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Sample records for anti-infective agents urinary

  1. Chinese patent of anti-infective urinary catheter%抗感染尿管获中国专利现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊国兵; 王寓; 邱明星

    2015-01-01

    application. METHODS:Al related Chinese patent papers of anti-infective urinary catheters were retrieved by Google’s proprietary search platform (http://www.google.com/advanced_patent_search) until the deadline of March 26, 2014, with the search strategy of‘Return the patents with the fol owing proprietary name:urinary catheter’. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:According to the predefined search strategy, 949 potential y relevant patent papers were screened out for further identification, and 23 papers referred to anti-infective catheters that were obviously eligible were included. The analyses showed that:(1) The antibacterial coating agents of the majority of papers were antibacterial agents of nano-inorganic metal cations, only four papers used antibiotic coated. (2) The drug-eluting catheters were mainly composite-coated. (3) The drug release modes from coating were mainly extended-release but release mechanism was not clarified. (4) The preparation process was chemical bond or ionic bond in one paper, blending methods in one paper, repeated electroplating in one paper, electrospinning technology in one paper, and physical impregnation methods in 12 papers (52.17%). (5) The antimicrobial mode was ultrasonic-antibacterial method in two patent papers, sterile sleeve in one paper, hydrophilic coating in one paper, catheter made by blending polymer material and anti-infective agents in one paper, drug coated films made by coating with antimicrobial drug liquid and drying process in 20 papers (82.61%). In conclusion, there have been no translational and applied clinical researches about the anti-infective urinary catheter, and the relevant researches were only at the laboratory level. The research methods of Chinese patent for anti-infective urinary catheter were limited, and need to be further improved.

  2. Screening for potential anti-infective agents towards Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Su Anne; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The established treatment for melioidosis is antibiotic therapy. However, a constant threat to this form of treatment is resistance development of the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, towards antibiotics. One option to circumvent this threat of antibiotic resistance is to search for new alternative anti-infectives which target the host innate immune system and/or bacterial virulence. In this study, 29 synthetic compounds were evaluated for their potential to increase the lifespan of an infected host. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was adopted as the infection model as its innate immune pathways are homologous to humans. Screens were performed in a liquid-based survival assay containing infected worms exposed to individual compounds and survival of untreated and compound-treated worms were compared. A primary screen identified nine synthetic compounds that extended the lifespan of B. pseudomallei-infected worms. Subsequently, a disc diffusion test was performed on these selected compounds to delineate compounds into those that enhanced the survival of worms via antimicrobial activity i.e. reducing the number of infecting bacteria, or into those that did not target pathogen viability. Out of the nine hits selected, two demonstrated antimicrobial effects on B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the findings from this study suggest that the other seven identified compounds are potential anti-infectives which could protect a host against B. pseudomallei infection without developing the risk of drug resistance.

  3. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja); Entela Ruçi (Kulla); Mirela Lika (Cekani)

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tr...

  4. Causative agents of urinary tracts infection in children with obstructive uropathy

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    P.V.Glybochko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 167 children with different variants of congenital obstructions of urinary tracts were examined; the causative agents of urinary tracts infections were analyzed in all the cases. The changes of the cytokines levels were determined in those patients which had the more often found causative agents in the analyses. It was mentioned that of the total patients with obstructive uropathy (OU the fifth part in the absence of bacteriuria had a pathogen in biopsy material (BM of urinary tracts. In fourth part of cases microorganisms that were detected in BM and urine did not matched. The changes of cytokines levels in urine did not have any species-specific dependence on causative agent

