WorldWideScience

Sample records for anti-inflammatory heat shock

  1. Exogenous heat shock cognate protein 70 pretreatment attenuates cardiac and hepatic dysfunction with associated anti-inflammatory responses in experimental septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Jen; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Wu, Jiunn-Ren

    2014-12-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that intracellular heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) can be released into extracellular space with physiologic effects. However, its extracellular function in sepsis is not clear. In this study, we hypothesize that extracellular HSC70 can protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial and hepatic dysfunction because of its anti-inflammatory actions. In Wistar rats, septic shock developed with hypotension, tachycardia, and myocardial and hepatic dysfunction at 4 h following LPS administration (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Pretreatment with recombinant bovine HSC70 (20 μg/kg, i.v.) attenuated LPS-induced hypotension and tachycardia by 21% and 23%, respectively (P shock cognate protein 70 also prevented LPS-induced hypoglycemia (217 vs. 59 mg/dL, P shock, extracellular HSC70 conveys pleiotropic protection on myocardial, hepatic, and systemic derangements, with associated inhibition of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, through mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor κB signaling pathways. Therefore, extracellular HSC70 may have a promising role in the prophylactic treatment of sepsis.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of a Nuphar lutea partially purified leaf extract in murine models of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, J; Levi, T; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Gopas, J

    2015-02-23

    Various plant organs of Nuphar lutea (L.) SM. (Nymphaeaceae) are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of arthritis, fever, aches, pains and inflammation. The main purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of Nuphar lutea leaf extract (NUP) in two septic shock models: (1) Survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS, determination of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, as well as in peritoneal macrophages in cell culture. (2) The effect of NUP in a murine model of fecal-induced peritonitis. NUP pre-treatment partially protected mice in two models of acute septic shock. We concluded that NUP is anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, modulating cytokine production and ERK phosphorylation. A significant average survival rate (60%) of LPS lethally-challenged mice was achieved by pre-treatment with NUP. In addition, NUP pre-treatment reduced nuclear NF-κB translocation in peritoneal macrophages. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12, in the sera of LPS-treated mice or in the supernatants of peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS for 2-6 h was also decreased by NUP. Pre-treatment with NUP caused a significant increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The NUP pre-treatment reduced and delayed mortality in mice with fecal-induced peritonitis. Our studies also revealed that NUP pre-treatment induced a dose-dependent phosphorylation of ERK in peritoneal macrophages. Since most of the reports about the anti-inflammatory effect of Nuphar lutea refer to rhizome and root powder and extracts, it is important to clarify the effectiveness of leaf extract as a source for such activity. NUP pre-treatment partially protected mice in two models of acute septic shock. We concluded that NUP is anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, modulating cytokine production and ERK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Awara (Astrocaryum vulgare M.) pulp oil: chemical characterization, and anti-inflammatory properties in a mice model of endotoxic shock and a rat model of pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, Emilie; Boudard, Frédéric; Brat, Pierre; Dussossoy, Emilie; Portet, Karine; Poucheret, Patrick; Giaimis, Jean; Michel, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Awara (Astrocaryum vulgare M.) is a palm fruit mainly used in nutrition. We analysed the pulp oil for fatty acid, tocopherol, carotenoid, and phytosterol and we evaluated whether this oil may attenuate inflammation in vivo. In an endotoxic shock model, awara pulp oil treatment decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines. In a pulmonary inflammation model, awara pulp oil treatment reduced eosinophil and lymphocyte numbers recovered into the broncho-alveolar lavages. These results suggest that awara pulp oil administration can efficiently counteract an acute and chronic inflammatory response in vivo that is probably mediated by fatty acids and minor compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Endogenous stress proteins as targets for anti-inflammatory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, L.

    2009-01-01

    Stress proteins such as heat shock proteins (Hsp) are important controllers of both cellular and immune homeostasis. Enhanced Hsp expression can be observed in virtually every inflammatory condition and has been proposed by us and others to lead to local activation of Hsp-specific anti-inflammatory

  5. Zein-Based Nanoparticles Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Resveratrol and Its Anti-inflammatory Effects in a Mouse Model of Endotoxic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penalva, Rebeca; Esparza, Irene; Larraneta, Eneko; González-Navarro, Carlos J; Gamazo, Carlos; Irache, Juan M

    2015-06-17

    Resveratrol offers pleiotropic health benefits including a reported ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. The aim of this work was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate a resveratrol nanoparticulate formulation based on zein. For this purpose, the oral bioavailability of the encapsulated polyphenol as well as its anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of endotoxic shock was studied. The resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles displayed a mean size of 307 ± 3 nm, with a negative zeta potential (-51.1 ± 1.55 mV), and a polyphenol loading of 80.2 ± 3.26 μg/mg. In vitro, the release of resveratrol from the nanoparticles was found to be pH independent and adjusted well to the Peppas-Sahlin kinetic model, suggesting a mechanism based on the combination of diffusion and erosion of the nanoparticle matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that zein-based nanoparticles provided high and prolonged plasma levels of the polyphenol for at least 48 h. The oral bioavailability of resveratrol when administered in these nanoparticles increased up to 50% (19.2-fold higher than for the control solution of the polyphenol). Furthermore, nanoparticles administered daily for 7 days at 15 mg/kg were able to diminish the endotoxic symptoms induced in mice by the intraperitoneal administration of LPS (i.e., hypothermia, piloerection, and stillness). In addition, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were slightly lower (approximately 15%) than those observed in the control.

  6. The heat shock protein response following eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle is unaffected by local NSAID infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Paulsen, G; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed in relation to pain and injuries in skeletal muscle, but may adversely affect muscle adaptation probably via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Induction of heat shock proteins (HSP) represents an important adaptive response...

  7. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory properties of the unsaponifiable fraction from awara (Astrocaryum vulgare M.) pulp oil in activated J774 macrophages and in a mice model of endotoxic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, Emilie; Boudard, Frédéric; Dussossoy, Emilie; Portet, Karine; Brat, Pierre; Giaimis, Jean; Michel, Alain

    2012-12-01

    Awara (Astrocaryum vulgare M.) pulp oil has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties in vivo, and contains an unsaponifiable matter rich in bioactive compounds. This study focused on the ethanolic unsaponifiable fraction (EUF) of awara pulp oil. Its chemical composition has been characterized: carotenoid, phytosterol, and tocopherol contents represent 125.7, 152.6, and 6.8 μg/mg of EUF, respectively. We further evaluated this fraction for anti-inflammatory properties in J774 macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon (IFN) γ to understand the biological effects of awara pulp oil. EUF strongly decreased nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α, and interleukin (IL) -6 and -10 production in activated J774 cells. Moreover, it inhibited expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenases-2 in vitro. The anti-inflammatory properties of EUF were also confirmed in vivo by modulation of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-10 serum concentration in an endotoxic shock model. Pre-treatment with awara oil fraction offers promise as a protective means to lower the production of excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory molecules.

  8. Influence of heat on biological activity and concentration of oleocanthal--a natural anti-inflammatory agent in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Barnett, Neil W; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-02-25

    The olive oil phenolic oleocanthal is a natural nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compound that irritates the oral pharynx in a dose-dependent manner. It has been proposed that the biological activity of oleocanthal is partially responsible for the beneficial health effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil containing oleocanthal is often added as an ingredient in a number of cooked dishes, and therefore it is of great importance to understand how best to preserve the putative health-promoting benefits of this compound, as olive oil phenolics are subject to degradation upon heating in general. One extra virgin olive oil containing 53.9 mg/kg oleocanthal was heated at various temperatures (100, 170, and 240 degrees C) for set time periods (0, 1, 5, 20, 60, and 90 min). Oleocanthal concentrations were quantified using HPLC, and its biological activity was determined with a taste bioassay measuring the intensity of throat irritation. Results demonstrated that oleocanthal was heat stable compared with other olive oil phenolics, with a maximum loss of 16% as determined by HPLC analysis. However, there was a significant decrease of up to 31% (p benefiting properties of oleocanthal. Alternatively, the difference in the concentration and biological activity of oleocanthal after heat treatment could be a result of an oleocanthal antagonist forming, decreasing or masking the biological activity of oleocanthal.

  9. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compound A, a Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Enhances Heat Shock Protein Hsp70 Gene Promoter Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ilse M.; Drebert, Zuzanna J.; Hoya-Arias, Ruben; Bahar, Ali A.; Devos, Michael; Clarisse, Dorien; Desmet, Sofie; Bougarne, Nadia; Ruttens, Bart; Gossye, Valerie; Denecker, Geertrui; Lievens, Sam; Bracke, Marc; Tavernier, Jan; Declercq, Wim; Gevaert, Kris; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Haegeman, Guy; De Bosscher, Karolien

    2013-01-01

    Compound A possesses glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Just like classical GR ligands, Compound A can repress NF-κB-mediated gene expression. However, the monomeric Compound A-activated GR is unable to trigger glucocorticoid response element-regulated gene expression. The heat shock response potently activates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), upregulates Hsp70, a known GR chaperone, and also modulates various aspects of inflammation. We found that the selective GR modulator Compound A and heat shock trigger similar cellular effects in A549 lung epithelial cells. With regard to their anti-inflammatory mechanism, heat shock and Compound A are both able to reduce TNF-stimulated IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. We established an interaction between Compound A-activated GR and Hsp70, but remarkably, although the presence of the Hsp70 chaperone as such appears pivotal for the Compound A-mediated inflammatory gene repression, subsequent novel Hsp70 protein synthesis is uncoupled from an observed CpdA-induced Hsp70 mRNA upregulation and hence obsolete in mediating CpdA’s anti-inflammatory effect. The lack of a Compound A-induced increase in Hsp70 protein levels in A549 cells is not mediated by a rapid proteasomal degradation of Hsp70 or by a Compound A-induced general block on translation. Similar to heat shock, Compound A can upregulate transcription of Hsp70 genes in various cell lines and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, whereas Compound A-dependent Hsp70 promoter activation is GR-dependent but HSF1-independent, heat shock-induced Hsp70 expression alternatively occurs in a GR-independent and HSF1-dependent manner in A549 lung epithelial cells. PMID:23935933

  11. Electron heating at interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Data for 41 forward interplanetary shocks measured between August 1978 and December 1979 show that the ratio of downstream to upstream electron temperatures, T/sub e/(d/u) is variable in the range between 1.0 (isothermal) and 3.0. On average, (T/sub e/(d/u) = 1.5 with a standard deviation, sigma e = 0.5. This ratio is less than the average ratio of proton temperatures across the same shocks, (T/sub p/(d/u)) = 3.3 with sigma p = 2.5 as well as the average ratio of electron temperatures across the earth's bow shock. Individual samples of T/sub e/(d/u) and T/sub p/(d/u) appear to be weakly correlated with the number density ratio. However the amounts of electron and proton heating are well correlated with each other as well as with the bulk velocity difference across each shock. The stronger shocks appear to heat the protons relatively more efficiently than they heat the electrons

  12. Anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive titanium metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bangcheng; Gan, Lu; Qu, Yang; Yue, Chongxia

    2010-09-01

    Anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive titanium metals prepared by anodic oxidation (AO-Ti) and alkali-heat (AH-Ti) treatments were studied by bacterial adhesion test and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay methods. The bioactivities of the metals were also evaluated by apatite formation ability and osteoblasts culture experiments. Both metals could induce apatite formation and support osteoblasts proliferation. At the condition with normal incandescent light shine, both bioactive titanium metals had antibacterial adhesion properties compared with the titanium metal without treatment. The MPO activity assay proved that they both showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. The bioactive AO-Ti had better anti-inflammatory properties than the AH-Ti. It indicated that it is possible to optimize the anti-inflammatory properties of the bioactive titanium metals by different preparation methods. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The crosstalk between Nrf2 and AMPK signal pathways is important for the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine in LPS-stimulated macrophages and endotoxin-shocked mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunfen; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Jie; Numazawa, Satoshi; Tang, Hong; Tang, Xiaoqiang; Han, Xiaojuan; Li, Junhong; Yang, Ming; Wang, Zhe; Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Hengyi

    2014-02-01

    The response of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to oxidative stress has been recently reported but the downstream signals of this response are largely unknown. Meanwhile, the upstream events for the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a critical transcriptional activator for antioxidative responses, remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between AMPK and Nrf2 signal pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inflammatory system, in which berberine (BBR), a known AMPK activator, was used for inflammation suppression. In inflammatory macrophages, BBR attenuated LPS-induced expression of inflammatory genes (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX2], interleukin [IL]-6), and the generation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, but increased the transcription of Nrf2-targeted antioxidative genes (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 [NQO-1], heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1]), as well as the nuclear localization and phosphorylation of Nrf2 protein. Importantly, we found BBR-induced activation of Nrf2 is AMPK-dependent, as either pharmacologically or genetically inactivating AMPK blocked the activation of Nrf2. Consistent with in vitro experiments, BBR down-regulated the expression of proinflammatory genes but upregulated those of Nrf2-targeted genes in lungs of LPS-injected mice, and these effects were attenuated in Nrf2-deficient mice. Moreover, the effect of BBR on survival time extension and plasma redox regulation in endotoxin-shocked mice was largely weakened when Nrf2-depleted. Our results demonstrate convergence between AMPK and Nrf2 pathways and this intersection is essential for anti-inflammatory effect of BBR in LPS-stimulated macrophages and endotoxin-shocked mice. Uncovering this intersection is significant for understanding the relationship between energy homeostasis and antioxidative responses and may be beneficial for developing new therapeutic strategies against

  14. Shock heating of the solar wind plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Y. C.; Liu, Shaoliang; Burlaga, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The role played by shocks in heating solar-wind plasma is investigated using data on 413 shocks which were identified from the plasma and magnetic-field data collected between 1973 and 1982 by Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft. It is found that the average shock strength increased with the heliocentric distance outside 1 AU, reaching a maximum near 5 AU, after which the shock strength decreased with the distance; the entropy of the solar wind protons also reached a maximum at 5 AU. An MHD simulation model in which shock heating is the only heating mechanism available was used to calculate the entropy changes for the November 1977 event. The calculated entropy agreed well with the value calculated from observational data, suggesting that shocks are chiefly responsible for heating solar wind plasma between 1 and 15 AU.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves. U Bose, V Bala, AK Shill, AA Rahman. Abstract. The crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities. When given orally to rats at dose of ...

  16. A Novel Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Page 1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0288 TITLE: A Novel Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary...Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gary...N0224 is effective for trauma and/or sepsis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hemorrhagic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), TRB-N0224 to prevent ARDS

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    . In addition, indirect anti-inflammatory effects of long-term exercise are mediated via improvements in body composition. CONCLUSION: Physical activity represents a natural, strong anti-inflammatory strategy with minor side effects and should be integrated in the management of patients with cardiometabolic......BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact...... and IL-10 is provoked by exercise and exerts direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1ra, thereby limiting IL-1β signalling. Moreover, muscle-derived IL-6 appears to have direct anti-inflammatory effects and serves as a mechanism to improve glucose tolerance...

  18. Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inflammatory Medicines Share Print Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medicines you can take for pain relief. ... well. Path to improved health How do prescription NSAIDs work? NSAIDs stop a certain kind of enzyme ...

  19. Biophoton emission induced by heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Ultraweak biophoton emission originates from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS that are produced in mitochondria as by-products of cellular respiration. In healthy cells, the concentration of ROS is minimized by a system of biological antioxidants. However, heat shock changes the equilibrium between oxidative stress and antioxidant activity, that is, a rapid rise in temperature induces biophoton emission from ROS. Although the rate and intensity of biophoton emission was observed to increase in response to elevated temperatures, pretreatment at lower high temperatures inhibited photon emission at higher temperatures. Biophoton measurements are useful for observing and evaluating heat shock.

  20. Heat shock protein 90: the cancer chaperone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone required for the stability and function of a number of conditionally activated and/or expressed signalling proteins, as well as multiple mutated, chimeric, and/or over-expressed signalling proteins, that promote cancer cell growth and/or survival. Hsp90 ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory potential of a heat-killed Lactobacillus strain isolated from Kimchi on house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C-Y; Kim, Y-H; Oh, S; Lee, H J; Kim, J H; Park, S H; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Chun, T

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease driven by the Th2-prone immune response. Therefore, a fundamental approach to restoring the Th1/Th2 balance is needed to treat AD. Eighteen different Lactobacillus strains isolated from Kimchi were screened to identify those that stimulated immune cells to secret Th1-type or Th2-type cytokines. Lactobacillus brevis NS1401 induced the greatest IFN-γ and IL-12 secretion and the least IL-4 production among the tested Lactobacillus strains. Furthermore, oral administration of heat-killed NS1401 ameliorated the symptoms of dust mite-induced AD in NC/Nga mice by decreasing the serum IgE level and reducing the number of mast cells and eosinophils in lesions. Also, the size and number of cells in the draining lymph nodes of NS1401-administered mice were significantly reduced. In agreement with these results, secretion of a Th1-type cytokine (IFN-γ) and allergen-specific IgG2a were increased, whereas secretion of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) and allergen-specific IgG1 were decreased upon administration of NS1401 in mice. Lactobacillus brevis NS1401 alleviates the symptoms of AD by restoring the Th1/Th2 balance through enhancing Th1-prone immunity. The immunomodulatory function of L. brevis NS1401 may provide effective new therapeutics against AD. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

  3. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Nicholas J; Monaghan, Sean F; Ayala, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become well accepted that sepsis exhibits two, oftentimes concomitant, inflammatory stages; a pro-inflammatory phase, referred to as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and an anti-inflammatory phase, called the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). Considering that therapeutic interventions designed to attenuate the pro-inflammatory septic response have generally failed, much recent research has gone into understanding how and why septic patients display immunosuppressive characteristics, what the significance of septic immunosuppression may be and if there exists any therapeutic targets within the CARS. Herein, we describe the potential mechanisms of the immunosuppressive/CARS phase of sepsis by discussing what anti-inflammatory agents, receptors and cell populations are currently believed to contribute to CARS. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K inhibits heat shock-induced transcriptional activity of heat shock factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jae-Jin; Cho, Jin-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Park, A Young; Kang, Wonmo; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2017-08-04

    When cells are exposed to heat shock and various other stresses, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is activated, and the heat shock response (HSR) is elicited. To better understand the molecular regulation of the HSR, we used 2D-PAGE-based proteome analysis to screen for heat shock-induced post-translationally modified cellular proteins. Our analysis revealed that two protein spots typically present on 2D-PAGE gels and containing heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) with trioxidized Cys 132 disappeared after the heat shock treatment and reappeared during recovery, but the total amount of hnRNP K protein remained unchanged. We next tested whether hnRNP K plays a role in HSR by regulating HSF1 and found that hnRNP K inhibits HSF1 activity, resulting in reduced expression of hsp70 and hsp27 mRNAs. hnRNP K also reduced binding affinity of HSF1 to the heat shock element by directly interacting with HSF1 but did not affect HSF1 phosphorylation-dependent activation or nuclear localization. hnRNP K lost its ability to induce these effects when its Cys 132 was substituted with Ser, Asp, or Glu. These findings suggest that hnRNP K inhibits transcriptional activity of HSF1 by inhibiting its binding to heat shock element and that the oxidation status of Cys 132 in hnRNP K is critical for this inhibition. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Heat shock protein 88 and Aspergillus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnie, J P; Matthews, R C

    1991-01-01

    Immunoblotting was used to dissect the antibody responses in the sera of 50 patients with proven invasive aspergillosis, 28 patients with suspected invasive aspergillosis, 35 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and 10 patients with an aspergilloma. This demonstrated the immunodominance of antigenic bands at 88, 84, 51, and 40 kDa. Monoclonal antibodies against the heat shock protein 90 complexes of Candida albicans and the water mold Achlya ambisexualis identified these fou...

  6. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. ... This mechanism is an immunological response following bacterial infection and is ... inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are mainly used in the treatment of pain and ...

  7. Chemical Characterization, Anti inflammatory and Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Characterization, Anti inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Jatropha Multifida Root Bark. ... Phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins and flavonoids. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.01) reduced paw thickness in rat compared to control.

  8. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  9. Anti-inflammatory responses of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Das, Dipak K

    2007-09-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenolic, non-flavonoid antioxidant, is a phytoalexin found in many plants including grapes, nuts and berries. Recent studies have documented that resveratrol has various health benefits, such as cardiovascular and cancer preventive properties. However, the experimental basis for such health benefit is not fully understood. One of the possible mechanisms for its protective activities is by down regulation of the inflammatory responses. That includes the inhibition of synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, modifications of eicosanoid synthesis, inhibition of some activated immune cells, or inhibiting the enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which are responsible for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators through the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on transcription factors like nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) or activator protein-1 (AP-1). Being a phenolic compound, resveratrol certainly possesses a low bioavailability and most importantly, a rapid clearance from the plasma. Recent growing interest in varying protective nature of resveratrol may clinically also hold a respectable position as a better alternative for anti-inflammatory drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence that resveratrol exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity and also to explain the underling mechanism for both resveratrol- induced cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. While it is true that the cardioprotective properties of resveratrol are likely attributable, at least in part, to its anti-inflammatory properties, the mechanisms discussed address foremost mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity which, in turn, is responsible for cardioprotection.

  10. Nitric oxide-heat shock protein axis in menopausal hot flushes: neglected metabolic issues of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with deranged heat shock response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragem, Antônio Azambuja; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo

    2017-09-01

    Although some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease. On the other hand, oestrogen induces the expression of heat shock proteins of the 70 kDa family (HSP70), which are anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective protein chaperones, whose expression is modulated by different types of physiologically stressful situations, including heat stress and exercise. Therefore, lower HSP70 expression secondary to oestrogen deficiency increases cardiovascular risk and predisposes the patient to senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that culminates in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as obesities, type 2 diabetes, neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on HSP70 and its accompanying heat shock response (HSR), which is an anti-inflammatory and antisenescent pathway whose intracellular triggering is also oestrogen-dependent via nitric oxide (NO) production. The main goal of the manuscript was to show that the vasomotor symptoms that accompany hot flushes may be a disguised clue for important neuroendocrine alterations linking oestrogen deficiency to the anti-inflammatory HSR. Results from our own group and recent evidence on hypothalamic control of central temperature guided a search on PubMed and Google Scholar websites. Oestrogen elicits rapid production of the vasodilatory gas NO, a powerful activator of HSP70 expression. Whence, part of the protective effects of oestrogen over cardiovascular and neuroendocrine systems is tied to its capacity of inducing the NO

  11. Heat shock proteins: facts, thoughts, and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, A

    1999-01-01

    The most primitive mechanism of cellular protection involves the expression of a polypeptide family named heat shock or stress proteins (hsps). Some of these hsps are present in unstressed cells and play an important role in the folding and translocation of polypeptides across membranes. Thus, they have been termed molecular chaperones. Hsps are expressed in response to an array of stresses, including hyperthermia, oxygen radicals, heavy metals, ethanol, and amino acid analogues. In addition, the heat shock response is induced during clinically relevant situations such as ischemia/reperfusion and circulatory and hemorrhagic shock. All of the above stresses have in common that they disturb the tertiary structure of proteins and have adverse effects on cellular metabolism. Pretreatment of cells with a mild stress, sufficient to induce the expression of hsps, results in protection to subsequent insults. This phenomenon has been coined "stress tolerance" and is apparently caused by the resolubilization of proteins that were denatured during the stress. In addition, cellular structures (microfilaments and centrosomes) and processes (transcription, splicing, and translation) are stabilized or repaired during a second stress in stress tolerant cells and organisms. There is a great body of evidence indicating a direct role of hsps in the stabilization of these events. The intrinsic capacity of hsps to protect cells has potential relevance as a natural mechanism of organ protection during harmful environmental conditions and operative procedures, and in the combat against pathogens.

  12. An overview of cytokines and heat shock response in polytraumatized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Maria Concepción; Alonso, Berta; Bravo, Beatriz; Vaquero, Javier; Chana, Francisco

    2017-11-03

    Early after injury, local tissue damage induces a local and systemic inflammatory response that activates the immune system and leads to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This post-traumatic response often results in uncontrolled release of inflammatory mediators and over-activation of the immune system, which occasionally results in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). In parallel, a state of immunosuppression develops. This counter-regulating suppression of different cellular and humoral immune functions has been termed "compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS)." Both SIRS and CARS occur simultaneously even in the initial phase after injury. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been suggested to play a major role in development of SIRS, although the degree of involvement of the different cytokines is quite disparate. While TNF-α and IL-1β are quite irrelevant for predicting organ dysfunction, IL-6 is the parameter that best predicts mortality. The hyperinflammatory state seems to be the cause of post-traumatic immunosuppression and heat shock proteins (HSPs), which have been proposed as one of the endogenous stimuli for the deterioration of the immune system acting as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Extracellular HSPA1A released from injured tissues increase up to ten times immediately after trauma and even more in patients with MODS. It has powerful immune properties that could contribute to post-traumatic immunosuppression through several mechanisms that have been previously described, so HSPs could represent trauma-associated immunomodulatory mediators. For this reason, HSPA1A has been suggested to be a helpful early prognostic biomarker of trauma after severe injury: serial quantification of serum HSPA1A and anti-Hsp70 concentrations in the first hours after trauma is proposed to be used as a predictive biomarker of MODS and immunosuppression development in polytraumatized patients.

  13. DNA transformation via local heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Meadow Anderson, L.; Yang, Jui-Ming; Lin, Liwei; Yang, Haw

    2007-07-01

    This work describes transformation of foreign DNA into bacterial host cells by local heat shock using a microfluidic system with on-chip, built-in platinum heaters. Plasmid DNA encoding ampicillin resistance and a fluorescent protein can be effectively transformed into the DH5α chemically competent E. coli using this device. Results further demonstrate that only one-thousandth of volume is required to obtain transformation efficiencies as good as or better than conventional practices. As such, this work complements other lab-on-a-chip technologies for potential gene cloning/therapy and protein expression applications.

  14. Mechanisms of heat-shock gene activation in higher eukaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, M.; Pelham, H.R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat-shock genes are activated under conditions of heat shock or other environmental stresses. This gene activation is rapid and reversible, resulting in a transition from hardly detectable levels of transcription to extremely high transcription rates causing heat-shock proteins (HSP) to accumulate to high levels. In this review, the components of the heat-shock gene activation systems, including the cis-acting elements and the trans-acting factors, are considered. Data on how these components act together to result in transcription activation and how multiple controls are achieved are summarized. Finally, the questions of how the cell detects the environmental stimulus and translates it into gene activation and how the functions of the gene products relate to this process are addressed. The article focuses on heat-shock gene activation in higher eukaryotes. Only those aspects of heat-shock genes and proteins which are relevant to the question of gene activation are included

  15. Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Wahlqvist, Mark L; He, Guoqing; Yang, Min; Li, Duo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review paper was to summarise some commonly available natural products and their anti-inflammatory activity. We have collected data from MEDLINE, Current Contents and scientific journals, which included 92 publications. There are numerous natural products detailed in this literature; however we have summarized a few of the most commonly available and potent ones. In this paper, the natural products with anti-inflammatory activity including curcumin, parthenolide, cucurbitacins, 1,8-cineole, pseudopterosins, lyprinol, bromelain, flavonoids, saponins, marine sponge natural products and Boswellia serrata gum resin were reviewed. Natural products play a significant role in human health in relation to the prevention and treatment of inflammatory conditions. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, safety and long term side effect of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with food and drug components.

  16. Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Hsps) which is strictly regulated by different members of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). We previously reported that a rat histiocytoma, BC-8 failed to synthesize Hsps when subjected to typical heat shock conditions (42°C, ...

  17. Anti inflammatory effects of statin in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Nasef Abdelsalam Rezk; Ahmad Elewa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Statins are now becoming recognized as powerful antiinflammatory agents that exert beneficial effects beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction [1]. COPD patients receiving statins obtain a benefit from these therapeutic agents. Clearly, the best medical evidence for the association of statins with improved outcomes for COPD patients [2]. We aimed in this study to assess anti inflammatory effects of statin in COPD patients. Patients and methods: We studied 28...

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  19. Mobile phones, heat shock proteins and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, P W; Penny, R; Laurence, J A; McKenzie, D R

    2001-06-01

    There are several reports which indicate that electromagnetic radiation (such as from mobile phones) at non-thermal levels may elicit a biological effect in target cells or tissues. Whether or not these biological effects lead to adverse health effects, including cancer, is unclear. To date there is limited scientific evidence of health issues, and no mechanism by which mobile phone radiation could influence cancer development. In this paper, we develop a theoretical mechanism by which radiofrequency radiation from mobile phones could induce cancer, via the chronic activation of the heat shock response. Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is a normal defence response to a cellular stress. However, chronic expression of Hsps is known to induce or promote oncogenesis, metastasis and/or resistance to anticancer drugs. We propose that repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation acts as a repetitive stress leading to continuous expression of Hsps in exposed cells and tissues, which in turn affects their normal regulation, and cancer results. This hypothesis provides the possibility of a direct association between mobile phone use and cancer, and thus provides an important focus for future experimentation.

  20. Anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-19 inhibits smooth muscle cell migration and activation of cytoskeletal regulators of VSMC motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabunia, Khatuna; Jain, Surbhi; England, Ross N.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is an important cellular event in multiple vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. Little is known regarding the effects of anti-inflammatory interleukins on VSMC migration. This study tested the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory Th2 interleukin, interleukin-19 (IL-19), could decrease VSMC motility. IL-19 significantly decreased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated VSMC chemotaxis in Boyden chambers and migration in scratch wound assays. IL-19 significantly decreased VSMC spreading in response to PDGF. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) for these cellular effects, we examined the effect of IL-19 on activation of proteins that regulate VSMC cytoskeletal dynamics and locomotion. IL-19 decreased PDGF-driven activation of several cytoskeletal regulatory proteins that play an important role in smooth muscle cell motility, including heat shock protein-27 (HSP27), myosin light chain (MLC), and cofilin. IL-19 decreased PDGF activation of the Rac1 and RhoA GTPases, important integrators of migratory signals. IL-19 was unable to inhibit VSMC migration nor was able to inhibit activation of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins in VSMC transduced with a constitutively active Rac1 mutant (RacV14), suggesting that IL-19 inhibits events proximal to Rac1 activation. Together, these data are the first to indicate that IL-19 can have important inhibitory effects on VSMC motility and activation of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. This has important implications for the use of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the treatment of vascular occlusive disease. PMID:21209363

  1. Leukemia: Derived heat shock protein gp96-peptide complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukemia: Derived heat shock protein gp96-peptide complex contribution to T cell and dendritic cell activation. ... Therefore, gp96-peptide complex derived from the tumor cells potentially represents an immunization therapy for the elimination of residual leukemia cells. Key words: Leukemia, heat shock protein gp96, ...

  2. An overview on the small heat shock proteins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... the cell to toxins, starvation, oxygen, and water deprivation, among others. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) ... six structurally conserved classes according to their molecular weight namely, HSP100, HSP90, HSP70,. HSP60, small heat shock ..... The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, now ...

  3. An overview on the small heat shock proteins | Mahmood | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In eukaryotes, different heat shock genes are expressed uncoordinatedly, whereas in prokaryote, heat shock genes form a regulon and appear simultaneously. sHSPs are associated with nuclei, cytoskeleton and membranes. They bind partially to denatured proteins, preventing irreversible protein aggregation during stress.

  4. Anti-inflammatory Elafin in human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalberg, Cecilia; Noda, Nathalia; Polettini, Jossimara; Jacobsson, Bo; Menon, Ramkumar

    2017-02-01

    Elafin is a low molecular weight protein with antileukoproteinase, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The profile of Elafin in fetal membranes is not well characterized. This study determined the changes in Elafin expression and concentration in human fetal membrane from patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and in vitro in response to intra-amniotic polymicrobial pathogens. Elafin messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions were studied in fetal membranes from PPROM, normal term as well as in normal term not in labor membranes in an organ explant system treated (24 h) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured Elafin concentrations in culture supernatants from tissues treated with LPS and polybacterial combinations of heat-inactivated Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Elafin mRNA expression in fetal membranes from women with PPROM was significantly higher compared to women who delivered at term after normal pregnancy (5.09±3.50 vs. 11.71±2.21; Pmembranes showed a significantly increased Elafin m-RNA expression (Pmembranes also showed no changes in Elafin protein concentrations compared to untreated controls. Higher Elafin expression in PPROM fetal membranes suggests a host response to an inflammatory pathology. However, lack of Elafin response to LPS and polymicrobial treatment is indicative of the minimal anti-inflammatory impact of this molecule in fetal membranes.

  5. Anti-inflammatory Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Katsuki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease, in the development of which inflammation mediated by innate immune cells plays a critical role, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins are a widely used lipid-lowering drug that has lipid-independent vasculoprotective effects, such as improvement of endothelial dysfunction, antioxidant properties, and inhibitory effects on inflammation. Despite recent advances in lipid-lowering therapy, clinical trials of statins suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy beyond lipid-lowering therapy is indispensible to further reduce cardiovascular events. One possible therapeutic option to the residual risk is to directly intervene in the inflammatory process by utilizing a nanotechnology-based drug delivery system (nano-DDS. Various nano-sized materials are currently developed as DDS, including micelles, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and metallic nanoparticles. The application of nano-DDS to coronary artery disease is a feasible strategy since the inflammatory milieu enhances incorporation of nano-sized materials into mononuclear phagocytic system and permeability of target lesions, which confers nano-DDS on “passive-targeting” property. Recently, we have developed a polymeric nanoparticle-incorporating statin to maximize its anti-inflammatory property. This statin nanoparticle has been tested in various disease models, including plaque destabilization and rupture, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction, and its clinical application is in progress. In this review, we present current development of DDS and future perspective on the application of anti-inflammatory nanomedicine to treat life-threatening cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S; Meckes, M; Pérez, C; Susunaga, A; Zavala, M A

    2005-10-31

    Lippia dulcis hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models. Hexane extract showed to be inactive, but the ethanol extract at doses of 400 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and reduced the weight of cotton pellet-induced granuloma, moreover, the topical application of 0.5 mg/ear of this extract inhibited the edema induced with TPA by 49.13%, an effect which is of less intensity than that produced by indomethacine at the same dose.

  7. Erdosteine: antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2008-01-01

    Erdosteine is a multifactorial drug currently used in COPD for its rheologic activity on bronchial secretions and its positive effects on bacterial adhesiveness. Erdosteine produces an active metabolite (Met 1) which was shown to produce antioxidant effects during the respiratory burst of human PMNs, due to the presence of an SH group. The substantial antitussive effects of erdosteine were first documented in clinical trials even though mucolytic agents are regarded as not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Actually, a mucolytic drug could exert antitussive effects if it also affects mucus consistency and enhances ciliary function. In the last decade, data from several studies on animal models pointed to the possible antitussive and anti-inflammatory properties of erdosteine and an indirect anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was suggested. Recently, data from some controlled versus placebo studies documented the antioxidant properties of erdosteine in humans and in current smokers with COPD. The mechanism of action was described as related to erdosteine's ability to inhibit some inflammatory mediators and some pro-inflammatory cytokines that are specifically involved in oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also presumed to impair beta-adrenoceptor function and contribute to airway obstruction, specific controlled studies recently investigated the effect of antioxidant intervention on short-term airway response to salbutamol in nonreversible COPD, according to a double-blind design versus placebo and NAC. Only erdosteine consistently restored a significant short-term reversibility in COPD subjects, previously unresponsive to beta(2) adrenergics. This peculiar activity of erdosteine (to our knowledge never previously assessed) proved related to the ROS scavenging activity (which actually proved equal to that of N), and its significant inhibiting effect on

  8. Novel anti-inflammatory agents in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukides, Stelios; Bartziokas, Konstantinos; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD related inflammation is less responsive to inhaled steroids compared to asthma. There are three major novel anti-inflammatory approaches to the management of COPD. The first approach is phosphodiesterase...... on these strategies exist at the moment. A third potential approach involves novel agents whose mechanism of action is closely related to COPD mechanisms and pathophysiology. Such novel treatments are of great interest since they may treat both COPD and co-morbidities. Several novel agents are currently under...

  9. Impact of heat shock step on bacterial transformation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Maral; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Najafi, Farhood; Arab, Seyed; Mobasheri, Hamid

    2016-12-01

    CaCl 2 treatment followed by heat shock is the most common method for artificial transformation. Here, the cells were transformed using CaCl 2 treatment either with heat shock (standard protocol) or without heat shock (lab protocol) to comprehend the difference in transformation efficiency. The BL21 strain of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) was being susceptible using CaCl 2 treatment. Some Cells were kept at -80 o C while the others were kept at 4 ˚C. Afterwards the susceptible cells were transformed using either standard or lab protocol. The transformation efficiency between cells experienced heat shock and those were not influenced by heat shock was almost the same. Moreover, regardless of transformation protocol, the cells kept at 4 ˚C were transformed more efficiently in compared to those were kept at -80 o C.

  10. Heat shock treatment improves Trametes versicolor laccase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Wei, Tao; Zhang, Tian; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-09-01

    An efficient heat shock strategy has been developed to improve laccase production in submerged Trametes versicolor cultures. The optimized heat shock strategy consists of subjecting T. versicolor mycelial pellets to three heat shock treatments at 45 °C for 45 min, starting at culture day 0, with a 24-h interval between treatments. Laccase production increased by more than 1.6-fold relative to the control in both flasks and a 5-L bioreactor because the expression of the laccase gene was enhanced by heat shock induction. The present work demonstrates that heat shock induction is a promising method because it both improves fungal laccase production and has a good potential in industrial application.

  11. Riboflavin protects mice against liposaccharide-induced shock through expression of heat shock protein 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a water-soluble vitamin essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development. The study was aimed at investigating the effects of vitamin B2 on the survival rate, and expressions of tissue heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in mice und...

  12. Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... We are reporting for the first time that HSF2 is heat inducible and functions in heat shock induced autophagic cell death in BC-8 tumor cells. [Prasad K V, Taiyab A, Jyothi D, Srinivas U K and Sreedhar A S 2007 Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a rat histiocytoma; J. Biosci.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  14. Anti-inflammatory potential of silk sericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Towiwat, Pasarapa; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-04-01

    Silk sericin was found to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are related to the inflammatory reaction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sericin in vivo using the carrageenan-induced rat edema model and changes in the histology of tissues. The effects of sericin on the expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also evaluated. Sericin solutions at 0.004-0.080 mg/mL were applied topically to the top of the hind paw and carrageenan (1.0 mg) was injected subcutaneously to the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Our results indicated that sericin significantly reduced the inflammation in rats' paw compared with the negative control (water and acetone) and its effect at 0.080 mg/mL was only slightly lower than that of 1.0% w/v indomethacin. Similar numbers of polymorphonuclear and macrophage cells were found in rats' tissue treated with indomethacin and sericin solution, while the numbers were significantly higher in their absence. The gene expression results by RT-PCR showed that the COX-2 and iNOS genes were down-regulated in samples treated with sericin in a dose dependent manner. These data indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of sericin may be partly attributable to the suppression of the COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production.

  15. [Role of heat shock proteins in the cardioprotection of regular moderate alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Maria Concepción

    2016-04-01

    To study whether the cardioprotective effect of regular alcohol consumption can be explained by the heat shock proteins (HSP), given their pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on 452 men and women aged 40-60. Clinical history, epidemiological survey (frequency of average alcohol consumption) and biochemical analysis was performed; Task Force Chart was applied for classification according to the risk of vascular disease. Intracellular HSPA1A, circulating HSPA1A and HSPD1, and anti-Hsp70/anti-Hsp60 antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Two hundred and thirty-eight (52.7%) were abstemious or drank60 g/d (5.5%). Two hundred and thirty-nine had no vascular risk (VR) factor or a risk60 g/d especially in subjects with moderate VR, and female drinkers of 40-60 g/d. The cardioprotective effect of 40-60 g/d of alcohol consumption could be due in part, to increased intracellular HSPA1A, a potent anti-inflammatory protein. Excessive intake of alcohol increases antibodies anti-Hsp60, stimulating proinflammatory cytokines. This fact may explain the mortality from cardiovascular disease in heavy drinkers. The clinical application of antibody anti-Hsps quantification has been proposed in patients at risk in order to detect atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Medicinal herbs as possible sources of anti-inflammatory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants constitute an inexhaustible source of bioactive compounds that can be valuable for research in the chemistry field of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review describes several plants from international and national flora that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in various clinical trials. The paper includes: general aspects regarding the vegetal source, compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory activity, mechanism of action and clinical trials carried out with extracts or products containing standardized extracts.

