision Radiotherapy for Small Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; KAZANZIDES, PETER

    2008-01-01

    Preclinical research using well characterized small animal models has provided tremendous benefits to medical research, enabling low cost, large scale trials with high statistical significance of observed effects. The goal of the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is to make those models available for the development and evaluation of novel radiation therapies. SARRP demonstrates the capabilities of delivering high resolution, sub-millimeter, optimally planned conformal radiatio...

  1. The small wind turbine field lab

    OpenAIRE

    Laveyne, Joannes; Van Wyngene, Karel; Kooning, Jeroen De; Van Ackere, Samuel; Van Eetvelde, Greet; Vandevelde, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The emerging market of small wind turbines (SWT) is characterised by a large variety of turbine types as well as turbine performance. The abundance of more ‘exotic’ types of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) next to the more traditional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) shows that this market is still developing. However, some technologies have proven to possess the same potential typically only found in larger wind turbines. To study the (lack of) performance of current small wind turbin...

  2. Do highways fragment small mammal populations?

    OpenAIRE

    Yale Conrey, Reesa C.; Mills, L. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Small mammal populations separated by highways may be partially or completely isolated from one another due to low dispersal capabilities, low probability of surviving highway crossing attempts, and/or avoidance of areas adjacent to highways. Threats to small mammals are problematic at the ecosystem level because of their importance as seed dispersers and their role as prey for predators, such as marten, wolverine, and raptors. Our objective is to determine how movement and gene flow are affe...

  3. Non-Invasive Green Small Cell Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mawlawi, Baher; Bastug, Ejder; Nerguizian, Chahé; Azarian, Sylvain; Debbah, Mérouane

    2011-01-01

    Future low cost wireless networks are expected to provide high data rates with low power consumption. A dense deployment of distributed small-cells, within the existing network infrastructure, is one of the candidate solutions to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, the aggregate signal resulting from the transmission of these multiples small cells can be considered as an electromagnetic (EM) pollution for passive users who do not carry wireless devices. These users are victim of primary electro...

  4. Small intestine dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Justyna; Szlufik, Stanisław; Nieciecki, Michał; Charzyńska, Ingeborga; Królicki, Leszek; Smektała, Piotr; Friedman, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the small bowel transit time in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten patients with PD with no gastrointestinal complaints and ten healthy control subjects were investigated using single photon emission computed tomography fused with computed tomography after swallowing of a specially prepared capsule containing technetium 99m, which allowed visualization of the passage in the intestines. Preliminary results show that the small intestine passage in PD patients was prolonged compared to controls.

  5. Ecologizing Industrialization in Chinese Small Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Lei

    2002-01-01

     For historical reasons, any policies that attempt to address issues of Chinese farmers, agriculture and rural society are doomed to be facing dilemmas. One typical example is the question how to protect the rural environment during the ongoing rapid industrialization and urbanization processes in rural China, driven by Township & Village Enterprises (TVEs) and Small Towns. The economic and social achievements of TVEs and Small Towns are celebrated and are widely regarded as magic weapons to ...

  6. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  7. Pathways to Naturally Small Dirac Neutrino Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    If neutrinos are truly Dirac fermions, the smallness of their masses may still be natural if certain symmetries exist beyond those of the standard model of quarks and leptons. We perform a systematic study of how this may occur at tree level and in one loop. We also propose a scotogenic version of the left-right gauge model with naturally small Dirac neutrino masses in one loop.

  8. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  9. On properties of (weakly) small groups

    CERN Document Server

    Milliet, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    A group is small if it has countably many complete $n$-types over the empty set for each natural number n. More generally, a group $G$ is weakly small if it has countably many complete 1-types over every finite subset of G. We show here that in a weakly small group, subgroups which are definable with parameters lying in a finitely generated algebraic closure satisfy the descending chain conditions for their traces in any finitely generated algebraic closure. An infinite weakly small group has an infinite abelian subgroup, which may not be definable. A small nilpotent group is the central product of a definable divisible group with a definable one of bounded exponent. In a group with simple theory, any set of pairwise commuting elements is contained in a definable finite-by-abelian subgroup. First corollary : a weakly small group with simple theory has an infinite definable finite-by-abelian subgoup. Secondly, in a group with simple theory, a normal solvable group A of derived length n is contained in an A-def...