  5. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tract infection confirmed by positive urine culture reports. Results: A total 3160 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. Out of which 956 (30.25% samples were found to have significant bacteriuria and remaining 2204 samples were found to have either non significant bacteriuria or very low bacterial count or sterile urine. In the present study, out of 223 isolated pathogens the most common isolate was Escherichia coli (25.89%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (2.94%, Proteus vulgaris (1.04% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.38 %. Age group most affected by Escherichia coli is 61-75 years (38.8%. Conclusions: Women are more susceptible to urinary tract infections, especially against Escherichia coli, resulting positive in 52.4% of cases; while Proteus vulgaris have a female percentage of 57.7%. This percentage increased slightly among women infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 58% and low in 61.5% infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  6. Anti-infective immunoadhesins from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycoff, Keith; Maclean, James; Belle, Archana; Yu, Lloyd; Tran, Y; Roy, Chad; Hayden, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    Immunoadhesins are recombinant proteins that combine the ligand-binding region of a receptor or adhesion molecule with immunoglobulin constant domains. All FDA-approved immunoadhesins are designed to modulate the interaction of a human receptor with its normal ligand, such as Etanercept (Enbrel(®) ), which interferes with the binding of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to the TNF-alpha receptor and is used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Like antibodies, immunoadhesins have long circulating half-lives, are readily purified by affinity-based methods and have the avidity advantages conferred by bivalency. Immunoadhesins that incorporate normal cellular receptors for viruses or bacterial toxins hold great, but as yet unrealized, potential for treating infectious disease. As decoy receptors, immunoadhesins have potential advantages over pathogen-targeted monoclonal antibodies. Planet Biotechnology has specialized in developing anti-infective immunoadhesins using plant expression systems. An immunoadhesin incorporating the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin, CMG2, potently blocks toxin activity in vitro and protects animals against inhalational anthrax. An immunoadhesin based on the receptor for human rhinovirus, ICAM-1, potently blocks infection of human cells by one of the major causes of the common cold. An immunoadhesin targeting the MERS coronavirus is in an early stage of development. We describe here the unique challenges involved in designing and developing immunoadhesins targeting infectious diseases in the hope of inspiring further research into this promising class of drugs. PMID:26242703

  7. MR urography. Improved visualization of the urinary collecting system using a negative oral contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the image quality of the urinary tract using oral administration of a combination of both water and a negative gastrointestinal contrast agent, Bothdel. The study was divided into two parts: the phantom study and the healthy volunteers study. The imaging sequences used were the rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and the half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) techniques. Magnetic resonance Urography (MRU) was performed in 13 healthy volunteers using the RARE imaging sequences. After collection of the pre-contrast images, post-contrast MRU was obtained 30 min and 60 min after the oral administration of the contrast agent. Image assessment was based on the contrast effect, the image effect, and the opacification score. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The signal intensity using 100%-12.5% Bothdel was no different to the background noise using the RARE sequence. At concentrations below 12.5%, there were statistically significant improvements in the contrast, the image effect, and the opacification score between pre- and post-contrast images. No significant difference was observed between the 30 min and 60 min post-contrast images. In contrast, the effect and pre-contrast images were graded as poor in seven cases, whereas no post-contrast images were graded as poor. There was a particularly significant improvement in the opacification score with the distal ureter being the most difficult segment to opacify. Oral administration of both water and Bothdel effectively removed the bowel signal and improved visualization of the urinary tract. (author)

  8. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  9. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 109/L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  10. Injectable biomaterials for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: their potential and pitfalls as urethral bulking agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2013-06-01

    Injectable urethral bulking agents composed of synthetic and biological biomaterials are minimally invasive treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The development of an ideal urethral bulking agent remains challenging because of clinical concerns over biocompatibility and durability. Herein, the mechanical and biological features of injectable urethral biomaterials are investigated, with particular emphasis on their future potential as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. A literature search for English language publications using the two online databases was performed. Keywords included "stress urinary incontinence", "urethral bulking agent" and "injectable biomaterial". A total of 98 articles were analysed, of which 45 were suitable for review based on clinical relevance and importance of content. Injectable biomaterials are associated with a lower cure rate and fewer postoperative complications than open surgery for SUI. They are frequently reserved as secondary treatment options for patients unwilling or medically unfit to undergo surgery. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen remains the most commonly injected biomaterial and has a cure rate of up to 53 %. Important clinical features of an injectable biomaterial are durability, biocompatibility and ease of administration, but achieving these requirements is challenging. In carefully selected patients, injectable biomaterials are feasible alternatives to open surgical procedures as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. In future, higher cure rates may be feasible as researchers investigate alternative biomaterials and more targeted injection techniques for treating SUI.