  17. Anti-inflammatory properties of desipramine and fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portet Karine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressants are heavily prescribed drugs and have been shown to affect inflammatory signals. We examined whether these have anti-inflammatory properties in animal models of septic shock and allergic asthma. We also analysed whether antidepressants act directly on peripheral cell types that participate in the inflammatory response in these diseases. Methods The antidepressants desipramine and fluoxetine were compared in vivo to the glucocorticoid prednisolone, an anti-inflammatory drug of reference. In a murine model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced septic shock, animals received the drugs either before or after injection of LPS. Circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α and mortality rate were measured. In ovalbumin-sensitized rats, the effect of drug treatment on lung inflammation was assessed by counting leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavages. Bronchial hyperreactivity was measured using barometric plethysmography. In vitro production of TNF-α and Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and presumably Secreted (RANTES from activated monocytes and lung epithelial cells, respectively, was analysed by immunoassays. Reporter gene assays were used to measure the effect of antidepressants on the activity of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 which are involved in the control of TNF-α and RANTES expression. Results In the septic shock model, all three drugs given preventively markedly decreased circulating levels of TNF-α and mortality (50% mortality in fluoxetine treated group, 30% in desipramine and prednisolone treated groups versus 90% in controls. In the curative trial, antidepressants had no statistically significant effect, while prednisolone still decreased mortality (60% mortality versus 95% in controls. In ovalbumin-sensitized rats, the three drugs decreased lung inflammation, albeit to different degrees. Prednisolone and fluoxetine reduced the number of macrophages, lymphocytes

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: Chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: Chemical constituents of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum , Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon giganteus inhibited lipoxygenase L-1 and cyclooxygenase of PGHS.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract and its constituents in hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Nishizawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Asparagus (Asparagus officinalisL. is one of the most ancient vegetablesin the world, andis rich in asparagine. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS™; Amino Up Chemical Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Japan is the final product of enzyme-treatment of asparagus stems and subsequent extraction. Two constituents were purified from ETAS and identified: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF, an abundant constituent, and (S-asfural, a novel constituent, which is a derivative of HMF. ETAS has been reported to increase the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs, which are essential for the repair or removal of defective proteins. The expression of Hspfamily genes is regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1. It is unknown whether ETAS and its constituents elicit anti-inflammatory effects, such as the suppression of nitric oxide (NO, an inflammatory mediator synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in interleukin (IL-1β-treated hepatocytes. Objective:To examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ETAS, we treated rat hepatocytes with ETAS, or its constituents (S-asfural or HMF, and IL-1β, beforethen analyzingthe expression of the iNOSgene and other genes involved in inflammation.Methods:Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were prepared by collagenase perfusion. ETAS, (S-asfural, or HMF was added to the medium with IL-1β and incubated at 37 °C. When necessary, an inhibitor of HSF1 was added. NO in the medium was measured by the Griess method, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values were determined. To analyze the mRNA expression, a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Antibody arrays were used to determine the levels of cytokines and chemokines in the medium.Results:ETAS suppressed NO production in IL-1β-treated hepatocytes without causing cytotoxicity. ETAS decreased the levels of both iNOS mRNA and the antisense transcript, whereas it increased the levels of Hsf1 m

  20. Heat Shock Proteins, Autoimmunity, and Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K. Calderwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs have been linked to the therapy of both cancer and inflammatory diseases, approaches that utilize contrasting immune properties of these proteins. It would appear that HSP family members Hsp60 and Hsp70, whether from external sources or induced locally during inflammation, can be processed by antigen-presenting cells and that HSP-derived epitopes then activate regulatory T cells and suppress inflammatory diseases. These effects also extend to the HSP-rich environments of cancer cells where elevated HSP concentrations may participate in the immunosuppressive tumor milieu. However, HSPs can also be important mediators of tumor immunity. Due to their molecular chaperone properties, some HSPs can bind tumor-specific peptides and deliver them deep into the antigen-processing pathways of antigen-presenting cells (APCs. In this context, HSP-based vaccines can activate tumor-specific immunity, trigger the proliferation and CTL capabilities of cancer-specific CD8+ T cells, and inhibit tumor growth. Further advances in HSP-based anticancer immunotherapy appear to involve improving the properties of the molecular chaperone vaccines by enhancing their antigen-binding properties and combating the immunosuppressive tumor milieu to permit programming of active CTL capable of penetrating the tumor milieu and specifically targeting tumor cells.

  1. Multi-level interactions between HEAT SHOCK FACTORS, HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS and the redox system regulate acclimation to heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky eDriedonks

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High temperature has become a global concern because it seriously affects the growth and reproduction of plants. Exposure of plant cells to high temperatures result in cellular damage and can even lead to cell death. Part of the damage can be ascribed to the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which accumulate during abiotic stresses such as heat stress. ROS are toxic and can modify other biomacromolecules including membrane lipids, DNA and proteins. In order to protect the cells, ROS scavenging is essential. In contrast with their inherent harms, ROS also function as signaling molecules, inducing stress tolerance mechanisms. This review examines the evidence for crosstalk between the classical heat stress response, which consists of HEAT SHOCK FACTORS (HSFs and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS (HSPs, with the ROS network at multiple levels in the heat response process. Heat stimulates HSF activity directly, but also indirectly via ROS. HSFs in turn stimulate the expression of HSP chaperones and also affect ROS scavenger gene expression. In the short term, HSFs repress expression of superoxide dismutase scavenger genes via induction of miRNA398, while they also activate scavenger gene expression and stabilize scavenger protein activity via HSP induction. We propose that these contrasting effects allow for the boosting of the heat stress response at the very onset of the stress, while preventing subsequent oxidative damage. The described model on HSFs, HSPs, ROS and ROS scavenger interactions seems applicable to responses to stresses other than heat and may explain the phenomenon of cross-acclimation.

  2. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil’s claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle.

  3. Induction of Triploidy in Clarias Gariepinus by Heat Shock of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs and milt were collected from female and male Clarias gariepinus respectively. Fertilized eggs were given heat-shock at 40 and 41oC for 4.5 minutes duration. The eggs were shocked at different post fertilization periods viz: immediately after fertilization, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mins after fertilization. Percentage hatchability for ...

  4. Post-Shock Sampling of Shock-Heated Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    has four analytical columns, which allow for the precise measurement of permanent gases (e.g. O2, N2, CO, CO2, CH4), clear separation (and therefore...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Gas sampling, shock tube, jet fuel, gas chromatography REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...four analytical columns, which allow for the precise measurement of permanent gases (e.g. O2, N2, CO, CO2, CH4), clear separation (and therefore

  5. Bioassay guided isolation and identification of anti-inflammatory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study describes the anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity and lipophilic profile with acute toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. Successive extraction of the leaves with organic solvents of increasing polarity and their screening for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity was assessed. Hexane extract ...

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cyphostemma vogelii (Hook

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... Key words: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, mice, Cyphostemma vogelii, nociception. ... steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered the drugs of ..... 44-55. Hughes H, Lang M (1983). Control of pain in dogs and cats In: Kitchell. R, Erickson H (eds.) Animal pain. Baltimore Waverly press. pp. 207-.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts and Alkaloid Fractions of four Mexican Medicinal Plants of Solanaceae. ... equivalents/g of extract), the best antioxidant activity (94.80% inhibition of DPPH and 97.57% of ABTS) and the highest anti-inflammatory activity (81.93% inhibition of the inflammation).

  8. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the Amorphophallus Bulbifer in Wistar rats and mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcohol extract of A. bulbifer whole plant at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. in rats was determined with a plethysmograph paw volume ...

  9. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  10. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Liquidambar formosana Hance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Liquidambar formosana Hance infructescence (Liquidambaris fructus, ELF) in vivo, and clarify its underlying mechanisms. Methods: The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of ELF was examined by xylene-induced ear swelling test in mice as well as carrageenan-induced ...

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum (Amaryllidaceae) leaf ethanolic extract. Analgesic effect was investigated in acetic acid induced writhing model and formalin induced licking model in swiss albino mice. Anti-inflammatory effect was conducted in carrageenan-induced ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on wistar rats. J. O. Olayemi and E. O. Ajaiyeoba*. Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Accepted 4 July, 2007. The defatted methanol extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber was evaluated for anti-inflammatory.

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  14. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and anti- nociceptive activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-06-15

    Jun 15, 2009 ... (1998) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Sambucus ebulus rhizome extract in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 61: 229-235. Barros IMC, Lopes LDG, Borges MOR, Borges ACR, Ribeiro MNS,. Freire SMF (2006). Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Pluchea quitic (D.C) ethanolic extract.

  15. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel Trisubstituted Thiophene Analogues. ... Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal ... analogues (IVa-IVf) were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced rat hind paw oedema model at 10 mg/kg dose.

  16. The effects of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a complication of excessive anticoagulation.2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin. The NSAIDs produce their effects through a blockade of the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by COX. Corticosteroids reduce the availability of arachidonic acid, contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity ...

  17. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim and objectives: Leaf extracts and fractions of S. bispinosa were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in mice using acute and chronic anti-inflammatory models with aspirin as a reference drug. Materials and methods: Methanol, chloroform and hexane were used to prepare leaf extracts by soxhlet extraction method, ...

  18. Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros Cordifolia Extract. S Das, PK Haldar, G Pramanik, SP Panda, S Bera. Abstract. In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the ...

  19. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye-Jin; Kang, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Young-Sook; Lim, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Myeong; Park, Eun-Hee

    2008-01-04

    Taraxacum officinale has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases. The dried plant was extracted with 70% ethanol to generate its ethanol extract (TEE). For some experiments, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions were prepared in succession from TEE. TEE showed a scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a diminishing effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and an anti-angiogenic activity in the chicken chorioallantoic (CAM) assay. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, TEE inhibited production of exudate, and significantly diminished nitric oxide (NO) and leukocyte levels in the exudate. It also possessed an inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and caused a dose-dependent inhibition on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice. Suppressive effects of TEE on the production of NO and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages were also assessed. Among the fractions, the n-butanol fraction (BuOH) was identified to be most effective in the CAM assay. Collectively, Taraxacum officinale contains anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities through its inhibition of NO production and COX-2 expression and/or its antioxidative activity.

  1. Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Conquy, Minou; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    The concept of 'Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome' (CARS) was proposed in 1997 by Roger Bone (1941-1997) to qualify the consequences of the counter-regulatory mechanisms initiated to limit the overzealous inflammatory process in patients with infectious (sepsis) or non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). One major consequence of CARS is the modification of the immune status that could favour the enhanced susceptibility of intensive care patients to nosocomial infections. Indeed, most animal 'two-hit' models illustrate an enhanced sensitivity to infection after a first insult. However, this observation is highly dependent on the experimental procedure. Numerous functions of circulating leukocytes are altered in sepsis and SIRS patients, as well as in animal models of sepsis or SIRS. However, this is rather a reprogramming of circulating leukocytes, since there is not a global defect of the immune cells functions. Furthermore, within tissues, leukocytes are rather primed or activated than immunosuppressed. Thus, CARS may be considered as an adapted compartmentalized response with the aim to silence some acute proinflammatory genes, and to maintain the possible expression of certain genes involved in the anti-infectious process.

  2. Nucleic acid-binding polymers as anti-inflammatory agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoo; Sohn, Jang Wook; Zhang, Ying; Leong, Kam W.; Pisetsky, David; Sullenger, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Dead and dying cells release nucleic acids. These extracellular RNAs and DNAs can be taken up by inflammatory cells and activate multiple nucleic acid-sensing toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8, and 9). The inappropriate activation of these TLRs can engender a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The redundancy of the TLR family encouraged us to seek materials that can neutralize the proinflammatory effects of any nucleic acid regardless of its sequence, structure or chemistry. Herein we demonstrate that certain nucleic acid-binding polymers can inhibit activation of all nucleic acid-sensing TLRs irrespective of whether they recognize ssRNA, dsRNA or hypomethylated DNA. Furthermore, systemic administration of such polymers can prevent fatal liver injury engendered by proinflammatory nucleic acids in an acute toxic shock model in mice. Therefore these polymers represent a novel class of anti-inflammatory agent that can act as molecular scavengers to neutralize the proinflammatory effects of various nucleic acids. PMID:21844380

  3. Heat shock response in photosynthetic organisms: membrane and lipid connections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, I.; Glatz, A.; Nakamoto, H.; Mishkind, M.L.; Munnik, T.; Saidi, Y.; Goloubinoff, P.; Harwood, J.L.; Vigh, L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of photosynthetic organisms to adapt to increases in environmental temperatures is becoming more important with climate change. Heat stress is known to induce heat-shock proteins (HSPs) many of which act as chaperones. Traditionally, it has been thought that protein denaturation acts as

  4. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and heat shock response of Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Tsuboi, Yoshihiro; Taniyama, Yusuke; Uchida, Naohiro; Sato, Reeko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90 (BgHSP90) gene was cloned and sequenced. The length of the gene was 2,610 bp with two introns. This gene was amplified from cDNA corresponding to full length coding sequence (CDS) with an open reading frame of 2,148 bp. A phylogenetic analysis of the CDS of HSP90 gene showed that B. gibsoni was most closely related to B. bovis and Babesia sp. BQ1/Lintan and lies within a phylogenetic cluster of protozoa. Moreover, mRNA transcription profile for BgHSP90 exposed to high temperature were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. BgHSP90 levels were elevated when the parasites were incubated at 43°C for 1 hr.

  5. AGN Heating Through Cavities and Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulsen, P.E.J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.R.; David, L.P.; McNamara, B.R.; Rafferty, D.A.; Bîrzan, L.; Wise, M.

    2007-01-01

    Three comments are made on AGN heating of cooling flows. A simple physical argument is used to show that the enthalpy of a buoyant radio lobe is converted to heat in its wake. Thus, a significant part of ``cavity'' enthalpy is likely to end up as heat. Second, the properties of the repeated weak

  6. Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids: changing concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert

    2014-02-05

    Despite being the most effective anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) effect repression of inflammatory gene expression remain incompletely understood. Direct interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) with inflammatory transcription factors to repress transcriptional activity, i.e. transrepression, represents one mechanism of action. However, transcriptional activation, or transactivation, by NR3C1 also represents an important mechanism of glucocorticoid action. Glucocorticoids rapidly and profoundly increase expression of multiple genes, many with properties consistent with the repression of inflammatory gene expression. For example: the dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP1, reduces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases; glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (TSC22D3) represses nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional responses; inhibitor of κBα (NFKBIA) inhibits NF-κB; tristraprolin (ZFP36) destabilises and translationally represses inflammatory mRNAs; CDKN1C, a cell cycle regulator, may attenuate JUN N-terminal kinase signalling; and regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2), by reducing signalling from Gαq-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is bronchoprotective. While glucocorticoid-dependent transrepression can co-exist with transactivation, transactivation may account for the greatest level and most potent repression of inflammatory genes. Equally, NR3C1 transactivation is enhanced by β2-adrenoceptor agonists and may explain the enhanced clinical efficacy of β2-adrenoceptor/glucocorticoid combination therapies in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, NR3C1 transactivation is reduced by inflammatory stimuli, including respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus. This provides an explanation for glucocorticoid resistance. Continuing efforts to understand roles for glucocorticoid

  7. Anti-inflammatory Action of Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Tomokazu; Goto, Shingo; Monira, Pervin; Isemura, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against a variety of diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Through cellular, animal, and human experiments, green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous findings have indicated that green tea and EGCG suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes. Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed (provided by the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States), we examined the potential usefulness of green tea/EGCG for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases in human clinical and epidemiological studies. We also reviewed results from cellular and animal experiments and proposed action mechanisms. Most of the results from the human studies indicated the beneficial effects of green tea and tea catechins against inflammatory diseases. The cellular and animal studies also provided evidence for the favorable effects of green tea/EGCG. These results are compatible with our previous findings and can be largely explained by a mechanism wherein green tea/EGCG acts as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species, leading to attenuation of nuclear factor-κB activity. Since green tea and EGCG have multiple targets and act in a pleiotropic manner, we may consider their usage to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory disease. Green tea and EGCG have beneficial health effects and no severe adverse effects; however, care should be taken to avoid overdosage, which may induce deleterious effects including hepatic injury. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Anti-inflammatory Potential of Petiveria alliacea on Activated RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Defense and protection to multiple harmful stimuli are the inflammation, when is self-amplified and uncontrolled is the basis of the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate if Petiveria alliacea could attenuate inflammation in a murine model of RAW264 macrophages the involved model and its involved mechanism. The ethanol extract from P. alliacea was precipitated with water and supernatant was used for this study (PW). The anti-inflammatory effects of PW were investigated through evaluating of the production of several cytokines, chemokines, and expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Also was determined the ability to decrease the oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells with carboxy-2',7'-dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate. PW significantly suppress the secretion of prostaglandin E 2 , leukotriene C 4 , interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase, IL-1 β, IL-4, in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PW also markedly inhibited the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. PW produced significant anti-inflammatory activity through inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators through the NF-κB inactivation in the LPS-stimulated RAW24.7 cells. PW exerts significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and this effect can be attributed in part, to the presence of dibenzyl disulfide, dibenzyl trisulfide pinitol, coumarin, myricetin, glutamyl-S-benzyl cysteine, and petiveriins A and B. Treatment with ethanol extract from Petiveria alliacea which was previously precipitated with water and supernatant (PE) was tested in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PE suppressed the level of oxidative stress and the induction of proinflammatory mediators, as PGE2, LTC4, IL-1 ß, IL-6, IL-10, IFN- NO, iNOS, IL-1 ß, IL-4, in RAW264.7 macrophages through NF-B inactivation. These findings

  9. Wavelet transform analysis of chromatin texture changes during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbomel, G; Grichine, A; Fertin, A; Delon, A; Vourc'h, C; Souchier, C; Usson, Y

    2016-06-01

    Texture analysis can be a useful tool to investigate the organization of chromatin. Approaches based on multiscale analysis and in particular the 'à trou' wavelet analysis has already been used for microscopy (Olivo Marin). In order to analyse texture changes, the statistical properties of the wavelet coefficient images were summarized by the first four statistical orders: mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis of the coefficient image histogram. The 'à trou' transform provided a representation of the wavelet coefficients and texture parameters with the same statistical robustness throughout the scale spaces. It was applied for quantifying chromatin texture and heat-induced chromatin changes in living cells. We investigated the changes by both laser scanning and spinning disk confocal microscopies and compared the texture parameters before and after increasing duration of heat shock exposure (15 min, 30 min and 1 h). Furthermore, as activation of the heat shock response also correlates with a rapid localization of HSF1 within a few nuclear structures termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs), we compared the dynamics of nSBs formation with that of textural changes during 1 h of continuous heat shock. Next, we studied the recovery phase following a 1-h heat shock. Significant differences were observed, particularly affecting the perinucleolar region, even for the shortest heat shock time affecting mostly the skewness and standard deviation. Furthermore, progressive changes could be observed according to the duration of heat shock, mostly affecting fine details (pixel-wise changes) as revealed by the parameters, obtained from the first- and second-order wavelet coefficients. 'A trou' wavelet texture analysis provided a sensitive and efficient tool to investigate minute changes of chromatin. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal L. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, are rapidly released following nonprogrammed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system, and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the effected tissue. Our investigations have highlighted a key role for HSPs in tendion disease which may ultimately affect tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This paper aims to provide an overview of the biology of heat shock proteins in soft tissue and how these mediators may be important regulators of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy.

  11. Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Neal L.; Murrell, George A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are rapidly released following nonprogrammed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system, and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the effected tissue. Our investigations have highlighted a key role for HSPs in tendion disease which may ultimately affect tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This paper aims to provide an overview of the biology of heat shock proteins in soft tissue and how these mediators may be important regulators of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy. PMID:23258952

  12. Anti-inflammatory activities of enzymatic (alcalase) hydrolysate of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory activities of enzymatic (alcalase) hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate. LB de Carvalho-Silva, MTB Pacheco, R Bertoldo, C de Carvalho Veloso, LC Teodoro, A Giusti-Paiva, PCB Lollo, R Soncini ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; Kakar, Ron; Berk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    the overall antidepressant effect of adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar depression. METHODS: Completed and ongoing clinical trials of anti-inflammatory agents for BD published prior to 15 May 15 2015 were identified through searching the PubMed, Embase, Psych......INFO, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the antidepressant effect of adjunctive mechanistically diverse anti-inflammatory agents were pooled to determine standard mean differences (SMDs) compared with standard therapy alone. RESULTS: Ten RCTs were identified...... for qualitative review. Eight RCTs (n = 312) assessing adjunctive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 53), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n = 140), N-acetylcysteine (n = 76), and pioglitazone (n = 44) in the treatment of BD met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. The overall effect size...

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-Inflammatory effects of the standardized oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antinociceptive and anti-Inflammatory effects of the standardized oil of Indian Callistemon lanceolatus leaves in experimental animals. M Sudhakar, CV Rao, AL Rao, A Ramesh, N Srinivas, DB Raju, B Krishna Murthy ...

  15. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bedisag@yahoo.fr. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM,. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS INHIBITED. LIPOXYGENASE L-1 AND CYCLOOXYGENASE OF ...

  16. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: adverse effects and their prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,

  17. [Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossermelli, W; Pastor, E H

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) comprise an important class of medicaments that reduced the symptoms of inflamation in rheumatic disease. This article emphasizes similarities and class characteristics of the NSAID, mechanisms of action, and drug-interactions.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Jude E; Udoh, Anwanga E; Frank, Samuel G; Amazu, Louis U

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods The crude leaf extract (39–111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg-albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal-induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant. PMID:23569885

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Moles, Juan; Torrent, Anna; Alcaraz, M. José; Ruhí, Ramon; Avila, Conxita

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to obtain extracts that were soluble at an innocuous ethanol concentration (0.2%) for cell culture, and further test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From t...

  20. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Liquidambar formosana Hance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serum decreased and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased (p < 0.01). In addition,. ELF treatment resulted in decrease of COX-2 (p < 0.01), iNOS (p < 0.01) and NF-κB p65 (p < 0.01) expressions in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The results reveal that ELF possesses significant anti-inflammatory effect in vivo.

  1. Whole-body vibration improves the anti-inflammatory status in elderly subjects through toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Collado, Pilar S; Almar, Mar; Martinez-Florez, Susana; de Paz, José A; González-Gallego, Javier; Cuevas, María J

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical exercise has anti-inflammatory effects in elderly subjects. Yet, the inflammatory responses after whole body vibration (WBV) training, a popular exercise paradigm for the elderly, remain to be elucidated. This study assessed the effects of WBV training on the inflammatory response associated with toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways. Twenty-eight subjects were randomized to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). TG followed an 8-week WBV training program. Blood samples were obtained before and after the training period in both groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, and mRNA and protein levels of makers involved in the TLR2/TLR4 myeloid differentiation primary response gen 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (TRIF)-dependent pathways were analyzed. Plasma TNFα and C-reactive protein levels were also assessed. The WBV program reduced protein expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p65, TRIF and heat shock protein (HSP) 60, while HSP70 content increased. IL-10 mRNA level and protein concentration were upregulated, and TNFα protein content decreased, after WBV training. Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein and TNFα decreased in the TG. The current data suggest WBV may improve the anti-inflammatory status of elderly subjects through an attenuation of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent TLRs signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation

  3. Radiation as anti-inflammatory agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is used for many disease treatments, recently works are being conducted on benefits of radiation for treating inflammatory diseases but clinical practices are limited. There are always risks involved with radiation. Risks could include, but are not limited to, potential late effects, even the induction of tumor formation as well as changes in normal tissues. Recently it has been reported in three randomized double blind studies using radiation for patients with painful degenerative joint diseases. All the three studies showed improvement in symptoms within months, suggesting the some with acute disease improve spontaneously. The treatment actually did not improve the architecture of the joint, yet it decreased painful symptoms. Pathologic evaluation weeks later showed disappearance of edema in the joint space with diminished inflammation and joint swelling. Thus it is postulated some therapeutic effects of radiotherapy for inflammatory diseases are due to the ability of radiation to inhibit cell proliferation. Sometimes inflammatory cells which affect the inflammatory joint space. This may have long-term consequences if it exists during critical periods. This may explain the effectiveness of radiotherapy in prevention of inflammatory disease. It is also noted that the effects of very low radiation doses of less than 500 rads on acute inflammation formations are most spectacular. Mitigation of pain, edema and erythema occurs so fast and after such low doses that it is inconceivable that cell death or inhibition of proliferation could play any role in this process. The optimal therapeutic effects of low dose irradiation occur in the very early stages of inflammation when vascular dilatation, edema formation and leukocyte invasion are beginning. There certainly can be adverse effects from radiation, yet it has to be noted that more than 1,60,000 people die annually of adverse effects of simple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pills that are available in the

  4. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory-Organometallic Anticancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păunescu, Emilia; McArthur, Sarah; Soudani, Mylène; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-15

    Compounds that combine metal-based drugs with covalently linked targeted organic agents have been shown, in some instances, to exhibit superior anticancer properties compared to the individual counterparts. Within this framework, we prepared a series of organometallic ruthenium(II)- and osmium(II)-p-cymene complexes modified with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin and diclofenac. The NSAIDs are attached to the organometallic moieties via monodentate (pyridine/phosphine) or bidentate (bipyridine) ligands, affording piano-stool Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes of general formula [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(N)], where N is a pyridine-based ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate}, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(P)], where P is a phosphine ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate, and [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl(N,N')][Cl], where N,N' is a bipyridine-based ligand, (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetate), (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetate), (bis(2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate), or (bis(2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate). The antiproliferative properties of the complexes were assessed in human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and A2780cisR, the latter being resistant to cisplatin) and nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Some of the complexes are considerably more cytotoxic than the original drugs and also display significant cancer cell selectivity.

  5. Dendrimer encapsulation enhances anti-inflammatory efficacy of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuelai; Hao, Wei; Lok, Chun-Nam; Wang, Yue Chun; Zhang, RuiZhong; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2014-12-01

    Our previous studies revealed that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) promoted wound healing in part through their anti-inflammatory actions. As recent reports also suggested anti-inflammatory effects of dendrimers, we therefore undertook this study using dendrimer as the delivery system for AgNP to explore any potential synergistic anti-inflammatory efficacy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to cultured RAW264.7 and J774.1 cells to mimic in vitro inflammation condition, followed by the addition of either silver dendrimer nanocomposite (Ag-DNC), AgNPs, or dendrimer. The levels of inflammatory markers TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 were assessed using ELISA assay. Furthermore, in vivo effects such of Ag-DNC, AgNPs, or dendrimer were studied in a burn wound model in mice. Our results confirmed that both naked dendrimer and AgNPs had anti-inflammatory properties. In in vitro study, Ag-DNC was shown to have the best anti-inflammatory efficacy than AgNPs or dendrimer alone. In-vivo experiments also indicated that animals in the Ag-DNC group had the fastest healing time with the least inflammation. Our study would suggest that dendrimer could provide additional anti-inflammatory benefits and might be an excellent delivery system for silver nanoparticles for future clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-state ion heating at quasi-parallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, M.F.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Onsager, T.G.; Russell, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study of ion heating at quasi-parallel shocks, the authors showed a case in which the ion distributions downstream from the shock alternated between a cooler, denser, core/shoulder type and a hotter, less dense, more Maxwellian type. In this paper they further document the alternating occurrence of two different ion states downstream from several quasi-parallel shocks. Three separate lines of evidence are presented to show that the two states are not related in an evolutionary sense, but rather both are produced alternately at the shock: (1) the asymptotic downstream plasma parameters (density, ion temperature, and flow speed) are intermediate between those characterizing the two different states closer to the shock, suggesting that the asymptotic state is produced by a mixing of the two initial states; (2) examples of apparently interpenetrating (i.e., mixing) distributions can be found during transitions from one state to the other; and (3) examples of both types of distributions can be found at actual crossings of the shock ramp. The alternation between the two different types of ion distribution provides direct observational support for the idea that the dissipative dynamics of at least some quasi-parallel shocks is non-stationary and cyclic in nature, as demonstrated by recent numerical simulations. Typical cycle times between intervals of similar ion heating states are ∼2 upstream ion gyroperiods. Both the simulations and the in situ observations indicate that a process of coherent ion reflection is commonly an important part of the dissipation at quasi-parallel shocks

  7. Topical ketorolac has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in human thermal injury. Twelve healthy unmedicated volunteers had identical burn injuries produced on the medial side of both calves with a 49 degrees C 15 x 25 mm thermode....... Ketorolac gel or placebo were randomly applied on the right or left calf 1.5 h before burn injury, immediately after burn injury and 6 and 12 h later in a double-blind trial where every subject served as his own control. Heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT), head pain tolerance (HPT), mechanical pain...... detection thresholds (MPDT) and the intensity of burn-induced erythema (erythema index, EI) were assessed in the area of the thermal injury, and areas of hyperalgesia to pin prick were determined outside the injury before and 3, 6 and 24 h after the burn injury. Burn injury led to a decrease in HPDT, HPT...

  8. Heat shock genes – integrating cell survival and death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    cellular activity and physiology, the most remarkable event in stressed cells is the production of a highly conserved set of proteins, the Heat Shock or Stress Proteins (Hsps). (Schlesinger et al 1982) and certain non-coding RNAs, like the hsrω transcripts in Drosophila and the satellite III transcripts in humans (Lakhotia 2003; ...

  9. Three-dimensional structure of heat shock protein 90 from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone with essential functions in several organisms ranging from bacteria to protozoa to higher eukaryotes. Although it is not essential for cell survival in Escherichia coli, it is indispensable for viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Borkovich et al ...

  10. The small heat shock proteins family : The long forgotten chaperones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, C.; Paul, C.; Seigneuric, R.; Kampinga, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins are a rather heterogeneous family of ATP-independent chaperones, some of which have been proven to block protein aggregation and help the cells to survive stressful conditions. Although much less studied than high molecular weight HSPs like HSP70/HSPA or HSP90/HSPC, their

  11. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular st...

  12. Heat shock genes – integrating cell survival and death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    As a consequence of being alive, cells of all organisms continuously suffer a variety of “damages” from internal as well as external physico-chemical and biotic factors. Therefore, living systems have evolved a variety of strategies to repair the damage and/or eliminate the damaged components. Heat shock or stress ...

  13. A SIMPLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF HEAT SHOCK RESPONSE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufi Neder Meyer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a simple model for the elicitation of the heat shock response in rats. Design: Laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratories. Sample: Seventy-nine adult male albino rats (weight range 200 g to 570 g. Procedures: Exposure to heat stress by heating animals in a warm bath for 5 min after their rectal temperatures reached 107.60 F (420 C. Liver and lung samples were collected for heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 detection (Western analysis. Results: Western analysis was positive for HSP70 in the liver and in the lungs of heated animals. There was a temporal correlation between heating and HSP70 detection: it was strongest 1 day after heating and reduced afterwards. No heated animals died. Conclusion: These data show that heating rats in a warm (45o C bath, according to parameters set in this model, elicits efficiently the heat shock response.OBJETIVO: Obter um modelo simples para tentar esclarecer a resposta ao choque térmico em ratos. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa da Universidade. MÉTODO: Amostra: 79 ratos albinos, adultos, entre 200g a 570g. Procedimentos: Exposição ao calor, em banho quente, por 5 minutos, após a temperatura retal chegar a 42 graus centigrados. Biópsias de fígado e pulmão foram obtidas para detectar a proteina 70 (HSP 70, pelo "Western blot". RESULTADOS: As análises foram positivas nos animais aquecidos, com uma correlação entre aquecimento e constatação da HSP 70. Foi mais elevada no primeiro dia e não houve óbitos nos animais aquecidos. CONCLUSÃO: Os ratos aquecidos a 45 graus centígrados respondem eficientemente ao choque térmico.

  14. Adiabatic, Shock, and Plastic Work Heating of Solids and the Cylinder Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruden, E

    2000-01-01

    Solids subjected to high pressures, shocks, and/or deformation experience an increase in internal energy density and temperature due to adiabatic compression, shock heating, and plastic work heating, respectively...

  15. Expression of the heat shock gene clpL of Streptococcus thermophilus is induced by both heat and cold shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naclerio Gino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat and cold shock response are normally considered as independent phenomena. A small amount of evidence suggests instead that interactions may exist between them in two Lactococcus strains. Results We show the occurrence of molecular relationships between the mechanisms of cold and heat adaptations in Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium widely used in dairy fermentation, where it undergoes both types of stress. We observed that cryotolerance is increased when cells are pre-incubated at high temperature. In addition, the production of a protein, identified as ClpL, a member of the heat-shock ATPase family Clp A/B, is induced at both high and low temperature. A knock-out clpL mutant is deficient in both heat and cold tolerance. However lack of production of this protein does not abolish the positive effect of heat pre-treatment towards cryotolerance. Conclusion Dual induction of ClpL by cold and heat exposure of cells and reduced tolerance to both temperature shocks in a clpL mutant indicates that the two stress responses are correlated in S. thermophilus. However this protein is not responsible by itself for cryotolerance of cells pre-treated at high temperature, indicating that ClpL is necessary for the two phenomena, but does not account by itself for the relationships between them.

  16. Shock Heating of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A521

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 +/- 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  17. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by heat shock treatment in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, F; Torres, M; Duncan, R F

    1995-01-01

    Heat shock treatment of Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells causes increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several 44 kDa proteins, which are identified as Drosophila mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation occurs within 5 min, and is maintained at high levels during heat shock. It decreases to basal levels during recovery, concurrent with the repression of heat shock transcription and heat-shock-protein synthesis. The increased MAP kinase tyrosine phosphoryla...

  18. Noncoordinate histone synthesis in heat-shocked Drosophila cells is regulated at multiple levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell-Towt, J; Sanders, M M

    1984-01-01

    Transferring Drosophila tissue culture cells from 25 to 37 degrees C (heat shock) causes histone protein synthesis to become noncoordinate. To determine the level at which this is controlled, the synthesis, degradation, and translation of individual histone mRNAs was studied under both heat shock and control conditions. The increased synthesis of histone H2b protein during heat shock appears to be controlled primarily at the level of translation. During heat shock, H2b mRNA is transcribed at ...

  19. Lyprinol—Is It a Useful Anti-Inflammatory Agent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Doggrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand green lipped mussel preparation Lyprinol is available without a prescription from a supermarket, pharmacy or Web. The Food and Drug Administration have recently warned Lyprinol USA about their extravagant anti-inflammatory claims for Lyprinol appearing on the web. These claims are put to thorough review. Lyprinol does have anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and has anti-inflammatory effects in some animal models of inflammation. Lyprinol may have benefits in dogs with arthritis. There are design problems with the clinical trials of Lyprinol in humans as an anti-inflammatory agent in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, making it difficult to give a definite answer to how effective Lyprinol is in these conditions, but any benefit is small. Lyprinol also has a small benefit in atopic allergy. As anti-inflammatory agents, there is little to choose between Lyprinol and fish oil. No adverse effects have been reported with Lyprinol. Thus, although it is difficult to conclude whether Lyprinol does much good, it can be concluded that Lyprinol probably does no major harm.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of root of Alpinia galanga willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Kumar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of root extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using albino rats of either sex (150-200 g. An extract of the root of A. galanga was prepared using absolute alcohol and distillation in a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were evaluated using carrageenan-, bradykinin-, and 5-HT-induced rat paw edema. The chronic anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema. Results and Analysis: Inhibition of inflammation was seen to be 32.22% in carrageenan-induced, 37.70% in 5-HT-induced, and 35.21% in bradykinin-induced anti-inflammatory models. In chronic inflammatory model, a progressive inhibition of 34.73% (3 rd day, 37.50% (5 th day, 38.83% (7 th day, 44.66% (9 th day, 49.59% (11 th day, and 55.75% (13 th day was observed with study compound. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drugs. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that A. galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and probably acts by blocking histaminic and serotonin pathways. It may be an effective alternative to NASAIDs and corticosteroid in inflammatory disorders.

  1. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  2. Anti-inflammatory management for tendon injuries - friends or foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Kai-Ming

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute and chronic tendon injuries are very common among athletes and in sedentary population. Most physicians prescribe anti-inflammatory managements to relieve the worst symptoms of swelling and pain, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and physical therapies. However, experimental research shows that pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins may play important regulatory roles in tendon healing. Noticeably nearly all cases of chronic tendon injuries we treat as specialists have received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by their physician, suggesting that there might be a potential interaction in some of these cases turning a mild inflammatory tendon injury into chronic tendinopathy in predisposed individuals. We are aware of the fact that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids may well have a positive effect on the pain control in the clinical situation whilst negatively affect the structural healing. It follows that a comprehensive evaluation of anti-inflammatory management for tendon injuries is needed and any such data would have profound clinical and health economic importance.

  3. The potential of heat shock response in the treatment of theileriosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the actual mechanism of this approach remains enigmatic, it might be linked with the protective role of heat shock response observed in several conditions. This prompts for closer look into the possible protective mechanisms of heat shock response against theileriosis. By gaining insight into how the heat shock ...

  4. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Are Caspase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christina E; Soti, Subada; Jones, Torey A; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Xue, Ding; Yin, Hang

    2017-03-16

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. While the role of NSAIDs as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors is well established, other targets may contribute to anti-inflammation. Here we report caspases as a new pharmacological target for NSAID family drugs such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketorolac at physiologic concentrations both in vitro and in vivo. We characterize caspase activity in both in vitro and in cell culture, and combine computational modeling and biophysical analysis to determine the mechanism of action. We observe that inhibition of caspase catalysis reduces cell death and the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, NSAID inhibition of caspases is COX independent, representing a new anti-inflammatory mechanism. This finding expands upon existing NSAID anti-inflammatory behaviors, with implications for patient safety and next-generation drug design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory Flavonoids Isolated from Passiflora foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Yen; To, Dao Cuong; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Jeong Ah; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the soluble ethyl acetate fraction and chemical components of the stem bark of Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae). Ten flavonoids (1-10) were isolated by various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were determined based on spectroscopic analyses by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Luteolin (2) and chrysoeriol (3) showed the most potent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, with half maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) values of 1.2 and 3.1 μM, respectively. These compounds suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression at the transcription level. Our research indicates that the stem bark of P. foetida has significant anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that its flavonoids may have anti-inflammatory benefits.

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasleem, Farhana; Azhar, Iqbal; Ali, Syed Nawazish; Perveen, Shaista; Mahmood, Zafar Alam

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of pure compound, piperine along with hexane and ethanol extracts of Piper nigrum L. fruit in mice and rats. The analgesic activity was determined by tail immersion method, analgesy-meter, hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing test. While the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats. Piperine at a dose of 5 mg/kg and ethanol extract at a dose of 15 mg/kg after 120 min and hexane extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg after 60 min exhibited significant (PPiper nigrum L possesses potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of heat shock protein 70 in innate alloimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter G. eLand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes our own experience with the proven demonstration of heat shock protein 70 in reperfused renal allografts from brain-deaddonors and reflects about its potential role as a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP in the setting of innate alloimmunity. In fact, our group was able to demonstrate a dramatic up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 expression after postischemic reperfusion of renal allografts. Of note, up-regulation of this stress protein expression, although to a lesser extent, was already observed after cold storage of the organ indicating that this molecule is already induced in the stressed organism of a brain-dead donor. However, whether or not the dramatic up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 expression contributes to mounting an innate alloimmune response cannot be judged in view of these clinical findings.Nevertheless, heat shock protein 70, since generated in association with postischemic reperfusion-induced allograft injury, can be called a typical DAMP - as can everymolecule be termed a DAMP that is generated in associationwith any stressful tissue injury regardless of its final positive or negative regulatory function within the innate immune response elicited by it.In fact, as we discuss in this article, the context-dependent, even contradistinctive activities of heat shock protein 70 reflect the biological phenomenon that, throughout evolution, mammals have developed an elaborate network of positive and negative regulatory mechanisms, which provide balance between defensive and protective measures against unwarranted destruction of the host. In this sense, up-regulated expression of heat shock protein 70 in an injured allograft might reflect a pure protective response against the severe oxidative injury of a reperfused donor organ. On the other hand, up-regulated expression of this stress protein in an injured allograft might reflect a(futile attempt of the innate immune system to

  8. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis.