  10. Auxin biology revealed by small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Robert, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates virtually every aspect of plant growth and development and unraveling its molecular and cellular modes of action is fundamental for plant biology research. Chemical genomics is the use of small molecules to modify protein functions. This approach currently rises as a powerful technology for basic research. Small compounds with auxin-like activities or affecting auxin-mediated biological processes have been widely used in auxin research. They can serve as a tool complementary to genetic and genomic methods, facilitating the identification of an array of components modulating auxin metabolism, transport and signaling. The employment of high-throughput screening technologies combined with informatics-based chemical design and organic chemical synthesis has since yielded many novel small molecules with more instantaneous, precise and specific functionalities. By applying those small molecules, novel molecular targets can be isolated to further understand and dissect auxin-related pathways and networks that otherwise are too complex to be elucidated only by gene-based methods. Here, we will review examples of recently characterized molecules used in auxin research, highlight the strategies of unraveling the mechanisms of these small molecules and discuss future perspectives of small molecule applications in auxin biology. PMID:24252105

  11. Venus small volcano classification and description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-03-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  12. Spin State Estimation of Tumbling Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Russell, Ryan P.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that a non-trivial percentage of small bodies that future missions may visit are in non-principal axis rotation (i.e. "tumbling"). The primary contribution of this paper is the application of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) method to estimate the small body spin state, mass, and moments of inertia; the spacecraft position and velocity; and the surface landmark locations. The method uses optical landmark measurements, and an example scenario based on the Rosetta mission is used. The SLAM method proves effective, with order of magnitude decreases in the spacecraft and small body spin state errors after less than a quarter of the comet characterization phase. The SLAM method converges nicely for initial small body angular velocity errors several times larger than the true rates (effectively having no a priori knowledge of the angular velocity). Surface landmark generation and identification are not treated in this work, but significant errors in the initial body-fixed landmark positions are effectively estimated. The algorithm remains effective for a range of different truth spin states, masses, and center of mass offsets that correspond to expected tumbling small bodies throughout the solar system.

  13. Small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yuichi; Gomi, Kuniyo; Endo, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Reika; Hayashi, Masashi; Nakanishi, Toru; Tateno, Ayumi; Yamamura, Eiichi; Asonuma, Kunio; Ino, Satoshi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Inoue, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi) ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST) was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:24455340

  14. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  15. Financial Literacy and the Success of Small Businesses: An Observation from a Small Business Development Center

    OpenAIRE

    Pearl Dahmen; Eileen Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Small business is the backbone of the U.S. economy; when the financial literacy skills of entrepreneurs fall short of those needed to operate a successful business, it is more than the individual business at risk. In 2012, 14 small businesses requesting growth-acceleration consulting services from the Florida Small Business Development Center at the University of South Florida were assessed financially as part of the service provided by the Center. Financial ratios were used to analyze the bu...

  16. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  17. Small part ultrasound in childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunsch, R., E-mail: R.Wunsch@kinderklinik-datteln.de [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Vestic Children' s Hospital Datteln, University of Witten/Herdecke, Dr.-Friedrich-Steiner-Strasse 5, D-45711 Datteln (Germany); Rohden, L. von, E-mail: l.vonrohden@gmx.de [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Klinik f. Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin – Kinderradiologie, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany); Cleaveland, R. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Vestic Children' s Hospital Datteln, University of Witten/Herdecke, Dr.-Friedrich-Steiner-Strasse 5, D-45711 Datteln (Germany); Aumann, V., E-mail: volker.aumann@med.ovgu.de [Department of Pediatric Haematology and Oncology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Universitätskinderklinik (H 10), Pädiatrische Hämatologie und Onkologie, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Small-part sonography refers to the display of small, near-surface structures using high-frequency linear array transducers. Traditional applications for small part ultrasound imaging include visualization and differential diagnostic evaluation in unclear superficial bodily structures with solid, liquid and mixed texture, as well as similar structures in nearly superficial organs such as the thyroid glands and the testes. Furthermore indications in the head and neck regions are the assessment of the outer CSF spaces in infants, the sonography of the orbit, the sonography of the walls of the large neck vessels, the visualization of superficially situated lymph nodes and neoplasms. Clinical evidence concludes that sonography, having of all imaging modalities the highest spatial resolution in the millimeter- and micrometer range (100–1000 μm), can be considered the best suited technique for examining superficial pathological formations and near-surface organs. In addition, it delivers important information about characteristic, often pathognomonic tissue architecture in pathological processes.