  11. The radiological appearance of the urinary tract in mares by retrograde contrast-agent-application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for performing a pyelogram in mares is described. The results are discussed with reference to other diagnostic methods used to evaluate the urinary tract. The method described can easily be done and is the most suitable one for the evaluation of ureters

  12. The soy phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein as neuroprotective agents against anoxia-glucopenia and reperfusion damage in rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, A; Fiorenzani, P; Rossi, R; Aloisi, A M; Valoti, M; Pessina, F

    2012-10-01

    Some bladder disorders, such as obstructive bladder and hyperactivity, may be caused partly by ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The neuroprotective effects of estrogens were demonstrated in in vitro studies and a great interest in soy isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) as alternative to the synthetic estrogen receptor modulators for therapeutic use has been pointed out. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genistein and daidzein, on rat detrusor smooth muscle contractility and their possible neuroprotective role against I/R-like condition. Whole rat urinary bladders were subjected to in vitro anoxia-glucopenia (A-G) and reperfusion (R) in the absence or presence of drugs and response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic nerves evaluated. Furthermore rats were treated in vivo for 1 week with the phytoestrogens and the same in vitro protocol was applied to the ex vivo bladders. Antioxidant activity of genistein and daidzein on the A-G/R model was determined by measuring malonyldialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, hormones plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Genistein and daidzein administered either in vitro or in vivo showed significant neuroprotective effect and antioxidant activity. Testosterone and 17β-estradiol plasma levels were not modified by daidzein, while a significant decrease of testosterone in genistein treated rats was evident. Moreover both phytoestrogens significantly decreased detrusor contractions induced by EFS in a concentration-dependent manner. For being either neuroprotective and myorelaxant, genistein and daidzein could be considered a good lead for new therapeutic agents to protect the urinary bladder from hyperactivity and nerve damage. PMID:22743170

  13. Rapid discrimination of the causal agents of urinary tract infection using ToF-SIMS with chemometric cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, John S.; Henderson, Alexander; Jarvis, Roger M.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.; Goodacre, Royston

    2006-07-01

    Advances in time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have enabled this technique to become a powerful tool for the analysis of biological samples. Such samples are often very complex and as a result full interpretation of the acquired data can be extremely difficult. To simplify the interpretation of these information rich data, the use of chemometric techniques is becoming widespread in the ToF-SIMS community. Here we discuss the application of principal components-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) to the separation and classification of a number of bacterial samples that are known to be major causal agents of urinary tract infection. A large data set has been generated using three biological replicates of each isolate and three machine replicates were acquired from each biological replicate. Ordination plots generated using the PC-DFA are presented demonstrating strain level discrimination of the bacteria. The results are discussed in terms of biological differences between certain species and with reference to FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and pyrolysis mass spectrometric studies of similar samples.

  14. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

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    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  15. Global occurrence of anti-infectives in contaminated surface waters: Impact of income inequality between countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Pedro A; Takada, Hideshige; Correa, José A; El Saadi, Karim; Koike, Tatsuya; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Wasonga, Oliver V; Mghalu, Joseph M; dos Santos Junior, Antonio Manuel; Newman, Brent; Weerts, Steven; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    The presence anti-infectives in environmental waters is of interest because of their potential role in the dissemination of anti-infective resistance in bacteria and other harmful effects on non-target species such as algae and shellfish. Since no information on global trends regarding the contamination caused by these bioactive substances is yet available, we decided to investigate the impact of income inequality between countries on the occurrence of anti-infectives in surface waters. In order to perform such study, we gathered concentration values reported in the peer-reviewed literature between 1998 and 2014 and built a database. To fill the gap of knowledge on occurrence of anti-infectives in African countries, we also collected 61 surface water samples from Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa, and measured concentrations of 19 anti-infectives. A mixed one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model, followed by Turkey-Kramer post hoc tests was used to identify potential differences in anti-infective occurrence between countries grouped by income level (high, upper-middle and lower-middle and low income) according to the classification by the World Bank. Comparison of occurrence of anti-infectives according to income level revealed that concentrations of these substances in contaminated surface waters were significantly higher in low and lower-middle income countries (p=0.0001) but not in upper-middle income countries (p=0.0515) compared to high-income countries. We explained these results as the consequence of the absence of or limited sewage treatment performed in lower income countries. Furthermore, comparison of concentrations of low cost anti-infectives (sulfonamides and trimethoprim) and the more expensive macrolides between income groups suggest that the cost of these substances may have an impact on their environmental occurrence in lower income countries. Since wastewaters are the most important source of contamination of anti-infectives and other