  9. Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... Inhibiting HSF1 proteolysis by reversible proteasome inhibition failed to inhibit heat shock induced autophagy. Compromising HSF2 expression but not HSF1 resulted in the inhibition of autophagy, suggesting HSF2 dependent activation of autophagy. We are reporting for the first time that HSF2 is heat ...

  10. Rapid increases in inositol trisphosphate and intracellular Ca++ after heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.A.; Calderwood, S.K.; Hahn, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Heat shock (45 0 C) caused a rapid ( ++ . In addition to the heat induced rise in intracellular free Ca ++ , an increase in 45 Ca ++ influx was observed following nonlethal heat shock (45 0 C/10 min). The heat-induced increase in 45 Ca ++ influx was linearly related to membrane accumulation of phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositide metabolite that may be involved in Ca ++ gating (1). These results suggest that the membrane may be the proximal target of heat shock

  11. Heat Shock Factor 1 Mediates Latent HIV Reactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Yan Pan; Wei Zhao; Xiao-Yun Zeng; Jian Lin; Min-Min Li; Xin-Tian Shen; Shu-Wen Liu

    2016-01-01

    HSF1, a conserved heat shock factor, has emerged as a key regulator of mammalian transcription in response to cellular metabolic status and stress. To our knowledge, it is not known whether HSF1 regulates viral transcription, particularly HIV-1 and its latent form. Here we reveal that HSF1 extensively participates in HIV transcription and is critical for HIV latent reactivation. Mode of action studies demonstrated that HSF1 binds to the HIV 5?-LTR to reactivate viral transcription and recruit...

  12. Adaptive response in Drosophila melanogaster heat shock proteins mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Moskalev, A.A.; Turysheva, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The members of the heat shock proteins (Hsp) family function as molecular chaperones and assist intracellular folding of newly synthesized proteins. Also it is possible that molecular chaperones are induced during adaptive response to oxidative stress and radiation. The aim of our research was to exam the role of heat shock proteins in adaptive response to oxidative stress after low dose rate gamma-irradiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophilamelanogaster strains were kindly provided by Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (University of state of Indiana, Bloomington, USA). We used wild type strain (CS), heat shock protein mutant strains (Hsp22, Hsp70, Hsp83), and heat shock factor mutant strain (Hsf). Strains were chronically exposured to adaptive dose of gamma-irradiation in dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h during all stages of life history (from the embrional stage to the stage of matured imago). The rate of absorbed dose was 60 cGy. For oxidative-stress challenge twodays old flies were starved in empty vials for 6 h and then transferred to vials containing only filter paper soaked with 20 mM paraquat in 5% sucrose solution. Survival data were collected after 26 h of treatment. Dead flies were counted daily. The obtained data were subjected to survival analysis by Kaplan and Meier method and presented as survival curves. Statistical analysis was held by non-parametric methods. To test the significance of the difference between the two age distributions Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied. Gehan-Braslow- Wilcoxon and Cox-Mantel tests were used for estimation of median life span differences. In addition the minimal and maximal life span, time of 90% death, and mortality rate doubling time (MRDT) were estimated. The obtained results will be discussed in presentation.

  13. Implication of Heat Shock Factors in Tumorigenesis: Therapeutical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thonel, Aurelie de [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); Mezger, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [CNRS, UMR7216 Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Paris (France); University Paris Diderot, 75013 Paris (France); Garrido, Carmen, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); CHU, Dijon BP1542, Dijon (France)

    2011-03-07

    Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  14. Thermotolerance and Human Performance: Role of Heat Shock Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    stress response, can be achieved with mild pretreatment and Hsp responses correlate with this tolerance. In the developing embryo , the heat shock...or other stressors without any negative impacts in the developing embryos is largely unknown. Significant research has focused on the role, induction...rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, sheep , pigs, and monkeys (Edwards et al 2003). However, the type and severity of the fetal defects were dependent

  15. The Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliková, K; Pilchova, I; Stefanikova, A; Hatok, J; Dobrota, D; Racay, P

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 are molecular chaperones; their expression is increased after exposure of cells to conditions of environmental stress, including heat shock, heavy metals, oxidative stress, or pathologic conditions, such as ischemia, infection, and inflammation. Their protective function is to help the cell cope with lethal conditions. The HSPs are a class of proteins which, in normal cells, are responsible for maintaining homeostasis, interacting with diverse protein substrates to assist in their folding, and preventing the appearance of folding intermediates that lead to misfolded or damaged molecules. They have been shown to interact with different key apoptotic proteins and play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Several HSPs have been demonstrated to directly interact with various components of tightly regulated caspase-dependent programmed cell death. These proteins also affect caspase-independent apoptosis by interacting with apoptogenic factors. Heat shock proteins are aberrantly expressed in hematological malignancies. Because of their prognostic implications and functional role in leukemias, HSPs represent an interesting target for antileukemic therapy. This review will describe different molecules interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins HSP70 and HSP90, which can be used in cancer therapy based on their inhibition.

  16. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana are commonly used for the treatment of pain, fever and ulcer by traditional medical practitioners without any scientific data to evaluate ... Different sets of rats were used for the anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies although animal grouping for extract administration were as in ...

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Allium Ascalonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol and aqueous extract of Allium ascalonicom were investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Thermal and chemical models of pain assessment were used while albumin was used to induce inflammation. The extracts were administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The methanol extract ...

  18. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory potential was investigated in egg-albumin and carrageenan induced paw edema models while the antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid induced writhing reflex and tail immersion tests at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The negative control group (group A) received distilled ...

  19. Hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Sanqixiantao dressing. Methods: Sanqixiantao dressing was prepared by mixting with sanqixiiantao extract (8 %) with membrane-forming matrix (5:4:9:2 volume ratio of polyvinyl alcohol: Na CMC: gelatin: glycerol). Rats with local surface ...

  20. Antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 2-acetamido-5-sulfonamidobenzoic acid (AMSABA, 4) were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. HASBA, AASBA and AMASBA showed higher analgesic activity than aspirin (ASA) at 100 mg/kg dose, while AMSABA showed the least analgesic property.

  1. Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs Usage In Orthopaedics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs) are a group of heterogeneous compounds with nti inflammatory, analgesic and often times anti pyretic roperties. They are weak organic acids and are the most commonly used drugs in Orthopaedic/Trauma practice. hey provide mild to moderate pain relief.

  2. Investigations into the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of the ethanolic extract and fractions of Citrus sinensis stem-bark, investigate and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the most active fraction (EAF) of the ethanolic extract against acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury.

  3. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug,. Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a ...

  4. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels (Fabaceae) were investigated using wistar rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt. Carrageenan and. Histamine were injected into rat ...

  5. Acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha and Nauclea latifolia were investigated in rats and mice for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The activities of the extracts were tested on egg white-induced oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate models. Methanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia ...

  6. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... reduce significantly the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with Diclofenac. (positive control). This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract prepared from Myrtus nivellei. Keywords: Anti-inflammatoy activity; Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab; ...

  7. Possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity and safety profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals were grouped and treated with diclofenac, chlorpheniramine, and granisetron (reference anti-inflammatory agents), or aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistia stratiotes at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg orally. Control groups received distilled water. Paw thicknesses was measured at 30 or 60 min intervals for 2.5 ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... The Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a popular traditional medicinal plant in India. This study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S. cumini seed in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  9. In vitro anti-inflammatory and phytochemical properties of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baliospermum montanum (Muell – Arg) which belong to Euphorbiaceae family is a well known perennial herb in Indian medicine used to treat various disorders like asthma, bronchitis, purgative, anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, rubefacient and tonic. The anti-inflammatory activity of four different solvent extracts of B.

  10. Comparative anti-inflammatory properties of Capsaicin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The analgesic effect of capsaicin (the active ingredient in Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae]) had been reported in several studies. Current research is being directed at producing analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents with better side effect profile. Objectives: To investigate if either the ethyl acetate extract ...

  11. Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts of Some Traditionally Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydroalcoholic extracts of some traditional medicinal plants used in Ethiopia for the treatment of skin diseases, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory activities in carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema at doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The extracts were obtained from the leaves of Bidens pilosa ...

  12. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods: Analgesic activity ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab (myrtaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of an endemic species of the central sahara: Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab. The methanolic extract of this plant was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus and concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, five ...

  14. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Triphala recipe were studied in animal models. Triphala recipe (4 mg/ear) significantly exhibited an inhibitory effect on the ear edema formation induced by ethyl phenylpropiolateinduced, but not on the arachidonic acid -induced ear edema in rats. Furthermore, Triphala ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Magnolia sieboldii Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Magnolia sieboldii extract (MSE) on the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines by macrophage. Methods: The whole plant of M. sieboldii was extracted with methanol at room temperature. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of MSE was investigated on lipopolysaccharide ...

  16. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  17. Hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To study the hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Sanqixiantao dressing. Methods: ... Sanqixiantao extract significantly shortened blood clotting time in vitro (p < 0.01), and showed antibacterial activities against ..... application effect of different silver dressings in treatment of patients ...

  18. Phytochemical, Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening ...

  19. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula ... Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, ... albino mice, while the phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and glycosides.

  20. Phytochemical screening, safety evaluation, anti-inflammatory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were conducted using standard tests such as carrageenan, histamine-induced-oedema, tail flick test and acetic acid writhing test. Phytochemical screening of the powdered material showed that tannin, flavonoid and reducing sugar were present while alkaloids, cardiac ...

  1. The Phytochemical Constituents, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas were investigated in mice and rats respectively. The phytochemical screening of the extract was also carried out. The analgesic effect was determined by acetic acid – induced writhing test in mice. While the anti- ...

  2. Flavonoids, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of Macfadyena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kaempferol, 7-O, 8-C diglucoside and vicenin II were isolated, while 6, methoxy, acacetin 7-O glucoside; and quercitrin were isolated from ethanol extract. These compounds were characterized and identified by their physicochemical and spectral data. The crude ethanol extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ibuprofen in rat pups. Methods: The expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by western blotting; the inhibition of these proteins by plant compounds was evaluated.

  4. Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mice. Collectively, these results suggest that CEMB is a very potent anti-tumour compound. [Ravanan P, Singh SK, Subba Rao GSR and Kondaiah P 2011 Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities displayed by a novel modified triterpenoid, cyano enone of methyl boswellates. J. Biosci. 36 297–307] DOI ...

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the phytochemistry and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta against paw edema induced by egg albumin and carrageenan in rats. Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity test (LD50) of the methanol extract was also carried out. Results show that ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Magnolia sieboldii Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Magnolia sieboldii extract (MSE) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophage. Methods: The whole plant of M. sieboldii was extracted with methanol at room temperature. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of MSE was investigated on lipopolysaccharide ...

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginsenosides (G) are biologically active saponin compounds found inPanax ginseng. Although these compounds are reported to possess numerous biological activities, recent issues have arisen regarding their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory roles in inflammatory cells. This is because 1) inflammation, ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  9. Anti-inflammatory potential of native Australian herbs polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Anise myrtle, lemon myrtle and bay leaf selectively inhibited COX-2 and iNOS enzymes, while Tasmannia pepper leaf extract exhibited a pronounced inhibitory activity toward COX-1 and was the least effective inhibitor of iNOS. Anise myrtle and lemon myrtle are potentially more efficient anti-inflammatory agents than Tasmannia pepper leaf.

  10. TOPICAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF COSTUS AFER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioactivity-monitored extraction and chromatographic fractionation of different morphological parts of Costus afer using the croton aldehyde-induced mouse ear oedema model resulted in the location of significant anti-inflammatory activity in the chloroform-soluble fraction (CSE, 64% oedema inhibition 50 mg/200μl, ...

  11. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory Evaluation of the Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Pterocarpus santalinoides was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and leucocyte migration in rats, and croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. The extract (50-100mg/kg) and indomethacin (10mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.05) inhibitions of ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of some copper chelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, J.R.J.

    1974-01-01

    With the observation that cupric acetate had anti-inflammatory activity in the foot edema model of inflammation, it was felt that copper may play a role as a component of the active metabolite of anti-inflammatory agents used clinically. To test this hypothesis, various Cu chelates were made and tested in the foot edema, cotton-wad granuloma and polyarthritis models of inflammation. A marked increase in anti-inflammatory activity has been observed for the Cu chelates of chelating agents that had no anti-inflammatory activity as well as those that have been used clinically. Since ulcers may be viewed as inflammatory processes and often associated with the arthritic disease syndrome, the Cu chelates were evaluated as anti-ulcer agents. These compounds were demonstrated to have anti-ulcer activity in the Shay as well as the corticoid and stress induced rat ulcer models. Mechanistic considerations relevant to lysosomal and digestive proteolytic enzyme inhibition, anti-cholinergic activity, prostaglandin synthesis and wound healing are discussed. 9 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of bark of Xeromphis spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Nath Das

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Xeromphis spinosa extracted by a mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol at an oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with control.

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of a polyherbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, WAP (400 mg/kg) nether affected locomotory activity nor induced gastric lesion in mice. The results of this study revealed that extract of a polyherbal mixture containing the leaves and roots of Plumbago zeylinica and fruits of Capsicum frutescens possesses anti-noiceptive and anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of four different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of four different solvent extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Galega officinalis L. Methods: The hexane, DCM, methanol and water extracts of G. officinalis were successively obtained by soxhlet extraction method. The cytotoxic activity of the ...

  16. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Solvent Extracts of Tagetes erectus Linn (Asteraceae). NV Shinde*, KG Kanase, ... Soxhlet extractor and refluxed continuously for 6 h. The solvent ... of the plant extract. Most of the so-called peripheral analgesics possess anti-inflammatory properties and, in some cases, also antipyretic activity besides analgesia. For many ...

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alcoholic extract of Polygala arvensis (family Polygalaceae) was screened for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. The extract was administered for three consecutive days. Following an oral dose of 25 - 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited graded dose response equivalent to 16.24% ...

  19. [Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and gastroduodenal changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A V

    1995-09-01

    The author discusses the possible interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) which may play an important role in the unleashing of gastroduodenal lesions. To our knowledge, AINEs have no influence on the prevalence of infection by Hp and the latter does not seem to influence the development and intensity of the lesions caused by NSAIDs.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  2. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bovine mastitis is one of the most relevant and problematic diseases to treat and control in practice. Puxing Yinyang San (PYS) is a compound of herbs to treat bovine mastitis in China. This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of PYS in mice and rats. Materials and ...

  3. Synthesis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Microbial infections often produce pain and inflammation. Chemotherapeutic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed simultaneously in normal practice. The compound possessing all three activities is not common.The purpose of the present study was to examine whether molecular modification ...

  4. Glycosaminoglycan analogs as a novel anti-inflammatory strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, India C.; Soares, Adriano; Hantson, Jennifer; Teixeira, Mauro; Sachs, Daniela; Valognes, Delphine; Scheer, Alexander; Schwarz, Matthias K.; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Shaw, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Heparin, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), has both anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. The clinical use of heparin against inflammation, however, has been limited by concerns about increased bleeding. While the anti-coagulant activity of heparin is well understood, its anti-inflammatory properties are less so. Heparin is known to bind to certain cytokines, including chemokines, small proteins which mediate inflammation through their control of leukocyte migration and activation. Molecules which can interrupt the chemokine-GAG interaction without inhibiting coagulation could therefore, represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agents. In the present study, two approaches were undertaken, both focusing on the heparin-chemokine relationship. In the first, a structure based strategy was used: after an initial screening of potential small molecule binders using protein NMR on a target chemokine, binding molecules were optimized through structure-based design. In the second approach, commercially available short oligosaccharides were polysulfated. In vitro, these molecules prevented chemokine-GAG binding and chemokine receptor activation without disrupting coagulation. However, in vivo, these compounds caused variable results in a murine peritoneal recruitment assay, with a general increase of cell recruitment. In more disease specific models, such as antigen-induced arthritis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, an overall decrease in inflammation was noted, suggesting that the primary anti-inflammatory effect may also involve factors beyond the chemokine system. PMID:23087686

  5. Anti-inflammatory medicinal plants and the molecular mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plant and plant products have shown tremendous potentials and are used beneficially in the treatment of inflammation and in the management of diseases with significant inflammatory components. Many medicinal plants employed as anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic remedies lack the ...

  6. Synthesis, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The final products were purified on column chromatography, eluting with ... the reference drug. Results: The compounds were obtained in high yield (70 – 90 %) and purity. The anti-inflammatory results showed a poor activity for the compounds except o-palmitoylamino ..... causes an increase in the peritoneal fluid level of.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum -cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), a kind of traditional therapy of moxibustion, has been used in China since 340 B.C. However, its mechanism remains unclear. So, this study was attempted to reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of ZBCS-moxi on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rats.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic Acids of the Two Major Blueberry Species in the US Market and Their. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities. Plant Food Hum Nutr. 70(1): 56-62. 11. Landau, S.; Muklada, H.; Markovics, A.; Azaizeh, H. (2014). Traditional Uses of Pistacia lentiscus in Veterinary and Human Medicine. In: Yaniv, Z.; Dudai, ...

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  11. Essential Oil Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Sage, Salvia officinalis L (Lamiaceae), is widely cultivated medicinal plant for its economic importance and large content of bioactive components; therefore, in the present study, the active components (volatile compounds) and the anti-inflammatory effect of S. officinalis have been investigated. Methods: Salvia ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Marrubium deserti de Noé, which is locally known as “Merriouet saharaui”, is widely used in Algeria as a traditional treatment of many ailments. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity of the aqueous infusion extract from aerial parts of Marrubium deserti were investigated. Meanwhile, acute oral ...

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of crude methanol fruit extract of Quercus incana (QI), as well as its acute toxicity and phytochemical profile. Methods: Two animal models were used: Wistar rats for carrageenan-induced paw inflammation and Swiss albino mice for acetic ...

  15. Marine Diterpenoids as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yisett; Torres-Mendoza, Daniel; Jones, Gillian E.; Fernandez, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory response is a highly regulated process, and its dysregulation can lead to the establishment of chronic inflammation and, in some cases, to death. Inflammation is the cause of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis, and asthma. The search for agents inhibiting inflammation is a great challenge as the inflammatory response plays an important role in the defense of the host to infections. Marine invertebrates are exceptional sources of new natural products, and among those diterpenoids secondary metabolites exhibit notable anti-inflammatory properties. Novel anti-inflammatory diterpenoids, exclusively produced by marine organisms, have been identified and synthetic molecules based on those structures have been obtained. The anti-inflammatory activity of marine diterpenoids has been attributed to the inhibition of Nuclear Factor-κB activation and to the modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. However, more research is necessary to describe the mechanisms of action of these secondary metabolites. This review is a compilation of marine diterpenoids, mainly isolated from corals, which have been described as potential anti-inflammatory molecules. PMID:26538822

  16. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    displaying a significantly (P<0.05) higher activity compared to the leaves extract. The results of this study therefore justify the use of this plant in the treatment of inflammation and bacterial infections. Key words: Antibacterial, Anti inflammatory, Anacardium occidentale. INTRODUCTION. Medicinal plants represent a rich ...

  17. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background of study: Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Aim: The study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Methods: The acute ...

  18. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Traditionally, the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. are used in India for the alleviation of pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant material in an animal model. Methods: The chloroform, methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

  19. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Extracts of Terminalia citrina fruits were evaluated at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg in albino mice for preventive effect in inflammatory edema, peripheral pain sensation and pyrexia. Carrageenan induced paw edema method was utilized to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The results suggest a potential benefit of H. pauciflorus leaves in treating conditions associated with inflammation, pain and fever. These properties might be adduced to the presence of the phytoconstituents. Key words: Hippobromus pauciflorus, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, brewer's yeast, ...

  1. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the volatile oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the qualitative methods used for the control of the antimicrobial activity, the method of diffusion on filter paper discs proved to be the most efficient, the results correlating well with the MIC. Our studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the natural compounds' of T. majus L. in anti-inflammatory treatments in animals.

  2. Studies on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extracts of the brown seaweed Sargassum swartzii (Turner) C. Agardh (Phaeophyta) and green seaweed Ulva reticulata Forsskal (Chlorophyta) were examined. S. swartzii and U. reticulata extracts at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight showed analgesic effects in ...

  3. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was further fractionated in sequence to n-hexane (BSH), chloroform (BSC) and methanol (BSM) soluble fractions. Acute toxicity was evaluated by oral administration of plant and hind paw induced-edema method in rats was used for the anti-inflammatory evaluation. Results: The BSE was found safe up to the dose level of ...

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effect Of Some Common Nigerian Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extracts of four common Nigerian vegetables; A.graveoleus, C.argentia, T. triangulare and T.occidentalis were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using carrageenan. Carrageenan-induced oedema in the sub-plantar hind paw of vegetable extracts treated rats was significantly inhibited. This finding ...

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of Wigandia urens and Acalypha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Alexandre-Moreira MS, Piuvezam MR, Araujo CC, Thomas G (1999). Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Curatella americana L. J. Ethnopharmacol. 67: 171-177. Argueta VA (1994). Atlas de las Plantas de la Medicina Tradicional. Mexicana II. Instituto Nacional Indigenista, México City ...

  6. Anti inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanol leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia ataxacantha (Leguminosae) has been reported to be used in traditional medicine for management of pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti inflammatory and antipyretic activities of methanol leaf extract of Acacia ataxacantha in rats. The acute toxicity study was carried out using ...

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Nothospondias staudtii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous (AENS), methanolic (MENS) and chloroform (CENS) extracts of the leaves of Nothospondias staudtii Engl (Anacardianceae) were screened for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and rats. Pain responses were studied in mice using the tail immersion and acetic acid induced writing while ...

  8. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  9. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of electronic signal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Robert H; Sorgnard, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation often plays a key role in the perpetuation of pain. Chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g. osteoarthritis, immune system dysfunction, micro-circulatory disease, painful neuritis, and even heart disease) have increased as baby boomers age. Medicine's current anti-inflammatory choices are NSAIDs and steroids; the value in promoting cure and side effect risks of these medications are unclear and controversial, especially considering individual patient variations. Electricity has continuously been a powerful tool in medicine for thousands of years. All medical professionals are, to some degree, aware of electrotherapy; those who directly use electricity for treatment know of its anti-inflammatory effects. Electronic signal treatment (EST), as an extension of presently available technology, may reasonably have even more anti-inflammatory effects. EST is a digitally produced alternating current sinusoidal electronic signal with associated harmonics to produce theoretically reasonable and/or scientifically documented physiological effects when applied to the human body. These signals are produced by advanced electronics not possible even 10 to 15 years ago. The potential long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects of some electrical currents are based on basic physical and biochemical facts listed in the text below, namely that of stimulating and signaling effective and long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects in nerve and muscle cells. The safety of electrotherapeutic treatments in general and EST in particular has been established through extensive clinical use. The principles of physics have been largely de-emphasized in modern medicine in favor of chemistry. These electrical treatments, a familiar application of physics, thus represent powerful and appropriate elements of physicians' pain care armamentaria in the clinic and possibly for prescription for use at home to improve overall patient care and maintenance of quality of life via low-risk and potentially

  11. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potential therapy for opportunistic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Amro, Bassam I; Mashallah, Sundus; Haddadin, Randa N

    2016-05-31

    Methanolic extracts of six plants (Arbutus andrachne, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Inula viscosa, Origanum syriacum, Punica granatum, and Rosmarinus officinalis) used in traditional medicine for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections were evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of some medicinal plants in lowering the risk of opportunistic infections of the oral cavity caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Extracts were evaluated separately and in a mixture. The methanolic plant extracts were tested against three opportunistic microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). They were also evaluated for their ability to suppress the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 while not suppressing the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using ELISA. All extracts showed both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, O. syriacum exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity for the three microorganisms among all of the tested extracts (MIC S. aureus: 1 mg/mL; P. aeruginosa: 2 mg/mL; and C. albicans: 1 mg/mL). The extracts inhibited the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 with apparent dose-dependent responses while they attenuated the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The mixture of O. syriacum and R. officinalis showed an anti-inflammatory effect, with a synergistic antimicrobial effect. These findings support the idea that a diet rich in plants and herbs may contribute to the reduction of inflammation and microbial growth and may also be preventive against various infections, including those related to the oral cavity.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zea mays L. husk extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Hyoyoung; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Mi Ok; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2016-08-19

    Zea mays L. (Z. mays) has been used for human consumption in the various forms of meal, cooking oil, thickener in sauces and puddings, sweetener in processed food and beverage products, bio-disel. However, especially, in case of husk extract of Z. mays, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. mays husk extract (ZMHE) and its mechanisms of action were investigated. The husks of Z. Mays were harvested in kangwondo, Korea. To assess the anti-inflammatory activities of ZMHE, we examined effects of ZMHE on nitric oxide (NO) production, and release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and eotaxin-1. The expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was also determined by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. To determine its mechanisms of action, a luciferase reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was introduced. ZMHE inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of iNOS gene was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Effects of ZMHE on the AP-1 and NF-kB promoters were examined to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of AP-1 and NF-kB promoters induced by LPS was significantly reduced by ZMHE treatment. In addition, LPS-induced production of sICAM-1 and IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-1 were all reduced by ZMHE. Our results indicate that ZMHE has anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS gene and its downregulation is mediated by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1 signaling.

  13. Heat Shock Factor 1 Deficiency Affects Systemic Body Temperature Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Noichl, Erik; Stahr, Anna; Korf, Horst-Werner; Reinke, Hans; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a ubiquitous heat-sensitive transcription factor that mediates heat shock protein transcription in response to cellular stress, such as increased temperature, in order to protect the organism against misfolded proteins. In this study, we analysed the effect of HSF1 deficiency on core body temperature regulation. Body temperature, locomotor activity, and food consumption of wild-type mice and HSF1-deficient mice were recorded. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in brown adipose tissue was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Hypothalamic HSF1 and its co-localisation with tyrosine hydroxylase was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. HSF1-deficient mice showed an increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia), decreased overall locomotor activity, and decreased levels of prolactin in pituitary and blood plasma reminiscent of cold adaptation. HSF1 could be detected in various hypothalamic regions involved in temperature regulation, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in hypothalamic thermoregulation. Moreover, HSF1 co-localises with tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in the hypothalamic control of prolactin release. In brown adipose tissue, levels of prolactin receptor and uncoupled protein 1 were increased in HSF1-deficient mice, consistent with an up-regulation of heat production. Our data suggest a role of HSF1 in systemic thermoregulation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Global transcriptome analysis of the heat shock response ofshewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Sarah; Liu, Xueduan; Yan, Tinfeng; Wu, Liyou; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam P.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2004-04-30

    Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities. However, the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of S. oneidensis to survive and adapt to various environmentally relevant stresses is poorly understood. To define this organism's molecular response to elevated growth temperatures, temporal gene expression profiles were examined in cells subjected to heat stress using whole-genome DNA microarrays for S. oneidensis MR-1. Approximately 15 percent (711) of the predicted S. oneidensis genes represented on the microarray were significantly up- or down-regulated (P < 0.05) over a 25-min period following shift to the heat shock temperature (42 C). As expected, the majority of S. oneidensis genes exhibiting homology to known chaperones and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were highly and transiently induced. In addition, a number of predicted genes encoding enzymes in glycolys is and the pentose cycle, [NiFe] dehydrogenase, serine proteases, transcriptional regulators (MerR, LysR, and TetR families), histidine kinases, and hypothetical proteins were induced in response to heat stress. Genes encoding membrane proteins were differentially expressed, suggesting that cells possibly alter their membrane composition or structure in response to variations in growth temperature. A substantial number of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins displayed down-regulated co-expression patterns in response to heat stress, as did genes encoding prophage and flagellar proteins. Finally, based on computational comparative analysis of the upstream promoter regions of S.oneidensis heat-inducible genes, a putative regulatory motif, showing high conservation to the Escherichia coli sigma 32-binding consensus sequence, was identified.

  15. Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brakhage Axel A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and above that of a fevered human host. To elucidate the mechanisms of heat resistance, we analyzed the change of the A. fumigatus proteome during a temperature shift from 30°C to 48°C by 2D-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE. To improve 2D gel image analysis results, protein spot quantitation was optimized by missing value imputation and normalization. Differentially regulated proteins were compared to previously published transcriptome data of A. fumigatus. The study was augmented by bioinformatical analysis of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter region of genes whose corresponding proteins were differentially regulated upon heat shock. Results 91 differentially regulated protein spots, representing 64 different proteins, were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. They showed a continuous up-, down- or an oscillating regulation. Many of the identified proteins were involved in protein folding (chaperones, oxidative stress response, signal transduction, transcription, translation, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. A correlation between alteration of transcript levels and corresponding proteins was detected for half of the differentially regulated proteins. Interestingly, some previously undescribed putative targets for the heat shock regulator Hsf1 were identified. This provides evidence for Hsf1-dependent regulation of mannitol biosynthesis, translation, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell division in A. fumigatus. Furthermore, computational analysis of promoters revealed putative binding sites for an AP-2alpha

  16. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba-Palomares, M F María C; Villareal, Dra María L; Acevedo Quiroz, M C Macdiel E; Marquina Bahena, M C Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra Laura P; Rodríguez-López, Dra Verónica

    2015-10-01

    The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera.

  17. Synthesis, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of 3- Ethyl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory activities. Results: ... series, and compared well with the reference standard, diclofenac sodium, which exbited analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 62.04 ... and anti-inflammatory properties. The present work is an extension of ...

  18. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Zapoteca portoricensis possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation in rats. The terpenoids and steroids present in the column fractions may be responsible for the activity. Keywords: Zapoteca portoricensis; Anti-inflammatory, Egg albumeninduced edema, Terpenoids; Steroids.

  19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manthripragada, Angelika D; Schernhammer, Eva S; Qiu, Jiaheng

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD).......Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD)....

  20. Heat Shock Protein 70 Modulates Influenza A Virus Polymerase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Rashid; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Yoshida, Reiko; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Fujikura, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Kajihara, Masahiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2014-01-01

    The role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in virus replication has been discussed for many viruses. The known suppressive role of Hsp70 in influenza virus replication is based on studies conducted in cells with various Hsp70 expression levels. In this study, we determined the role of Hsp70 in influenza virus replication in HeLa and HEK293T cells, which express Hsp70 constitutively. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies revealed that Hsp70 interacted with PB2 or PB1 monomers and PB2/PB1 heterodimer but not with the PB1/PA heterodimer or PB2/PB1/PA heterotrimer and translocated into the nucleus with PB2 monomers or PB2/PB1 heterodimers. Knocking down Hsp70 resulted in reduced virus transcription and replication activities. Reporter gene assay, immunofluorescence assay, and Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions from infected cells demonstrated that the increase in viral polymerase activity during the heat shock phase was accompanied with an increase in Hsp70 and viral polymerases levels in the nuclei, where influenza virus replication takes place, whereas a reduction in viral polymerase activity was accompanied with an increase in cytoplasmic relocation of Hsp70 along with viral polymerases. Moreover, significantly higher levels of viral genomic RNA (vRNA) were observed during the heat shock phase than during the recovery phase. Overall, for the first time, these findings suggest that Hsp70 may act as a chaperone for influenza virus polymerase, and the modulatory effect of Hsp70 appears to be a sequel of shuttling of Hsp70 between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. PMID:24474693

  1. Anti-inflammatory properties of edible mushrooms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Grzywacz-Kisielewska, Agata; Kała, Katarzyna; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna

    2018-03-15

    Mushrooms have been used extensively, owing to their nutritional and medicinal value, for thousands of years. Modern research confirms the therapeutic effect of traditionally used species. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to damaging factors, e.g. physical, chemical and pathogenic. Deficiencies of antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements, as well as physiological processes, such as aging, can affect the body's ability to resolve inflammation. Mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory components, such as polysaccharides, phenolic and indolic compounds, mycosteroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and biometals. Metabolites from mushrooms of the Basidiomycota taxon possess antioxidant, anticancer, and most significantly, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent reports indicate that edible mushroom extracts exhibit favourable therapeutic and health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to diseases associated with inflammation. In all certainty, edible mushrooms can be referred to as a "superfood" and are recommended as a valuable constituent of the daily diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isoflavones: Anti-Inflammatory Benefit and Possible Caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing evidence has highlighted the potential for isoflavones to prevent the chronic diseases in which inflammation plays a key role, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, some studies have raised concerns about isoflavones induced negative effects like carcinogenesis, thymic involution, and immunosuppression. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavones, unravel the underlying mechanisms, and present the potential health risks.

  3. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Prostatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ishiguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic diseases are characterized by increased activity of cytokines, growth factors, and cyclooxygenases- (COX- 1 and 2. Activation of COX-1 and COX-2 results in increased levels of prostaglandins and the induction of angiogenic, antiapoptotic and inflammatory processes. Inhibition of COX enzymes by members of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID class of drugs decreases prostaglandin production, and exerts a variety of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antinociceptive effects. While numerous in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies have shown that NSAIDs inhibit the risk and progression of prostatic diseases, the relationship between NSAIDs and such diseases remains controversial. Here we review the literature in this area, critically analyzing the benefits and caveats associated with the use of NSAIDs in the treatment of prostatic diseases.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activity of Ouabain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump, was identified as an endogenous substance of human plasma. Ouabain has been studied for its ability to interfere with various regulatory mechanisms. Despite the studies portraying the ability of ouabain to modulate the immune response, little is known about the effect of this substance on the inflammatory process. The aim of this work was to study the effects triggered by ouabain on inflammation and nociceptive models. Ouabain produced a reduction in the mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan, compound 48/80 and zymosan. This anti-inflammatory potential might be related to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, and mast-cell degranulation but not to histamine. Ouabain also modulated the inflammation induced by concanavalin A by inhibiting cell migration. Besides that, ouabain presented antinociceptive activity. Taken these data together, this work demonstrated, for the first time, that ouabain presented in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of r.a.p . ( Radix Angelicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (R.A.P) ethanol extracts. Three classic anti-inflammatory models and two analgesic models were used in this research. In anti-inflammatory tests, all the extracts have a certain inhibition on the acute ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract of Indian Polygala arvensis in Experimental Animals. ... time in the hot plate method by 69.55% (p < 0.01) and 107.13% (p < 0.001) respectively as well as in analgesymeter-induced mechanical pain by 28.84% (p < 0.5) and 55.71% (p < 0.05) respectively.

  7. Original Research Article In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Acetylsalicylic acid. 100. 0.88 ± 0.09 (19.3) 0.35 ± 0.12 (64.7)*. 0.31 ± 0.08 (45.6) *. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, (n=5): significant compared to the vehicle treated group. Values in parenthesis represent percent inhibition of edema. respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of the crude methanol extract, chloroform fractions and.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    studied using albumen-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced paw lick in rats as the anti-inflammatory test models; acetic acid-induced ..... meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats. Pain. 4: 161-174. Fields H.L. (1987). Analgesic Drugs. In: Day W, ed. Pain. MacGraw- Hill, USA. p. 272. García M.D. ...

  9. Mechanisms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Asad; Steele, Vernon E; Menter, David G; Hawk, Ernest T

    2016-02-01

    Various clinical and epidemiologic studies show that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COXIBs) help prevent cancer. Since eicosanoid metabolism is the main inhibitory targets of these drugs the resulting molecular and biological impact is generally accepted. As our knowledge base and technology progress we are learning that additional targets may be involved. This review attempts to summarize these new developments in the field. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF CHAMOMILE ESSENTIAL OIL IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, D.; Juhás, Š. (Štefan); Bukovska, A.; Bujňáková, D.; Grešáková, L.; Koppel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites with positive pharmacological properties, e.g. anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulative, but they can have toxic and allergic effects as well. The aim of this study was to analyze anti-inflammatory effects of chamomile essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw oedema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Mice received chamomile essential oil in three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm) in the standard roden...

  11. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türel, Idris; Ozbek, Hanefi; Erten, Remzi; Oner, Ahmet Cihat; Cengiz, Nureddin; Yilmaz, Orhan

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities of Plantago major L. (PM). Anti-inflammatory activity: Control and reference groups were administered isotonic saline solution (ISS) and indomethacin, respectively. Plantago major groups were injected PM in doses of 5 mg/kg (PM-I), 10 mg/kg (PM-II), 20 mg/kg (PM-III) and 25 mg/kg (PM-IV). Before and three hours after the injections, the volume of right hind-paw of rats was measured using a plethysmometer. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY: The hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Control, CCl4 and reference groups received isotonic saline solution, CCl4 and silibinin, respectively. Plantago major groups received CCl4 (0.8 ml/kg) and PM in doses of 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively for seven days. Blood samples and liver were collected on the 8th day after the animals were killed. Plantago major had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of control group at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg. It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 90.01% with indomethacin, 3.10% with PM-I, 41.56% with PM-II, 45.87% with PM-III and 49.76% with PM-IV. Median effective dose (ED50) value of PM was found to be 7.507 mg/kg. Plantago major (25 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels when compared to the CCl4 group. The histopathological findings showed a significant difference between the PM (25 mg/kg) and CCl4 groups. The results showed that PM had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities.

  12. Synthesis, in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and molecular docking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs Nature 231. 232. 2. Reitz D B and Isakson P C 1995 Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors Curr. Pharm. Design 1 211. 3. Gans K R, Galbraith W, Roman R J, Haber S B, Kerr J S,. Schmidt W K, Smith C, Hewes W E and Ackerman N R. 1990 Anti-inflammatory and safety profile of DuP 697,.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect as a mechanism of effectiveness underlying the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis patients: regulation of the altered inflammatory and stress feedback response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E.; Gálvez, I.; Hinchado, M. D.; Guerrero, J.; Martín-Cordero, L.; Torres-Piles, S.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether an anti-inflammatory effect together with an improvement of the regulation of the interaction between the inflammatory and stress responses underlies the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study evaluated the effects of a 10-day cycle of pelotherapy at the spa centre `El Raposo' (Spain) in a group of 21 OA patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. Clinical assessments included pain intensity using a visual analog scale; pain, stiffness and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; and health-related quality of life using the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. Serum inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β) were evaluated using the Bio-Plex® Luminex® system. Circulating neuroendocrine-stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and extracellular 72 kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72), were measured by ELISA. After the cycle of mud therapy, OA patients improved the knee flexion angle and OA-related pain, stiffness and physical function, and they reported a better health-related quality of life. Serum concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and TGF-β, as well as eHsp72, were markedly decreased. Besides, systemic levels of cortisol increased significantly. These results confirm that the clinical benefits of mud therapy may well be mediated, at least in part, by its systemic anti-inflammatory effects and neuroendocrine-immune regulation in OA patients. Thus, mud therapy could be an effective alternative treatment in the management of OA.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsiung Pan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-24, intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2. However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Cembranoids from the Soft Coral Lobophytum crassum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hung Lai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cembrane-type diterpenoids are among the most frequently encountered natural products from the soft corals of the genus Lobophytum. In the course of our investigation to identify anti-inflammatory constituents from a wild-type soft coral Lobophytum crassum, two new cembranoids, lobophyolide A (1 and B (2, along with five known compounds (3–7, were isolated. The structures of these natural products were identified using NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 was found to possess the first identified α-epoxylactone group among all cembrane-type diterpenoids. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of compounds 1–5 was evaluated. The results showed that compounds 1–5 not only reduced IL-12 release, but also attenuated NO production in LPS-activated dendritic cells. Our data indicated that the isolated series of cembrane-type diterpenoids demonstrated interesting structural features and anti-inflammatory activity which could be further developed into therapeutic entities.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Lu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Shuhai; Lu, Meijun; Liu, Hongmei

    2008-06-01

    Pholiota nameko polysaccharide (PNPS-1) has been isolated and purified by enzymatic hydrolysis, hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The anti-inflammatory activity of PNPS-1 was evaluated in rodents using xylene-induced ear edema, egg albumin-, carrageenin-, and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma test, adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro, and ulcerogenic activity. The results showed that PNPS-1 (5 mg/ear) inhibited topical edema in the mouse ear and at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) it significantly suppressed the development of egg albumin-, carrageenin-, and formaldehyde-induced paw edema in the animals. PNPS-1 (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, per oral) significantly inhibited the growth of granuloma tissues induced by subcutaneously implanted cotton pellets in rats by 10.96, 18.07, and 43.75%, respectively. PNPS-1 also inhibited spontaneous and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-activated adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro. Further, both acute as well as chronic administration of PNPS-1 (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, per oral) did not produce any gastric lesion in rats. In conclusion, these data indicated that PNPS-1 possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity suggesting its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent for use in the treatment of various inflammatory-related diseases.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eMoles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From these, ethanol extracts of ten species from five different phyla resulted suitable to be studied in cell macrophage cultures (RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity (MTT method and production of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1 were determined at three extract concentrations (50, 125, 250 g/mL. Bioassays resulted in four different species showing anti-inflammatory activity corresponding to three sponges: Mycale (Oxymycale acerata, Isodictya erinacea, and I. toxophila; and one hemichordate: Cephalodiscus sp. These results show that Antarctic sessile invertebrates may have great value as a source of lead compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications.