  18. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  19. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  20. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, valves for sodium pipes smaller than 125 mm in diameter are called ''small sodium valves''. However, this limit should rather be considered as the lower limit o ''large sodium valves''. In fact, both the largest sizes of small valves and the smallest of large valves can be found in the range of 125-300 mm in diameter. Thus what is said about small valves also applies, for a few valve types, above the 125 mm limit. Sodium valves are described here in a general manner, with no manufacturing details except when necessary for understanding valve behavior. Operating experience is pointed out wherever possible. Finally, some information is given about ongoing or proposed development plans. (U.S.)

  1. Appendix - A small scale research review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

     training? This will be illustrated by describing a research design in progress at the National Centre of Competence Development, DK, regarding a program where teachers are taught Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical and didactical method. This appendix concerns the first question. In search for empiric results concerning: What do......A small scale research review This appendix provides an analysis of a small scale search for empirical studies regarding the efficacy of adult teacher training. The appendix is a part of a paper delivered at the ASEM conference, June 2009, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. The paper tries to shed light...... for systematic reviews in the international This will be identified by a search for systematic reviews in the international clearinghouses and afterwards by a small scale mapping done in the pedagogic databaseERIC. The second question sounds: which methods can be used to measure the effects of teacher...

  2. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  3. Small Group Dynamics and Extended Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between galaxies have spectacular effects on gas dynamics, and small galaxy groups are a privileged place to investigate them. In particular, they could test the existence of cold H2 gas as dark matter in the outer parts of galaxies. HI observations have revealed that galaxies in small groups are deficient in atomic gas, like in richer galaxy clusters such as Virgo, although in a lesser extent. Galaxy interactions could be the cause of this deficiency, stripping the gas out of galaxies and enriching the inter-cluster medium (ICM) in hot gas, which in turn strips gas through ram pressure. Alternatively, the gas present at the formation of the group could have been heated to its virial temperature, and be observed now as X-rays. The dynamical processes related to this extended gas in small galaxy groups are reviewed.

  4. Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

  5. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  6. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi;

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  7. Feasibility of laparoscopy for small bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sol Angelo A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherential pathology is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction does not have a clear role yet; surely it doesn't always represent only a therapeutic act, but it is always a diagnostic act, which doesn't interfere with abdominal wall integrity. Methods We performed a review without any language restrictions considering international literature indexed from 1980 to 2007 in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. We analyzed the reference lists of the key manuscripts. We also added a review based on international non-indexed sources. Results The feasibility of diagnostic laparoscopy is high (60–100%, while that of therapeutic laparoscopy is low (40–88%. The frequency of laparotomic conversions is variable ranging from 0 to 52%, depending on patient selection and surgical skill. The first cause of laparotomic conversion is a difficult exposition and treatment of band adhesions. The incidence of laparotomic conversions is major in patients with anterior peritoneal band adhesions. Other main causes for laparotomic conversion are the presence of bowel necrosis and accidental enterotomies. The predictive factors for successful laparoscopic adhesiolysis are: number of previous laparotomies ≤ 2, non-median previous laparotomy, appendectomy as previous surgical treatment causing adherences, unique band adhesion as phatogenetic mechanism of small bowel obstruction, early laparoscopic management within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms, no signs of peritonitis on physical examination, experience of the surgeon. Conclusion Laparoscopic adhesiolysis in small bowel obstruction is feasible but can be convenient only if performed by skilled surgeons in selected patients. The laparoscopic adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction is satisfactorily carried out when early indicated in patients with a low number of laparotomies resulting in a short hospital stay and a lower postoperative