  16. Besifloxacin: a novel anti-infective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

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    Timothy L Comstock

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L Comstock1, Paul M Karpecki2, Timothy W Morris3, Jin-Zhong Zhang41Global Medical Affairs, Pharmaceuticals, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 2Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Research and Development Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 4Global Preclinical Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is demographically unbiased in its prevalence and can be caused by a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Timely empiric treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-infective, such as a topical fluoroquinolone, is critical in preventing potentially irreversible ocular damage. However, the rise in ocular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance for patients with other ocular bacterial infections mandate the need for new agents targeted for ocular use. Besifloxacin, a novel broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, is approved for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. It has a uniquely balanced dual-targeting activity that inhibits both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and is associated with a lower incidence of resistance development. Besifloxacin is not marketed in other formulations, ensuring that its exposure is limited to bacterial populations in and around the eye. This specifically precludes any bacterial exposure to besifloxacin resulting from systemic use, which further reduces the likelihood of emergence of bacterial resistance. In vitro, besifloxacin has demonstrated equivalent or superior activity compared with other commonly used topical antibiotics. In clinical trials, besifloxacin has consistently demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin is considered safe and is well tolerated with no observed contraindications.Keywords: conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  17. Anti-infectives and risk of severe hypoglycemia in glipizide and glyburide users

    OpenAIRE

    Schelleman, Hedi; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Wan, Fei; Hennessy, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether orally administered anti-infectives increase the risk of severe hypoglycemia in glipizide and glyburide users. We performed two case-control and case-crossover studies using US Medicaid data. All of the anti-infectives examined were associated with an elevated risk of severe hypoglycemia. Using cephalexin as the reference category, in glipizide users statistically significant associations were found with co-trimoxazole (OR=3.14; 95%CI: 1.83–...

  18. 77 FR 55845 - Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... the public. Name of Committee: Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the..., raxibacumab injection, a humanized monoclonal antibody against protective antigen of Bacillis anthracis, by... the contact person and submit a brief statement of the general nature of the evidence or...

  19. 76 FR 59405 - Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... discuss clinical trial design issues in the development of antibacterials for the treatment of hospital... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of...

  20. Preliminary study of anti-infective function of a copper-bearing stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the copper (Cu)-bearing stainless steel was developed to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections in clinical areas. A 317L austenitic stainless steel containing 4.5% Cu (317L-Cu SS) was designed and fabricated, and its anti-infective function was preliminarily studied both in vitro and in vivo by means of antibacterial test, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, and animal implantation. The results indicated that the 317L-Cu SS possessed strong antibacterial rates against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and showed anti-infective ability by inhibiting the formation of bacterial bio-film on surface of the steel due to the release of Cu ions from the steel surface. The microbiological and histological evaluations from animal implantation further proved that the 317L-Cu SS could obviously reduce the happening of bacterial infection, and is potential to be used as a new class of surgical implant material with anti-infective function. - Highlights: ► 317L stainless steel containing 4.5% Cu (317L-Cu SS) showed strong antibacterial role. ► 317L-Cu SS could inhibit the formation of bacterial bio-film on its surface. ► 317L-Cu SS showed anti-infective role in vivo.

  1. Anti-infectives for systemic use prescribed in a Spanish hospital between 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Mora, Arturo Artero; Pérez Rubio, Alberto; Eiros Bouza, José María