  18. Structural characterization of anti-inflammatory Immunoglobulin G Fc proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Alysia A.; Giddens, John; Pincetic, Andrew; Lomino, Joseph V.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a central mediator of host defense due to its ability to recognize and eliminate pathogens. The recognition and effector responses are encoded on distinct regions of IgGs. The diversity of the antigen recognition Fab domains accounts for IgG's ability to bind with high specificity to essentially any antigen. Recent studies have indicated that the Fc effector domain also displays considerable heterogeneity, accounting for its complex effector functions of inflammation, modulation and immune suppression. Therapeutic anti-tumor antibodies, for example, require the pro-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc to eliminate tumor cells, while the anti-inflammatory activity of Intravenous Immunoglobulin G (IVIG) requires specific Fc glycans for activity. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity of IVIG is ascribed to a small population of IgGs in which the Asn297-linked complex N-glycans attached to each Fc CH2 domain include terminal α2,6-linked sialic acids. We used chemoenzymatic glycoengineering to prepare fully di-sialylated IgG Fc and solved its crystal structure. Comparison of the structures of asialylated Fc, sialylated Fc, and F241A Fc, a mutant that displays increased glycan sialylation, suggests that increased conformational flexibility of the CH2 domain is associated with the switch from pro- to anti-inflammatory activity of the Fc. PMID:25036289

  19. UV filters, ingredients with a recognized anti-inflammatory effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Couteau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%, benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%, benzophenone-3 (83%, octocrylène and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%, PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%, octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%, octyl dimethyl PABA (75%, bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%. These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc Pérez González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA- induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36±4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%. The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9±2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h.

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of electron-deficient organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Shang, Lijun; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2017-11-01

    We report an evaluation of the cytotoxicity of a series of electron-deficient (16-electron) half-sandwich precious metal complexes of ruthenium, osmium and iridium ([Os/Ru( η 6 - p -cymene)(1,2-dicarba- closo -dodecarborane-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 1/2 ), [Ir( η 5 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene)(1,2-dicarba- closo -dodecarborane-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 3 ), [Os/Ru( η 6 - p -cymene)(benzene-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 4/5 ) and [Ir( η 5 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene)(benzene-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 6 )) towards RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and MRC-5 fibroblast cells. Complexes 3 and 6 were found to be non-cytotoxic. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1-6 was evaluated in both cell lines after nitric oxide (NO) production and inflammation response induced by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the stimulus. All metal complexes were shown to exhibit dose-dependent inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production on both cell lines. Remarkably, the two iridium complexes 3 and 6 trigger a full anti-inflammatory response against LPS-induced NO production, which opens up new avenues for the development of non-cytotoxic anti-inflammatory drug candidates with distinct structures and solution chemistry from that of organic drugs, and as such with potential novel mechanisms of action.

  2. Destabilization and recovery of a yeast prion after mild heat shock

    OpenAIRE

    Newnam, Gary P.; Birchmore, Jennifer L.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2011-01-01

    Yeast prion [PSI+] is a self-perpetuating amyloid of the translational termination factor Sup35. Although [PSI+] propagation is modulated by heat shock proteins (Hsps), high temperature was previously reported to have little or no effect on [PSI+]. Our results show that short-term exposure of exponentially growing yeast culture to mild heat shock, followed by immediate resumption of growth, leads to [PSI+] destabilization, sometimes persisting for several cell divisions after heat shock. Prio...

  3. DNA damage-responsive Drosophila melanogaster gene is also induced by heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivino, A.A.; Smith, M.D.; Minton, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gene isolated by screening Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells for DNA damage regulation was also found to be regulated by heat shock. After UV irradiation or heat shock, induction is at the transcriptional level and results in the accumulation of a 1.0-kilobase polyadenylated transcript. The restriction map of the clone bears no resemblance to the known heat shock genes, which are shown to be uninduced by UV irradiation

  4. Stable expression of functional CBP70 lectin during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, C; Felin, M; Sève, A P

    2000-04-01

    CBP70 is a glycoslylated lectin that interacts through either glycan-lectin or protein-protein interactions. In addition, depending on its cellular localization, this lectin has different partners, for example, galectin-3, an 82-kDa ligand in the nucleus, or Bcl-2 in the cytoplasm. In this study, we observed the persistence of plurilocalized lectin CBP70 after two heat-shock treatments conducted either under mild conditions, i.e., incubating the cells for 1 h at 42 degrees C then for 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 h at 37 degrees C, or harsh conditions, i.e., incubation at 42 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h. By combining the information collected from biochemical, fluorocytometric, confocal, and affinity-chromatography analyses, we concluded that CBP70 persisted in HL60 cells and its N-acetylglucosamine-binding sites remained active after all the heat-shock treatments tested. These data and the previously published findings reviewed in this report concur in supporting the hypothesis that CBP70 could function as an organizer of multimeric assembly, leading to the formation of various complexes in different cellular compartments, according to the needs of the cell. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Heat shock proteins and cancer: How can nanomedicine be harnessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Félix; Messaoudi, Samir; Fattal, Elias; Barratt, Gillian; Vergnaud-Gauduchon, Juliette

    2017-02-28

    Heat shock protein (hsp90) is an interesting target for cancer therapy because it is involved in the folding and stabilization of numerous proteins, including many that contribute to the development of cancer. It is part of the chaperone machinery that includes other heat shock proteins (hsp70, hsp27, hsp40) and is mainly localized in the cytosol, although many analogues or isoforms can be found in mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and the cell membrane. Many potential inhibitors of hsp90 have been tested for cancer therapy but their usefulness is limited by their poor solubility in water and their ability to reach the target cells and the correct intracellular compartment. Nanomedicine, the incorporation of active molecules into an appropriate delivery system, could provide a solution to these drawbacks. In this review, we explain the rationale for using nanomedicine for this sort of cancer therapy, considering the properties of the chaperone machinery and of the different hsp90 analogues. We present some results that have already been obtained and put forward some strategies for delivery of hsp90 analogues to specific organelles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of protein turnover by heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozaykut, Perinur; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal; Karademir, Betul

    2014-12-01

    Protein turnover reflects the balance between synthesis and degradation of proteins, and it is a crucial process for the maintenance of the cellular protein pool. The folding of proteins, refolding of misfolded proteins, and also degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are involved in the protein quality control (PQC) system. Correct protein folding and degradation are controlled by many different factors, one of the most important of which is the heat shock protein family. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are in the class of molecular chaperones, which may prevent the inappropriate interaction of proteins and induce correct folding. On the other hand, these proteins play significant roles in the degradation pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy. This review focuses on the emerging role of HSPs in the regulation of protein turnover; the effects of HSPs on the degradation machineries ERAD, autophagy, and proteasome; as well as the role of posttranslational modifications in the PQC system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the Chlamydia heat shock stress response in an intracellular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Brett R; Tan, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode heat shock proteins that aid in survival during stressful growth conditions. In addition, the major heat shock proteins of the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis have been associated with immune pathology and disease. We developed a ChIP-qPCR method to study the regulation of chlamydial heat shock gene regulation during an intracellular infection. This approach allowed us to show that chlamydial heat shock genes are regulated by the transcription factor HrcA within an infected cell, providing validation for previous in vitro findings. Induction of chlamydial heat shock gene expression by elevated temperature was due to loss of HrcA binding to heat shock promoters, supporting a mechanism of derepression. This heat shock response was rapid, whereas recovery of HrcA binding and return to non-stress transcript levels occurred more slowly. We also found that control of heat shock gene expression was differentially regulated over the course of the intracellular Chlamydia infection. There was evidence of HrcA-mediated regulation of heat shock genes throughout the chlamydial developmental cycle, but the level of repression was lower at early times. This is the first study of Chlamydia-infected cells showing the effect of an environmental signal on transcription factor-DNA binding and target gene expression in the bacterium. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Inhibition of adjuvant-induced arthritis by nasal administration of novel synthetic peptides from heat shock protein 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Li-Ping; Feng, Xuan; Fan, Dan-Dan; Zang, Wei-Jin; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-07-25

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease mediated by T cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of synthetic peptides (HP-R1, HP-R2 and HP-R3), derived from the sequence of 65-kD mycobacterial heat shock protein (HSP), in the treatment of RA using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) animal model. AA was induced by a single intradermal injection Freund's complete adjuvant in male Lewis rats. At the first clinical sign of disease, rats were administered nasally by micropipette of peptides or phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Disease progression was monitored by measurement of body weight, arthritis score and paw swelling. The changes of histopathology were assessed by hematoxylin eosin staining. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) - alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The peptides efficiently inhibited the footpad swelling and arthritic symptoms in AA rats. The synthetic peptides displayed significantly less inflammatory cellular infiltration and synovium hyperplasia than model controls. This effect was associated with a suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha production and an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 production after peptides treatment. These results suggest that the synthetic peptides derived from HSP65 induce highly effective protection against AA, which is mediated in part by down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, and support the view that the synthetic peptides is a potential therapy for RA that may help to diminish both joint inflammation and destruction.

  9. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    but provided insight into stress-coping styles and environmental stress. HR fish also had a significantly greater and faster heat shock response and less oxidative protein damage than LR fish. Despite these clear differences in the physiological and cellular responses to heat shock, there were no differences......Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat...... shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout...

  10. Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Philips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives, through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally, III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  12. Fluridone as a new anti-inflammatory drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Mirko; Scarfì, Sonia; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bruzzone, Santina; Salis, Annalisa; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2013-11-15

    Fluridone is a herbicide extensively utilized in agriculture for its documented safety in animals. Fluridone contains a 4(1H)-pyridone and a trifluoromethyl-benzene moiety, which are also present in molecules with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The established absence of adverse effects of Fluridone on animals prompted us to investigate whether it could represent a new anti-inflammatory compound targeting human cells. In stimulated human monocytes, micromolar Fluridone inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 expression and the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prostaglandin-E2, to a similar extent as Acetylsalicylic acid. Fluridone also inhibited the proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells and reduced proliferation and cytokine release by human activated lymphocytes. The mechanism of Fluridone seems to rely on the dose-dependent inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, a transcription factor playing a pivotal role in inflammation. Fluridone also inhibited the release from stimulated human monocytes of abscisic acid, a plant stress hormone recently discovered also in mammalian cells, where it stimulates pro-inflammatory responses. Interestingly, the mechanism of Fluridone's toxicity in plants relies on the inhibition of the enzyme phytoene desaturase, involved in the biosynthetic pathway of ß-carotene, the precursor of absciscic acid in plants. Finally, administration of Fluridone reduced peritoneal inflammation in Zymosan-treated mice. These results suggest that Fluridone could represent a new prototype of anti-inflammatory drug, also active on abscisic acid pro-inflammatory pathway. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate-Correa, Javier; Henríquez-Palop, Fernando; Martín-Núñez, Ernesto; Hernández-Carballo, Carolina; Ferri, Carla; Pérez-Delgado, Nayra; Muros-de-Fuentes, Mercedes; Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Navarro-González, Juan F

    Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant patients. Experimental and clinical studies in non-transplant kidney disease patients have found this molecule to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney-transplant recipients. Thirty one kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism completed 3 months of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1μg/day). Serum concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed at the beginning and end of the study. Paricalcitol significantly decreased parathyroid hormone levels with no changes in calcium and phosphorous. It also reduced serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by 29% (P<0.05) and 9.5% (P<0.05) compared to baseline, respectively. Furthermore, gene expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased by 14.1% (P<0.001) and 34.1% (P<0.001), respectively. The ratios between pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), both regarding serum concentrations and gene expression, also experienced a significant reduction. Paricalcitol administration to kidney transplant recipients has been found to have beneficial effects on inflammation, which may be associated with potential clinical benefits. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Heat Shock Proteins as Danger Signals for Cancer Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Mjahed, Hajare; Gobbo, Jessica; Joly, Anne-Laure; Berthenet, Kevin; Shirley, Sarah; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    First discovered in 1962, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly studied with about 35,500 publications on the subject to date. HSPs are highly conserved, function as molecular chaperones for a large panel of “client” proteins and have strong cytoprotective properties. Induced by many different stress signals, they promote cell survival in adverse conditions. Therefore, their roles have been investigated in several conditions and pathologies where HSPs accumulate, such as in cancer. Among the diverse mammalian HSPs, some members share several features that may qualify them as cancer biomarkers. This review focuses mainly on three inducible HSPs: HSP27, HPS70, and HSP90. Our survey of recent literature highlights some recurring weaknesses in studies of the HSPs, but also identifies findings that indicate that some HSPs have potential as cancer biomarkers for successful clinical applications.

  15. Structural model of dodecameric heat-shock protein Hsp21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutsdottir, Gudrun; Härmark, Johan; Weide, Yoran

    2017-01-01

    Small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) prevent aggregation of thermosensitive client proteins in a first line of defense against cellular stress. The mechanisms by which they perform this function have been hard to define due to limited structural information; currently, there is only one high......-resolution structure of a plant sHsp published, that of the cytosolic Hsp16.9. We took interest in Hsp21, a chloroplast-localized sHsp crucial for plant stress resistance, which has even longer N-terminal arms than Hsp16.9, with a functionally important and conserved methionine-rich motif. To provide a framework...... for investigating structure-function relationships of Hsp21 and understanding these sequence variations, we developed a structural model of Hsp21 based on homology modeling, cryo-EM, cross-linking mass spectrometry, NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Our data suggest a dodecameric arrangement of two trimer...

  16. Heat Shock Protein 90 regulates encystation in Entamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetali eSingh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of debilitating diarrheal infection worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinical burden of this parasite is very high, this infection is categorized as a neglected disease. Parasite is transmitted through feco-oral route and exhibit two distinct stages namely – trophozoites and cysts. Mechanism and regulation of encystation is not clearly understood. Previous studies have established the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 in regulating stage transition in various protozoan parasites like Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania and Toxoplasma. Our study for the first time reports that Hsp90 plays a crucial role in life cycle of Entamoeba as well. We identify Hsp90 to be a negative regulator of encystation in Entamoeba. We also show that Hsp90 inhibition interferes with the process of phagocytosis in Entamoeba. Overall, we show that Hsp90 plays an important role in virulence and transmission of Entamoeba.

  17. Heat Shock Protein 90 regulates encystation in Entamoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meetali; Sharma, Shalini; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tatu, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of debilitating diarrheal infection worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinical burden of this parasite is very high, this infection is categorized as a neglected disease. Parasite is transmitted through feco-oral route and exhibit two distinct stages namely – trophozoites and cysts. Mechanism and regulation of encystation is not clearly understood. Previous studies have established the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in regulating stage transition in various protozoan parasites like Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma. Our study for the first time reports that Hsp90 plays a crucial role in life cycle of Entamoeba as well. We identify Hsp90 to be a negative regulator of encystation in Entamoeba. We also show that Hsp90 inhibition interferes with the process of phagocytosis in Entamoeba. Overall, we show that Hsp90 plays an important role in virulence and transmission of Entamoeba. PMID:26528271

  18. Analysis of in vivo binding of yeast heat shock factor to promoter DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Cooperative binding of Drosophila heat shock factor to arrays of a conserved 5 bp unit. Cell. 64: 585-593. Yamamoto A, Mizukami Y, Sakurai H (2005). Identification of a Novel. Class of Target Genes and a Novel Type of Binding Sequence of. Heat Shock Transcription Factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J.

  19. Elevated serum levels of heat shock protein 70 can be detected after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Sebastian P; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Schmidt, Diethard; Boss, Andreas; Clasen, Stephan; von Herbay, Alexandra; Kosan, Bora; Aebert, Hermann; Pereira, Philippe L; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2011-09-01

    Due to their adjuvant effect and their ability to chaperone tumor-associated peptides, heat shock proteins constitute a potent alarm signal for the immune system and can lead to activation of anti-tumor T-cell immunity. Radiofrequency ablation has been reported to induce heat shock protein expression especially that of heat shock protein 70 in sublethally damaged tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the release of heat shock protein 70 into the serum of cancer-bearing patients directly after radiofrequency ablation. Sera of 22 patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of primary and secondary malignancies of the liver, kidney, and lung, as well as control sera of 20 patients undergoing diagnostic liver biopsy were analyzed using a manufactured heat shock protein 70 ELISA. A significant increase in serum levels of heat shock protein 70 was detectable in the patient cohort 1 day after radiofrequency ablation. More than a twofold increase was observed in nine out of 22 patients, which tended to correlate with favorable clinical outcome. No patient of the control group revealed a comparable increase. Radiofrequency ablation can lead to a release of heat shock protein 70 into the serum, which is transiently detectable 1 day after treatment. Elevated heat shock protein 70 serum levels may constitute a biomarker for favorable clinical outcome.

  20. Acquired Thermotolerance and Heat Shock Proteins in Thermophiles from the Three Phylogenetic Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Gabrielsen, Mette; Jensen, Bo

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic organisms from each of the three phylogenetic domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya) acquired thermotolerance after heat shock. Bacillus caldolyticus grown at 60 degrees C and heat shocked at 69 degrees C for 10 min showed thermotolerance at 74 degrees C, Sulfolobus shibatae grown...

  1. [Protective effects of heat shock preconditioning on the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Huang, Rong; Xu, Jun; Jin, Shi-Jie; Yang, Yu-Jia

    2007-12-01

    To study the effects of heat shock preconditioning on the expression of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) and apoptosis of the neuron in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, EAE and heat shock preconditioning groups (n=12 each). The EAE animal model was induced with guinea pig myelin basic protein. Heat shock preconditioning was performed 24 hrs prior to the EAE model inducement. No treatment was done in the control group. The neurological signs were observed after immunization. The spinal cords were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. HSP70 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis of the neuron was measured by TUNEL. Heat shock preconditioning significantly alleviated clinical signs and neuronal injury. HSP70 expression in the heat shock preconditioning group was significantly higher than in the untreated EAE group (21.08 +/- 0.87 vs 10.17 +/- 0.51; P < 0.01). Heat shock preconditioning suppressed apoptosis of the neuron compared with the EAE group (apoptosis rate: 21.92 +/- 1.00% vs 58.92 +/- 1.67%; P < 0.01). Heat shock preconditioning might improve the neurological outcome in EAE rats, possibly through the induction of HSP70 synthesis and the reduction of apoptosis of the neuron in spinal cords.

  2. A family of related proteins is encoded by the major Drosophila heat shock gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    At least four proteins of 70,000 to 75,000 molecular weight (70-75K) were synthesized from mRNA which hybridized with a cloned heat shock gene previously shown to be localized to the 87A and 87C heat shock puff sites. These in vitro-synthesized proteins were indistinguishable from in vivo-synthesized heat shock-induced proteins when analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A comparison of the pattern of this group of proteins synthesized in vivo during a 5-min pulse or during continuous labeling indicates that the 72-75K proteins are probably not kinetic precursors to the major 70K heat shock protein. Partial digestion products generated with V8 protease indicated that the 70-75K heat shock proteins are closely related, but that there are clear differences between them. The partial digestion patterns obtained from heat shock proteins from the Kc cell line and from the Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster are very similar. Genetic analysis of the patterns of 70-75K heat shock protein synthesis indicated that the genes encoding at least two of the three 72-75K heat shock proteins are located outside of the major 87A and 87C puff sites

  3. Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported to be the second most common cause of drug hypersensitivity. In 2011, experts from the EAACI/ENDA group and GA(2)LEN proposed a new classification system for NSAID hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to classify...... responders reacted to non-pyrazolone drugs. Only one patient could not be classified according to the EAACI/ENDA system. An overlap between respiratory and cutaneous symptoms was found in 15/39 (38%) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: All but one of our patients could be classified according to the EAACI...

  4. Isolation, Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Property of Thevetia Peruviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thilagavathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia peruviana seeds contain glucosides of neriifolin, acetylneriifolin and thevetin. Seed oil distillates of Thevetia peruviana have been found to contain anti-bacterial activity. In the persent work, the fresh flowers of Thevetia peruviana was subjected to phytochemical studies. The results of the study showed that the flowers contain quercetin, kaempferol and quercetin-7-o-galactoside. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized by UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. The anti-inflammatory character of the isolated compound was tested by in vitro method and the results of the study revealed that the isolated compound showed a biphasic property.

  5. Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Russo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications.

  6. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Costagliola, Ciro; Delcassi, Luisa; Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Semeraro, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications.

  7. The hexameric structures of human heat shock protein 90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available The human 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90 functions as a dimeric molecular chaperone. HSP90 identified on the cell surface has been found to play a crucial role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and has become a validated anti-cancer target for drug development. It has been shown to self-assemble into oligomers upon heat shock or divalent cations treatment, but the functional role of the oligomeric states in the chaperone cycle is not fully understood.Here we report the crystal structure of a truncated HSP90 that contains the middle segment and the carboxy-terminal domain, termed MC-HSP90. The structure reveals an architecture with triangular bipyramid geometry, in which the building block of the hexameric assembly is a dimer. In solution, MC-HSP90 exists in three major oligomer states, namely dimer, tetramer and hexamer, which were elucidated by size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation. The newly discovered HSP90 isoform HSP90N that lacks the N-terminal ATPase domain also exhibited similar oligomerization states as did MC-HSP90.While lacking the ATPase domain, both MC-HSP90 and HSP90N can self-assemble into a hexameric structure, spontaneously. The crystal structure of MC-HSP90 reveals that, in addition to the C-terminal dimerization domain, the residue W320 in the M domain plays a critical role in its oligomerization. This study not only demonstrates how the human MC-HSP90 forms a hexamer, but also justifies the similar formation of HSP90N by using 3D modeling analysis.

  8. Heat shock factor 1 promotes TERRA transcription and telomere protection upon heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Sivan; Decottignies, Anabelle; Dufour, Solenne; Pezet, Mylène; Verdel, André; Vourc'h, Claire; Faure, Virginie

    2017-06-20

    In response to metabolic or environmental stress, cells activate powerful defense mechanisms to prevent the formation and accumulation of toxic protein aggregates. The main orchestrator of this cellular response is HSF1 (heat shock factor 1), a transcription factor involved in the up-regulation of protein-coding genes with protective roles. It has become very clear that HSF1 has a broader function than initially expected. Indeed, our previous work demonstrated that, upon stress, HSF1 activates the transcription of a non-coding RNA, named Satellite III, at pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here, we observe that the function of HSF1 extends to telomeres and identify subtelomeric DNA as a new genomic target of HSF1. We show that the binding of HSF1 to subtelomeric regions plays an essential role in the upregulation of non-coding TElomeric Repeat containing RNA (TERRA) transcription upon heat shock. Importantly, our data show that telomere integrity is impacted by heat shock and that telomeric DNA damages are markedly enhanced in HSF1 deficient cells. Altogether, our findings reveal a new direct and essential function of HSF1 in the transcriptional activation of TERRA and in telomere protection upon stress. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Proteome analysis in the study of the bacterial heat-shock response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Ran; Ron, Eliora Z

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that, in addition to the regulation of the expression of specific genes, there are global regulatory systems that control the simultaneous expression of a large number of genes in response to a variety of environmental stresses. The first of these global control systems, and of substantial importance, is the heat-shock response. The heat-shock response is characterized by the induction of a large set of proteins (heat-shock proteins-HSPs) upon shifts to higher temperature and upon exposure to conditions in which proteins are denatured (i.e., alcohols, heavy metals). The heat-shock response is universal and many of the heat-shock proteins are highly conserved among species. In bacteria, the heat-shock response has been studied extensively in several Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and in the Gram-negative bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens). The first recognition of the molecular abundance of the bacterial heat-shock proteins took place with the introduction of high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels (2D gels) to analyze complex mixtures of cellular proteins. Two-dimensional gels, followed by mass spectrometry, were used to define the heat-shock stimulons in several bacteria, and to study the regulatory elements that control the heat-shock response. Here, we review the heat-shock response and its regulation in bacteria. The review will emphasize the use of proteome analysis in the study of this response, and will point out those open questions that can be investigated with proteomics, including mass spectrometry techniques. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 21:244-265, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mas.10031

  10. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Razi; Spagnoli, Vincent; Tardif, Jean-Claude; L'Allier, Philippe L

    2015-06-01

    The underlying role of inflammation in atherosclerosis has been characterized. However, current treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) predominantly consists of targeted reductions in serum lipoprotein levels rather than combating the deleterious effects of acute and chronic inflammation. Vascular inflammation acts by a number of different molecular and cellular pathways to contribute to atherogenesis. Over the last decades, both basic studies and clinical trials have provided evidence for the potential benefits of treatment of inflammation in CAD. During this period, development of pharmacotherapies directed towards inflammation in atherosclerosis has accelerated quickly. This review will highlight specific therapies targeting interleukin-1β (IL-1β), P-selectin and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). It will also aim to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of serpin administration, colchicine and intravenous HDL-directed treatment of CAD. We summarize the mechanistic rationale and evidence for these novel anti-inflammatory treatments at both the experimental and clinical levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  12. Melatonin as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent Modulating Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Favero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation may be defined as the innate response to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, injury, and metabolic stress; its ultimate function is to restore the physiological homeostatic state. The exact aetiology leading to the development of inflammation is not known, but a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many inflammation-related clinical conditions. Recent studies suggest that the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases also involves the inflammasomes, intracellular multiprotein complexes that mediate activation of inflammatory caspases thereby inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine, is considered an important multitasking molecule with fundamental clinical applications. It is involved in mood modulation, sexual behavior, vasomotor control, and immunomodulation and influences energy metabolism; moreover, it acts as an oncostatic and antiaging molecule. Melatonin is an important antioxidant and also a widespread anti-inflammatory molecule, modulating both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in different pathophysiological conditions. This review, first, gives an overview concerning the growing importance of melatonin in the inflammatory-mediated pathological conditions and, then, focuses on its roles and its protective effects against the activation of the inflammasomes and, in particular, of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  13. Chalcone Derivatives: Anti-inflammatory Potential and Molecular Targets Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Asati, Vivek

    2017-11-20

    Chalcone or (E)-1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one scaffold has gained considerable scientific interest in medicinal chemistry owing to its simple chemistry, ease in synthesizing a variety of derivatives and exhibiting a broad range of promising pharmacological activities by modulating several molecular targets. A number of natural and (semi-) synthetic chalcone derivatives have demonstrated admirable anti-inflammatory activity due to their inhibitory potential against various therapeutic targets like Cyclooxygenase (COX), Lipooxygenase (LOX), Interleukins (IL), Prostaglandins (PGs), Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), Leukotriene D4 (LTD4), Nuclear Factor-κB (NF- κB), Intracellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) and TLR4/MD-2, etc. The chalcone scaffold with hydroxyl, methoxyl, carboxyl, prenyl group and/or heterocyclic ring substitution like thiophene/furan/indole showed promising anti-inflammatory activity. In this review, a comprehensive study (from the year 1991 to 2016) on multi-targets of inflammatory interest, related inflammation reactions and their treatment by chalcone-based inhibitors acting on various molecular targets entailed in inflammation, Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs), Mechanism of Actions (MOAs), and patents are highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of Euphorbia hirta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, M C; Fleurentin, J; Dorfman, P; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M

    1991-06-01

    Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties in mice and rats, in order to complete its activity profile, after the confirmation of the existence of a central depressant activity particularly expressed by a strong sedative effect, associated with anxiolytic effects. This study leads us to the conclusion that this plant extract exerts central analgesic properties. Such a dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, from the doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg and it was inhibited by a naloxone pretreatment, a specific morphinic antagonist compound. An antipyretic activity was obtained at the sedative doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg, on the yeast-induced hyperthermia. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were observed on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats) from the dose of 100 mg/kg. On the other hand, plant extract remained inactive on chronic processes such as Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, after a chronic treatment during fourteen days at the daily dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg; however, if inefficacy was observed on rat backpaws edema and on loss of weight, the aqueous extract reduced the inflammatory hyperalgia.

  15. Anti-inflammatory Cerebrosides from Cultivated Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Peng; Liu, Shan-Chi; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chan, You; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Lee, Chia-Lin; Du, Ying-Chi; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-02-24

    Cordyceps militaris (bei-chong-chaw, northern worm grass) is a precious and edible entomopathogenic fungus, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a general booster for the nervous system, metabolism, and immunity. Saccharides, nucleosides, mannitol, and sterols were isolated from this fungus. The biological activity of C. militaris was attributed to the saccharide and nucleoside contents. In this study, the aqueous methanolic fraction of C. militaris fruiting bodies exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the active fraction led to the isolation of eight compounds, including one new and two known cerebrosides (ceramide derivatives), two nucleosides, and three sterols. Cordycerebroside A (1), the new cerebroside, along with soyacerebroside I (2) and glucocerebroside (3) inhibited the accumulation of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein and reduced the expression of COX-2 protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. This is the first study on the isolation of cerebrosides with anti-inflammatory activity from this TCM.

  16. The expression and induction of heat shock proteins in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei

    2013-05-01

    Living cells respond to stress stimuli by triggering rapid changes in the protein profiles, and the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) plays an important part in this process. HSPs, mainly acting as molecular chaperones, are constitutively expressed in cells and involved in protein folding, assembly, degradation, and intracellular localization. The overexpression of HSPs represents a ubiquitous molecular mechanism to cope with stress. Compared to vertebrates, molluscs have a biphasic life cycle where pelagic larvae go through settlement and metamorphosis. HSPs may play an important role in the survival strategy of molluscs during the biphasic life stages. Since aquatic environments are highly dynamic, molluscs may be subject to a variety of sources of stress and HSPs might play a more important role in the adaptation of these animals. Moreover, the mechanisms of stress tolerance in molluscs can offer fundamental insights into the adaptation of organisms for a wide range of environmental challenges. The cDNA of HSPs has been cloned from some molluscs, and HSPs can be induced by heat stress, hypoxia, heavy metal contamination, and aestivation, etc. The expression of HSPs was detected in the neuroendocrine system, mollusc development, and reproductive process. Furthermore, the induction of HSPs is related with the phosphorylation of stress-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and cJun-N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in molluscs.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of the Heat-Shock Response in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    concentration as a representative of damage because free misfolded proteins are known to play a critical cytotoxic role in the response to hyperthermia...heat-shock protein dynamics in the long-term heat-shock response. In addition, our model was able to consis- tently predict the extent of damage produced...mech- anism to mitigate the cytotoxic effects of damaged or mis- folded proteins . In addition to heat stress, a variety of other physiological

  18. Errors in macromolecular synthesis after stress : a study of the possible protective role of the small heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Vinader, L.

    2006-01-01

    The general goal of this thesis was to gain insight in what small heat shock proteins (sHsps) do with respect to macromolecular synthesis during a stressful situation in the cell. It is known that after a non-lethal heat shock, cells are better protected against a subsequent more severe heat shock,

  19. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    OpenAIRE

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC ...

  20. BH3-only protein BIM mediates heat shock-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Indra M; Chen, Miao-Der; Muro, Israel; Robertson, John D; Wright, Casey W; Bratton, Shawn B

    2014-01-01

    Acute heat shock can induce apoptosis through a canonical pathway involving the upstream activation of caspase-2, followed by BID cleavage and stimulation of the intrinsic pathway. Herein, we report that the BH3-only protein BIM, rather than BID, is essential to heat shock-induced cell death. We observed that BIM-deficient cells were highly resistant to heat shock, exhibiting short and long-term survival equivalent to Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) cells and better than either Bid(-/-) or dominant-negative caspase-9-expressing cells. Only Bim(-/-) and Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) cells exhibited resistance to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Moreover, while dimerized caspase-2 failed to induce apoptosis in Bid(-/-) cells, it readily did so in Bim(-/-) cells, implying that caspase-2 kills exclusively through BID, not BIM. Finally, BIM reportedly associates with MCL-1 following heat shock, and Mcl-1(-/-) cells were indeed sensitized to heat shock-induced apoptosis. However, pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2 and BCL-X(L) with ABT-737 also sensitized cells to heat shock, most likely through liberation of BIM. Thus, BIM mediates heat shock-induced apoptosis through a BAX/BAK-dependent pathway that is antagonized by antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members.

  1. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônia Maria Batista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity.

  2. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is readily biodegradable in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T3 (Canada); Lapen, David R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa ON, Canada K1A 0C6 (Canada); Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T3 (Canada)

    2010-12-01

    Diclofenac, 2-[2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]phenyl]acetic acid, is an important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used for human and animals to reduce inflammation and pain. Diclofenac could potentially reach agricultural lands through the application of municipal biosolids or wastewater, and in the absence of any environmental fate data, we evaluated its persistence in agricultural soils incubated in the laboratory. {sup 14}C-Diclofenac was rapidly mineralized without a lag when added to soils varying widely in texture (sandy loam, loam, clay loam). Over a range of temperature and moisture conditions extractable {sup 14}C-diclofenac residues decreased with half lives < 5 days. No extractable transformation products were detectable by HPLC. Diclofenac mineralization in the loam soil was abolished by heat sterilization. Addition of biosolids to sterile or non-sterile soil did not accelerate the dissipation of diclofenac. These findings indicate that diclofenac is readily biodegradable in agricultural soils.

  3. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is readily biodegradable in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne; Lapen, David R.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Diclofenac, 2-[2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]phenyl]acetic acid, is an important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used for human and animals to reduce inflammation and pain. Diclofenac could potentially reach agricultural lands through the application of municipal biosolids or wastewater, and in the absence of any environmental fate data, we evaluated its persistence in agricultural soils incubated in the laboratory. 14 C-Diclofenac was rapidly mineralized without a lag when added to soils varying widely in texture (sandy loam, loam, clay loam). Over a range of temperature and moisture conditions extractable 14 C-diclofenac residues decreased with half lives < 5 days. No extractable transformation products were detectable by HPLC. Diclofenac mineralization in the loam soil was abolished by heat sterilization. Addition of biosolids to sterile or non-sterile soil did not accelerate the dissipation of diclofenac. These findings indicate that diclofenac is readily biodegradable in agricultural soils.

  4. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Camila; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse Ferreira; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity. PMID:21731467

  5. Pharmacological evidence for the folk use of Nefang: antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of its constituent plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Protus Arrey; Okalebo, Faith A; Siminyu, Juma D; Ngugi, William N; Mwaura, Amos M; Mugweru, Jackson; Agbor, Gabriel A; Guantai, Anastasia N

    2015-06-09

    Nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial composed of Mangifera indica ( MiB and MiL; bark and leaf), Psidium guajava ( Pg ), Carica papaya ( Cp ), Cymbopogon citratus ( Cc ), Citrus sinensis ( Cs ) and Ocimum gratissimum ( Og ) (leaves). Previous studies have demonstrated its in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities, antioxidant properties and safety profile. This study aimed at evaluating the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the constituent plants of Nefang which are relevant to the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever. Antipyretic activities were determined by the D-Amphetamine induced pyrexia and Brewer's Yeast induced hyperpyrexia methods. Anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. Antinociceptive activities were determined by mechanical nociception in the tail pressure and thermal nociception in the radiant heat tail flick and hot plate methods. Data was analysed using the one way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls multiple comparison test. Best percentage inhibition of induced pyrexia (amphetamine/brewer's yeast; p < 0.05) was exhibited by Cc (95/97) followed by Og (85/94), MiL (90/89), MiB (88/84) and Cs (82/89). Cc and Og exhibited comparable activities to paracetamol (100/95). Anti-inflammatory studies revealed paw edema inhibition (%) as follows (p < 0.05): Indomethacin (47), MiL (40), Cp (30), MiB (28) and Og (22), suggesting best activity by MiL. Antinociceptive studies revealed significant (p < 0.01) pain inhibition (%) as follows: Paracetamol (97), Og (113), MiL (108), Pg (84) and MiB (88). Og and MiL exhibited the best activities. The results obtained suggest that the constituent plants possess biologically active compounds with antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These activities are essential in the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever, thereby justifying the folk use of Nefang. This would be useful in its subsequent development for

  6. Characterization of the anti-inflammatory Lactobacillus reuteri BM36301 and its probiotic benefits on aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Yang, Woo; Hostetler, Andrew; Schultz, Nathan; Suckow, Mark A; Stewart, Kay L; Kim, Daniel D; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2016-04-19

    The gut microbiota is playing more important roles in host immune regulation than was initially expected. Since many benefits of microbes are highly strain-specific and their mechanistic details remain largely elusive, further identification of new probiotic bacteria with immunoregulatory potentials is of great interest. We have screened our collection of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for their efficacy in modulating host immune response. Some LAB are characterized by suppression of TNF-α induction when LAB culture supernatants are added to THP-1 cells, demonstrating the LAB's anti-inflammatory potential. These suppressive materials were not inactivated by heat or trypsin. On the other hand, treatment of THP-1 directly with live bacterial cells identified a group of pro-inflammatory LAB, which stimulated significant production of TNF-α. Among those, we chose the Lactobacillus reuteri BM36301 as an anti-inflammatory strain and the L. reuteri BM36304 as a pro-inflammatory strain, and further studied their in vivo effects. We supplied C57BL/6 mice with these bacteria in drinking water while feeding them a standard diet for 20 weeks. Interestingly, these L. reuteri strains evoked different consequences depending on the gender of the mice. That is, males treated with anti-inflammatory BM36301 experienced less weight gain and higher testosterone level; females treated with BM36301 maintained lower serum TNF-α as well as healthy skin with active folliculogenesis and hair growth. Furthermore, while males treated with pro-inflammatory BM36304 developed higher serum levels of TNF-α and insulin, in contrast females did not experience such effects from this bacteria strain. The L. reuteri BM36301 was selected as an anti-inflammatory strain in vitro. It helped mice maintain healthy conditions as they aged. These findings propose the L. reuteri BM36301 as a potential probiotic strain to improve various aspects of aging issues.