  8. REGIONAL FACTORS OF SMALL AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovskaya R. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article says that small agricultural farms (SAF play a significant role in import substitution of food, which is aimed at replacing imported agricultural commodities and finished products to domestic security. SAF subjects of Krasnodar region made a significant contribution to the increase of efficiency of regional economy. The share of small agricultural farms is 29% of regional production of grain and meat, 36% of milk, 47% of egg, 10% of sugar beet, 30% of sunflower and 95% of potatoes, 70% of vegetables, and 29% of grapes which makes a significant contribution to the process of import substitution. In addition, the SAF showed a large positive impact on the sustainability of farming, the development dynamics of the entire rural economy, increase the competitiveness of the whole field due to the increase in segment sales, improving market sales in the infrastructure. Today SAF perform a priority vector of development of regional agrarian policy. However, when the share of regional agricultural production segment is more than 35%, a small management gets only 10% of the sum of all sources of state support. In recent years, stimulation measures of subjects of small agrarian farms aimed at increasing the size of the land, the abolition of the standards concerning the number of animals, improving lending conditions, facilitating the starting of economic conditions, union efforts to organize sales channels and other programs. However, the situation with crediting SAF is improving too slowly due to lack of sufficient collateral, and only a small part of them can use loans. Besides, the bureaucratic and departmental barriers are still saved. They still face trade discrimination in the retail markets and great difficulties due to the new requirements of the construction markets, the endowment channels marketing of products etc. All this dictates the need for further improvement of the economic mechanism of regulation of small agricultural

  9. Adhesive mounting device for small objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as laser fusion target spheres or microelectronic components is described. It consists of a glass stalk drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing. The streamer may be formed about a carbon fibre or may be free-standing. (author)

  10. Formation and evolution of Pluto's small satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Levison, Harold F.

    2015-01-01

    Pluto's system of 5 known satellites are in a puzzling orbital configuration. Each of the four small satellites are on low-eccentricity and low-inclination orbits situated near a mean motion resonance with the largest satellite Charon. The Pluto-Charon binary likely formed as a result of a giant impact and so the simplest explanation for the small satellites is that they accreted from debris of that collision. The Pluto-Charon binary has evolved outward since its formation due to tidal forces...

  11. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  12. Safety Problems of Small Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents issues related to risks associated with the operation of small water supply systems on the background of water consumer safety assessment made on the basis of risk analysis. Definition of water consumer safety loss as a risk associated with the water consumption of poor quality or water lack was proposed. For this purpose, a three-parameter matrix is implemented with the parameters of the probability of a representative accident scenario, the losses of the water consumers and their protection. Risk management, together with the implementation of protective barriers of small water supply system against threats is a fundamental condition for the continued operation of the system.

  13. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however......, is improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  14. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...... with initial versus delayed radiotherapy. No survival differences in the larger study of the two studies were detected, which compared alternating with sequential delivery of radiotherapy (n = 335). The optimal way to deliver radiotherapy still must be defined. Two small, randomized studies on dose intensity...

  15. Novell Small Business Suite 6.5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    凭借着稳定的核心OS特性和大量的应用程序捆绑,Novell Small Business Suite(简称NSBS)成为这四款产品中,唯一能够与Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2003相提并论的竞争对手。我们对NSBS 6.5最新的一个测试版本进行了评估,估计这款预定于2004年

  16. Compliance Costs of Regulation for Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Lewis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing concern about the extent of government regulation in Australia and its impact on small business. This paper examines the results of a survey of small businesses in NSW and Victoria regarding their experiences relating to compliance with government regulation, the costs to business, and factors inhibiting performance. The paper describes the development of the survey instrument, the administration of the survey, a description of the sample, results of the quantitative part of the survey, and an overview of business owners’ comments provided by respondents.

  17. A Reconfigurable Communications System for Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pong P.; Kifle, Muli

    2004-01-01

    Two trends of NASA missions are the use of multiple small spacecraft and the development of an integrated space network. To achieve these goals, a robust and agile communications system is needed. Advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology have made it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips; thus this technology has great potential as the basis for a reconfigurable communications system. This report discusses the requirements of future space communications, reviews relevant issues, and proposes a methodology to design and construct a reconfigurable communications system for small scientific spacecraft.