    2016-01-01

    The overuse and misuse of antimicrobials contribute to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this work was to analyse all the anti-infectives for systemic use (J ATC group) prescribed at the University Clinic Hospital of Valladolid (Spain) for the years 2009-2013. Amounts of anti-infectives (antibacterials, antifungals and antivirals) used in the period 2009-2013 were expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs) and as total expenditure, and the significance of the difference in consumption of anti-infectives and the relevant expenditure between years was evaluated from the overlapping of the corresponding confidence intervals at 95% confidence level of DDDs and expenditure. The results obtained showed that DDDs and expenditure of antibacterials decreased in the period 2009-2013. Antimycotics showed an upward trend in expenditure and DDDs in the five-year study period, but with major oscillations. The consumption of antivirals was practically constant in the period 2009-2011; in 2012, a significant reduction was observed and this reduction was conserved in 2013, although their expenditure increased year by year. In conclusion, in the period 2009-2013, expenditure on anti-infectives increased year to year. However, this increase in expenditure resulted in a downward trend of DDDs. PMID:27031892

  2. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1996), III. Secular changes in susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Kaku, M; Ooe, H; Mochida, C

    1998-03-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 hospitals during June 1996 to May 1997, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. E. faecalis Among E. faecalis strains, those with high susceptibilities to ampicillin and minocycline appeared to have decreased in the latest study period. 2. S. aureus To almost antimicrobial agents, S. aureus isolated from uncomplicated UTIs showed low susceptibilities. But the MIC50s of those agents for S. aureus from complicated UTIs have changed better state. Particularly, the MIC50s of imipenem and clindamycin were 0.125 microgram/ml or below in the latest period for the first time in our history. 3. E. coli The susceptibilities to piperacillin and quinolones of E. coli isolated from uncomplicated UTIs were better than those isolated from complicated UTIs. 4. Klebsiella spp. The susceptibilities to almost antimicrobial agents of Klebsiella spp. have been better during the latest period, compared to those during period of 1995-1996, but to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have appeared to have been lower. 5. P. aeruginosa The susceptibilities to quinolones of P. aeruginosa have been better during the latest period compared those during periods of 1995-1996. But, the susceptibilities to cefozopran, carbapenems and monobactams of P. aeruginosa isolated from complicated UTIs appeared to have been lower. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9597551

  3. Display technology on filamentous phage in the search for anti-infective biological agents

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    Nelson Santiago Vispo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex. The phage display technology has been used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and peptides directed against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Today, this technology is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits the phage display technology to discover new drugs against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies. Methods: Basic and recent literature review was made, mainly focused on general aspects of phage display technology and the application in the search of new peptides or antibodies of pharmaceutical use to combat the infectious diseases transmitted by bacteria and virus. Results: Updated information on the selected topics is shown, with a guiding and practical approach aimed at researchers in the field of molecular biology to continue deepening the technology with special emphasis in the applications that have been developed in Cuba. Conclusions: Advances in methods of screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies show that phage display technology can significantly contribute in the fight against clinically important pathogens.

  4. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1995). III. Differences in susceptibilities from previous years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Hikichi, Y; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Kosakai, N; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Mochida, C

    1997-04-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 11 hospitals during June, 1995 through May, 1996, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. Macrolide resistant E. faecalis isolated from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period appeared to have increased compared to those in previous study periods. More than 50% of the isolated E. faecalis during the latest study period were resistant to macrolide antibiotics, for the first time in our history. 2. No obvious changes were observed through the years for susceptibilities of S. aureus to various antimicrobial agents. Vancomycin (VCM) showed the highest activity against S. aureus, with MICs below 2 micrograms/ml or below. 3. Among E. coli strains, those with low susceptibilities to quinolones appeared to have increased over the years with MIC90 changed from between 0.125 microgram/ml or below and 0.5 microgram/ml in the 1989-1990 period to between 8 micrograms/ml and 128 micrograms/ml in the latest study period. 4. Klebsiella spp. showed higher resistance to most antimicrobial agents during periods of 1993-1994 and 1994-1995, but somewhat lower resistance during period of 1995-1996. No resistant Klebsiella spp. were detected from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period. 5. Among P. aeruginosa isolates from complicated UTIs, resistance isolates to gentamicin appeared to be increasing over the years. Resistant strains to quinolones were isolated at lower frequencies during periods of 1991-1994, but higher frequency was observed in the latest period, and MIC50s were between 0.5 and 4 micrograms/ml during 1991-1994, but were 16-32 micrograms/ml during 1995-1996. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9192248

  5. Marine-Derived Metabolites of S-Adenosylmethionine as Templates for New Anti-Infectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice R. Sufrin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet is a key biochemical co-factor whose proximate metabolites include methylated macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids, methylated small molecules (e.g., sterols, biogenic amines, polyamines (e.g., spermidine, spermine, ethylene, and N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Marine organisms produce numerous AdoMet metabolites whose novel structures can be regarded as lead compounds for anti-infective drug design.