  7. Novel enzyme formulations for improved pharmacokinetic properties and anti-inflammatory efficacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Yan, Shenglei; Zhang, Yonghong; Hu, Xueyuan; Guo, Qi; Yuan, Yuming; Zhang, Jingqing

    2018-02-15

    Anti-inflammatory enzymes promote the dissolution and excretion of sticky phlegm, clean the wound surface and accelerate drug diffusion to the lesion. They play important roles in treating different types of inflammation and pain. Currently, various formulations of anti-inflammatory enzymes are successfully prepared to improve the enzymatic characteristics, pharmacokinetic properties and anti-inflammatory efficacies. The work was performed by systematically searching all available literature. An overall summary of current research about various anti-inflammatory enzymes and their novel formulations is presented. The original and improved enzymatic characteristics, pharmacokinetic properties, action mechanisms, clinical information, storage and shelf life, treatment efficacies of anti-inflammatory enzymes and their different formulations are summarized. The influencing factors such as enzyme type, source, excipient, pharmaceutical technique, administration route and dosage are analyzed. The combined application of enzymes and other drugs are included in this paper. Anti-inflammatory enzymes were widely applied in treating different types of inflammation and diseases with accompanying edema. Their novel formulations increased enzymatic stabilities, improved pharmacokinetic properties, provided different administration routes, and enhanced anti-inflammatory efficacies of anti-inflammatory enzymes but decreased side effects and toxicity. Novel enzyme formulations improve and expand the usage of anti-inflammatory enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-transcriptional regulation of the trypanosome heat shock response by a zinc finger protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Droll

    Full Text Available In most organisms, the heat-shock response involves increased heat-shock gene transcription. In Kinetoplastid protists, however, virtually all control of gene expression is post-transcriptional. Correspondingly, Trypanosoma brucei heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 synthesis after heat shock depends on regulation of HSP70 mRNA turnover. We here show that the T. brucei CCCH zinc finger protein ZC3H11 is a post-transcriptional regulator of trypanosome chaperone mRNAs. ZC3H11 is essential in bloodstream-form trypanosomes and for recovery of insect-form trypanosomes from heat shock. ZC3H11 binds to mRNAs encoding heat-shock protein homologues, with clear specificity for the subset of trypanosome chaperones that is required for protein refolding. In procyclic forms, ZC3H11 was required for stabilisation of target chaperone-encoding mRNAs after heat shock, and the HSP70 mRNA was also decreased upon ZC3H11 depletion in bloodstream forms. Many mRNAs bound to ZC3H11 have a consensus AUU repeat motif in the 3'-untranslated region. ZC3H11 bound preferentially to AUU repeats in vitro, and ZC3H11 regulation of HSP70 mRNA in bloodstream forms depended on its AUU repeat region. Tethering of ZC3H11 to a reporter mRNA increased reporter expression, showing that it is capable of actively stabilizing an mRNA. These results show that expression of trypanosome heat-shock genes is controlled by a specific RNA-protein interaction. They also show that heat-shock-induced chaperone expression in procyclic trypanosome enhances parasite survival at elevated temperatures.

  9. Capillary-composited microfluidic device for heat shock transformation of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jun; Wang, Yaolei; Wang, Jianchun; Ren, Li; Tu, Qin; Liu, Wenming; Wang, Xueqin; Liu, Ajing; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jinyi

    2011-10-01

    This work describes chemical heat shock transformation of foreign plasmid DNA into bacterial host Escherichia coli cells using a capillary-composited microfluidic device. Transformation processes of the loading, mixing, heat shock and recovery of the transformation mixture were carried out automatically in a linear fashion. In addition, by utilizing the capillary with a hollow cylindrical chamber as heating source, simple, low cost local heat shock with accurate heat shock time to transformation mixture was obtained on the microdevice. Results demonstrated that plasmid DNA could be effectively transformed into E. coli, and the transformation efficiency and frequency were as the same level or better than conventional tube-based method. This work complements other microfluidic technologies for potential gene cloning and functional genomics studies. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Safty action of heat shock protein 27 in reperfusion after spinal marrow ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Ping; Guo, Wen-Rong; Lin, Guo-Bing

    2012-10-01

    Heat shock protein 27 belongs to the heat shock protein family in the small molecular weight family. This review collected a number of literature to analyze the expression meaning and mechanism of HSP27,expounded HSP27 with inhibition of NO production, maintenance of cell protein stability and accelerated cell damage repair function. At the same time, HSP27 also has a resistance to apoptosis, protecting mitochondria, inhibiting activation of nuclear factor and other related functions. The heat shock protein 27 has protection in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion.

  11. Analysis of heat shock gene expression in Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnau, José; Sørensen, Kim; Appel, Karen Fuglede

    1996-01-01

    The induction of the heat shock response in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain MG1363 was analysed at the RNA level using a novel RNA isolation procedure to prevent degradation. Cloning of the dnaJ and groEL homologous was carried out. Nothern blot analysis showed a similar induction pattern...... in the heat shock response in L. lactis MG1363 is presented. A gene located downstream of the dnaK operon in strain MG1363, named orf4, was shown not to be regulated by heat shock....

  12. The role of heat shock protein 90 in the regulation of tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Belkina, M V; Maroshkina, A N

    2011-02-01

    Programmed death of Jurkat tumor cells was studied under conditions of culturing with 17-AAG selective inhibitor of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa and etoposide. Apoptosis realization was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Activity of caspase-3 was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Inhibition of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa activated the apoptotic program in Jurkat tumor cells and etoposide-induced apoptosis. The heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa acted as apoptosis inhibitor in tumor cells.

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Barettin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Ø. Jørgensen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present novel bioactivity for barettin isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti. We found that barettin showed strong antioxidant activity in biochemical assays as well as in a lipid peroxidation cell assay. A de-brominated synthetic analogue of barettin did not show the same activity in the antioxidant cell assay, indicating that bromine is important for cellular activity. Barettin was also able to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. This combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities could indicate that barettin has an atheroprotective effect and may therefore be an interesting product to prevent development of atherosclerosis.

  14. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of barettin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Karianne F; Hansen, Espen; Østerud, Bjarne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Bayer, Annette; Engqvist, Magnus; Leszczak, Kinga; Jørgensen, Trond Ø; Andersen, Jeanette H

    2013-07-22

    In this paper, we present novel bioactivity for barettin isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti. We found that barettin showed strong antioxidant activity in biochemical assays as well as in a lipid peroxidation cell assay. A de-brominated synthetic analogue of barettin did not show the same activity in the antioxidant cell assay, indicating that bromine is important for cellular activity. Barettin was also able to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. This combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities could indicate that barettin has an atheroprotective effect and may therefore be an interesting product to prevent development of atherosclerosis.

  15. [Antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory effects of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M F; Shen, Y Q

    1989-03-01

    Berberine sulfate (Ber) 40 and 80 mg/kg ig reduced the purging effects of castor oil or Cassia angustifolia leaf in mice, but did not affect the gastrointestinal transport function of Chinese ink in normal mice. Ber 60 mg/kg ig significantly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by ip 0.7% acetic acid in mice. Ber 20 and 50 mg/kg sc markedly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by histamine 100 micrograms/0.1 ml ic in rats. Ber 4 and 8 mg/kg sc produced obvious inhibition in the xylene-induced swelling of mouse ear. The anti-inflammatory effects were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that the antidiarrheal effect of Ber is relative to its restriction against exudative inflammation to a certain extent.

  16. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of five Veronica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, U Sebnem; Saracoglu, Iclal; Inoue, Makoto; Ogihara, Yukio

    2002-04-01

    Biological activities of five Veronica species (Scrophulariaceae), V. cymbalaria, V. hederifolia, V. pectinata var. glandulosa, V. persica and V. polita were studied for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Their methanol extracts showed both the inhibitory activity of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and cytotoxic activity against KB epidermoid carcinoma and B16 melanoma. When the methanol extracts were fractionated between water and chloroform, water fractions significantly inhibited NO production without any cytotoxicity, while chloroform fractions showed cytotoxicity dose-dependently. When the radical scavenging activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), water fractions of the five Veronica species scavenged free radicals effectively, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of this species on NO production was due to their radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, chloroform fractions of Veronica species except for V. cymbalaria showed similar cytotoxic activity against KB and B16 melanoma cells.

  18. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bhatia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis. Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR and alcoholic (PE fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity.  POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05 reduced abdominal writhes than PE.  In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p

  19. Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Antoinette; Adler, Alma J; Saloojee, Haroon

    2015-05-28

    Rheumatic heart disease remains an important cause of acquired heart disease in developing countries. Although prevention of rheumatic fever and management of recurrences have been well established, optimal management of active rheumatic carditis remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2003, and previously updated in 2009 and 2012. To assess the effects, both harmful and beneficial, of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids and other drugs in preventing or reducing further valvular damage in patients with acute rheumatic fever. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2013, Issue 9 of 12), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1948 to 2013 October Week 1), EMBASE (Ovid, 1980 to 2013 Week 41) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1982 to 17 October 2013). We last searched Index Medicus (1950 to April 2001) in 2001. We checked reference lists of identified studies and applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials comparing anti-inflammatory agents (e.g. aspirin, steroids, immunoglobulins, pentoxifylline) versus placebo or controls, or comparing any of the anti-inflammatory agents versus one another, in adults and children with acute rheumatic fever diagnosed according to Jones, or modified Jones, criteria. The presence of cardiac disease one year after treatment was the major outcome criterion selected. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the methodology outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration were used. No new studies were included in this update. Eight randomised controlled trials involving 996 people were selected for inclusion in the review. Researchers compared several steroidal agents such as corticotrophin, cortisone, hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin versus aspirin, placebo or no treatment. Six

  20. Heat Shock Factor 1 Mediates Latent HIV Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Jian; Li, Min-Min; Shen, Xin-Tian; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    HSF1, a conserved heat shock factor, has emerged as a key regulator of mammalian transcription in response to cellular metabolic status and stress. To our knowledge, it is not known whether HSF1 regulates viral transcription, particularly HIV-1 and its latent form. Here we reveal that HSF1 extensively participates in HIV transcription and is critical for HIV latent reactivation. Mode of action studies demonstrated that HSF1 binds to the HIV 5'-LTR to reactivate viral transcription and recruits a family of closely related multi-subunit complexes, including p300 and p-TEFb. And HSF1 recruits p300 for self-acetylation is also a committed step. The knockout of HSF1 impaired HIV transcription, whereas the conditional over-expression of HSF1 improved that. These findings demonstrate that HSF1 positively regulates the transcription of latent HIV, suggesting that it might be an important target for different therapeutic strategies aimed at a cure for HIV/AIDS.

  1. Circulating Heat Shock Protein 70 in Health, Aging and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demanet Christian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsp are ubiquitously synthesised in virtually all species and it is hypothesised that they might have beneficial health effects. Recent studies have identified circulating Hsp as an important mediator in inflammation - the effects of low-grade inflammation in the aging process are overwhelming. While much is known about intracellular Hsp70, scant data exist on circulating Hsp70 in the aging context. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of age and disease on circulating Hsp70 and, in particular, to evaluate the association between circulating Hsp70 and inflammatory parameters. Results Serum Hsp70, Interleukin (IL -10, IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF alpha concentrations were determined in 90 hospitalised geriatric patients (aged 83 ± 6 years and in 200 community-dwelling control subjects (100 elderly, aged 74 ± 5 years, and 100 young, aged 23 ± 3 years. In the community-dwelling elderly, serum Hsp70 and IL-10 concentrations were significantly lower and IL-6 was significantly higher when compared to healthy young control subjects. Elderly patients presenting inflammation (CRP serum levels ≥5 mg/L showed significantly (p = 0.007 higher Hsp70 values; and Hsp70 correlated positively (p Conclusions The present data provide new evidence that serum concentration of Hsp70 decreases with age in a normal population. Our study also shows that higher levels of Hsp70 are associated with inflammation and frailty in elderly patients.

  2. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory kaempferol glycosides from Sedum dendroideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Giany O; Malvar, David do C; Vanderlinde, Frederico A; Rocha, Fabio F; Pires, Priscila Andrade; Costa, Elson A; de Matos, Lécia G; Kaiser, Carlos R; Costa, Sônia S

    2009-07-15

    To identify the compounds responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects previously described for Sedum dendroideum, through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated through mouse acetic acid-induced writhing model. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed through croton oil-induced mouse ear oedema and carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The Sedum dendroideum juice afforded seven known flavonoids identified with basis on NMR data. The oral administration of the major kaempferol glycosides kaempferitrin [1] (17.29 micromol/kg), kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside [2] (16.82 micromol/kg), kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside [3] (13.50 micromol/kg) or alpha-rhamnoisorobin [5] (23.13 micromol/kg) inhibited by 47.3%, 25.7%, 60.2% and 58.0%, respectively, the acetic acid-induced nociception (indomethacin: 27.95 micromol/kg, p.o.; 68.9%). Flavonoids 1, 2, 3 or 5, at the same doses, reduced by 39.5%, 46.5%, 35.6% and 33.3%, respectively, the croton oil-induced oedema (dexamethasone: 5.09 micromol/kg, s.c.; 83.7%) and impaired leukocyte migration by 42.9%, 46.3%, 50.4% and 49.6%, respectively (dexamethasone: 5.09 micromol/kg, s.c.; 66.1%). Our findings show that the major kaempferol glycosides may account for the renowned medicinal use of Sedum dendroideum against pain and inflammatory troubles.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sanghuangporus sanghuang Mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Ching Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1, believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HNGB1 activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 and Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor Nrf2/Kelch Like ECH associated Protein 1 (Keap1 pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GEORGIAN LEGUMINOUS CROPS CULTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhikvishvili, I; Mamniashvili, T; Gogia, N; Enukidze, M; Machavariani, M; Sanikidze, T

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the common in Georgia leguminous crops culture with pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity. The primary evaluation of the antiinflammatory effects of beans was performed on the experimental models of MDCK and Jurkat cells model systems. Extracts of various varieties of legumes (Beans "Kidney", Meadow beans, Beans Shulavera, Batumian beans, Beans "Udelebi", green peas, peas Shulavera, lentils Lens Culinaris, Soy) were added to the intact or incubated under oxidative stress conditions Jurkat and MDCK cells. Cells' vitality was determined by MTT test. On the basis of analysis of the obtained results, we concluded that: - Meadow beans extract (low doses) revealed cytoprotective effect on the intact and incubated under oxidative stress conditions immune (Jurkat) and epithelial (MDCK) cells. High antioxidant, cytoprotective activity of this extract correlates with high polyphenols content in it. - The extract of Shulavera beans did affect the intact Jurkat and MDCK cells, but showed pronounced cytoprotective activity on these cells incubated under the oxidative stress conditions. High antioxidant, cytoprotective activity of this extract correlates with high content of polyphenols in it. - Low dose of lentils Lens Culinaris extracts revealed cytoprotective activity on the incubated under oxidative stress conditions MDCK cells, but was inactive in case of intact MDCK and incubated in different conditions immune Jurkat cells. The selective antioxidant activity of this extract is related with its other constituent components, but not polyphenols. - Despite high polyphenols content and high antioxidant activity in vivo, Batumian beans revealed moderate cytoprotective activity on intact and incubated under oxidative stress conditions Jurkat cells, suppressive activity on the intact MDCK cells and was inactive in relation to the incubated under oxidative stress conditions MDCK cells. Based on these findings, we can identify

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Croton celtidifolius bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, G M; Felippi, R; DalBó, S; Siqueira-Junior, J M; Arruda, D C; Delle Monache, F; Timbola, A K; Pizzolatti, M G; Ckless, K; Ribeiro-do-valle, R M

    2003-03-01

    Croton celtidifolius Baill commonly known as "sangue-de-adave" is a tree found in the Atlantic Forest of south of Brazil, mainly in Santa Catarina. The bark and leaf infusions of this medicinal plant have been popularly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of crude extract (CE), aqueous fraction (AqF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), butanolic fraction (BuF) and catechin, gallocatechin and sub-fractions, 19SF, 35SF and 63SF that contained a mixture of proanthocyanidins and were derived from the EAF fraction. The CE, AqF, EAF, BuF, catechin and sub-fractions 35SF and 63SF reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan. The CE, fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed antioxidant properties in vitro, all were able to scavenge superoxide anions at a concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). The EAF, catechin and gallocatechin were most effective in the deoxyribose assay, IC50 0.69 (0.44-1.06), 0.20 (0.11-0.39), 0.55 (0.28-1.08) microg x ml(-1) respectively. The CE and other fractions and sub-fractions inhibited deoxyribose degradation up to 1 microg x ml(-1). In the hydrophobic system only AqF did not show lipid peroxidation inhibition. The CE, other fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds inhibited lipidid peroxidation only at a concentration of 100 microg x ml(-1). In summary, this study demonstrates that Croton celtidifolius bark has significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  6. Changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos caused by heat shock: relationship to developmental acquisition of thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakatani Miki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While initially sensitive to heat shock, the bovine embryo gains thermal resistance as it progresses through development so that physiological heat shock has little effect on development to the blastocyst stage by Day 5 after insemination. Here, experiments using 3’ tag digital gene expression (3’DGE and real-time PCR were conducted to determine changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos in response to heat shock (40 degrees C for 8 h that could be associated with thermotolerance. Results Using 3’DGE, expression of 173 genes were modified by heat shock, with 94 genes upregulated by heat shock and 79 genes downregulated by heat shock. A total of 38 differentially-regulated genes were associated with the ubiquitin protein, UBC. Heat shock increased expression of one heat shock protein gene, HSPB11, and one heat shock protein binding protein, HSPBP1, tended to increase expression of HSPA1A and HSPB1, but did not affect expression of 64 other genes encoding heat shock proteins, heat shock transcription factors or proteins interacting with heat shock proteins. Moreover, heat shock increased expression of five genes associated with oxidative stress (AKR7A2, CBR1, GGH, GSTA4, and MAP2K5, decreased expression of HIF3A, but did not affect expression of 42 other genes related to free radical metabolism. Heat shock also had little effect on genes involved in embryonic development. Effects of heat shock for 2, 4 and 8 h on selected heat shock protein and antioxidant genes were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Heat shock increased steady-state amounts of mRNA for HSPA1A (PHSP90AA1 (PSOD1 or CAT. Conclusions Changes in the transcriptome of the heat-shocked bovine morula indicate that the embryo is largely resistant to effects of heat shock. As a result, transcription of genes involved in thermal protection is muted and there is little disruption of gene networks involved in embryonic development. It is likely that

  7. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of fixed dose combination: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lahoti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Combining paracetamol with ibuprofen enhances analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity over their individual component but potentiation of analgesic activity of diclofenac was not seen when paracetamol was added to it.

  8. Heat shock suppresses mating and sperm transfer in the rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H J; Qian, Q; Liu, X D

    2014-06-01

    Temperature is a key environmental factor in determining the population size of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in summer. High temperatures inhibit survival, development and fecundity of this insect. However, biological responses of female and male adults to heat shock, and physiological mechanism of high temperature suppressing population development are still ambiguous. We experimentally tested the impact of heat shock (5 h day-1) on biological traits, spermatogenesis and sperm transfer of adults of C. medinalis. The result showed that heat exposure to 39 and 40 °C for 5 h reduced longevity and copulation frequency of adults, and hatchability of eggs. Immediate survival rate of males was lower than that of females after 3 days of exposure to 41 °C. The oviposition period, copulation frequency, fecundity of adults and hatchability of eggs were significantly lower when male adults were exposed to 40 or 41 °C for 3 days. Heat shock decreased frequency and success rate of mating when males were exposed, and it also resulted in postponement of mating behaviour and prolongation of mating duration as both the female and male adults were exposed. Heat shock did not affect spermatogenesis, but significantly inhibited sperms maturation. Moreover, males could not ejaculate sperm into females during copulation when these male moths received heat shock. Heat shock remarkably suppressed mating behaviour and sperm transfer, which led to a dramatic decline of rice leaf folder populations.

  9. Analysis of heat shock gene expression in Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnau, José; Sørensen, Kim; Appel, Karen Fuglede

    1996-01-01

    The induction of the heat shock response in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain MG1363 was analysed at the RNA level using a novel RNA isolation procedure to prevent degradation. Cloning of the dnaJ and groEL homologous was carried out. Nothern blot analysis showed a similar induction pattern......, although maximum induction was observed earlier for orf1 and grpE. Novel transcript sizes were detected in heat-shocked cells. The induction kinetics observed for ftsH suggested a different regulation for this gene. Experimental evidence for a prenounced transcriptional regulation being involved...... in the heat shock response in L. lactis MG1363 is presented. A gene located downstream of the dnaK operon in strain MG1363, named orf4, was shown not to be regulated by heat shock....

  10. The role of the heat shock response in the cytoprotection of the intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malago, Joshua Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Under normal conditions, the intestinal epithelial cells produce constitutive amount of heat shock proteins (Hsps) that are elevated following stressful stimuli. As the intestine is constantly exposed to variety of agents like diet, normal flora, infectious microorganisms, chemicals, and immune

  11. Secretory Heat Shock Protein - gp96-Ig Chaperoned her-2/New Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podack, Eckhard

    2001-01-01

    ...: First, using tumor cells that secrete a genetically engineered form of a heat shock protein, gp96-Ig, we showed that CD8 cells expanded and generated specific memory in vivo without the need for CD4 help...

  12. Mechanism of protonophores-mediated induction of heat-shock response in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Swati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protonophores are the agents that dissipate the proton-motive-force (PMF across E. coli plasma membrane. As the PMF is known to be an energy source for the translocation of membrane and periplasmic proteins after their initial syntheses in cell cytoplasm, protonophores therefore inhibit the translocation phenomenon. In addition, protonophores also induce heat-shock-like stress response in E. coli cell. In this study, our motivation was to investigate that how the protonophores-mediated phenomena like inhibition of protein translocation and induction of heat-shock proteins in E. coli were correlated. Results Induction of heat-shock-like response in E. coli attained the maximum level after about 20 minutes of cell growth in the presence of a protonophore like carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (CCCP or 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP. With induction, cellular level of the heat-shock regulator protein sigma-32 also increased. The increase in sigma-32 level was resulted solely from its stabilization, not from its increased synthesis. On the other hand, the protonophores inhibited the translocation of the periplasmic protein alkaline phosphatase (AP, resulting its accumulation in cell cytosol partly in aggregated and partly in dispersed form. On further cell growth, after withdrawal of the protonophores, the previously accumulated AP could not be translocated out; instead the AP-aggregate had been degraded perhaps by an induced heat-shock protease ClpP. Moreover, the non-translocated AP formed binary complex with the induced heat-shock chaperone DnaK and the excess cellular concentration of DnaK disallowed the induction of heat-shock response by the protonophores. Conclusion Our experimental results suggested that the protonophores-mediated accumulation and aggregation of membrane proteins (like AP in cell cytosol had signaled the induction of heat-shock proteins in E. coli and the non-translocated protein aggregates were possibly

  13. Effect of heat shock on hot water plumbing microbiota and Legionella pneumophila control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Pan; Rhoads, William J; Edwards, Marc A; Pruden, Amy

    2018-02-09

    Heat shock is a potential control strategy for Legionella pneumophila in hot water plumbing systems. However, it is not consistently effective, with little understanding of its influence on the broader plumbing microbiome. Here, we employed a lab-scale recirculating hot water plumbing rig to compare the pre- and post-"heat shock" (i.e., 40 → 60 → 40 °C) microbiota at distal taps. In addition, we used a second plumbing rig to represent a well-managed system at 60 °C and conducted a "control" sampling at 60 °C, subsequently reducing the temperature to 40 °C to observe the effects on Legionella and the microbiota under a simulated "thermal disruption" scenario. According to 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, in the heat shock scenario, there was no significant difference or statistically significant, but small, difference in the microbial community composition at the distal taps pre- versus post-heat shock (both biofilm and water; weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance matrices). While heat shock did lead to decreased total bacteria numbers at distal taps, it did not measurably alter the richness or evenness of the microbiota. Quantitative PCR measurements demonstrated that L. pneumophila relative abundance at distal taps also was not significantly different at 2-month post-heat shock relative to the pre-heat shock condition, while relative abundance of Vermamoeba vermiformis, a known Legionella host, did increase. In the thermal disruption scenario, relative abundance of planktonic L. pneumophila (quantitative PCR data) increased to levels comparable to those observed in the heat shock scenario within 2 months of switching long-term operation at 60 to 40 °C. Overall, water use frequency and water heater temperature set point exhibited a stronger effect than one-time heat shock on the microbial composition and Legionella levels at distal taps. While heat shock may be effective for instantaneous Legionella control and reduction in total

  14. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  15. Anti-inflammatory properties of a novel peptide interleukin 1 receptor antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, Boris; Li, Shizhong; Korshunova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is implicated in neuroinflammation, an essential component of neurodegeneration. We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of a novel peptide antagonist of IL-1 signaling, Ilantide.......Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is implicated in neuroinflammation, an essential component of neurodegeneration. We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of a novel peptide antagonist of IL-1 signaling, Ilantide....

  16. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities of Sida acuta in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties was also studied in mice and rats using the tail immersion, mouse ear oedema and acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration models. The crude extracts exhibited significant (p< 0.001) analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in mice as well as a marked protection ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of interleukin-10 in rabbit immune complex-induced colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grool, TA; Van Dullemen, H; Meenan, J; Koster, F; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Lebeaut, A; Tytgat, GNJ; Van Deventer, SJH

    Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that downregulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and additionally induces the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus possibly leading to reduction of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. In this

  18. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root Extracts of Indigofera spicata F. in Mice. ... The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous and 80% methanolic root extracts of the plant, providing evidence in part for the folkloric use of the plant. Keywords: ...

  19. Utilization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely prescribed worldwide. In Nigeria there is unrestricted access to these useful, yet potentially harmful drugs. We set out to assess the utilization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in outpatients attending clinics in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. Consecutive patients were ...

  20. DMPD: Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18086388 Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Ko...varik P, Sauer I, Schaljo B. Immunobiology. 2007;212(9-10):895-901. Epub 2007 Nov 8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Molecular... mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. PubmedID 18086388 Title Molecular

  1. In silico and in vivo anti-inflammatory studies of curcuminoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids in comparison with that of eugenol in silico, and to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of wound dressings made from zinc oxide powder and liquid turmeric extract with a high curcuminoid content. Methods: In silico studies were conducted, using ...

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the saponins extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The saponins extract of Carissa edulis Vahl family Apocynaceae was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was studied using hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 57.59% and 68.06% inhibition respectively. The present study showed that the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities that could be mediated via modulators of pain and inflammation or through central activity. Keywords: Aloe barbadensis; anti-inflammatory; analgesic activity ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This study re-ports the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of S. afzelii. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in 7 day old chicks and antioxi-dant property by the 2 ...

  5. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; Carmo, Do Lucas Fernandes; Nascimento, Do Sara Batista; Matos, de Natália Alves; Carvalho Veloso, de Clarice; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; Vos, de Ric C.H.; Klein, André; Siqueira, de João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Nascimento, Do Thalita Vieira; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Soares, Adriana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey indicates that the genus Byrsonima has some medicinal species that are commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado and has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for gastroduodenal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant

  6. Aspirin and its related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspirin and its related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid has been utilised by physicians for hundreds of years as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic (1). Derived from plant sources, such as the willow tree, it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and stimulate.

  7. Anti-inflammatory drugs in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D

    2007-01-01

    Historically, anti-inflammatory drugs had their origins in the serendipitous discovery of certain plants and their extracts being applied for the relief of pain, fever and inflammation. When salicylates were discovered in the mid-19th century to be the active components of Willow Spp., this enabled these compounds to be synthesized and from this, acetyl-salicylic acid or Aspirin was developed. Likewise, the chemical advances of the 19th-20th centuries lead to development of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), most of which were initially organic acids, but later non-acidic compounds were discovered. There were two periods of NSAID drug discovery post-World War 2, the period up to the 1970's which was the pre-prostaglandin period and thereafter up to the latter part of the last century in which their effects on prostaglandin production formed part of the screening in the drug-discovery process. Those drugs developed up to the 1980-late 90's were largely discovered empirically following screening for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in laboratory animal models. Some were successfully developed that showed low incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects (the principal adverse reaction seen with NSAIDs) than seen with their predecessors (e.g. aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone); the GI reactions being detected and screened out in animal assays. In the 1990's an important discovery was made from elegant molecular and cellular biological studies that there are two cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme systems controlling the production of prostanoids [prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane (TxA2)]; COX-1 that produces PGs and TxA2 that regulate gastrointestinal, renal, vascular and other physiological functions, and COX-2 that regulates production of PGs involved in inflammation, pain and fever. The stage was set in the 1990's for the discovery and development of drugs to selectively control COX-2 and spare the COX-1 that is central to

  8. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the ...

  9. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the full-length heat shock protein 70 of Tegillarca granosa was cloned from cDNA library by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The open reading frame (ORF) of heat shock protein 70 was 1968 bp, and it encoded a protein of 655 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 71.48 kDa and an ...

  10. Plasminogen and angiostatin interact with heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudani, Anil K; Mehic, Jelica; Martyres, Anthony

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that plasminogen and angiostatin bind to endothelial cell (EC) surface-associated actin via their kringles in a specific manner. Heat shock proteins (hsps) like hsp 27 are constitutively expressed by vascular ECs and regulate actin polymerization, cell growth, and migration. Since many hsps have also been found to be highly abundant on cell surfaces and there is evidence that bacterial surface hsps may interact with human plasminogen, the purpose of this study was to determine whether human plasminogen and angiostatin would interact with human hsps. ELISAs were developed in our laboratory to assess these interactions. It was observed that plasminogen bound to hsps 27, 60, and 70. In all cases, binding was inhibited (85-90%) by excess (50 mM) lysine indicating kringle involvement. Angiostatin predominantly bound to hsp 27 and to hsp 70 in a concentration- and kringle-dependent manner. As observed previously for actin, there was concentration-dependent inhibition of angiostatin's interaction with hsp 27 by plasminogen. In addition, 30-fold molar excess actin inhibited (up to 50%), the interaction of plasminogen with all hsps. However, 30-fold molar excess actin could only inhibit the interaction of angiostatin with hsp 27 by 15-20%. Collectively, these data indicate that (i) while plasminogen interacts specifically with hsp 27, 60, and 70, angiostatin interacts predominantly with hsp 27 and to some extent with hsp 70; (ii) plasminogen only partially displaces angiostatin's binding to hsp 27 and (iii) actin only partially displaces plasminogen/angiostatin binding to hsps. It is conceivable therefore that surface-associated hsps could mediate the binding of these ligands to cells like ECs.

  11. Detection and architecture of small heat shock protein monomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Poulain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs are chaperone-like proteins involved in the prevention of the irreversible aggregation of misfolded proteins. Although many studies have already been conducted on sHSPs, the molecular mechanisms and structural properties of these proteins remain unclear. Here, we propose a better understanding of the architecture, organization and properties of the sHSP family through structural and functional annotations. We focused on the Alpha Crystallin Domain (ACD, a sandwich fold that is the hallmark of the sHSP family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach for detecting sHSPs and delineating ACDs based on an iterative Hidden Markov Model algorithm using a multiple alignment profile generated from structural data on ACD. Using this procedure on the UniProt databank, we found 4478 sequences identified as sHSPs, showing a very good coverage with the corresponding PROSITE and Pfam profiles. ACD was then delimited and structurally annotated. We showed that taxonomic-based groups of sHSPs (animals, plants, bacteria have unique features regarding the length of their ACD and, more specifically, the length of a large loop within ACD. We detailed highly conserved residues and patterns specific to the whole family or to some groups of sHSPs. For 96% of studied sHSPs, we identified in the C-terminal region a conserved I/V/L-X-I/V/L motif that acts as an anchor in the oligomerization process. The fragment defined from the end of ACD to the end of this motif has a mean length of 14 residues and was named the C-terminal Anchoring Module (CAM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work annotates structural components of ACD and quantifies properties of several thousand sHSPs. It gives a more accurate overview of the architecture of sHSP monomers.

  12. Heat shock proteins and hypometabolism: adaptive strategy for proteome preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey KB

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth B Storey, Janet M StoreyDepartments of Biology and Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: To survive under harsh environmental conditions many organisms retreat into hypometabolic states where metabolic rate may be reduced by 80% or more and energy use is reprioritized to emphasize key functions that sustain viability and provide cytoprotection. ATP-expensive activities, such as gene expression, protein turnover (synthesis and degradation, and the cell cycle, are largely shut down. As a consequence, mechanisms that stabilize the existing cellular proteome can become critical for long-term survival. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are well-known for their actions as chaperones that act to fold new proteins or refold proteins that are damaged. Indeed, they are part of the “minimal stress proteome” that appears to be a ubiquitous response by all cells as they attempt, successfully or unsuccessfully, to deal with stress. The present review summarizes evidence that HSPs are also a conserved feature of natural animal hypometabolism including the phenomena of estivation, hibernation, diapause, cold-hardiness, anaerobiosis, and anhydrobiosis. That is, organisms that retreat into dormant or torpid states in anticipation that environmental conditions may become too difficult for normal life also integrate the use of HSPs to protect their proteome while hypometabolic. Multiple studies show a common upregulation of expression of hsp genes and/or HSP proteins prior to or during hypometabolism in organisms as diverse as ground squirrels, turtles, land snails, insects, and brine shrimp and in situations of both preprogrammed dormancies (eg, seasonal or life stage specific and opportunistic hypometabolism (eg, triggered by desiccation or lack of oxygen. Hence, HSPs are not just a “shock” response that attempts to rescue cells from damaging stress but are a key protective strategy that is an integral component of natural states of

  13. [Regulation of heat shock gene expression in response to stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuz, D G

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family. Certain HSFs are activated on exposure to higher temperatures or other adverse factors to ensure stress-induced HS gene expression, while other HSFs are specifically activated at particular developmental stages. The regulation of the main mammalian stress-inducible factor HSF1 and Drosophila melanogaster HSF includes many components, such as a variety of early warning signals indicative of abnormal cell activity (e.g., increases in intracellular ceramide, cytosolic calcium ions, or partly denatured proteins); protein kinases, which phosphorylate HSFs at various Ser residues; acetyltransferases; and regulatory proteins, such as SUMO and HSBP1. Transcription factors other than HSFs are also involved in activating HS gene transcription; the set includes D. melanogaster GAF, mammalian Sp1 and NF-Y, and other factors. Transcription of several stress genes coding for molecular chaperones of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) family is predominantly regulated by another stress-detecting system, which is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and is activated in response to massive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial matrix. A translational fine tuning of HS protein expression occurs via changing the phosphorylation status of several proteins involved in translation initiation. In addition, specific signal sequences in the 5'-UTRs of some HS

  14. Evaluation of antinociceptive, in-vivo & in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H M Arif; Zaman, Sayera; Juhara, Fatematuj; Akter, Lucky; Tareq, Syed Mohammed; Masum, Emranul Haque; Bhattacharjee, Rajib

    2014-09-22

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the Curcuma zedoaria (family Zingiberaceae) ethanolic rhizome extract in laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods so as to justify its traditional use in the above mentioned pathological conditions. Phytochemical screening was done to find the presence of various secondary metabolites of the plant. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed employing the hot plate method, acidic acid induced writhing test and formalin induced writhing test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory activity test was done on Long Evans rats at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) by using carrageenan induced paw edema test. Finally in vitro anti-inflammatory test by protein-denaturation method was followed. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's t-test was used as the test of significance. P value <0.05 was considered as the minimum level of significance. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums & carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars and terpenoids in the extract. In the hot plate method, the extract increased the reaction time of heat sensation significantly to 61.99% and 78.22% at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the percent inhibition of writhing response by the extract was 48.28% and 54.02% at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses respectively (p < 0.001). The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (64.49%, p < 0.01) and the late phase (62.37%, p < 0.01) in formalin induced writhing test. The extract significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) inhibited carrageenan induced inflammatory response in rats in a dose related manner. In in-vitro anti-inflammatory test, the extract significantly inhibited protein denaturation of 77.15, 64.43, 53

  15. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shujun; Liu Chunjiang; Jiang Pingan; Cai Weimin; Wang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 deg. C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 deg. C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs

  16. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Jun; Liu, Chun-Jiang; Jiang, Ping-An; Cai, Wei-Min; Wang, Yan

    2009-03-15

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 degrees C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 degrees C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  18. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. saponin extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sumana

    2016-01-01

    Quillaja saponaria bark contains a high percentage of triterpene saponins and has been used for centuries as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in Chilean folk medicine. In the Present study the anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of commercially partially purified saponin from Quillaja saponari a Mol. in in vivo animal models. Aqueous extract of the plant material was prepared by cold maceration. The anti-inflammatory activity of a commercial Quillaja saponaria Mol. (QS) saponin extract was investigated by carragenan induced mice paw edema model for acute inflammation (Winter, 1962) [16]. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragenan in paw edema model in swiss albino mice (18-20 g). The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carragenan induced paw edema. QS was found to significantly ( p  Quillaja saponaria saponins (QS) possess significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Numerical study of the viscous heat-conducting gas flow in a long shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexey; Khotyanovsky, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    The results of numerical simulations of the propagation of the shock wave in a cylindrical shock tube of large length are presented. The results of the numerical computations agree well with the experimental data of Duff. The effects of viscous friction and heat conduction cause significant difference of the shock wave velocity from its inviscid theoretical value. The results of the computations at the considered flow parameters show that the shock wave and the contact surface, starting from a certain moment of time, propagate with equal speeds.

  20. Use of conditioned media is critical for studies of regulation in response to rapid heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Dig B; Lis, John T

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock response (HSR) maintains and restores protein homeostasis when cells are exposed to proteotoxic heat stress. Heat shock (HS) triggers a rapid and robust change in genome-wide transcription, protein synthesis, and chaperone activity; and therefore, the HSR has been widely used as a model system in these studies. The conventional method of performing instantaneous HS in the laboratory uses heated fresh media to induce HSR when added to cells. However, addition of fresh media to cells may evoke additional cellular responses and signaling pathways. Here, we compared the change in global transcription profile when HS is performed with either heated fresh media or heated conditioned media. We found that the use of heated fresh media induces transcription of hundreds of genes that HS alone does not induce, and masks or partially masks HS-mediated downregulation of thousands of genes. The fresh-media-dependent upregulated genes encode ribosomal subunit proteins involved in translation and RNA processing factors. More importantly, fresh media also induce transcription of several heat shock protein genes (Hsps) in a heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-independent manner. Thus, we conclude that a conventional method of HS with heated fresh media causes changes in transcription regulation that confound the actual change caused solely by elevated temperature of cells.

  1. Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Victor Pena; Arruda, Caroline; Abd El-Salam, Mohamed; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2018-12-01

    Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds. A search in the literature was undertaken by using the following Web tools: Web of Science, SciFinder, Pub-Med and Science Direct. The terms 'anti-inflammatory' and 'Brazilian medicinal plants' were used as keywords in search engine. Tropicos and Reflora websites were used to verify the origin of the plants, and only the native plants of Brazil were included in this review. The publications reporting the use of well-accepted scientific protocols to corroborate the anti-inflammatory activities of Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory potential were considered. We selected 70 Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. The plants were grouped according to their anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The main mechanisms involved inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The collected data on Brazilian medicinal plants, in the form of crude extract and/or isolated compounds, showed significant anti-inflammatory activities involving different mechanisms of action, indicating Brazilian plants as an important source of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  2. Radioiodination and bio-evaluation of some anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the electrophilic substitution radioiodination reaction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs namely, Piroxicam (Pirox), Meloxicam (Melox), Etodolac and Naproxen for using them as anti-inflammatory imaging agent. The factors affecting the percent of radiochemical yields such as drug concentration, ph of the reaction mixtures, different oxidizing agents, reaction time, temperature and different organic media were studied. We can divide the objective of this thesis into three parts: First part performs to compare the electrophilic substitution radioiodination reaction of Piroxicam (Pirox) and Meloxicam (Melox) with Iodine-125 where both chloramine-T (CAT) and iodogen were used as oxidizing agents. The maximum radiochemical yield of 125 I-Piroxicam ( 125 I-Pirox) was (94%) using 3.7 MBq of Na 125 I, 0.4 mM of Pirox as substrate, 3.6 mM of chloramine-T (CAT) as oxidizing agent in acetone at neutral ph=7 at 60 degree C within 20 min where the maximum radiochemical yield of ( 125 I-Melox) was (92%) using 0.7 mM of Melox as substrate, 0.62 mM of iodogen as oxidizing agent in acetone at neutral ph=7 at 25 degree C within 30 min. The radiochemical yields were determined by TLC using methylene chloride: ethyl acetate (3: 7 v/v) as a developing system and by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed phase RP-18 column and methanol: water (70: 30 v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate (1 ml/min). Tracers showed good localization in inflamed muscle either (septic or sterile). The collected data indicates that Pirox can be used as anti-inflammatory imaging agent at 24 h post injection however Melox can be used as anti-inflammatory imaging agent at 2 h due to its shorter biological half life (t 1/2 ) compared with Pirox. Second part describes a fast and efficient method for radiolabeling of etodolac with iodine-125, where both chloramine-T and iodogen were used as oxidizing agents. The labeling reaction was carried out via electrophilic

  3. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  4. A glycoprotein from Porphyra yezoensis produces anti-inflammatory effects in liposaccharide-stimulated macrophages via the TLR4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Soon; Hwang, Hye-Jung; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a glycoprotein isolated from the alga Porphyra yezoensis in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. First, we extracted a novel material with antioxidant activity from P. yezoensis, confirmed by SDS-PAGE to be a glycoprotein, which we named P. yezoensis glycoprotein (PGP). PGP inhibited the production of NO and ROS and expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-1β, which are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammation-associated human diseases, including septic shock, hemorrhagic shock and rheumatoid arthritis. Next, we determined the mechanisms behind the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of PGP. We focused on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway because it is well-known to induce the pro-inflammatory proteins that trigger MAPK and NF-κB activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative events. PGP treatment reduced the formation of the TLR4-IRAK4 and TLR4-TRIF binding complexes in response to LPS. Moreover, it inhibited LPS-induced activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB by abrogating IκB phosphorylation. PGP also suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PGP exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by modulating TLR4 signaling and thus inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases.