  18. Ileal angiomyolipoma manifested by small intestinal intussusception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Ho Lee; Jong Hun Kim; Doo Hyun Yang; Yong Hwang; Myoung Jae Kang; Young Kon Kim; Min Ro Lee

    2009-01-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs), a form of benign mesenchymal hamartoma, arise primarily in the kidneys of patients with or without tuberous sclerosis. Extra-renal AMLs are very rare and are most commonly found in the liver.AMLs of the small intestine are exceedingly rare. Here,a case of a 28-year-old man, who presented with ileal intussusception caused by ileal AML is reported. The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings of ileal AMLs are discussed and the literature on small intestinal AMLs is reviewed.

  19. Small x phenomenology. Summary and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Baranov, S. [Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartels, J. [Il. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (DE)] [and others

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the general status of our understanding of small-x physics. It is based on presentations and discussions at an informal meeting in this topic held in Lund, Sweden, in March 2001. This document also marks the founding of an informal collaboration between experimentalists and theoreticians with a special interest in small-x physics. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Bo Andersson, who died unexpectedly from a heart attack on March 4th, 2002. (orig.)

  20. Small x phenomenology: summary and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); Baranov, S. [Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartels, J. [2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg Univ. (DE)] [and others

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the general status of our understanding of small-x physics. It is based on presentations and discussions at an informal meeting on this topic held in Lund, Sweden, in March 2001. This document also marks the founding of an informal collaboration between experimentalists and theoreticians with a special interest in small-x physics. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Bo Andersson, who died unexpectedly from a heart attack on March 4th, 2002. (orig.)

  1. Rocket Propulsion Engineering Company Small Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, James; Pavia, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Rocket Propulsion Engineering (RPe) is developing the first in a family of two low-cost, two stage, small rocket vehicles suitable for target, suborbital, and small-sat orbital applications. The first of these two launch vehicles, the Prospect LV-1 will have an orbital payload of 300-400 lb. The larger vehicle, the Prospect LV-2, uses about 80% of the components and technology of the LV-1 and will orbit payloads of 1500-1700 lb. Two engines are being developed. A first stage 30,000 lbf class ...

  2. Dispersal of plant fragments in small streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    numerous stems, the species-specific retention coefficients of stems, and the retention capacity of stream reaches should be important for species distribution in perturbed stream systems. Retention of stems is probably constrained in headwaters by the small downstream flux of stem fragments because...... dispersal and retention of macrophyte stem fragments (15-20 cm long) along 300 m long reaches of four small to medium sized Danish lowland streams. 2. The number of drifting stem fragments declined exponentially with distance below the point of release. This finding makes the retention coefficient (k, m-1...

  3. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.;

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed and co....... Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  4. The interprofessional team as a small group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R A

    1975-01-01

    Conflicts in interprofessional teamwork may be as much explained by group process considerations as by the interaction of professional roles and statuses. This paper examines the interprofessional team as a small group, using a synthesis of sources from social psychology, social group work, T-group literature, management theory, and health team research. Eight issues are considered in relation to the team as a small group, namely, (a) the individual in the group, (b) team size, (c) group norms, (d) democracy, (e) decision making and conflict resolution, (f) communication and structure, (g) leadership, and (h) group harmony and its relationship to group productivity.

  5. Small-World Brain Networks Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    It is nearly 20 years since the concept of a small-world network was first quantitatively defined, by a combination of high clustering and short path length; and about 10 years since this metric of complex network topology began to be widely applied to analysis of neuroimaging and other neuroscience data as part of the rapid growth of the new field of connectomics. Here we review briefly the foundational concepts of graph theoretical estimation and generation of small-world networks. We take ...