  6. Increased resistance to first-line agents among bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections in Latin America: time for local guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Andrade

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogens recovered from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI is an increasing problem in specific regions, limiting therapeutic options. As part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, a total of 611 isolates were collected in 2003 from patients with CA-UTI presenting at Latin American medical centers. Each strain was tested in a central laboratory using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI broth microdilution methods with appropriate controls. Escherichia coli was the leading pathogen (66%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (7%, Proteus mirabilis (6.4%, Enterococcus spp. (5.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.6%. Surprisingly high resistance rates were recorded for E. coli against first-line orally administered agents for CA-UTI, such as ampicillin (53.6%, TMP/SMX (40.4%, ciprofloxacin (21.6%, and gatifloxacin (17.1%. Decreased susceptibility rates to TMP/SMX and ciprofloxacin were also documented for Klebsiella spp. (79.1 and 81.4%, respectively, and P. mirabilis (71.8 and 84.6%, respectively. For Enterococcus spp., susceptibility rates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin were 88.2, 85.3, 55.9, and 97.1%, respectively. High-level resistance to gentamicin was detected in 24% of Enterococcus spp. Bacteria isolated from patients with CA-UTI in Latin America showed limited susceptibility to orally administered antimicrobials, especially for TMP/SMX and fluoroquinolones. Our results highlight the need for developing specific CA-UTI guidelines in geographic regions where elevated resistance to new and old compounds may influence prescribing decisions.

  7. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1998). III. Secular changes in susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Matsukawa, M; Kunishima, Y; Matsuda, S; Sato, S; Ogiwara, M; Ishibashi, K; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Shigeta, S; Watanabe, J; Igari, J; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Oguri, T; Murai, M; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Watanabe, K; Kobayashi, Y; Uchida, H; Ooe, H; Nishikawa, M; Kohno, S; Oka, T; Takano, Y; Miyagawa, Y; Miyazaki, Y; Izumikawa, K; Yamaguchi, T; Mochida, C; Furuhama, T

    2000-05-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Echerichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 hospitals during June 1998 to May 1999, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period from 1990 to 1997 in uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs. Among E. faecalis strains, those with low susceptibilities to almost drugs have increased in the latest period. All 5 S. aureus strains isolated from uncomplicated UTIs were the most susceptible to gentamicin (GM). Over 50% of S. aureus strains isolated from complicated UTIs were susceptible to GM, and on the contrary the resistant strains have increased with the MIC90 of 256 micrograms/ml or above. Among S. aureus strains isolated from complicated UTIs, those with low susceptibilities to arbekacin (ABK) have increased in the latest period compared to those during period of 1996-1997, and the MIC90s of them have changed into the lower state from 1 microgram/ml in 1996-1997 to 4 micrograms/ml in 1998. S. aureus strains have continued high susceptibilities to vancomycin (VCM). The susceptibilities to minocycline (MINO) of E. coli showed MIC90: 4 micrograms/ml in 1997, but those have returned in the latest period in uncomplicated UTIs. The MIC90s of ofloxacin (OFLX) to E. coli isolated from uncomplicated and complicated UTIs have been lower 2-3 classes in the latest period than those in 1997. Among Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from uncomplicated UTIs, those with low susceptibilities to almost cephems had increased in 1997, but few of them were detected in the latest study. The sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa to almost drugs have increased during the latest period. The MIC50s of cefozopran (CZOP) and OFLX against P. aeruginosa were the best in our history. The sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa to ceftazidime (CAZ) have increased and its

  8. Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symphysis pubis, and below the parietal peritoneum . The size and shape of the urinary bladder ... outer layer of the bladder wall is parietal peritoneum. In all other regions, the outer layer is ...