  5. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, J. Lindsay; Meteyer, Carol U.; Miller, R. Eric; Fowler, Murray E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of analgesia has become standard, and appropriate, practice in avian medicine. As in mammals, pain control in avian patients is usually accomplished with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used singly or in combination for a multimodal approach. Despite their usefulness, widespread use, and relative safety in clinical use, few controlled studies in birds have been conducted on efficacy, safety, and dosing. The guidelines for the use of NSAIDs in raptors and other birds have mainly been empirical. More recently, NSAIDs in free-living raptors have emerged as a major conservation issue with the discovery that diclofenac sodium was responsible for the population crash of three species of Gyps vultures in southern Asia. In this context, residues of veterinary NSAIDs in domestic animals are now considered environmental contaminants that can be significantly toxic to vultures and possibly other avian scavengers. Ironically, the disaster with Asian vultures has led to a considerable body of research on NSAIDs in raptors to the benefit of clinicians who now have scientific information available to help assess dosing, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of NSAIDs in their raptor patients.

  6. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Dimethylfumarate: A Potential New Therapy for Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Seidel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which results from the deregulated interaction of inflammatory cells and tissue forming cells. Beside the derangement of the epithelial cell layer, the most prominent tissue pathology of the asthmatic lung is the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC bundles, which actively contributes to airway inflammation and remodeling. ASMCs of asthma patients secrete proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10, CCL11, and RANTES which attract immune cells into the airways and may thereby initiate inflammation. None of the available asthma drugs cures the disease—only symptoms are controlled. Dimethylfumarate (DMF is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in psoriasis and showed promising results in phase III clinical studies in multiple sclerosis patients. In regard to asthma therapy, DMF has been anecdotally reported to reduce asthma symptoms in patients with psoriasis and asthma. Here we discuss the potential use of DMF as a novel therapy in asthma on the basis of in vitro studies of its inhibitory effect on ASMC proliferation and cytokine secretion in ASMCs.

  8. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Risk of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Jeter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit tumor growth in vitro, we investigated the association between NSAIDs and melanoma to determine if there was epidemiologic evidence of a chemopreventive effect from these medications. Three hundred twenty-seven subjects with incident melanoma and 119 melanoma-free controls completed a structured interview assessing melanoma risk factors. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR for use of nonaspirin NSAIDs was 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.11, in a comparison of subjects with melanoma to controls. After adjustment for melanoma risk factors, the OR was 0.71 (95% CI 0.23–2.02. Aspirin users had an unadjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.45–1.69 and an adjusted OR of 1.45 (95% CI 0.44–4.74. In this pilot study, we found no evidence of a significant association between analgesic use and melanoma risk when potential confounders are assessed. Based on conflicting reports in the literature, meta-analysis may be appropriate.

  9. The neuroimmune basis of anti-inflammatory acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Ben; Ross, B Evan

    2007-09-01

    This review article presents the evidence that the antiinflammatory actions of acupuncture are mediated via the reflexive central inhibition of the innate immune system. Both laboratory and clinical evidence have recently shown the existence of a negative feedback loop between the autonomic nervous system and the innate immunity. There is also experimental evidence that the electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve inhibits macrophage activation and the production of TNF, IL-1beta , IL-6, IL-18, and other proinflammatory cytokines. It is therefore conceivable that along with hypnosis, meditation, prayer, guided imagery, biofeedback, and the placebo effect, the systemic anti-inflammatory actions of traditional and electro-acupuncture are directly or indirectly mediated by the efferent vagus nerve activation and inflammatory macrophage deactivation. In view of this common physiological mediation, assessing the clinical efficacy of a specific acupuncture regimen using conventional double-blind placebo-controlled trials inherently lacks objectivity due to (1) the uncertainty of ancient rules for needle placement, (2) the diffuse noxious inhibitory control triggered by control-needling at irrelevant points, (3) the possibility of a dose-response relationship between stimulation and effects, and (4) the possibility of inadequate blinding using an inert sham procedure. A more objective assessment of its efficacy could perhaps consist of measuring its effects on the surrogate markers of autonomic tone and inflammation. The use of acupuncture as an adjunct therapy to conventional medical treatment for a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems plausible and should be validated by confirming its cholinergicity.

  10. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  11. Design and development of Unani anti-inflammatory cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sana; Zaman, Roohi; Haider, Nafis; Shamsi, Shariq; Alam, Anzar

    Inflammation is the symptom of many diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Many side effects are associated with the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) used as conventional treatment for these conditions. In Unani, there are large number of single and compound drugs for inflammatory conditions. One dosage form of Unani system of medicine is named as Zimad in which paste is formed by mixing powder in oil, water, herbal extract. Zimadat is prepared just before application and used in many disease conditions as resolving, styptic, astringent, and antiseptic. As the pre-application procedure is difficult and also complicated for patients, hence, the present study attempted to modify the form of Zimad into cream. Various batches of cream of Zimad Mohallil were prepared by using extracts of the formulation and by adding additives. Various physicochemical parameters of prepared cream were carried and compared with market cream. The optimized cream of Zimad Mohallil (F 4 ) was selected after preliminary tests and evaluated further. The optimized cream showed good results in physicochemical parameters equivalent to market sample. Zimad Mohallil was converted into convenient cream form by adding minimum additives and benefits could be achieved without any hassle and cumbersome work, which is encountered in crude or paste form. The optimized cream was equivalent to standard market cream. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammation, cytokines and anti-inflammatory therapies in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, J Y; Lopes, M E; Champagne, S; Su, J B; Merlet, P; Hittinger, L

    2002-03-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have shown a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of heart failure. This seems related to an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Certain categories in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy have shown the presence of humoral and cellular immunity activation suggesting a possible relation between myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Recent studies suggest a link between the circulating levels of cytokines (TNF alpha IL-1 et IL-6), the clinical status and prognostic. However, the mechanisms connecting heart failure and cytokine activation are unclear and the sites of cytokines production remain controversial. In the clinical setting, specific measurements of cytokines are not available. As tests of inflammation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein concentration appear to have interesting pronostic values. Current conventional therapy i.e. ACE inhibitors, type I angiotensin II antagonist and beta-blockers have shown some anti-cytokine properties. Recently, immunosuppressive therapies have shown their ability to improve symptoms and LV ejection in selected patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and clear sign of myocardium inflammation. Specific anti-cytokine therapy have been developed and showed interesting results in preliminary clinical studies. However large clinical trials testing this new therapy have been stoppel prematurely because of deterious effects.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of glaucocalyxin B in microglia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over-activated microglia is involved in various kinds of neurodegenerative process including Parkinson, Alzheimer and HIV dementia. Suppression of microglial over activation has emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of neuroinflammation-based neurodegeneration. In the current study, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, which were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, were investigated in cultured microglia cells. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB, one of five ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated microglia cells. In addition, GLB inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in LPS-activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GLB strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 in BV-2 microglia cells. Finally, GLB exhibited neuroprotective effect by preventing over-activated microglia induced neurotoxicity in a microglia/neuron co-culture model. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the GLB possesses anti-nueroinflammatory activity, and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases.

  14. Anti-inflammatory polymer electrodes for glial scar treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eAsplund

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer films offer a convenient route for the functionalization of implantable microelectrodes without compromising their performance as excellent recording units. A micron thick coating, deposited on the surface of a regular metallic electrode, can elute anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of glial scarring as well as growth factors for the support of surrounding neurons. Electroactivation of the polymer drives the release of the substance and should ideally provide a reliable method for controlling quantity and timing of release. Driving signals in the form of a constant potential, a slow redox sweep or a fast pulse are all represented in literature. Few studies present such release in vivo from actual recording and stimulating microelectronic devices. It is essential to bridge the gap between studies based on release in vitro, and the intended application, which would mean release into living and highly delicate tissue. In the biological setting, signals are limited both by available electronics and by the biological safety. Driving signals must not be harmful to tissue and also not activate the tissue in an uncontrolled manner. This review aims at shedding more light on how to select appropriate driving parameters for the polymer electrodes for the in vivo setting. It brings together information regarding activation thresholds for neurons, as well as injury thresholds, and puts this into context with what is known about efficient driving of release from conducting polymer films.

  15. Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Anna; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal uses of saffron (Crocus sativus Linnaeus) have a long history beginning in Asian countries since the Late Bronze Age. Recent studies have validated its potential to lower the risk of several diseases. Some metabolites derived from saffron stigmas exert numerous therapeutic effects due to hypolipidemic, antitussive, antioxidant, antidiabetic activities and many others. Water and ethanol extracts of Crocus sativus L. are cardioprotective and counteract neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Botany, worldwide spreading of cultivars, biochemical pathways, active constituents and chemical detection methods are reviewed. Therapeutic uses of saffron principles with particular regard to those exhibiting antioxidant and thus anti-inflammatory features are discussed. To date, very few adverse health effects of saffron have been demonstrated. At high doses (more than 5 g/die day), it should be avoided in pregnancy owing to its uterine stimulation activity.

  16. Endoscopical appearances of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID- enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellus Simadibrata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID have been associated with a sudden and sustained rise in the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcer complications. The aim of the study was to reveal the endoscopical abnormalities found in the duodenum & proximal jejunum due to NSAID. Thirty eight patients taking NSAID for their arthritis or rheumatism were included in this study. Gastro-duodeno-jejunoscopy was done with Olympus PCF-10. The endoscopical appearances of NSAID entero gastropathy were evaluated with a scoring system. The NSAID-entero-gastropathy appearances were endoscopically seen as hyperemia, erosion and ulcer. From all patient recruited, 7.9% complaint of diarrhea and 71.1% complaint of dyspepsia. Endoscopically, in the duodenal bulb we found 79% cases of hyperemia, 39.5% cases of erosion and 7.9% cases of ulcer. In the second part (descending part of the duodenum we found 28.9% cases of hyperemia, 15.8% cases of erosion and 2.6% case of ulcer. In the jejunum, we found 7.9% cases of hyperemia, 2.6% case of erosion and no ulcer. It is concluded that the most frequent abnormal endoscopical appearances in NSAID- enteropathy was hyperemia. The most frequent site of NSAID-enteropathy abnormal findings was in the duodenal bulb. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 225-9Keywords: NSAID-enteropathy, endoscopical appearances.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects, nuclear magnetic resonance identification, and high-performance liquid chromatography isolation of the total flavonoids from Artemisia frigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects against inflammation induced by carrageenan and egg albumin in rats. At the doses studied, total flavonoids (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg and some isolated compounds (30 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. According to the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total flavonoids from A. frigida, there are five major compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F1, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F2, 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-6,4′-dimethoxyflavone (F3, 5,3′-dihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (F4, and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (F5, which may explain the anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Development of Microemulsion Delivery System of Essential Oil from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome for Improvement of Stability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Leelapornpisid, Pimporn; Phongpradist, Rungsinee; Viernstein, Helmut; Mueller, Monika

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to investigate the major constituents of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar rhizome (EO) and to develop microemulsions with enhanced chemical stability and anti-inflammatory activity of EO. The major constituents of EO were terpinen-4-ol (40.5 ± 6.6%) and sabinene (17.4 ± 1.4%) as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These compounds were responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities of EO. Sabinene and terpinen-4-ol significantly reduced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) expression by 47 ± 5 and 78 ± 8%, respectively (p water, showed the internal droplet size in the range of 211.5 ± 63.3 to 366.7 ± 77.8 nm. Both EO and EO microemulsions were shown to be safe for human use since there was no apparent toxic effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interestingly, EO microemulsion could significantly protect sabinene from the evaporation after heating-cooling stability test, which leads to a good stability and high efficacy. Moreover, EO microemulsions significantly enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect comparing to the native EO. Therefore, microemulsions were attractive delivery system for natural anti-inflammatory compounds since they could enhance both efficacy and stability of EO.

  20. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18336664 Title Mechanism

  1. Heat shock protein90 in lobular neoplasia of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsouris Efstratios

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 overexpression has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis, with putative prognostic and therapeutic implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Hsp90 and to examine whether Hsp90 expression is associated with estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha and beta (ER-beta immunostaining in lobular neoplasia (LN of the breast. Methods Tissue specimens were taken from 44 patients with LN. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90, ER-alpha and ER-beta was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. As far as Hsp90 evaluation is concerned: i the percentage of positive cells, and ii the intensity was separately analyzed. Additionally, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. Accordingly, Allred score was separately evaluated for ER-alpha and ER-beta. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3. Statistical analysis followed. Results Hsp90 immunoreactivity was mainly cytoplasmic in both the epithelial cells of normal breast (ducts and lobules and LN. Some epithelial cells of LN also showed nuclear staining, but all the LN foci mainly disclosed a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. In addition, rare intralobular inflammatory cells showed a slight immunoreaction. The percentage of Hsp90 positive cells in the LN areas was equal to 67.1 ± 12.2%, whereas the respective percentage in the normal adjacent breast tissue was 69.1 ± 11.6%; the difference was not statistically significant. The intensity score of Hsp90 staining was 1.82 ± 0.72 in LN foci, while in the normal adjacent tissue the intensity score was 2.14 ± 0.64. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.029, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. The Hsp90 Allred score was 6.46 ± 1.14 in the LN foci, significantly lower than in the normal adjacent tissue (6.91

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jong Hyun; Yang, Deok Chun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2014-06-01

    Plant extracts have been used as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Among the numerous traditional medicinal herbs, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), commonly known as guava, has long been used in folk medicines as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases in East Asian and other countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava (guava) in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that guava leaf extract (GLE) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner. GLE suppressed the expression and activity of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in part through the downregulation of ERK1/2 activation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GLE exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in 2 different animal models-Freund's complete adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia in the rat and LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice.

  3. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the underlying mechanisms were examined. With a modified Escherichia coli donor strain, different C. jejuni recipient strains displayed significant variation in conjugation efficiency ranging from 6.2 × 10(-8) to 6.0 × 10(-3) CFU per recipient cell. Despite reduced viability, heat shock of standard C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains (e.g., 48 to 54°C for 30 to 60 min) could dramatically enhance C. jejuni conjugation efficiency up to 1,000-fold. The phenotype of the heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni recipient cells could be sustained for at least 9 h. Filtered supernatant from the heat shock-treated C. jejuni cells could not enhance conjugation efficiency, which suggests that the enhanced conjugation efficiency is independent of secreted substances. Mutagenesis analysis indicated that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats system and the selected restriction-modification systems (Cj0030/Cj0031, Cj0139/Cj0140, Cj0690c, and HsdR) were dispensable for heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni. Taking all results together, this study demonstrated a heat shock-enhanced conjugation efficiency in standard C. jejuni strains, leading to an optimized conjugation protocol for molecular manipulation of this organism. The findings from this study also represent a significant step toward elucidation of the molecular mechanism of conjugative gene transfer in C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Olfactory conditioning in the third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster using heat shock reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Sukant; Robinson, Brooks G; Wang, Zihe; Shropshire, William C; Zhong, Allen C; Garcia, Laura E; Corpuz, Jonathan; Chow, Jonathan; Hatch, Michael M; Precise, Eric F; Cady, Amanda; Godinez, Ryan M; Pulpanyawong, Terapat; Nguyen, Andrew T; Li, Wen-Ke; Seiter, Max; Jahanian, Kambiz; Sun, Jeffrey C; Shah, Ruchita; Rajani, Sunaina; Chen, William Y; Ray, Sofia; Ryazanova, Natalie V; Wakou, Dorah; Prabhu, Rohith K; Atkinson, Nigel S

    2012-01-01

    Adult Drosophila melanogaster has long been a popular model for learning and memory studies. Now the larval stage of the fruit fly is also being used in an increasing number of classical conditioning studies. In this study, we employed heat shock as a novel negative reinforcement for larvae and obtained high learning scores following just one training trial. We demonstrated heat-shock conditioning in both reciprocal and non-reciprocal paradigms and observed that the time window of association for the odor and heat shock reinforcement is on the order of a few minutes. This is slightly wider than the time window for electroshock conditioning reported in previous studies, possibly due to lingering effects of the high temperature. To test the utility of this simplified assay for the identification of new mutations that disrupt learning, we examined flies carrying mutations in the dnc gene. While the sensitivity to heat shock, as tested by writhing, was similar for wild type and dnc homozygotes, dnc mutations strongly diminished learning. We confirmed that the learning defect in dnc flies was indeed due to mutation in the dnc gene using non-complementation analysis. Given that heat shock has not been employed as a reinforcement for larvae in the past, we explored learning as a function of heat shock intensity and found that optimal learning occurred around 41 °C, with higher and lower temperatures both resulting in lower learning scores. In summary, we have developed a very simple, robust paradigm of learning in fruit fly larvae using heat shock reinforcement.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of the topical preparation of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Nasir, Fazli; Shah, Yasar

    2013-05-01

    In vivo and in vitro screening of anti inflammatory activity of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves crude extract was performed, using standardized procedures. Methanolic crude extract topical formulation (cream) of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves (Family Valerianaceae and Amaranthaceae respectively), were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity, through "Carrageenan induced hind paw edema" test, for their effect on the acute and chronic phase inflammation models in male Wistar rats. Methanolic extract and its fractions were also evaluated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Leaves of Valeriana wallichii showed significant (PValeriana wallichii also showed considerable (IC 50=73 ± 0.36) in vitro anti-inflammatory activity as compared to standard (6.11 ± 0.02). Similarly Achyranthes aspera leaves showed relatively weak (p>0.05) in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. However, its activity was comparable with that of standard at 10% concentration after 5 hrs of carrageenan injection. This activity was present in ethyl acetate fraction during in vitro screening (IC 50=76 ± 0.14) as compared to that of standard (IC 50=6.11 ± 0.02). The combined in vitro and in vivo Anti-inflammatory screening shows that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera can be used for the isolation of new Anti-inflammatory lead compounds.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  7. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. saponin extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Sarkhel

    Full Text Available Objective: Quillaja saponaria bark contains a high percentage of triterpene saponins and has been used for centuries as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in Chilean folk medicine.In the Present study the anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of commercially partially purified saponin from Quillaja saponaria Mol. in in vivo animal models. Methods & materials:: Aqueous extract of the plant material was prepared by cold maceration. The anti-inflammatory activity of a commercial Quillaja saponaria Mol. (QS saponin extract was investigated by carragenan induced mice paw edema model for acute inflammation (Winter, 1962 [16]. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragenan in paw edema model in swiss albino mice (18–20 g. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carragenan induced paw edema. QS was found to significantly (p < 0.05 reduce the carragenan induced mice paw edema (38.59%; 20 mg/kg bw as compared to carragenan control. The percentage inhibition of standard anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was (55%; 10 mg/kg, bw. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria saponins (QS possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory activity, Aqueous extract, Paw edema

  8. Heat-shock effects on photosynthesis and sink-source dynamics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Xu, H.Y.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms causing genotypic differences in heat tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), physiological responses to a heat shock in a vegetative (`end of tillering¿) or a reproductive (`early grain filling¿) stage were studied. Three cultivars ¿ Lavett, Ciano-79 and Attila ¿

  9. Requirements for chromatin reassembly during transcriptional downregulation of a heat shock gene in S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Moesgaard; Christensen, Marianne Skovgaard; Bonven, Bjarne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Heat shock genes respond to moderate heat stress by a wave of transcription. The induction phase is accompanied by massive eviction of histones, which later reassemble with DNA during the ensuing phase of transcription downregulation. Here, we identify determinants of this reassembly throughout...

  10. Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel

    2010-08-01

    We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.

  11. Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel

    2010-08-01

    We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier’s Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.

  12. Shock initiation of the TATB-based explosive PBX 9502 heated to 130 degrees C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, R. L.; Bartram, B. D.; Gibson, L. L.; Pacheco, A. H.; Jones, J. D.; Goodbody, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    We present gas-gun driven plate-impact shock initiation experiments on the explosive PBX 9502 (95 weight % triaminotrinitrobenzene, 5 weight % Kel-F 800 binder) heated to 130 + / - 2 degrees C. PBX 9502 samples were heated using resistive elements, temperatures were monitored using embedded and surface mounted type-E thermocouples, and the shock to detonation transition was measured using embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. Results indicate that shock sensitivity increases regularly as the temperature increases. For a fixed initial pressure, the time and distance to onset of detonation are shorter for the heated explosive than for the explosive initially at 23 degrees C. For PBX 9502 heated to 130 degrees C, the ``Pop-plot'' or distance to detonation, xD, vs. impact pressure, P, is log10(xD) = 2.82 - 2.19log10(P) .

  13. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa Linn. leaf extracts and fractions by acute and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh D. Boddawar

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that leaves of S. bispinosa possess significant level of anti-inflammatory activity and ethyl acetate fraction may be further explored as an anti-inflammatory remedy as it was found to possess higher anti-inflammatory activity among all extracts and fractions as demonstrated in both acute and chronic models.

  14. DMPD: Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecular mechanisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17981503 Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecula...) (.html) (.csml) Show Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecular mech...ecular mechanisms. Authors Straus DS, Glass CK. Publication Trends Immunol. 2007 De...anisms. PubmedID 17981503 Title Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmol

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  16. Design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of novel piroxicam analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Amanda Silva; Bispo Júnior, Walfrido; da Silva, Yolanda Karla Cupertino; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; Castro, Rosane de Paula; Sabino, José Ricardo; Lião, Luciano Morais; Lima, Lídia Moreira; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2012-11-28

    In this paper we report the design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a series of benzothiazine N-acylhydrazones 14a–h, planned by structural modification of piroxicam (1), a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Among the synthesized analogues, compounds 14f (LASSBio-1637) and 14g (LASSBio-1639) were identified as novel antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory prototypes, active by oral administration, acting by a mechanism of action that seems to be different from that of piroxicam, since they were inactive as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) at concentrations of 10 mM.

  17. Design, Synthesis, Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Novel Piroxicam Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer J. Barreiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a series of benzothiazine N-acylhydrazones 14a–h, planned by structural modification of piroxicam (1, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Among the synthesized analogues, compounds 14f (LASSBio-1637 and 14g (LASSBio-1639 were identified as novel antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory prototypes, active by oral administration, acting by a mechanism of action that seems to be different from that of piroxicam, since they were inactive as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2 at concentrations of 10 mM.

  18. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested. PMID:26389925

  19. TO STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS IN RAT PAW EDEMA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The process of inflammation is one of the most fundamental responses of the vascularised living tissue to local injury.1 Inflammation is a universal host defense process involving a complex network of cell-cell, cell-mediator & tissue interactions.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES To study of anti-inflammatory effect of calcium channel blockers in rat paw edema model. MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect with different doses of calcium channel blockers nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen in experimentally induced acute model of inflammation in male Wister rat. Inter drug comparison of anti-inflammatory efficacy of nifedipine, verapamil with standard drug ibuprofen in rats. Divide the animals into 3 groups each comprising at least six rats. Control group inject saline, standard group inject ibuprofen 20 mg/kg. test group inject (nifedipine & verapamil subcutaneously. After 30 min inject 0.1ml 1% (w/v Carrageenin in the plantar region of the left paw of all rats. The left hind paw was measured plethysmograph, immediately (zero hour and 4 hours after the sub plantar injection of Carrageenin. The difference between zero hour volume and the paw volume recorded at the end of 4 hrs. Indicated the actual volume. RESULT The statistical test ANOVA is applied to inter drug comparison. It is found that drug. Nifedipine 1mg/kg (86% has more efficacy significantly as compared to standard drug Ibuprofen 20mg/kg (55%, and drug Verapamil 1mg/kg (71% for its anti-inflammatory action. (F value is 94.27 >tab F 5.82 so this method is statistically highly significant. CONCLUSION Thus it was found that nifedipine has better anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to ibuprofen, verapamil in various experimental anti-inflammatory models. The various experimental anti-inflammatory models were rat paw edema method. The calcium channel blockers included were nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen. Nifedipine has anti-inflammatory

  20. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-09-16

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested.

  1. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Häuser, Winfried; Mücke, Martin; Tölle, Thomas Rudolf; Bell, Rae F; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-03-27

    Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia, despite being considered not to be effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy, tolerability (drop-out due to adverse events), and safety (serious adverse events) of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase for randomised controlled trials from inception to January 2017. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and online clinical trial registries. We included randomised, double-blind trials of two weeks' duration or longer, comparing any oral NSAID with placebo or another active treatment for relief of pain in fibromyalgia, with subjective pain assessment by the participant. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality and potential bias. Primary outcomes were participants with substantial pain relief (at least 50% pain relief over baseline or very much improved on Patient Global Impression of Change scale (PGIC)) or moderate pain relief (at least 30% pain relief over baseline or much or very much improved on PGIC), serious adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events; secondary outcomes were adverse events, withdrawals due to lack of efficacy, and outcomes relating to sleep, fatigue, and quality of life. Where pooled analysis was possible, we used dichotomous data to calculate risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT), using standard methods. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Our searches identified six randomised, double-blind studies involving 292 participants in suitably characterised fibromyalgia. The mean age of participants was between 39 and 50 years, and 89% to 100% were women. The initial pain intensity was around 7/10 on a 0 to 10 pain scale, indicating severe pain. NSAIDs tested were etoricoxib 90 mg

  2. Variation of Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Relationship with Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MIHU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to assess serum levels of the key anti-inflammatory cytokines in women of reproductive age and in pre and postmenopausal women. Material and Method. 175 women were enrolled and were divided into 5 groups (1 – Fertile women; 2 – Pre- and perimenopausal women; 3 – Postmenopausal women; 4 – Surgically-induced menopause; 5 – Chronic inflammation. Multiplex cytokine kits were used to evaluate serum levels of interleukin-4, -10 and -13. We determined the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, of luteinizing hormone, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate using sandwich ELISA. Results. IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 present a statistically significant decrease (p=0.00, p=0.00, respectively p=0.0053 in women with natural or surgically induced menopause (groups 3 and 4, compared with fertile women and premenopausal women (Groups 1, 2 and 5. Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 are significantly higher in fertile patients with associated chronic inflammatory diseases (133.5±1.314 pg/ml, respectively 6.406±13.47 pg/ml than in fertile patients without chronic inflammatory diseases or premenopausal women (84.67±1.22 pg/ml, respectively 0.627±0.714. Conclusions. IL-4 and IL-10, together with IL-17, show significantly lower serum values in patients with natural or surgically induced menopause compared with patients of childbearing age or in premenopause. IL-4 and IL-10 show significantly higher serum values for patients of childbearing age presenting chronic inflammatory pathology compared with patients of childbearing age without chronic inflammatory pathology or premenopausal patients.

  3. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Induced Dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Paul Ray-Yee; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most prescribed group of drugs in the world. They are used primarily for pain relief in chronic inflammatory joint disease and act by inhibiting enzymes COX1 and COX2 and ultimately preventing the production of active prostanoids which are required for the innate inflammatory pathway. The use of NSAIDs have been associated with the development of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms ranging from simple dyspepsia to life threatening GI bleeds and perforations. The definition of dyspepsia has evolved over the years and this has hampered accurate studies on the prevalence of dyspepsia as different studies used varying criteria to define dyspepsia. It is now known that NSAIDs significantly increase the risk of dyspepsia.The risk of developing peptic ulcer disease vary with specific NSAIDs and dosages but there is no correlation between the symptoms of dyspepsia and underlying peptic ulcers. The pathogenesis of dyspepsia with NSAIDs is not completely understood. Peptic ulceration alone is not able to account for the majority of dyspepsia symptoms encountered by NSAIDs users. Erosive oesophagitis secondary to NSAIDs may be contributing factor to the prevalence of dyspepsia in NSAIDs users. Altered gut permeability and changes in gastric mechanosensory function due to NSAIDs may also be a contributory factor. Management of NSAID induced dyspepsia is involves a multipronged approach. Drug avoidance if possible would be ideal. Other options include using the lowest effective dose, changing to an NSAIDs with a safer GI risk profile, avoiding concurrent use with other NSAIDs or if the patient has a previous history of peptic ulcer disease, and co-prescribing with anti-secretory medications such as proton pump inhibitors. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has a protective role against developing peptic ulcers and may also improve symptoms of NSAIDs induced dyspepsia.

  4. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of soybean agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean agglutinin (SBA lectin, a protein present in raw soybean meals, can bind to and be extensively endocytosed by intestinal epithelial cells, being nutritionally toxic for most animals. In the present study we show that SBA (5-200 µg/cavity injected into different cavities of rats induced a typical inflammatory response characterized by dose-dependent exudation and neutrophil migration 4 h after injection. This effect was blocked by pretreatment with glucocorticoid (0.5 mg/kg or by co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine (100 x [M] lectin, but not of other sugars (100 x [M] lectin, suggesting an inflammatory response related to the lectin activity. Neutrophil accumulation was not dependent on a direct effect of SBA on the macrophage population since the effect was not altered when the number of peritoneal cells was increased or decreased in vivo. On the other hand, SBA showed chemotactic activity for human neutrophils in vitro. A slight increase in mononuclear cells was observed 48 h after ip injection of SBA. Phenotypic analysis of these cells showed an increase in the CD4+/CD8- lymphocyte population that returned to control levels after 15 days, suggesting the development of an immune response. SBA-stimulated macrophages presented an increase in the expression of CD11/CD18 surface molecules and showed some characteristics of activated cells. After intravenous administration, SBA increased the number of circulating neutrophils and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the neutrophil migration induced by ip injection of carrageenan into peritoneal cavities. The co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine or mannose, but not glucose or fucose, inhibited these effects. The data indicate that soybean lectin is able to induce a local inflammatory reaction but has an anti-inflammatory effect when present in circulating blood

  5. The Epidemiology of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Tenenbaum

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use has increased dramatically in the past two decades. A large proportion of the elderly population (more than 65 years of age holds a current or recent NSAID prescription, accounting for approximately 90% of all NSAID prescriptions. Despite studies that advise finding alternatives for NSAIDs for the management of osteoarthritis, physicians often prescribe NSAIDs first for such common musculoskeletal conditions. Despite being identified as risk factors for gastrointestinal complications, the simultaneous use of two NSAIDs and the coadministration of NSAIDs with corticosteroids and with coumadin continue to occur. The point prevalence of NSAID-induced ulcers is 10% to 30%, and 15% to 35% of all peptic ulcer complications are caused by NSAIDs. The increased risk of gastrointestinal complications when NSAIDs are used is 3% to 5%. This risk increases with other identified risk factors (eg, older age, previous gastrointestinal history, comorbid diseases and poor health. Gastrointestinal causes of hospitalization (eg, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation and death have increased in parallel to increased NSAID use. ‘Antiulcer’ agents are prescribed twice as often in NSAID users, and the economic impact (eg, diagnostic tests and hospitalization is that about one-third of the arthritis budget has been dedicated to deal with gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs. Misoprostol and omeprazole have been shown to be cytoprotective for the gastroduodenal mucosa when NSAIDs are used, and misoprostol has been shown to reduce the risk of gastroduodenal ulcer complications. Economic evaluations have suggested that these agents are a cost effective means of dealing with such NSAID-associated problems. Although no NSAID is totally safe, a number of studies have demonstrated that NSAIDs may be ranked according to relative gastrointestinal toxicity. The role of Helicobacter pylori in NSAID-associated problems

  6. Aptamers Against Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Asgary, Seddigheh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Shariati, Laleh; Khanahmad, Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory disorders result from continuous inflammation in injured sites. Many molecules are involved in this process; the inhibition of which could prevent the inflammation. Chemokines are a group of these biological mediators which are categorized into pro-, anti-, and pro-/anti-inflammatory. Thus, targeting these essential molecules can be an effective way for prevention and control of inflammatory diseases. Various therapeutic agents have been developed for primary and secondary prevention of these disorders, but each of them has its own limitations. Aptamers, as novel therapeutic agents, are a new generation of drugs which could replace other medications even antibodies. Aptamer can bind to its target molecule to trap it and prohibit its function. Among large group of inflammatory cytokines, only 11 aptamers have been selected either against cytokines or their related receptors. These cytokines include interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IL-17, IL-32, TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL2, and IP-10. Most of the isolated aptamers are against pro-inflammatory or dual function cytokines, and it seems that they could be used for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the related inflammatory diseases. Most of the aptamers have been tested in vitro, but so far, none of them has been approved for in vivo use. Given a vast number of inflammatory cytokines, more aptamers against this group of biological molecules will be selected in the near future. The available aptamers will also be tested in clinical trials. Therefore, a significant improvement is expected for the prevention and control of inflammatory disorders.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Thyme Essential Oil in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Juhas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are plant secondary metabolites possessing various pharmacological properties, primarily anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulatory ones. The aim of this work was to study the effects of thyme essential oil dietary administration in murine DTH/ CHS reaction, carrageenan paw oedema and TNBS colitis. Thyme essential oil was added to the murine diet at three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm and fed to Balb/c mice. The extent of ear swelling in DTH/CHS reaction and paw oedema induced by carrageenan application was measured using the Mitutoyo thickness gauge. In the model of TNBS colitis we evaluated the changes in body weight, the colon weight : body weight ratio, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, and macroscopical and histological scores. IL-1β and IL-6 messenger RNA expression in colonic samples of one experimental group were assessed using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Dietary supplementation with 5000 ppm of thyme essential oil significantly decreased paw oedema and ear swelling. This thyme essential oil concentration caused a significant inhibition of total mRNA IL-1β expression in the mouse colon, and markedly decreased the macroscopic and microscopic scores of colitis. On the other hand, the 1250 ppm of thyme essential oil in diet increased ear oedema induced by oxazolone application in mice. Our study indicates that thyme essential oil is able to affect murine experimental inflammatory models depending on the concentration used. It is concluded that the anti-inflammatory effects of thyme essential oil should be interpreted with a caution due to its contradictory, dose-related effects.

  8. Anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Donate-Correa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant patients. Experimental and clinical studies in non-transplant kidney disease patients have found this molecule to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney-transplant recipients. Methods: Thirty one kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism completed 3 months of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1 μg/day. Serum concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Paricalcitol significantly decreased parathyroid hormone levels with no changes in calcium and phosphorous. It also reduced serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α by 29% (p < 0.05 and 9.5% (p < 0.05 compared to baseline, respectively. Furthermore, gene expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased by 14.1% (p < 0.001 and 34.1% (p < 0.001, respectively. The ratios between pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, both regarding serum concentrations and gene expression, also experienced a significant reduction. Conclusions: Paricalcitol administration to kidney transplant recipients has been found to have beneficial effects on inflammation, which may be associated with potential clinical benefits. Resumen: Antecedentes y objetivos: El paricalcitol, un activador selectivo del receptor de la vitamina D, se utiliza en el tratamiento del hiperparatiroidismo secundario en el receptor de trasplante renal. Estudios tanto clínicos como experimentales realizados en pacientes renales no trasplantados muestran propiedades antiinflamatorias para esta molécula. En

  9. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii is a novel suppressor of heat shock response in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Saito, Youhei; Takasaki, Midori; Konoshima, Takao; Hatayama, Takumi

    2006-01-01

    Because heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in protecting cells and in the pathophysiology of diseases such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders, the use of regulators of the expression of Hsps in mammalian cells seems to be useful as a potential therapeutic modality. To identify compounds that modulate the response to heat shock, we analyzed several natural products using a mammalian cell line containing an hsp promoter-regulated reporter gene. In this study, we found that an extract from Fructus Arctii markedly suppressed the expression of Hsp induced by heat shock. A component of the extract arctigenin, but not the component arctiin, suppressed the response at the level of the activation of heat shock transcription factor, the induction of mRNA, and the synthesis and accumulation of Hsp. Furthermore, arctigenin inhibited the acquisition of thermotolerance in mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Thus, arctigenin seemed to be a new suppressive regulator of heat shock response in mammalian cells, and may be useful for hyperthermia cancer therapy. PMID:16817321

  10. Impaired heat shock response in cells expressing full-length polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhartha M Chafekar

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms by which polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded huntingtin (Htt causes neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD remain unclear. The malfunction of cellular proteostasis has been suggested as central in HD pathogenesis and also as a target of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of HD. We present results that offer a previously unexplored perspective regarding impaired proteostasis in HD. We find that, under non-stress conditions, the proteostatic capacity of cells expressing full length polyQ-expanded Htt is adequate. Yet, under stress conditions, the presence of polyQ-expanded Htt impairs the heat shock response, a key component of cellular proteostasis. This impaired heat shock response results in a reduced capacity to withstand the damage caused by cellular stress. We demonstrate that in cells expressing polyQ-expanded Htt the levels of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 are reduced, and, as a consequence, these cells have an impaired a heat shock response. Also, we found reduced HSF1 and HSP70 levels in the striata of HD knock-in mice when compared to wild-type mice. Our results suggests that full length, non-aggregated polyQ-expanded Htt blocks the effective induction of the heat shock response under stress conditions and may thus trigger the accumulation of cellular damage during the course of HD pathogenesis.

  11. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Orally Administrated Denatured Naja Naja Atra Venom on Murine Rheumatoid Arthritis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Zhu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the denatured Naja Naja atra venom (NNAV in rheumatoid arthritis-associated models, the denatured NNAV (heat treated; 30, 90, 270 μg/kg, the native NNAV (untreated with heat; 90 μg/kg, and Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside (TWP, 15 mg/kg were administrated orally either prophylactically or therapeutically. We measured time of licking the affected paw in formaldehyde-induced inflammatory model, paw volume in egg-white-induced inflammation, and granuloma weight in formalin-soaked filter paper-induced granuloma. For adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA rats, paw edema, mechanical withdrawal threshold, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10, and histopathological changes of the affected paw were assessed. We found that the denatured NNAV (90, 270 μg/kg significantly reduced time of licking paw, paw volume, and granuloma weight in above inflammatory models and also attenuated paw edema, mechanical hyperalgesia, and histopathology changes in AIA rats. Additionally, the increase in serum TNF-α and the decrease in serum IL-10 in AIA rats were reversed by the denatured NNAV. Although the native NNAV and TWP rendered the similar pharmacological actions on the above four models with less potency than that of the denatured NNAV, these findings demonstrate that oral administration of the denatured NNAV produces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities on rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitamin D on Human Immune Cells in the Context of Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Edwin; Nathanielsz, Jordan; Toh, Zheng Quan; Spry, Leena; Marimla, Rachel; Balloch, Anne; Mulholland, Kim; Licciardi, Paul V

    2016-12-12

    Vitamin D induces a diverse range of biological effects, including important functions in bone health, calcium homeostasis and, more recently, on immune function. The role of vitamin D during infection is of particular interest given data from epidemiological studies suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of infection. Vitamin D has diverse immunomodulatory functions, although its role during bacterial infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of 1,25(OH)₂D₃, the active metabolite of vitamin D, on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and purified immune cell subsets isolated from healthy adults following stimulation with the bacterial ligands heat-killed pneumococcal serotype 19F (HK19F) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that 1,25(OH)₂D₃ significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β as well as the chemokine IL-8 for both ligands (three- to 53-fold), while anti-inflammatory IL-10 was increased (two-fold, p = 0.016) in HK19F-stimulated monocytes. Levels of HK19F-specific IFN-γ were significantly higher (11.7-fold, p = 0.038) in vitamin D-insufficient adults (50 nmol/L). Vitamin D also shifted the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype and increased the CD14 expression on monocytes ( p = 0.008) in response to LPS but not HK19F stimulation. These results suggest that 1,25(OH)₂D₃ may be an important regulator of the inflammatory response and supports further in vivo and clinical studies to confirm the potential benefits of vitamin D in this context.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitamin D on Human Immune Cells in the Context of Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Hoe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D induces a diverse range of biological effects, including important functions in bone health, calcium homeostasis and, more recently, on immune function. The role of vitamin D during infection is of particular interest given data from epidemiological studies suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of infection. Vitamin D has diverse immunomodulatory functions, although its role during bacterial infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of 1,25(OH2D3, the active metabolite of vitamin D, on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and purified immune cell subsets isolated from healthy adults following stimulation with the bacterial ligands heat-killed pneumococcal serotype 19F (HK19F and lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that 1,25(OH2D3 significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β as well as the chemokine IL-8 for both ligands (three- to 53-fold, while anti-inflammatory IL-10 was increased (two-fold, p = 0.016 in HK19F-stimulated monocytes. Levels of HK19F-specific IFN-γ were significantly higher (11.7-fold, p = 0.038 in vitamin D-insufficient adults (<50 nmol/L compared to sufficient adults (>50 nmol/L. Vitamin D also shifted the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype and increased the CD14 expression on monocytes (p = 0.008 in response to LPS but not HK19F stimulation. These results suggest that 1,25(OH2D3 may be an important regulator of the inflammatory response and supports further in vivo and clinical studies to confirm the potential benefits of vitamin D in this context.