  6. Interaction regions with small source size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is often not clear what considerations really determine the size of an experimental apparatus. Spatial resolution in available detectors is often given as the answer; but this may be an oversimplification, since the spatial resolution is itself a function of detector size. It is suggested that an important determining factor is the size of the source of the interactions. To illustrate this point, the design of a detector using a small axial field magnet and high resolution chambers and an imaging Cerenkov detector is considered. The configuration of the intersection region which provides the necessary small source size has been determined by the machine study group

  7. Small RoPax Vessel stability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Henrik; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher;

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 new damage stability requirements for passenger ships based on a probabilistic method were adopted by IMO and are now part of the current SOLAS Chapter II-1 regulations (SOLAS 2009). The mandate from IMO was to keep the same safety level as inherent in the old deterministic damage stability...... regulations in SOLAS (SOLAS 90). During the rule development prior to the adoption, it was argued that the safety level for large passenger ships should be increased, but small ro/pax vessels were only rudimentarily looked at and small vessels with very high attained index were seen as “non...

  8. Linguistic Summaries in Small Area Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Hudec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data collection in small area statistics also copes with missing values. In the municipal statistics we can recognize more or less similar municipalities and more or less dependent indicators. Therefore, an approach capable to process this uncertainty is desirable. Data produced in small area statistics are valuable source for users. Data dissemination which mimics human reasoning in searching and evaluation data could be a suitable solution. Thus, there is a space for improving both processes by linguistic summaries which are based on fuzzy logic. Finally, the paper discusses future research and development topics in this field.

  9. Small signal gain in DPAL systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally-Kinney, Kristin L.; Maser, Daniel L.; Kessler, William J.; Rawlins, Wilson T.; Davis, Steven J.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we describe a platform for small signal gain measurements for alkali atom laser systems based on the DPAL excitation method. We present initial results that clearly show the transition from absorption on the alkali atom D1 lines in Cs and Rb to optical transparency and positive gain. The achievement of optical gain is critically dependent upon alkali cell conditions and collision partners. We also present the first spatially resolved gain measurements in a DPAL system. The small signal gain methods described will be valuable tools for power scaling of these laser systems.

  10. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of intermittent fasting plus intense stress on secretory IgA (SIgA) production and other mucosal parameters in the duodenum and ileum. Two groups of six mice, with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum for 12weeks, were submitted to a session of intense stress by a bout of forced swimming. Unstressed ad libitum fed or intermittently fasted groups were included as controls. After sacrifice, we evaluated intestinal SIgA and plasma adrenal hormones, lamina propria IgA+ plasma-cells, mRNA expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains in the liver and intestinal mucosa, as well as pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and Interferon-γ) and anti- (interleukin-2, -4, -10 and transforming growth factor-β) inflammatory cytokines in mucosal samples. Under intense stress, intermittent fasting down- or up-modulated the levels of most parameters in the duodenum and ileum, respectively while up-regulated corticosterone levels without affecting epinephrine. Our data suggest intermittent fasting plus intense stress elicited neuroendocrine pathways that differentially controlled IgA and pIgR expression in duodenum and ileum. These findings provide experimental foundations for a presumable impact of intermittent fasting under intense stress on the intestinal homeostasis or inflammation by triggering or reducing the IgA production in ileum or duodenum respectively. PMID:26198915

  11. 75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION RIN 3244-AF61 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY: U.S. Small... announces a final amendment to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program Policy Directive (PD... the Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research Program To: The Directors, Small...

  12. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  13. Intern Develops Small, Inexpensive Star Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) student Intern Julian Brown is just 21 years old, but don’t let his young age and boyish charm fool you. He is a serious scientist and is working to build a star tracking system at NPS designed to help very small satellites determine their orientation in space.