  9. Fosfomycin tromethamine as second agent for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infections in adult female patients in The Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knottnerus, B.J.; Nys, S.; Riet, G. ter; Donker, G.; Geerlings, S.E.; Stobberingh, E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among female patients. According to the national guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (GPs), the drugs of first and second choice as therapy for UTIs are nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim with resistance percentag

  10. Screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the Mauritians flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Oumadevi; Raoelison, Guy; Rakotoniriana, Francisco E; Cheuk, Kiban; Urverg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah; Subratty, Anwar Hussein

    2007-01-19

    Several plants of the Mauritian flora alleged to possess anti-infective properties were studied against different strains of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The grounded dried plant materials were extracted with different extractants and screened for anti-microbial activity using the disk diffusion and the micro-dilution techniques. Preliminary screening revealed that the methanol extracts were most active. Salmonella enteritidis, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus subtilis were the three test organisms, which were found to be susceptible to all the crude methanolic extracts of the different plants investigated (100% susceptibility), followed by Escherichia coli (57.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (57.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (28.6%). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration recorded for the different crude methanol extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis and the mould fungus Candida albicans were 500, 1000, 125, 250, 1000 and 125 micro g/ml, respectively. Bioautography using Cladosporium cucumerinum revealed that dichloromethane (DCM) extracts had the highest activity against the phytopathogenic fungus. It was also noted that the DCM extracts of Michelia champaca and Antidesma madagascariense yielded the maximum number of growth inhibiting compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum. Activity of the different crude extracts was also investigated against several phytopathogenic filamentous fungi, Colletotrichum glocosporoides, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium, Guignardia sp. and Fusarium oxysporum. It was found that crude hexane extracts as well as crude DCM extracts exhibited marked activity against several strains of fungi, especially Colletotrichum glocosporoides, Sclerotinia sclerotium and Guignardia sp. PMID:17011733

  11. Urinary Diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of wastes and extra fluid. In order for normal urination to occur, all body parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order. Kidneys. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below ...

  12. Anti-Infective Potential of Marine Invertebrates and Seaweeds from the Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Steindel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the Brazilian coast. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by the disk diffusion method. Antiprotozoal activity was evaluated against Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3 promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi (MHOM/BR/00/Y epimastigotes by MTT assay. Activity against intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis in murine macrophages was also evaluated. Antiviral activity was tested against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain by the plaque number reduction assay (IC50. Cytotoxicity on VERO cells was evaluated by the MTT assay (CC50. The results were expressed as SI = CC50/IC50. The most promising antimicrobial results were obtained against S. aureus and C. albicans with Dragmacidon reticulatum. Among the seaweeds, only Osmundaria obtusiloba showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Concerning antiprotozoal activity, Bugula neritina, Carijoa riseii, Dragmaxia anomala and Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. showed the most interesting results, mainly against extracellular promastigote forms of L. braziliensis (66, 35.9, 97.2, and 43.6% inhibition, respectively. Moreover, six species of seaweeds Anadyomene saldanhae, Caulerpa cupressoides, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Dictyota sp., Ochtodes secundiramea, and Padina sp. showed promising results against L. braziliensis (87.9, 51.7, 85.9, 93.3, 99.7, and 80.9% inhibition, respectively, and only Dictyota sp. was effective against T. cruzi (60.4% inhibition. Finally, the antiherpes activity was also evaluated, with Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. and Petromica citrina showing the best results (SI = 11.9 and SI > 5

  13. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun, E-mail: weiywswzy@163.com [Anhui Agricultural University, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2016-01-15

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion–solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100–150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus (M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application.

  14. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion–solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100–150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus (M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application

  15. Comparative in vitro activity of oral antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresken, M; Körber-Irrgang, B; Biedenbach, D J; Batista, N; Besard, V; Cantón, R; García-Castillo, M; Kalka-Moll, W; Pascual, A; Schwarz, R; Van Meensel, B; Wisplinghoff, H; Seifert, H