  14. Ion Thermalization and Electron Heating across Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks Observed by the MMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Wang, S.; Bessho, N.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hesse, M.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    Collisionless shocks often involve intense plasma heating in space and astrophysical systems. Despite decades of research, a number of key questions concerning electron and ion heating across collisionless shocks remain unanswered. We `image' 20 supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shocks encountered by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft with electron and ion distribution functions to address how ions are thermalized and how electrons are heated. The continuous burst measurements of 3D plasma distribution functions from MMS reveal that the primary thermalization phase of ions occurs concurrently with the main temperature increase of electrons as well as large-amplitude wave fluctuations. Approaching the shock from upstream, the ion temperature (Ti) increases due to the reflected ions joining the incoming solar wind population, as recognized by prior studies, and the increase of Ti precedes that of the electrons. Thermalization in the form of merging between the decelerated solar wind ions and the reflected component often results in a decrease in Ti. In most cases, the Ti decrease is followed by a gradual increase further downstream. Anisotropic, energy-dependent, and/or nongyrotropic electron energization are observed in association with large electric field fluctuations in the main electron temperature (Te) gradient, motivating a renewed scrutiny of the effects from the electrostatic cross-shock potential and wave fluctuations on electron heating. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to assist interpretations of the MMS observations. We assess the roles of instabilities and the cross-shock potential in thermalizing ions and heating electrons based on the MMS measurements and PIC simulation results. Challenges will be posted for future computational studies and laboratory experiments on collisionless shocks.

  15. Phenolic composition, anitproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties of conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint were investigated for their phenolic profile, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 75% acetone was a better method than Soxhlet and overnight extraction for phenolic content and a...

  16. [Screening of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in marines macroalgae from Mediterranean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatter Riahi, R; Tarhouni, S; Kharrat, R

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 13 seaweeds collected from the Mediterranean sea (Tunisian, Moroccan and Greek coasts) from different classes (Chlorophycae, Pheopbycae and Rhodophycae) are testedfor their analgesic and antiinflammatory effects. These activities were estimated in vivo, respectively by writhing test and carrageenan test. Nine species among 13 tested seaweeds showed an important analgesic activity. On the other hand only 5 seaweeds showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (Cystoseira barbata and Sargassum vulgare) had endowed with the double analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The red algae Geliduim sesquipedale have only anti-inflammatory activity and the other one endowed only with an analgesic activity (Enteromorpha compressa, Chaetomorpha linum, Cystoseira ericoidies, Sacchoriza bulbosa et Corralina officinalis). The simultaneous or individual presence of the analgesic and\\or anti-inflammatory activities of the various extracts can find its application in the therapeutic domain.

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  18. Cell-based screening assay for anti-inflammatory activity of bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Kees; Vonk, Roel J.; Priebe, Marion G.; Roelofsen, Han

    2015-01-01

    Excess dietary intake may induce metabolic inflammation which is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence indicates that dietary bioactive compounds may diminish metabolic inflammation. To identify anti-inflammatory bioactives, we developed a screening assay

  19. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  20. Guava pomace: a new source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Guava pomace is an example of the processing waste generated after the manufacturing process from the juice industry that could be a source of bioactives. Thus, the present investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential and determinate the main phenolic compounds of a guava pomace extract (GPE). Methods The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, histamine-induced paw edema and neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity models. Acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin test were performed to investigate the antinociceptive effects. In addition, the content of total phenolic and of individual phenolic compounds was determined by GC/MS. Results GPE showed anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, histamine-induced paw edema and neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity models (p guava pomace could be an interesting source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic substances. PMID:24063346

  1. Treating Gulf War Illness with Novel Anti-Inflammatories: A Screening of Botantical Microglia Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Gulf War Illness, botanical, anti-inflammatory, biomarker, microglia, improvement, treatment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Younger, J.W. (2016, October) Diagnostic overlap of Gulf War Illness, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue syndrome, and Fibromyalgia in

  2. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalia, Yogesh; Vaghasiya, Yogeshkumar; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers was tested using Artemia salina (Brine shrimp) bioassay. Two doses (400 and 600 mg/Kg) were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity against the carrageenan, histamine, dextran, serotonin and formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and formaldehyde-induced analgesia in rats. In cytotoxicity study, extract caused 73% mortality of Brine shrimp larvae after 24 h at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. The results of the anti-inflammatory study showed that the extract produced significant (p Woodfordia fruticosa flowers have weak cytotoxic and potent anti-inflammatory compounds and justifies the traditional uses for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  3. Effects of phytochemicals on in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kyuichi; Kato, Yuri; Sakano, Taiken; Baba, Nobuyuki; Hagiwara, Kota; Tamura, Akira; Baba, Seigo; Natsume, Midori; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to improve the condition of not only the human gastrointestinal tract but also the entire body. We found that quercetin enhances the anti-inflammatory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, which is abundant in human intestines. Here, we assessed whether certain phytochemicals could enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of B. adolescentis. Bifidobacteria were anaerobically cultured with phytochemicals for 3 h, and the anti-inflammatory activity of the supernatants was estimated by testing their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 macrophages. Of the 55 phytochemicals tested, phloretin, (+)-taxifolin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate as well as quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-4'-O-glucoside were similar to quercetin in promoting NO suppression by B. adolescentis. In addition, the phytochemicals excluding quercetin increased the concentrations of lactic and acetic acids in the co-culture supernatants. These results suggest that some phytochemicals may activate the anti-inflammatory function of B. adolescentis.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of Byrsonima crassifolia seeds in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz Ramirez, Alethia; Flores Cotera, Luis B; Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha

    2013-01-01

    Byrsonima crassifolia is a tropical tree, commonly known as nance and distributed widely in Mexico and Central and South America. Since pre- Hispanic times, the seeds of the fruits have been used in folklore medicine as an anti-inflammatory; however, currently no researchers have examined its potential pharmacological properties in scientific studies. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts obtained with the solvents n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol from seeds of B crassifolia. The research team induced edemas in Wistar rats with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA), formaldehyde, carrageenan, and histamine to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the three organic extracts of seeds from B crassifolia. The team also used the cotton-pellet granuloma method to induce edemas in Wistar rats and study the inhibitory effect of the three extracts from B crassifolia. Finally, the team examined the participation of the nitric oxide (NO) system in the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of nance seeds (NS), diclorofenac, and L-NAME as well as the effects of L-arginine and D-arginine on the antiinflammatory actions of the compounds. This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Research of Natural Products, School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute (IPNESIQIE) and Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico D.F., CP 07360, Mexico. The research team measured the edema that the solvents caused, either in the ears of rats for tetradecanoylphorbol or in the paws for formaldehyde, carrageenan, and histamine. To study the antiproliferative effects of the extracts after implantation of the cotton-pellet granuloma, the team determined the wet and dry weights of the pellets, after drying at 70°C for 1 hour in the second case. To study the participation of the NO system in the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of NS, diclofenac, and L

  5. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  6. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Baravalia, Yogesh; Vaghasiya, Yogeshkumar; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers was tested using Artemia salina (Brine shrimp) bioassay. Two doses (400 and 600 mg/Kg) were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity against the carrageenan, histamine, dextran, serotonin and formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and for...

  7. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem

    OpenAIRE

    Bhesh Raj Sharma; Chul Min Park; Jong Choi; Dong Young Rhyu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular...

  8. Overexpression of the HspL Promotes Agrobacterium tumefaciens Virulence in Arabidopsis Under Heat Shock Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Liu, Yin-Tzu; Huang, Si-Chi; Tung, Chin-Yi; Huang, Fan-Chen; Tsai, Yun-Long; Cheng, Tun-Fang; Lai, Erh-Min

    2015-02-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers a specific DNA fragment from the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid and effector virulence (Vir) proteins to plant cells during infection. A. tumefaciens VirB1-11 and VirD4 proteins assemble as the type IV secretion system (T4SS), which mediates transfer of the T-DNA and effector Vir protein into plant cells, thus resulting in crown gall disease in plants. Previous studies revealed that an α-crystallin-type, small heat-shock protein (HspL) is a more effective VirB8 chaperone than three other small heat-shock proteins (HspC, HspAT1, and HspAT2). Additionally, HspL contributes to efficient T4SS-mediated DNA transfer and tumorigenesis under room-temperature growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the impact of HspL on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency under heat-shock treatment. During heat shock, transient transformation efficiency and VirB8 protein accumulation were lower in the hspL deletion mutant than in the wild type. Overexpression of HspL in A. tumefaciens enhanced the transient transformation efficiency in root explants of both susceptible and recalcitrant Arabidopsis ecotypes. In addition, the reduced transient transformation efficiency during heat stress was recovered by overexpression of HspL in A. tumefaciens. HspL may help maintain VirB8 homeostasis and elevate Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency under both heat-shock and nonheat-shock growth.

  9. Riluzole increases the amount of latent HSF1 for an amplified heat shock response and cytoprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Induction of the heat shock response (HSR and increased expression of the heat shock proteins (HSPs provide mechanisms to ensure proper protein folding, trafficking, and disposition. The importance of HSPs is underscored by the understanding that protein mis-folding and aggregation contribute centrally to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a cell-based hsp70-luciferease reporter gene assay system to identify agents that modulate the HSR and show here that clinically relevant concentrations of the FDA-approved ALS drug riluzole significantly increased the heat shock induction of hsp70-luciferse reporter gene. Immuno-Western and -cytochemical analysis of HSF1 show that riluzole increased the amount of cytosolic HSF1 to afford a greater activation of HSF1 upon heat shock. The increased HSF1 contributed centrally to the cytoprotective activity of riluzole as hsf1 gene knockout negated the synergistic activity of riluzole and conditioning heat shock to confer cell survival under oxidative stress. Evidence of a post-transcriptional mechanism for the increase in HSF1 include: quantitation of mRNA(hsf1 by RT-PCR showed no effect of either heat shock or riluzole treatment; riluzole also increased the expression of HSF1 from a CMV-promoter; analysis of the turnover of HSF1 by pulse chase and immunoprecipitation show that riluzole slowed the decay of [(35S]labeled-HSF1. The effect of riluzole on HSF1 was qualitatively different from that of MG132 and chloroquine, inhibitors of the proteasome and lysosome, respectively, and appeared to involve the chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway as RNAi-mediated knockdown of CMA negated its effect. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that riluzole increased the amount of HSF1 to amplify the HSR for cytoprotection. Our study provides novel insight into the mechanism that regulates HSF1 turnover, and identifies the degradation of HSF1 as a target for

  10. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in clinical and experimental epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Epureanu, Florin Bogdan; Radu, Mihai; Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Bertini, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors (COXIBs) and nonselective NSAIDs, were used for seizure control. The effects of NSAIDs are reviewed in animal models of both chemical (pilocarpine, kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, or carbachol administration) and electrical (tetanic hippocampal stimulation, electroshock) seizure induction. In the pilocarpine model, NSAIDs are neuroprotective, reduce mossy fiber sprouting or diminish P-glycoprotein upregulation, but only rarely protect against seizures. While neuroprotective effects have also been observed in the kainic acid model, NSAIDs tend in general to worsen seizure activity. Effects of COXIB administration in the pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures model are variable, alternating from protection against seizures to null effects or even increased incidence of convulsions. Moreover, NSAIDs tested in the tetanic hippocampal stimulation model diminished the seizure-associated P-glycoprotein upregulation, but were not very effective in seizure control. NSAIDs efficacy in experimental in vivo epilepsy studies may be influenced by multiple factors, including the timing of administration (before or after status epilepticus induction), the animal model of epilepsy or some of the signaling pathways involved in cyclooxygenase induction (e.g. prostaglandins and their receptors). On the other hand, the few clinical studies on the use of NSAIDs in neurological pathologies accompanied/characterized by seizures indicate that

  11. Pharmacoeconomics of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, H A; Campbell, M

    1993-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the relief of the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), sprains and strains, sports injuries and menstrual disorders, and have a small role in the management of patent ductus arteriosus in the neonate. In patients with RA, symptom relief through use of NSAIDs is firmly established, although it remains unclear whether they influence the course and outcome of the disease. For the average patient with RA taking NSAIDs, the attributable risk of hospitalisation with gastrointestinal problems related to NSAIDs is 1.3 to 1.6% annually and risk of death is 0.15%. Associations of therapy with risk are greatest with age, corticosteroid use and previous NSAID-related gastrointestinal adverse effects, and less marked with disability and high NSAID dose. These are important data in attempting to balance risk of therapy with clinical efficacy in an individual patient, and assessing the cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis. Although half of all NSAID consumption is for control of pain associated with degenerative conditions, their superiority over simple analgesics in osteoarthritis is poorly documented. This finding supports the use of the simple analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) as the preferred therapy of osteoarthritis, especially when its lower cost and low incidence of adverse effects are taken into consideration. Consistent differences in clinical effectiveness of individual NSAIDs have not been demonstrated, although unpredictable interpatient variation in response to individual agents is of considerable clinical importance, and a more expensive NSAID may prove cost effective for some patients. Cost effectiveness can be improved by a self-adjusted dosage regime which also leads to lower overall drug consumption. The adverse gastrointestinal effects of these drugs account for about 30% of the overall cost of arthritis treatment, and although studies to date have been too limited to

  12. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cruz Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae. Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  13. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Bolívar Balbás, Paulina; Juárez, Zaida Nelly; Sánchez Arreola, Eugenio; Hernández, Luis Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae). Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23843731

  14. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  15. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  16. Heat flux and shock shape measurements on an Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, S. L.; Mudford, N. R.; Hackett, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of heat flux and shock shapes made on a 2.08 percent scale model of the proposed Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel T3 at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. The enthalpy and Reynolds number range covered were 7.5 MJ/kg to 20 MJ/kg and 150,000 to 270,000 per meter respectively. The test Mach number varied between 7.5 and 8. Two test gases, air and nitrogen, were used and the model angle of attack varied from -10 deg to +10 deg to the free stream. The results are discussed and compared to the Mach 10 cold hypersonic air data as obtained in the Langley 31 inch Mach 10 Facility as well as the perfect gas CFD calculations of NASA LaRC.

  17. Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β1-induced over-expression of collagen type I and heat shock protein 47 in A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisatomi Keiko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro. Methods The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and E-cadherin mRNAs in A549 cells stimulated with TGF-β1 was evaluated by Northern blotting or real-time PCR. The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and fibronectin proteins was assessed by immunocytochemical staining. Results TGF-β1 stimulated collagen type I and HSP47 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells, and pirfenidone significantly inhibited this process. Pirfenidone also inhibited over-expression of the fibroblast phenotypic marker fibronectin in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone might be mediated not only through the direct inhibition of collagen type I expression but also through the inhibition of HSP47 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, which results in reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis. Furthermore, pirfenidone might partially inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  18. Synthetic peptides from heat-shock protein 65 inhibit proinflammatory cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Feng, Xuan; Fan, Dan-Dan; Zang, Wei-Jin; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Proinflammatory cytokines plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of synthetic peptides (HP-R1, HP-R2 and HP-R3), derived from the sequence of 65 kDa mycobacterial heat shock protein (HSP), on the proliferation of and cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from RA patients. 2. The PBMC were obtained from RA patients and collected by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with one of the three synthetic peptides for 4 h, after which time proliferation and cytokine production were determined. The effects of the three peptides on the proliferation of PBMC were analysed by the colorimetric cell proliferation (CCK-8) assay. Cytokine production was measured in culture supernatants using specific ELISAs. 3. None of the three peptides had any significant effect on the proliferation of PBMC from healthy controls. However, the proliferation of PBMC from RA patients was inhibited by all three peptides. The production of tumour necrosis factor-α from RA patients was significantly inhibited by all three peptides. The secretion of interferon-γ was significantly suppressed by HP-R1 and HP-R2. Unlike the other two peptides, HP-R2 increased the secretion of interleukin (IL)-4. None of the peptides had any significant effect on the production of IL-10. 4. The results of the present study suggest that the synthetic peptides derived from HSP65 exhibit antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, and support the potential use of synthetic peptides as therapeutic drugs in RA patients. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Targeting Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg Cells with an Inhibitor of Heat-Shock Protein 90: Molecular Pathways of Response and Potential Mechanisms of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Segges

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL cells overexpress heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90, an important intracellular signaling hub regulating cell survival, which is emerging as a promising therapeutic target. Here, we report the antitumor effect of celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound and a recognized HSP90 inhibitor, in Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg cell lines. Two disparate responses were recorded. In KM-H2 cells, celastrol inhibited cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 arrest, and triggered apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3/7. Conversely, L428 cells exhibited resistance to the compound. A proteomic screening identified a total of 262 differentially expressed proteins in sensitive KM-H2 cells and revealed that celastrol’s toxicity involved the suppression of the MAPK/ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. The apoptotic effects were preceded by a decrease in RAS (proto-oncogene protein Ras, p-ERK1/2 (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated Kinase-1/2, and c-Fos (proto-oncogene protein c-Fos protein levels, as validated by immunoblot analysis. The L428 resistant cells exhibited a marked induction of HSP27 mRNA and protein after celastrol treatment. Our results provide the first evidence that celastrol has antitumor effects in cHL cells through the suppression of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Resistance to celastrol has rarely been described, and our results suggest that in cHL it may be mediated by the upregulation of HSP27. The antitumor properties of celastrol against cHL and whether the disparate responses observed in vitro have clinical correlates deserve further research.

  20. Increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 in chronic dermal ulcer tissues treated with laser-aided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-da; Luo, Cheng-qun; Xie, Hui-qing; Nie, Xin-min; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Wang, Shao-hua; Xu, Yi; Pokharel, Pashupati Babu; Xu, Dan

    2008-07-20

    Chronic dermal ulcers are also referred to as refractory ulcers. This study was conducted to elucidate the therapeutic effect of laser on chronic dermal ulcers and the induced expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in wound tissues. Sixty patients with 84 chronic dermal ulcers were randomly divided into traditional therapy and laser therapy groups. Laser treatment was performed in addition to traditional therapy in the laser therapy group. The treatment efficacy was evaluated after three weeks. Five tissue sections of healing wounds were randomly collected along with five normal skin sections as controls. HSP70-positive cells from HSP70 immunohistochemical staining were counted and the gray scale of positive cells was measured for statistical analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HSF1 and HSP70. The cure rate of the wounds and the total efficacy in the laser therapy group were significantly higher than those in the traditional therapy group (P ulcers plays a facilitating role in healing due to the mechanism of laser-activated endogenous heat shock protection in cells in wound surfaces.

  1. Monitoring the Induction of Heat Shock Factor 1/Heat Shock Protein 70 Expression following 17-Allylamino-Demethoxygeldanamycin Treatment by Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Reporter Gene Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Doubrovin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell response to proteotoxic cell stresses is mediated primarily through activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1. This transcription factor plays a major role in the regulation of the heat shock proteins (HSPs, including HSP70. We demonstrate that an [124I]iodide-pQHNIG70 positron emission tomography (PET reporter system that includes an inducible HSP70 promoter can be used to image and monitor the activation of the HSF1/HSP70 transcription factor in response to drug treatment (17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin [17-AAG]. We developed a dual imaging reporter (pQHNIG70 for noninvasive imaging of the heat shock response in cell culture and living animals previously and now study HSF1/HSP70 reporter activation in both cell culture and tumor-bearing animals following exposure to 17-AAG. 17-AAG (10–1,000 nM induced reporter expression; a 23-fold increase was observed by 60 hours. Good correspondence between reporter expression and HSP70 protein levels were observed. MicroPET imaging based on [124I]iodide accumulation in pQHNIG70-transduced RG2 xenografts showed a significant 6.2-fold reporter response to 17-AAG, with a corresponding increase in tumor HSP70 and in tumor human sodium iodide symporter and green fluorescent protein reporter proteins. The HSF1 reporter system can be used to screen anticancer drugs for induction of cytotoxic stress and HSF1 activation both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bengyella

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... (http://cpri.ernet.in/varieties.html). The prevailing temperature increase during potato farming seasons is more threatening when heat-stress coincides with senescence stages of growth. Heat stress proteins (HSPs) expression and related cognates are geared to protect cells or organisms from harmful stress.

  3. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng-Wei [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Xian-Rui [Department of Surgery, Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Sheng [Laboratory of Integrated Biosciences, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Shi-Juan, E-mail: maishj@sysucc.org.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Dan, E-mail: xied@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-12-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the - 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect with high intensity focused ultrasound-mediated pulsatile delivery of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2012-02-01

    A pulsatile ultrasound controlled drug release platform with diclofenac-loaded alginate microcapsules (fabricated with a home-made electrostatic device, 75% embedded rate) was established to evaluate anti-inflammation efficiency. Better anti-inflammation efficiency was found using the ultrasound system and the drug delivery can be adjusted based on the programmed ultrasound cycle. The results of the in vitro study show that an approx. 30% higher drug release rate was obtained by using continuous ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 180 min), and an approx. 16% higher drug release rate was obtained by using pulsatile ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) compared to without ultrasound activation. For the in vivo study, the anti-inflammatory test with carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema shows that diclofenac-loaded microcapsules followed by ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) contributed to an 81% inhibition rate, which was significantly higher than diclofenac only (approx. 60% higher). In addition, because of their heat conducting properties, gold nanoparticles encapsulated in the diclofenac-loaded microcapsules resulted in better drug release efficiency, but tended to depress the anti-inflammation effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Test of a new heat-flow equation for dense-fluid shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon

    2010-09-01

    Using a recently proposed equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, we model shockwave propagation in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid. Disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the kinetic temperature in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, gives rise to a new transport (equilibration) mechanism not seen in usual one-dimensional heat-flow situations. The modification of the heat-flow equation was tested earlier for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which had been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes-Fourier solutions. Now, the Lennard-Jones fluid, whose equation of state and transport properties have been determined from independent calculations, allows us to study the case where potential, as well as kinetic contributions are important. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock wave conditions, compared to Navier-Stokes.

  6. A minimal titration model of the mammalian dynamical heat shock response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivéry, Aude; Courtade, Emmanuel; Thommen, Quentin

    2016-12-01

    Environmental stress, such as oxidative or heat stress, induces the activation of the heat shock response (HSR) and leads to an increase in the heat shock proteins (HSPs) level. These HSPs act as molecular chaperones to maintain cellular proteostasis. Controlled by highly intricate regulatory mechanisms, having stress-induced activation and feedback regulations with multiple partners, the HSR is still incompletely understood. In this context, we propose a minimal molecular model for the gene regulatory network of the HSR that reproduces quantitatively different heat shock experiments both on heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSPs activities. This model, which is based on chemical kinetics laws, is kept with a low dimensionality without altering the biological interpretation of the model dynamics. This simplistic model highlights the titration of HSF1 by chaperones as the guiding line of the network. Moreover, by a steady states analysis of the network, three different temperature stress regimes appear: normal, acute, and chronic, where normal stress corresponds to pseudo thermal adaption. The protein triage that governs the fate of damaged proteins or the different stress regimes are consequences of the titration mechanism. The simplicity of the present model is of interest in order to study detailed modelling of cross regulation between the HSR and other major genetic networks like the cell cycle or the circadian clock.

  7. Test of a new heat-flow equation for dense-fluid shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon

    2010-09-21

    Using a recently proposed equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, we model shockwave propagation in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid. Disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the kinetic temperature in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, gives rise to a new transport (equilibration) mechanism not seen in usual one-dimensional heat-flow situations. The modification of the heat-flow equation was tested earlier for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which had been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes-Fourier solutions. Now, the Lennard-Jones fluid, whose equation of state and transport properties have been determined from independent calculations, allows us to study the case where potential, as well as kinetic contributions are important. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock wave conditions, compared to Navier-Stokes.

  8. Asymmetric shock heating and the terrestrial magma ocean origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    One of the difficulties of the current giant impact model for the origin of the Moon is to explain the marked similarity in the isotopic compositions and the substantial differences in the major element chemistry. Physics of shock heating is analyzed to show that the degree of heating is asymmetric between the impactor and the target, if the target (the proto-Earth) had a magma-ocean but the impactor did not. The magma ocean is heated much more than the solid impactor and the vapor-rich jets come mainly from the magma-ocean from which the Moon might have been formed. In this scenario, the similarity and differences in the composition between the Moon and Earth would be explained as a natural consequence of a collision in the later stage of planetary formation. Including the asymmetry in shock heating is the first step toward explaining the chemical composition of the Moon.

  9. Numerical Study of Erosion, Heating, and Acceleration of the Magnetic Cloud as Impacted by Fast Shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Shoudi; He, Jiansen; Yang, Liping; Wang, Linghua [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University No. 5 Yiheyuan Road, Haidian District Beijing, 100871 (China); Zhang, Lei, E-mail: jshept@gmail.com [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences No.1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian district Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2017-06-20

    The impact of an overtaking fast shock on a magnetic cloud (MC) is a pivotal process in CME–CME (CME: coronal mass ejection) interactions and CME–SIR (SIR: stream interaction region) interactions. MC with a strong and rotating magnetic field is usually deemed a crucial part of CMEs. To study the impact of a fast shock on an MC, we perform a 2.5 dimensional numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation. Two cases are run in this study: without and with impact by fast shock. In the former case, the MC expands gradually from its initial state and drives a relatively slow magnetic reconnection with the ambient magnetic field. Analyses of forces near the core of the MC as a whole body indicates that the solar gravity is quite small compared to the Lorentz force and the pressure gradient force. In the second run, a fast shock propagates, relative to the background plasma, at a speed twice that of the perpendicular fast magnetosonic speed, catches up with and takes over the MC. Due to the penetration of the fast shock, the MC is highly compressed and heated, with the temperature growth rate enhanced by a factor of about 10 and the velocity increased to about half of the shock speed. The magnetic reconnection with ambient magnetic field is also sped up by a factor of two to four in reconnection rate as a result of the enhanced density of the current sheet, which is squeezed by the forward motion of the shocked MC.

  10. Heat-shock-protein-27(HSP27) expression in ovarian carcinoma : Relation in response to chemotherapy and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, HJG; Hollema, H; Lemstra, W; Willemse, PHB; De Vries, EGE; Kampinga, HH; Van der Zee, AGJ

    1999-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 27 (hsp27) is one of the small heat-shock proteins. Its expression in ovarian- and breast-cancer cell lines has been associated with resistance to cisplatin and doxorubicin. In addition, hsp27 expression appears to facilitate cellular growth, differentiation and motility. In

  11. HEAT SHOCK FACTOR 1-MEDIATED THERMOTOLERANCE PREVENTS CELL DEATH AND RESULTS IN G2/M CELL CYCLE ARREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammalian cells respond to stress by activating heat shock transcription factors (e.g., HSF1) that regulate increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs mediate protection from deleterious effects of stress by preventing permanent disruption of normal cellular mitosis...

  12. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...... a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 70 kDa and an isoelectric pH of 7.0 as early as 3 h after the initial hyperthermal treatment....

  13. Activation of endothelial pro-resolving anti-inflammatory pathways by circulating microvesicles from non-muscular myosin light chain kinase-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderahim Gaceb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles, small membrane vesicles released from cells, have beneficial and/or deleterious effects in sepsis. We previously reported that non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK deletion protects mice against endotoxic shock by reducing inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of nmMLCK deletion on microvesicles phenotypes and their effects on mouse aortic endothelial cells in association with vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction during endotoxic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in levels of circulating microvesicles in wild type but not in nmMLCK-deficient mice. Microvesicles from nmMLCK-deficient mice (MVsnmMLCK-/- prevented the inflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide with concomitant increase of anti- inflammatory and reduction of pro-inflammatory secretome in mouse aortic endothelial cells. In addition, MVsnmMLCK-/- reduced the efficacy of lipopolysaccharide to increase aortic oxidative and nitrosative stresses as well as macrophage infiltration in the aorta. Moreover, MVsnmMLCK-/- prevented ex vivo endothelial dysfunction, vascular hyporeactivity and in vivo overproduction of nitric oxide in heart and liver in response to lipopolysaccharide. Altogether, these findings provide evidence that nmMLCK deletion generates circulating microvesicles displaying protective effects by activating endothelial pro-resolving anti-inflammatory pathways allowing the effective down-regulation of oxidative and nitrative stresses associated with endotoxic shock. Thus, nmMLCK plays a pivotal role in susceptibility to sepsis via the control of cellular activation and release of circulating microvesicles.

  14. Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides from the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Phosri, Santi; Theansungnoen, Tinnakorn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Mckendrick, John E; Khunkitti, Watcharee; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2017-11-22

    Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides were isolated from hydrolysates of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin. C. siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysates (CHHs) were obtained by pepsin digestion at different incubation times (2, 4, 6, and 8 H) at 37 °C and subjected to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity assessment. CHH obtained by 2-H hydrolysis (2H-CHH) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity with respect to decreasing nitric oxide (NO) production, whereas the strongest antioxidant activity was found for 6-H hydrolysis (6H-CHH) against nitric oxide radicals. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of individual peptide components, 2H-CHH and 6H-CHH were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Peptide fraction P57 isolated from 6H-CHH was found to exhibit the highest nitric oxide radical inhibition activity (32.0%). Moreover, purification of 2H-CHH yielded peptide fraction P16, which displayed a high efficacy in decreasing NO production of macrophage RAW 264.7 cells (83.2%) and significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE 2 ) production to about 2.0, 0.3, and 1.9 ng/mL, respectively. Using LTQ orbitrap XL mass spectrometry, active peptide sequences were identified as antioxidant KIYFPHF (KF7), anti-inflammatory SAFNPHEKQ (SQ9), and IIHNEKVQAHGKKVL (IL15). Additionally, CHHs simulated gastric and intestinal in vitro digestion positively contributed to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Taken collectively, the results of this work demonstrate that CHHs contain several peptides with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may prove valuable as treatment or supplement against diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Retaspimycin hydrochloride (IPI-504): a novel heat shock protein inhibitor as an anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Britt Erika; Vesole, David H

    2009-09-01

    Heat shock proteins are vital to cell survival under conditions of stress. They bind client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Heat shock protein inhibitors are a diverse group of novel agents that have been demonstrated to have pro-apoptotic effects on malignant cells through inhibition of ATP binding on the ATP/ADP-binding pocket of the heat shock protein. Initial development of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and 17-AAG, were limited by hepatotoxicity and the need for solvent carrying agents. In contrast, retaspimycin, or IPI-504, a derivative of geldanamycin and 17-AAG, is highly soluble in water and generally well tolerated. In Phase I/II trials, retaspimycin has shown activity in NSCLC and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The most promising activity was observed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Phase I/II trials are currently underway to evaluate the dosing schedules and activity of IPI-504 in breast cancer. Given the in vitro activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, melanoma, leukemia and pancreatic cancer, current and future trials are of clinical interest. This article reviews IPI-504 and its utility in a wide variety of cancer phenotypes.

  16. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes...

  17. Dietary heme adversely affects experimental colitis in rats, despite heat-shock protein induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepens, Marloes A. A.; Vink, Carolien; Schonewille, Arjan J.; Dijkstra, Gerard; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M. J.

    Objective: Research on dietary modulation of inflammatory bowel disease is in its infancy. Dietary heme, mimicking red meat, is cytotoxic to colonic epithelium and thus may aggravate colitis. Alternatively, heme-induced colonic stress might also result in potential protective heat-shock proteins

  18. Members of the heat-shock protein 70 family promote cancer cell growth by distinct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Mikkel; Daugaard, Mads; Jensen, Mette Hartvig

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the stress-inducible heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has gained plenty of attention as a putative target for tumor therapy, little is known about the role of other Hsp70 proteins in cancer. Here we present the first thorough analysis of the expression and function of the cytosolic Hsp70 pro...

  19. Heat shock and salicylic acid on postharvest preservation of organic strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock and salicylic acid have been studied on shelf-life extension of fruits. The benefits of these techniques have been related to their effect on inducing physiological defense responses against the oxidative stress and pathogen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat shock and salicylic acid on the postharvest preservation and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, fresh weight loss and microbiological quality of organic strawberries cv. Dover. Strawberries produced organically and stored at 5 ºC were subjected to heat shock (45 ºC ± 3 ºC for 3 h, application of salicylic acid (soaking in 2.0 mmol L-1 solution, heat shock in combination with salicylic acid and control. After treatment, the fruits were packed and stored in a climatic chamber at 5 ºC ± 2 ºC. At 1, 7 and 14 days, the experimental units were removed from refrigeration and kept at room temperature of approximately 20 ºC for two days. There was no effect of treatments on fresh weight loss, incidence of pathogens or chemical variations in strawberry fruits during the storage period. In natural conditions, organically grown strawberries remained in good condition for sale up to seven days of storage in all treatments.

  20. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  1. Urinary heat shock protein 72 as a biomarker of acute kidney injury in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Avital, Yochai; Horowitz, Michal; Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Aroch, Itamar; Segev, Gilad

    2017-07-01

    Early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) is important, as therapy is potentially more efficacious if instituted early in the course of disease. Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio (uHSP72/uCr) was assessed as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in AKI in dogs. Fifty-three dogs were enrolled in five groups: healthy controls (n=11), urinary tract infection (n=10), chronic kidney disease (CKD; n=11), AKI (n=13), and acute decompensating CKD (n=8). Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio was highest in the AKI group (P0.05 compared to each of the other two groups). The area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis of uHSP72/uCr to predict AKI, compared to the control group, was 0.97. A cutoff value of 0.20ng/mg corresponded to sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 82%, respectively. Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio was significantly lower in dogs categorized as survivors vs. non-survivors of AKI; ROC AUC, 0.91 (95% confidence intervals, 0.74-1.0). Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio is a potentially useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of AKI in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of heat shock response protects the heart against atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.; Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Qi, XiaoYan; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Chartier, Denis; van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Henning, Robert H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Nattel, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that heat shock proteins (HSPs) may protect against clinical atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated the effect of HSP induction in an in vitro atrial cell line (HL-1) model of tachycardia remodeling and in tachypaced isolated canine atrial cardiomyocytes. We also

  3. Heat shock protein expression in the eye and in uveal melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Guy S.; Journée-de Korver, Johanna G.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, Didi; Keunen, Jan E.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Jager, Martine J.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is of prognostic significance in several tumor types, whereas HSPs may also have clinical use as stimulators in tumor vaccination. HSP expression levels were determined in normal eyes and in uveal melanoma and tested whether HSPs expression was

  4. Intracellular localization of Xenopus small heat shock protein, hsp30, in A6 kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellalchew, Mekonnen; Heikkila, John J

    2005-03-01

    Small heat shock proteins (shsps) are molecular chaperones that are inducible by environmental stress. In this study, immunocytochemical analysis and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that the shsp family, hsp30, was localized primarily in the cytoplasm of Xenopus A6 kidney epithelial cells after heat shock or sodium arsenite treatment. Heat shock-induced hsp30 was enriched in the perinuclear region with some immunostaining in the nucleus but not in the nucleolus. In sodium arsenite-treated cells hsp30 was enriched towards the cytoplasmic periphery as well as showing some immunostaining in the nucleus. At higher heat shock temperatures (35 degrees C) or after 10 microM sodium arsenite treatment, the actin cytoskeleton displayed some disorganization that co-localized with areas of hsp30 enrichment. Treatment of A6 cells with 50 microM sodium arsenite induced a collapse of the cytoskeleton around the nucleus. These results coupled with previous studies suggest that stress-inducible hsp30 acts as a molecular chaperone primarily in the cytoplasm and may interact with cytoskeletal proteins.

  5. Expressed sequence tags from heat-shocked seagrass Zostera noltii (Hornemann) from its southern distribution range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massa, Sonia I.; Pearson, Gareth A.; Aires, Tania; Kube, Michael; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Reinhardt, Richard; Serrao, Ester A.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    Predicted global climate change threatens the distributional ranges of species worldwide. We identified genes expressed in the intertidal seagrass Zostera midi during recovery from a simulated low tide heat-shock exposure. Five Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) libraries were compared, corresponding to

  6. Induced Levels of Heat Shock Proteins in dnaK mutants of Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Birgit; Hammer, Karin; Vogensen, Finn K.

    1998-01-01

    of the inferred substrate binding site of the DnaK protein, exhibits a pronounced temperature sensitive phenotype and shows altered regulation of the heat shock response. The expression of the heat shock proteins are increased at the normal growth temperature measured both as protein synthesis rates and m......The bacterial heat shock response is characterized by the elevated expression of a number of chaperone complexes and proteases including the DnaK-GrpE-DnaJ and the GroELS chaperone complexes. In order to investigate the importance of the DnaK chaperone complex for the growth and the heat shock...... regulation in Lactococcus lactis we have constructed two dnaK mutants with C-terminal deletions in dnaK. The minor deletion of 65 amino acids in the dnaK2 mutant, results in a slightly temperature sensitive phenotype. BK6 containing the larger deletion of 174 amino acids (dnaK1) removing the major part...

  7. [The influence of heat shock proteins on hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostás, Andrea; Sabry, Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhamay

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury as a result of inflow obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with liver pathologies and surgery. Heat shock proteins, a family of stress-inducible proteins involved in maintaining cell homeostasis and regulating the immune system play a major role in liver regeneration. They serve as crucial indicators of ischemia-reperfusion injury in human liver and influence liver function and recovery. The primary objectives of this article are to review the potential role of heat shock proteins as a diagnostic marker for liver diseases and therapeutic target in critical illness. The review will start by focusing on the essentials of heat shock proteins as an endogenous system as it relates to hepatic injury. It will elucidate the influence of heat shock protein-70 on hepatic diseases and ischemia-reperfusion. It will then look at their potential diagnostic role and finally highlights its activities as a possible therapeutic tool. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(42), 1659-1666.

  8. Interference heating from interactions of shock waves with turbulent boundary layers at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. B.; Kaufman, L. G., II

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of interference heating resulting from interactions of shock waves and turbulent boundary layers was conducted. Pressure and heat-transfer distributions were measured on a flat plate in the free stream and on the wall of the test section of the Langley Mach 6 high Reynolds number tunnel for Reynolds numbers ranging from 2 million to 400 million. Various incident shock strengths were obtained by varying a wedge-shock generator angle (from 10 deg to 15 deg) and by placing a spherical-shock generator at different vertical positions above the instrumented flat plate and tunnel wall. The largest heating-rate amplification factors obtained for completely turbulent boundary layers were 22.1 for the flat plate and 11.6 for the tunnel wall experiments. Maximum heating correlated with peak pressures using a power law with a 0.85 exponent. Measured pressure distributions were compared with those calculated using turbulent free-interaction pressure rise theories, and separation lengths were compared with values calculated by using different methods.