  14. Small into-isomorphism from L\\-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Guanggui

    2001-01-01

    [1]Lacey, H. E., Isometric Theory of Classical Banach Spaces, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag, 1974.[2]Michael, E., Pelczynski, A., Separable spaces which admit approximations, Isreal. J. Math., 1966, 4: 189.[3]Ding Guanggui, Topics on the approximation problem of almost isometric operators by isometric operators, Functional Analysis in China (eds. Li, B. R., Wang, S. W., Yan, S. Z.), Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, 19.[4]Benyamini, Y., Small into isomorphisms between spaces of continuous functions, Proc. AMS, 1981, 83: 479.[5]Benyamini, Y., Small into-isomorphisms between spaces of continuous functions II, Trans. AMS, 1983, 277: 825.[6]Alspach, D. E., Small into isomorphism on Lp spaces, Illinois J. Math., 1983, 27: 300.[7]Ding Guanggui, The approximation problem of almost isometric operators by isometric operators, Acta Math. Sci., 1988, 8: 361.[8]Ding Guanggui, Small into isomorphisms on L∞ spaces, Acta Math. Sinica, New Series, 1995, 11: 417.[9]Holmes, R. B., Geometric Functional Analysis and its Applications, New York-Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[10]Wilansky, A., Modern Methods in Topological Vector Spaces, New York-London-Paris-Toronto: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1978.

  15. 75 FR 29393 - Small Business Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... emerging from one of the worst recessions in our history, and small businesses were among the hardest hit... recover from the recession and put Americans back to work. Our Government cannot guarantee a company's... will give us vibrant communities, cutting-edge technology, and an American economy that can compete...

  16. DIY Platform for Innovative Small Museum Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Calvi, L.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a unique approach to designing museum experiences for small museums. This approach entails methods for end users and stakeholders to collaboratively design experiences without the direct involvement of design professionals, and a platform for embodying the required design knowledge to do so, based on DIY technology for actually building the designs.

  17. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  18. Small parietal thrombi in artificial bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, 51 femoro-popliteal polytrafluoroethylene grafts were implanted in patients in the Second Surgical University Clinic, Vienna. In four of these patients an angiogram performed shortly after operation showed numerous small parietal thrombi on the artificial graft, a review of the literature has not shown any similar reports. The clinical importance and consequences of this observation are discussed. (orig.)

  19. 12 CFR 16.8 - Small issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of Commission Regulation A (17 CFR part 230, Regulation A—Conditional Small Issues Exemption) to... Disclosure by Bank Holding Companies (17 CFR 229.801(c) and 231) and requirement 7 (Loans) of Rule 9-03 of Commission Regulation S-X (17 CFR 230.9-03) for guidance on appropriate disclosures when preparing...

  20. Small Angle Light Scattering by Biological Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the small angle laser radiation scattering by the particles of different shape and size is analyzed. Experimental results and theoretical calculations show that after ejection from bacteriophage DNA forms the scattering medium consisted of quasi-spherical elements with radius of R⁓10λ0. (author)

  1. SAR/MTI on small airborne platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Vermeulen, B.C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A small SAR-MTI system is being developed at TNO, aimed at deployment on tactical UAV. The system makes use of modern front-end technology, to provide flexible SAR imaging and MTI modes. Major design goals are 50 kg weight, 500 W power consumption and 50 cm resolution in order to comply with typical

  2. NASA Small Business Innovation Research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harry W.

    1985-01-01

    NASA activities in the framework of the 11-agency federal Small Business Innovation Research program are outlined in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Statistics on the program are given; the technical topics covered are listed; and the procedures involved in evaluating applications for support are discussed. A number of typical defects in proposals are indicated, and recommendations for avoiding them are provided.

  3. Food security of small holding farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peramaiyan, Panneer; Hermansen, John Erik; Halberg, Niels

    2010-01-01

    practicing different agro-ecological methods were higher under organic systems than conventional systems. These results suggest that organic farming has the potential to improve food security of small farmers by reducing indebtedness due to the lower cost of production without affecting total farm production...

  4. Introduction: Small Business and Networked Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Laursen, Keld; Magnusson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the organizational and managerial challenges that small and medium-sized enterprises encounter in networked innovation, thereby building a background to the articles included in the special issue. We...

  5. Optical response of small magnesium clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We predict strong enhancement in the photoabsorption of small Mg clusters in the region of 4–5 eV due to the resonant excitation of the plasmon oscillations of cluster electrons. Photoabsorption spectra for neutral Mg clusters consisting of up to N = 11 atoms have been calculated using an ab initio...

  6. Manual for Librarians in Small Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaianni, Lois Ann; Mirsky, Phyllis S.