  9. Whistler waves, core ion heating, and nonstationarity in oblique collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, Manfred; Burgess, David

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional full particle simulations of supercritical collisionless shocks with an ion and electron beta of 0.1 (particle to magnetic field pressure) over a wide Alfven Mach number range and range of shock normal-magnetic field angles between Θ Bn =60 deg. and Θ Bn =80 deg. are presented. The whistler critical Mach number M w , below which a linear phase-standing whistler can exist, is proportional to the square root of the ion-to-electron mass ratio and to cos Θ Bn . In small mass ratio simulations of oblique shocks, M w can be artificially small and close to the first critical Mach number M c , above which the process of ion reflection is needed in order to achieve shock dissipation. We use in the simulations the physical ion-to-electron mass ratio so that M c and M w are well separated. This also allows excitation of the modified two-stream instability (MTSI) between incoming ions and electrons. We find that in oblique but close to perpendicular (Θ Bn ≥80 deg.) shocks, upstream whistler waves do occur, but reformation is due to accumulation of reflected-gyrating ions at the upstream edge of the foot. In less oblique shocks above the whistler critical Mach number, the whistler amplitude in the foot upstream of the ramp grows, leading to vortices of the incoming ions and the reflected ions in velocity phase space, and eventually to phase mixing. The shock re-forms at the upstream edge of the whistler wave train, which is particularly evident in very high Mach number shocks where the scale of the foot is large compared with the whistler wave train. After reformation, the region with phase-mixed incoming and reflected ions constitutes a hot core downstream of the shock ramp. In this whistler induced reformation process, the MTSI results mainly in heating of the incoming ions in the foot

  10. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  11. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  12. Heat shock and prolonged heat stress attenuate neurotoxin and sporulation gene expression in group I Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Katja; Mascher, Gerald; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria are exposed to a number of environmental stresses during food processing, storage, and preparation, and in the human body. In order to improve the safety of food, the understanding of molecular stress response mechanisms foodborne pathogens employ is essential. Many response mechanisms that are activated during heat shock may cross-protect bacteria against other environmental stresses. To better understand the molecular mechanisms Clostridium botulinum, the causative agent of botulism, utilizes during acute heat stress and during adaptation to stressfully high temperature, the C. botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502 was grown in continuous culture at 39°C and exposed to heat shock at 45°C, followed by prolonged heat stress at 45°C to allow adaptation of the culture to the high temperature. Growth in continuous culture was performed to exclude secondary growth phase effects or other environmental impacts on bacterial gene transcription. Changes in global gene expression profiles were studied using DNA microarray hybridization. During acute heat stress, Class I and III heat shock genes as well as members of the SOS regulon were activated. The neurotoxin gene botA and genes encoding the neurotoxin-associated proteins were suppressed throughout the study. Prolonged heat stress led to suppression of the sporulation machinery whereas genes related to chemotaxis and motility were activated. Induced expression of a large proportion of prophage genes was detected, suggesting an important role of acquired genes in the stress resistance of C. botulinum. Finally, changes in the expression of a large number of genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism indicated remodeling of the cellular metabolism.

  13. Heat shock modulates the subcellular localization, stability, and activity of HIPK2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam, E-mail: sganesh@iitk.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase and is involved in transcriptional regulation. HIPK2 is a highly unstable protein, and is kept at a low level under normal physiological conditions. However, exposure of cells to physiological stress – such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, or UV damage – is known to stabilize HIPK2, leading to the HIPK2-dependent activation of p53 and the cell death pathway. Therefore HIPK2 is also known as a stress kinase and as a stress-activated pro-apoptotic factor. We demonstrate here that exposure of cells to heat shock results in the stabilization of HIPK2 and the stabilization is mediated via K63-linked ubiquitination. Intriguingly, a sub-lethal heat shock (42 °C, 1 h) results in the cytoplasmic localization of HIPK2, while a lethal heat shock (45 °C, 1 h) results in its nuclear localization. Cells exposed to the lethal heat shock showed significantly higher levels of the p53 activity than those exposed to the sub-lethal thermal stress, suggesting that both the level and the nuclear localization are essential for the pro-apoptotic activity of HIPK2 and that the lethal heat shock could retain the HIPK2 in the nucleus to promote the cell death. Taken together our study underscores the importance of HIPK2 in stress mediated cell death, and that the HIPK2 is a generic stress kinase that gets activated by diverse set of physiological stressors.

  14. Heat shock modulates the subcellular localization, stability, and activity of HIPK2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase and is involved in transcriptional regulation. HIPK2 is a highly unstable protein, and is kept at a low level under normal physiological conditions. However, exposure of cells to physiological stress – such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, or UV damage – is known to stabilize HIPK2, leading to the HIPK2-dependent activation of p53 and the cell death pathway. Therefore HIPK2 is also known as a stress kinase and as a stress-activated pro-apoptotic factor. We demonstrate here that exposure of cells to heat shock results in the stabilization of HIPK2 and the stabilization is mediated via K63-linked ubiquitination. Intriguingly, a sub-lethal heat shock (42 °C, 1 h) results in the cytoplasmic localization of HIPK2, while a lethal heat shock (45 °C, 1 h) results in its nuclear localization. Cells exposed to the lethal heat shock showed significantly higher levels of the p53 activity than those exposed to the sub-lethal thermal stress, suggesting that both the level and the nuclear localization are essential for the pro-apoptotic activity of HIPK2 and that the lethal heat shock could retain the HIPK2 in the nucleus to promote the cell death. Taken together our study underscores the importance of HIPK2 in stress mediated cell death, and that the HIPK2 is a generic stress kinase that gets activated by diverse set of physiological stressors.

  15. Putative cis-regulatory elements associated with heat shock genes activated during excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is a ubiquitous infectious disease, caused by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum, leading to acute, persistent and chronic diarrhea worldwide. Although the complications of this disease can be serious, even fatal, in immunocompromised patients of any age, they have also been found to lead to long term effects, including growth inhibition and impaired cognitive development, in infected immunocompetent children. The Cryptosporidium life cycle alternates between a dormant stage, the oocyst, and a highly replicative phase that includes both asexual vegetative stages as well as sexual stages, implying fine genetic regulatory mechanisms. The parasite is extremely difficult to study because it cannot be cultured in vitro and animal models are equally challenging. The recent publication of the genome sequence of C. hominis and C. parvum has, however, significantly advanced our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of this parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, our goal was to identify cis-regulatory elements associated with heat shock response in Cryptosporidium using a combination of in silico and real time RT-PCR strategies. Analysis with Gibbs-Sampling algorithms of upstream non-translated regions of twelve genes annotated as heat shock proteins in the Cryptosporidium genome identified a highly conserved over-represented sequence motif in eleven of them. RT-PCR analyses, described herein and also by others, show that these eleven genes bearing the putative element are induced concurrent with excystation of parasite oocysts via heat shock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses suggest that occurrences of a motif identified in the upstream regions of the Cryptosporidium heat shock genes represent parts of the transcriptional apparatus and function as stress response elements that activate expression of these genes during excystation, and possibly at other stages in the life

  16. Review of anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and wound healing properties of molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarek B; Liu, Lei; Kotiw, Michael; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2018-01-10

    This review focuses on traditional and contemporary anti-inflammatory uses of mollusc-derived products summarising all the in vitro, in vivo and human clinical trials that have tested the anti-inflammatory activity of molluscan natural products. Inflammatory conditions, burns and wounds have been an ongoing concern for human health since the early era of civilisation. Many texts from ancient medicine have recorded the symptoms, signs and treatments for these conditions. Natural treatments are well-documented in traditional European medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Siddha and ancient Mediterranean and African traditional medicine and include a surprisingly large number of molluscan species. An extensive review of the Materia Medica and scientific literature was undertaken using key word searches for "mollusc" and "anti-inflammatory" or "immunomodulatory" or "wound healing". Molluscs have been used in ethnomedicine by many traditional cultures to treat different aspects of inflammatory conditions. We found 104 different anti-inflammatory preparations from a variety of molluscan species, of which 70 were from the well-documented Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This traditional use of molluscs has driven the testing for inflammatory activity in extracts from some species in the phylum Mollusca, with 20 in vitro studies, 40 in vivo animal studies and 14 human clinical trials performed to substantiate the anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of molluscs. Some of these studies have led to the approval of mollusc-derived products to be used as over-the-counter (OTC) nutraceuticals, like Lyprinol® and Biolane™ from the New Zealand green lipped mussel Perna canaliculus. Natural products provide important leads for the development of pharmaceuticals, including anti-inflammatory agents. Only a small proportion of the molluscan traditional medicines have been tested to confirm their anti-inflammatory activity and most screening studies have tested

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Amorim

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o. and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and fractions of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, B; Díaz, E; García, M V; Feliciano, A San; López-Perez, J L; Israel, A

    2004-05-01

    Seeking for new medicinal compounds in plants used in traditional medicine, which grow in Venezuela, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf hexane extract (HE) and several fractions obtained from sp. Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Indio desnudo) using carrageenan-induced paw edema inflammation. Oral administration of leaf HE as well I (91-100) fraction, and compounds VIII 25-26 and VIII 29, inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema with different capacity and time course, over a period of 7h. The anti-inflammatory effect was comparable to that of the reference drug phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg, p.o.). Included in fraction I (91-100), Vitamin E was identified as one of its components and compound VIII 29 was identified as a methyl-beta-peltatin A. The comparison of the anti-inflammatory activity of VIII 29 fraction with the corresponding standard of methyl-beta-peltatin A, suggest that this compound could be one of the active principles involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. leave. Our results contribute to the pharmacological support of the use of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. as anti-inflammatory in the ethnomedicinal practice. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Agrimonia eupatoria L. Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo N. Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Ae is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and oxidative related diseases. Therefore, this study focuses on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Ae infusion (AeI. Phenolic compounds characterization was achieved by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn. To evaluate antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and SNAP assays were used. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of AeI was investigated in LPS-stimulated macrophages by measuring the NO production. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was validated using the mouse carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Peripheral and central analgesic potential was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, respectively, as well as the formalin assay to assess both activities. The safety profile was disclosed in vitro and in vivo, using MTT and hematoxylin assays, respectively. Vitexin, quercetin O-galloyl-hexoside, and kaempferol O-acetyl-hexosyl-rhamnoside were referred to in this species for the first time. AeI and mainly AePF (Ae polyphenolic fraction showed a significant antiradical activity against all tested radicals. Both AeI and AePF decreased NO levels in vitro, AePF being more active than AeI. In vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were verified for both samples at concentrations devoid of toxicity. Agrimony infusion and, mainly, AePF are potential sources of antiradical and anti-inflammatory polyphenols.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and anti- allergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Bromeliaceae) fruit extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the family Bromeliaceae are characterized by the production of proteases in unusual amounts, especially in fruits. Bromelain, an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus L., and a few other proteases have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, but bromelain is still mainly being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to the treatment with glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract from Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms fruits (PPE(Pm)) is presented, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases. The effect of PPE(Pm) was assessed in carrageenan-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw edema, as well as in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of PPE(Pm) and bromelain produced significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses in the acute inflammatory models assayed, supporting the hypothesis that proteolytic activity could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. On the contrary, comparable anti-inflammatory effects of PPE(Pm) and bromelain in the chronic inflammatory assay required a much lower proteolytic activity content of PPE(Pm), which could be due to a differential affinity for the protein target involved in this process.

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd. (V. anthelmintica. Method: Hot plate method in mice, acetic acid induced writhing response in mice, tail immersion test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats method were used for screening analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruit of V. anthelmintica (family: Asteraceae. Results: The result of the study showed that the ethanolic extract of V. anthelmintica (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. fruits possed peripheral and central analgesic activity in animal model. The V. anthelmintica fruits extract showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity models in rats. Conclusions: On the basis of result it can be concluded that saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids are the major constituents that are present in the fruits of V. anthelmintica which may be responsible for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Release in Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt were analyzed with respect to the susceptibility and the inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of severe envenomation. BALB/c female mice injected intraperitoneally presented sensibility to Cdt, with changes in specific signs, blood biochemical and inflammatory mediators. The venom induced reduction of glucose and urea levels and an increment of creatinine levels in serum from mice. Significant differences were observed in the time-course of mediator levels in sera from mice injected with Cdt. The maximum levels of IL-6, NO, IL-5, TNF, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-injection, respectively. No difference was observed for levels of IFN-γ. Taken together, these data indicate that the envenomation by Cdt is regulated both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses at time-dependent manner. In serum from mice injected with Cdt at the two first hours revealed of pro-inflammatory dominance. However, with an increment of time an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines was observed and the balance toward to anti-inflammatory dominance. In conclusion, the observation that Cdt affects the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines provides further evidence for the role played by Cdt in modulating pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance.

  5. LED enhances anti-inflammatory effect ofluteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengnuo; Habib, Ahsan; Liu, Jun; Tan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a complex pathological process usually results from abnormal microglial activation, thus, intervention in a microglial stimulation pathway could be a promising approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Luteolin is an important bioflavonoid possesses anti-inflammatory properties, which is widely studied over these years. Light emitting diode (LED) therapy is reported to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of LED therapy on activated microglial cells, even less is known whether there is a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect exist in LED and luteolin therapy. In this study, we aimed to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin and LED combination therapy in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. We showed that luteolin inhibited LPS-induced cytotoxicity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production through modulation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in BV2 cells. In addition, LED therapy enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin. These results suggest that a synergistic effect between luteolin and LED could be a new effective therapy in relieving neuroinflammation.

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Extracts from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walquist, Mari Johannessen; Stormo, Svein Kristian; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Østerud, Bjarne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-PUFA) is commonly recognized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). In previous studies, cold-pressed whale oil (CWO) and cod liver oil (CLO) were given as a dietary supplement to healthy volunteers. Even though CWO contains less than half the amount of LC-n3-PUFA of CLO, CWO supplement resulted in beneficial effects on anti-inflammatory and CVD risk markers compared to CLO. In the present study, we prepared virtually lipid-free extracts from CWO and CLO and evaluated the antioxidative capacity (AOC) and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to test the AOC, and the results indicated high levels of antioxidants present in all extracts. The anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were tested with lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated THP-1 cells, measuring its ability to reduce cytokine and chemokine secretion. Several CWO extracts displayed anti-inflammatory activity, and a butyl alcohol extract of CWO most effectively reduced TNF- α (50%, p < 0.05) and MCP-1 (85%, p < 0.001) secretion. This extract maintained a stable effect of reducing MCP-1 secretion (60%, p < 0.05) even after long-term storage. In conclusion, CWO has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may act in addition to its well-known LC-n3-PUFA effects.

  7. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Extracts from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata Blubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Johannessen Walquist

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-PUFA is commonly recognized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD. In previous studies, cold-pressed whale oil (CWO and cod liver oil (CLO were given as a dietary supplement to healthy volunteers. Even though CWO contains less than half the amount of LC-n3-PUFA of CLO, CWO supplement resulted in beneficial effects on anti-inflammatory and CVD risk markers compared to CLO. In the present study, we prepared virtually lipid-free extracts from CWO and CLO and evaluated the antioxidative capacity (AOC and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays were used to test the AOC, and the results indicated high levels of antioxidants present in all extracts. The anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were tested with lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated THP-1 cells, measuring its ability to reduce cytokine and chemokine secretion. Several CWO extracts displayed anti-inflammatory activity, and a butyl alcohol extract of CWO most effectively reduced TNF-α (50%, p<0.05 and MCP-1 (85%, p<0.001 secretion. This extract maintained a stable effect of reducing MCP-1 secretion (60%, p<0.05 even after long-term storage. In conclusion, CWO has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may act in addition to its well-known LC-n3-PUFA effects.

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Libyan medicinal plants in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballota pseudodictamnus (L. Benth. (Lamiaceae, Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Lamiaceae and Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae are three well-known medicinal plants from the Libyan flora, which have long been used for the treatment of inflammations. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory property of the methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of these plants. Shade-dried and ground aerial parts of B. pseudodictamnus, S. fruticosa and T. garganica were Soxhlet-extracted with MeOH. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure at 40°C. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The administration of the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced statistically significant inhibition (p < 0.05 of edema within 3 h of carrageenan administration. The results demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties of the test extracts. Among the extracts, the S. fruticosa extract exhibited the most significant inhibition of inflammation after 3 h (62.1%. Thus, S. fruticosa could be a potential source for the discovery and development of newer anti-inflammatory ‘leads’ for drug development. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. pseudodictamnus and S. fruticosa could be assumed to be related to high levels of phenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, present in these plants.

  9. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil (Olea europeae L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2012-03-01

    Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.

  10. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; do Carmo, Lucas Fernandes; do Nascimento, Sara Batista; de Matos, Natália Alves; de Carvalho Veloso, Clarice; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; De Vos, Ric C H; Klein, André; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; do Nascimento, Thalita Vieira; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Soares, Adriana Cristina

    2016-10-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey indicates that the genus Byrsonima has some medicinal species that are commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado and has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for gastroduodenal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity along with qualitative chemical characterization of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia (BvME) obtained by exhaustive percolation. The data from the chemical analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry led to tentative identification of 42 compounds belonging to proanthocyanidins, galloyl quinic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and triterpene glycoside derivatives. BvME contain flavonoids and show an antioxidative activity. The methanolic extract administered intraperitoneally at doses of 50, 100, or 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in paw edema and modulated the neutrophil influx in a mouse model. Furthermore, the anti-edematogenic activity of the extract provided in smaller doses (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) was also demonstrated in a mouse paw edema model. The extract inhibited NO production by macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide. We presume that the anti-inflammatory effects of BvME are due to a combination of compounds present in B. verbascifolia, including catechins (procyanidins), flavonoids, and triterpene glycosides and that these anti-inflammatory actions should be mediated, at least partly, through the inhibition of NO production. This study supports and validates the ethnopharmacological uses of B. verbascifolia as an anti-inflammatory.

  11. Effect of Temperature Shock and Inventory Surprises on Natural Gas and Heating Oil Futures Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station. PMID:25133233

  12. Expression of the small heat shock protein gene, hsp30, in Rana catesbeiana fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan-Tuttle, Anne; Heikkila, John J

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the expression of the Rana catesbeiana small heat shock protein gene, hsp30, in an FT fibroblast cell line. Northern and western blot analyses revealed that hsp30 mRNA or HSP30 protein was not present constitutively but was strongly induced at a heat shock temperature of 35 degrees C. However, treatment of FT cells with sodium arsenite at concentrations that induced hsp gene expression in other amphibian systems caused cell death. Non-lethal concentrations of sodium arsenite (10 microM) induced only minimal accumulation of hsp30 mRNA or protein after 12 h. Immunocytochemical analyses employing laser scanning confocal microscopy detected the presence of heat-inducible HSP30, in a granular or punctate pattern. HSP30 was enriched in the nucleus with more diffuse localization in the cytoplasm. The nuclear localization of HSP30 was more prominent with continuous heat shock. These heat treatments did not alter FT cell shape or disrupt actin cytoskeletal organization. Also, HSP30 did not co-localize with the actin cytoskeleton.

  13. Effect of temperature shock and inventory surprises on natural gas and heating oil futures returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Hu, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station.

  14. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Barr, Eva; Held, Ulrike; Grooten, Wilhelmus Ja; Roelofs, Pepijn Ddm; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Wertli, Maria M

    2016-10-15

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for the treatment of sciatica. A previous Cochrane review on the efficacy of NSAIDs summarised findings for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. This is an update of the original review (2008) focusing on people suffering from sciatica. To determine the efficacy of NSAIDs in pain reduction, overall improvement, and reported side effects in people with sciatica. We performed electronic searches up to 24 June 2015 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and two trials registers. We searched reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews on the topics for additional trials. We included randomised controlled trials (double-blind, single-blind, and open-label) that assessed the efficacy of NSAIDs in sciatica. We included all trials that compared NSAIDs to placebo, to other NSAIDs, or to other medication. Additional interventions were allowed if there was a clear contrast for the treatment with NSAIDs in the trial. Three review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Where feasible we calculated pooled results using Review Manager 5.3. We reported pain relief outcomes using mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We used risk ratios (RR) with 95% CI to report global improvement of treatment, adverse effects, and additional medication. We performed a meta-analysis if possible. We assessed level of evidence using the GRADE approach. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 10 trials reported in 9 publications (N = 1651). Only one trial out of 10 was assessed at low risk of bias. Five trials used the currently recommended daily dose for the drug, and two trials used lower daily doses available over the counter. Three trials investigated NSAIDs no longer approved for human use. The follow-up duration

  15. Simple Synthesis of Modafinil Derivatives and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankil Jung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple synthesis of modafinil derivatives and their biological activity are described. The key synthetic strategies involve substitution and coupling reactions. We determined the anti-inflammatory effects of modafinil derivatives in cultured BV2 cells by measuring the inhibition of nitrite production and expression of iNOS and COX-2 after LPS stimulation. It was found that for sulfide analogues introduction of aliphatic groups on the amide part (compounds 11ad resulted in lower anti-inflammatory activity compared with cyclic or aromatic moieties (compounds 11ek. However, for the sulfoxide analogues, introduction of aliphatic moieties (compounds 12ad showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than cyclic or aromatic fragments (compounds 12ek in BV-2 microglia cells.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extacts of Gendarussa vulgaris Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T K Mohamed; Azeem, A K; Dilip, C; Sankar, C; Prasanth, N V; Duraisami, R

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf exacts of Gendarussa vulgaris (G. vulgaris) Nees. G. vulgaris Nees of the family Apocynaceae is a medium sized tree grown in semishade or no shade and is common in the Ernad and Nilambur taluks of Kerala.Various parts of this plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, sores, inflammation, dyspepsia, healing of wounds, etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilisation (HRBC) method and in vivo method was estimated on the carrageenan induced paw oedima. Both the methods showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The alcoholic extract at a concentration of 300 mg/mL showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of curcumin derivatives containing NSAIDs for their anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Li, Yonlian; Yue, Yuan; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Qian; Wang, Huaqian; Lu, Yujing; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhiyun

    2015-08-01

    Oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was frequently associated with serious adverse effects. Inspired by curcumin-a naturally traditional Chinese medicine, a series of curcumin derivatives containing NSAIDs, used for transdermal application, were synthesized and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo. Compared with curcumin and parent NSAID (salicylic acid and salsalate), topical application of A11 and B13 onto mouse ear edema, prior to TPA treatment markedly suppressed the expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, respectively. Mechanistically, A11 and B13 blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα and suppressed the activation of p65 and IκBα. It was found that A11 and B13 may be potent anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of marine brown algae Sargassum ilicifolium extract for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpi, Chandraraj C.; Nagathan, Channabasappa V.; Karajgi, Santosh R.; Kalyane, Navanath V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The methanolic extract of Sargassum ilicifolium (Pheophyceae) was used to evaluate its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in the present study. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity was tested using Acetic acid writhing method and Eddy hot plate method in Male albino mice and Wister rats respectively at a dose level of 1, 10, 50, 100mg/kg p.o. At the same dose, its anti-inflammatory activity was also tested using Carrageenan induced rat paw edema method Result Acetic acid writhing test and Eddy's hot plate episodes were significantly and dose dependently reduced. Carrageenan (a standard inflammatory agent) induced paw edema in rats was significantly reduced after intraperitonal administration of methanolic extract. Results: showed dose dependant significant activity in comparison with standard and control. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of the brown seaweeds Sargassum ilicifolium have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at moderate doses. PMID:23900805

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of GLP-1-Based Therapies beyond Glucose Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone mainly secreted from intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. GLP-1 has beneficial effects for glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, delaying gastric emptying, decreasing plasma glucagon, reducing food intake, and stimulating glucose disposal. Therefore, GLP-1-based therapies such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which is a GLP-1 inactivating enzyme, have been developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to glucose-lowering effects, emerging data suggests that GLP-1-based therapies also show anti-inflammatory effects in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetic nephropathy, asthma, and psoriasis. This review outlines the anti-inflammatory actions of GLP-1-based therapies on diseases associated with chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27110066

  1. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanol extract of Cocos nucifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, U K; Pramanik, G; Saha, P; Haldar, P K; Gupta, M

    2013-02-01

    Cocos nucifera L. (family: arecaceae) is generally straight unbranched plant, traditionally cultivated for its fruit (coconut) in home gardens. In the present study, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive (analgesic) activity of hydromethanol extract of Cocos nucifera L. (HECN) was evaluated in animal models. HECN showed significant (p < 0.05) and dosedependent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema models of inflammation and the result was comparable with the standard drug diclofenac. In addition, the extract also showed highly significant (p < 0.01) antinociceptive activity. HECN treated group showed increase in the reaction time in hot plate method and decrease the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice when compared with control group animal. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity observed in the present study could be attributed largely to the presence of its antioxidant phytoconstituents such as flavonoid, saponin and polyphenols.

  2. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract rich in ellagitannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Pellicer, Francisco; Mena, Pedro; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used for centuries for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information focused on the properties of a certain pomegranate (poly)phenolic profile to cure pain and gastric injury induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigated the systemic effects of different doses of a HPLC-characterized pomegranate extract on the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice. The effect of the extract against gastric injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ethanol was also assessed. Pomegranate reduced nociception in both phases of the formalin test, suggesting central and peripheral activities to inhibit nociception. Indomethacin-induced gastric injury was not produced in the presence of pomegranate, which also protected against ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The present results reinforce the benefits of pomegranate (poly)phenolics in the treatment of pain as well as their anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Neuro-immune interactions via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Pavlov, Valentin A.

    2010-01-01

    The overproduction of TNF and other cytokines can cause the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Controlling cytokine synthesis and release is critical for preventing unrestrained inflammation and maintaining health. Recent studies identified an efferent vagus nerve-based mechanism termed “the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” that controls cytokine production and inflammation. Here we review current advances related to the role of this pathway in neuro-immune interactions that prevent excessive inflammation. Experimental evidence indicates that vagus nerve cholinergic anti-inflammatory signaling requires alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on non-neuronal cytokine producing cells. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists inhibit cytokine release and protect animals in a variety of experimental lethal inflammatory models. Knowledge related to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be exploited in therapeutic approaches directed towards counteracting abnormal chronic and hyper-activated inflammatory responses. PMID:17289087

  4. The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids, recent developments and mechanistic insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Agnes E.; Chapman, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of glucocorticoids in the 1940s and the recognition of their anti-inflammatory effects, they have been amongst the most widely used and effective treatments to control inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, their clinical efficacy is compromised by the metabolic effects of long-term treatment, which include osteoporosis, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, a great deal of effort has been invested in identifying compounds that separate the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects from the adverse metabolic effects of glucocorticoids, with limited effect. It is clear that for these efforts to be effective, a greater understanding is required of the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids exert their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. Recent research is shedding new light on some of these mechanisms and has produced some surprising new findings. Some of these recent developments are reviewed here. PMID:20398732

  5. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, A H; Alkofahi, A

    1998-03-01

    The anti-nociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of 11 traditionally used Jordanian plants was studied by using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate test in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of these plants was determined by xylene-induced ear oedema in mice and cotton pellet granuloma test in rats. Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Apium graveolens, Eucalyptus camaldulentis, and Ruta graveolens possess an anti-nociceptive effect against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation. M. piperita, Jasminum officinale, Commiphora molmol, and Beta vulgaris possess an anti-inflammatory effect against acute (xylene-induced ear oedema) and chronic (cotton-pellet granuloma) inflammation. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were dose dependent. These data affirm the traditional use of some of these plants for painful and inflammatory conditions.

  6. The patterns of toxicity and management of acute nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Laura J Hunter, David M Wood, Paul I DarganClinical Toxicology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely used for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. They are commonly taken in overdose in many areas of the world. The majority of patients with acute NSAID overdose will remain asymptomatic or develop minor self-limiting gastrointestinal symptoms. However, serious clinical sequelae have been reported in patients with acute NSAID overdose and these include convulsions, metabolic acidosis, coma and acute renal failure. There appear to be some differences between the NSAIDs in terms of the relative risk of these complications; in particular mefenamic acid is most commonly associated with convulsions. The management of these serious clinical features is largely supportive and there are no specific antidotes for acute NSAID toxicity.Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, ibuprofen, toxicity, poisoning, overdose, management

  7. Inflammation in Depression and the Potential for Anti-Inflammatory Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports an association between depression and inflammatory processes, a connection that seems to be bidirectional. Clinical trials have indicated antidepressant treatment effects for anti-inflammatory agents, both as add-on treatment and as monotherapy. In particular......, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cytokine-inhibitors have shown antidepressant treatment effects compared to placebo, but also statins, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, pioglitazone, minocycline, modafinil, and corticosteroids may yield antidepressant treatment effects. However, the complexity...... of the inflammatory cascade, limited clinical evidence, and the risk for side effects stress cautiousness before clinical application. Thus, despite proof-of-concept studies of anti-inflammatory treatment effects in depression, important challenges remain to be investigated. Within this paper, we review...

  8. Optimization on Extraction Engineering of the Anti - inflammatory Bioactive Materials from Ainsliaea Fragrans Champ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainsliaea fragrans Champ.(A.fragrans is a traditional Chinese herbal, phenolic compounds was the major anti - inflammatory bioactive constituents. To improve the bioavailability and enhanced the curative effect of A.fragrans, the anti - inflammatory effect of phenolic acids and the “non-active” group of control vectors constitute a new biomedical material, which is of great significance to the treatment of diseases inflammation. Hence, in this thesis, regarding the total phenolic acid transfer rate as the indicator, L9(34 orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction process of total Phenolic acid from A.fragrans by reflux extraction method on solvent dosage, extraction times and extraction time.The optimal extraction technology was as follows: 15 times of water volume, reflux extraction 3 times, extraction time 60 min. The result of pharmacological activity indicated anti-inflammatory effect: 95% ethanol extraction > water extraction > 30% ethanol extraction > 60% ethanol extraction.

  9. Nutraceutical potential of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruits based on chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperalgesic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa Samúdio Dos; Nascimento, Thalita Vieira; Felipe, Josyelen Lousada; Boaretto, Amanda Galdi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves; Silva, Denise Brentan; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, the fruits of native Brazilian plant species with anti-inflammatory property have gained prominence due to their properties comparable to traditional medicines. This study aimed to chemically characterize and evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activity of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruit, which is widely used to manufacture ice cream and jellies. Our results revealed that the fruit exhibits flavonoid derivatives and stilbenes, as trans-piceatannol and resveratrol, as main secondary metabolites. In mice, the hydroethanolic extract of fruit reduced the edema, migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity, as well as abdominal writhings. The results demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of stilbenoids in the Byrsonima genus and the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic effect of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruits, supporting its potential as a nutraceutical food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results: OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (pdiseases. PMID:28884086

  11. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract ofOpuntia humifusastem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa ( O. humifusa ) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (pdiseases.

  12. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF AVOCADO SEED (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caecilia Desi Kristanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of infusion and methanolic extract from avocado seeds. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The analgesic activity was assessed using acetic acid stimuli to induce peripheral pain in mice. Results of this research showed that both all level doses of infusion and methanolic extract of avocado seeds have a significant reduction on the mice paw edema. All level doses of methanolic extract of avocado seeds have a significant reduction on the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid, but only the lowest dose of infusion showed a significant reduction. Our findings suggest that avocado seeds contains potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds which support its traditional use. Further phytochemical studies are required to determine the active compounds are actually responsible for such properties.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni induces an anti-inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone

    2011-01-01

    to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and induce pro-inflammatory interleukin-8(IL-8) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in human intestinal epithelial cell line Colo 205. The signalling pathways PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein (MAP)kinases ERK and p38 were involved in C....... jejuni-induced IL-8 and IL-10 expression. Inhibition of PI3K resulted in augmentation of C. jejuni-induced IL-8 production, concomitant with down-regulation of IL-10 mRNA, indicating an anti-inflammatory response was activated and associated with the activation of P13K/Akt. Similar effect was observed...... for cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) deficient mutants. Moreover, we demonstrated that heat-killed bacteria were able to induce IL-8 and IL-10 expression to a lower level than live bacteria. We therefore conclude that C. jejuni activate a PI3K/Akt-dependent anti-inflammatory pathway in human intestinal...

  14. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, S.R.; He, Q.; Huang, K.H.; Gaucher, S.P.; Alm, E.J.; He,Z.; Hadi, M.Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2005-09-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class ofsulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature.Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation ofmetal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in thedirection of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under avariety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of thisorganism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-celltranscriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-foldchange or greater; Z>1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13oC from a growthtemperature of 37oC for this organism and suggested both direct andindirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categoriesthat were significantly affected included posttranslationalmodifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energyproduction and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport,metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; andbiogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed thepresence of features of both negative and positive regulation whichincluded the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to thealternate sigma factors ?32 and ?54. While mechanisms of heat shockcontrol for some genes appeared to coincide with those established forEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique controlschemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of proteinexpression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggestedgood agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shockproteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), andAhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility ofposttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES(DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several periplasmic ABCtransporters.

  15. In vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Rosa canina L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Francesca; Greco, Emanuela; Carretta, Donatella; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Govoni, Paolo; Speroni, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Rosa canina L. is a medicinal plant largely used in traditional folk medicine. Several compounds from rose hip extracts were reported to display in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The in vivo effects of Rosa canina extracts are still poorly investigated. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and the gastroprotective effects of a hydroalcoholic crude extract of Rosa canina fruits were tested in rat. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was tested on the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema assay. The gastroprotective effect was investigated on the ethanol-induced gastric damage model. The in vitro antioxidant activity of this extract was also quantified using the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity method, and the Total Phenolic Content. Data show that the Rosa canina extract inhibits the development of carrageenin-induced edema; the anti-inflammatory power is similar to that of indomethacin. The antiedema effect was more significant using a higher dose of the extract. The total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina pre-treated stomachs with respect to unpre-treated ones, although the antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically significant. The antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically detectable, even if the total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina stomachs from pre-treated rats with respect to unpre-treated ones. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract owns a good antioxidant activity that may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed in vivo. Altogether, the present data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory property of Rosa canina suggesting its potential role as adjuvant therapeutic tool for the management of inflammatory-related diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Roy; Bedi, Asheesh; Manjoo, Ajay; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Mease, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of disability in the adult population. Common nonoperative treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), intra-articular corticosteroids, and intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is found intrinsically within the knee joint providing viscoelastic properties to the synovial fluid. HA therapy provides anti-inflammatory relief through a number of different pathways, including the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Methods We conducted a systematic review to summarize the published literature on the anti-inflammatory properties of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis. Included articles were categorized based on the primary anti-inflammatory responses described within them, by the immediate cell surface receptor protein assessed within the article, or based on the primary theme of the article. Key findings aimed to describe the macromolecules and inflammatory-mediated responses associated with the cell transmembrane receptors. Results Forty-eight articles were included in this systematic review that focused on the general anti-inflammatory effects of HA in knee OA, mediated through receptor-binding relationships with cluster determinant 44 (CD44), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and 4 (TLR-4), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and layilin (LAYN) cell surface receptors. Higher molecular weight HA (HMWHA) promotes anti-inflammatory responses, whereas short HA oligosaccharides produce inflammatory reactions. Conclusions Intra-articular HA is a viable therapeutic option in treating knee OA and suppressing inflammatory responses. HMWHA is effective in suppressing the key macromolecules that elicit the inflammatory response by short HA oligosaccharides.

  17. Differential ability of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophages to perform macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redka, Dar'ya S; Gütschow, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio; Canton, Johnathan

    2018-01-01

    Macropinocytosis mediates the uptake of antigens and of nutrients that dictate the regulation of cell growth by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Because these functions differ in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophages, we compared the macropinocytic ability of two extreme polarization states. We found that anti-inflammatory macrophages perform vigorous macropinocytosis constitutively, while proinflammatory cells are virtually inactive. The total cellular content of Rho-family GTPases was higher in anti-inflammatory cells, but this disparity failed to account for the differential macropinocytic activity. Instead, reduced activity of Rac/RhoG was responsible for the deficient macropinocytosis of proinflammatory macrophages, as suggested by the stimulatory effects of heterologously expressed guanine nucleotide-exchange factors or of constitutively active (but not wild-type) forms of these GTPases. Similarly, differences in the activation state of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) correlated with the macropinocytic activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages. Differences in PtdIns3K and Rho-GTPase activity were attributable to the activity of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs), which appear to be functional only in anti-inflammatory cells. However, agonists of PtdIns3K, including cytokines, chemokines, and LPS, induced macropinocytosis in proinflammatory cells. Our findings revealed a striking difference in the macropinocytic ability of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages that correlates with their antigen-presenting and metabolic activity. © 2018 Redka et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Chou, Pei-Yu; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chen, Jwo-Sheng; Chien, Yi-Chung; Huang, Ming-Hsing

    2009-11-12

    This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (WET) in ICR mice. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of WET was established. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced pain were examined the analgesics effects of WET. WET on lambda-Carrageenan(carr)-induced paw edema was performed. We investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of WET via studies of the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite oxide (NO) in the edema paw. Serum NO and TNF-alpha were also measured. The fingerprint chromatogram of WET was established through HPLC analysis, and implies that WET contains the active ingredient gallic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, taxifolin, isoquercitrin and quercetin. WET significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing responses and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. In the anti-inflammatory test, WET inhibited the development of paw edema induced by carr. WET decreased the paw edema at the third, fourth and fifth hour after carr administration, and increased the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver tissue and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the third hour after carr injection. WET decreased the level of NO in edematous paw tissue and in serum level, and diminished the level of serum TNF-alpha at the fifth hour after carr injection. These results demonstrated that WET is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in carr-induced inflammation. WET probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing TNF-alpha and NO. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of WET might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA in the edema paw via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver.

  19. Heat Shock Proteins 70kDa, Eosinophil Cationic Protein, and Nitric Oxide During Chronic Superficial Keratitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Balicki, Ireneusz; Wernicki, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to determine the levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), heat shock proteins 70, and nitric oxide ions measured as nitrite ions (Griess reaction) in dogs with chronic superficial keratitis (CSK). The study was conducted on 24 dogs with CSK. Blood sera from the animals were tested for concentrations of heat shock proteins 70, ECP, and nitrite ions before treatment and again 5 weeks and 6 months after treatment. Dogs with CSK were treated for 6 months with various regimes involving the use of ophthalmic drops containing dexamethasone, dimethyl sulfoxide, and cyclosporine. The control group consisted of 16 clinically healthy German Shepherds. The results obtained indicated a significant (P ≤ 0.05) elevation in the concentrations of heat shock proteins 70 and nitrite ions in dogs with CSK in comparison to healthy dogs and dogs after 5 weeks of therapy. After 6 months of treatment, concentrations of heat shock proteins 70, ECP, and nitrite ions had fallen below pretreatment values. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of heat shock proteins 70, ECP, and nitrite ions in healthy animals and animals with CSK. The elevated concentrations of heat shock proteins 70, ECP, and nitrite ions in dogs with CSK may indicate that the disease was both localized and systemic. The significant correlation between levels of heat shock proteins 70 and nitrite ions suggests that these parameters may be used as indirect indicators of CSK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat shock induced change in protein ubiquitination in Chlamydomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimogawara, K.; Muto, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ubiquitin was purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its antibody was produced. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody cross-reacted with ubiquitins from a green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a brown alga Laminaria angustata and a red alga Porphyridium cruentum but not with ubiquitin from a blue-green alga Synechococcus sp. In Chlamydomonas, the antibody also reacted with some ubiquitinated proteins including 28- and 31-kDa polypeptides. The isoelectric points of Chlamydomonas ubiquitin and the 28- and 31-kDa ubiquitinated proteins were 8.0, 8.9 and 10.3, respectively. The ubiquitinated proteins, including the 28- and 31-kDa polypeptides were detected after in vitro ATP-dependent ubiquitination of Chlamydomonas cell extract with l25 I-labeled bovine ubiquitin. Heat treatment of Chlamydomonas cells (>40°C) caused drastic increase of ubiquitinated proteins with high mol wt (>60kDa), and coordinated redistribution or decrease of other ubiquitinated proteins and free ubiquitin. Quantitative analysis revealed that the 28- and 31-kDa ubiquitinated proteins showed different responses against heat stress, i.e. the former being more sensitive than the latter. (author)