    Discussed in this manual for the inexperienced librarian in a small hospital library are: organization and administration; book selection and ordering; cataloging and catalog cards; classification; labeling of books; selecting and processing journals; interlibrary loans; reference services; and circulation. A suggested basic starter collection of…

  7. Evaluation of airfoils for small wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new set of blades have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service-Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas in an attempt to improve the overall performance of small (1-10 kilowatt) wind turbines. The ...

  8. Photoabsorption of small sodium and magnesium clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We predict the strong enhancement in the photoabsorption of small Mg clusters in the region of 4-5 eV due to the resonant excitation of the plasmon oscillations of cluster electrons. The photoabsorption spectra for neutral Mg clusters consisting of up to N=11 atoms have been calculated using it a...

  9. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market

  10. Chemistry: Small molecular replicators go organic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Annette F.

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of complex, dynamic molecular behaviour might have had a role in the origin of life. Such behaviour has now been seen in a reaction network involving small, organic, self-replicating molecules of biological relevance. See Letter p.656

  11. Small Radial Compressors: Aerodynamic Design and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. R. Ismail; Rosolen, C. V. A. G.; Benevenuto, F. J.; Lucato, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a computational procedure for the analysis of steady one-dimensional centrifugal compressor. The numerical model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and has been utilized to predict the operational and aerodynamic characteristics of a small centrifugal compressor as well as determining the performance and geometry of compressor blades, both straight and curved.

  12. Small Radial Compressors: Aerodynamic Design and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. R. Ismail

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational procedure for the analysis of steady one-dimensional centrifugal compressor. The numerical model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and has been utilized to predict the operational and aerodynamic characteristics of a small centrifugal compressor as well as determining the performance and geometry of compressor blades, both straight and curved.

  13. More vendors aim pitch at small hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, E

    1992-10-01

    Computer vendors, operating in a sluggish market, are looking for business wherever they can find it, and small hospitals are virgin territory for many applications, including clinical and departmental systems. Sharply falling prices for minicomputers, microcomputers, printers and storage devices have cut the total cost of systems by at least 30% to 40%, putting them within the reach of smaller facilities. PMID:10121611

  14. Primary small bowel anastomosis in generalised peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, JS; van Goor, Harry; Bleichrodt, RP

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To find out if primary small bowel anastomosis of the bowel is safe in patients with generalised peritonitis who are treated by planned relaparotomies. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects. 10 Patients with generalised purulent peritonitis c

  15. Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger L.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following areas of hand carried computers and mobile workstation technology are covered: background, applications, high end products, technology trends, requirements for the Control Center application, and recommendations for the future.

  16. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  17. Stages of Small-Group Development Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Jensen, Mary Ann C.

    1977-01-01

    This review examines published research on small-group development done in the last ten years that would constitute an empirical test of Tuckman's hypothesis that groups go through the stages of "forming,""storming,""norming," and "performing." A fifth stage, "adjourning," was added to the hypothesis. More empirical work was recommended. (Author)

  18. APPLYING ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES TO SMALL WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a discipline, economics is often misunderstood in the water supply field. Economies-of-scale, i.e., increasing unit costs with decreasing capacity, is a prevailing characteristic of water supply technology, and small utilities that serve fewer than 10,000 persons account for m...

  19. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  20. Familial versus mass selection in small populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couvet Denis

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We used diffusion approximations and a Markov-chain approach to investigate the consequences of familial selection on the viability of small populations both in the short and in the long term. The outcome of familial selection was compared to the case of a random mating population under mass selection. In small populations, the higher effective size, associated with familial selection, resulted in higher fitness for slightly deleterious and/or highly recessive alleles. Conversely, because familial selection leads to a lower rate of directional selection, a lower fitness was observed for more detrimental genes that are not highly recessive, and with high population sizes. However, in the long term, genetic load was almost identical for both mass and familial selection for populations of up to 200 individuals. In terms of mean time to extinction, familial selection did not have any negative effect at least for small populations (N ≤ 50. Overall, familial selection could be proposed for use in management programs of small populations since it increases genetic variability and short-term viability without impairing the overall persistence times.