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae causing community-acquired urinary tract infections were examined in selected outpatient clinics and hospitals in Belgium, Germany and Spain using EUCAST breakpoints for susceptibility. A total of 1190 isolates were collected. Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (28.1%), ciprofloxacin (23.4%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21.4%) compared with fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin (each, <1.5%). Ceftibuten (MIC50/90 0.25/0.5 mg/L) and ceftriaxone activity (MIC50/90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was comparable. Ceftibuten (MIC90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was also active against Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotypes were 7.1% for E. coli, 5.6% for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 0.4% for P. mirabilis. Resistance was common among men and elderly women. PMID:26321667

  16. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  17. Effect of Winemaking on the Composition of Red Wine as a Source of Polyphenols for Anti-Infective Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral infections and related bone (osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, periprosthetic joint infections and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, fifteen red wine samples derived from grapes native to the Oltrepò Pavese region (Italy, obtained from the winemaking processes of “Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese” red wine, were analyzed alongside three samples obtained from marc pressing. Total polyphenol and monomeric anthocyanin contents were determined and metabolite profiling was conducted by means of a chromatographic analysis. Antibacterial activity of wine samples was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, responsible for dental caries, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes, two oral bacterial pathogens. Results highlighted the winemaking stages in which samples exhibit the highest content of polyphenols and the greatest antibacterial activity. Considering the global need for new weapons against bacterial infections and alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as well as the favorable bioactivities of polyphenols, results point to red wine as a source of antibacterial substances for developing new anti-infective biomaterials and coatings for biomedical devices.

  18. Silver Nanoparticles/Ibuprofen-Loaded Poly(l-lactide Fibrous Membrane: Anti-Infection and Anti-Adhesion Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection caused by bacteria is one of the crucial risk factors for tendon adhesion formation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP-loaded physical barriers were reported to be effective in anti-infection and anti-adhesion. However, high silver load may lead to kidney and liver damages. This study was designed for Ibuprofen (IBU-loaded poly(l-lactide (PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes containing a low dosage of Ag to evaluate its potential in maintaining suitable anti-infection and good anti-adhesion effects. The in vitro drug release study showed a sustained release of Ag ions and IBU from the membrane. Inferior adherence and proliferation of fibroblasts were found on the Ag4%–IBU4%-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes in comparison with pure PLLA and 4% Ag-loaded PLLA membranes. In the antibacterial test, all Ag-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes prevented the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ibuprofen is effective in enhancing the anti-adhesion and anti-proliferation effects of 4% Ag-loaded PLLA fibrous membrane. The medical potential of infection reduction and adhesion prevention of Ag4%–IBU4%-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membrane deserves to be further studied.

  19. Anti-infective properties of the melanin-glucan complex obtained from medicinal tinder bracket mushroom, Fomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr. (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Olga F; Gorovoj, Leontiy F; Beketova, Galina V; Savichuk, Hatalia O; Rytik, Petr G; Kucherov, Igor I; Prilutskay, Alla B; Prilutsky, Alexandr I

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to comparatively study the efficiency of traditionally used anti-infective drugs and biopolymer complexes originated from the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius (L.:Fr.) Fr.: 1) water-soluble melanin-glucan complex (MGC; -80% melanins and -20% beta-glucans) and 2) insoluble chitin-glucan-melanin complex (ChGMC; -70% chitin, -20% beta-glucans, and -10% melanins). Infectious materials (Helicobacter pylori, Candida albicans, and Herpes vulgaris I and HIV-1(zmb) were used in pure cultures of in vitro and in vivo models on experimental animals. Comparison studies of fungal biopolymers and effective modern antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral drugs were used in in vitro models. The comparative clinical efficiency of ChGMC and of etiotropic pharmaceuticals in models of H. pylori, C. albicans, and H. vulgaris I infection contamination were studied. Using in vitro models, it was established that MGC completely depresses growth of C. albicans. MGC had an antimicrobial effect on H. pylori identical to erythromycin in all concentrations, and had a stronger action on this bacterium than other tested antibiotics. Tested MGC possesses simultaneously weak toxicity and high anti-HIV-1 activity in comparison with zidovudine (Retrovir). The obtained results show that CLUDDT therapy in Wistar rats with the application of ChGMC is, on average, 1.35-1.43 times as effective as a traditional one. Considering the absence of MGC and ChGMC toxic properties on blood cells even in very high concentrations, these complexes may be used as a source of biopolymers for the creation of essentially new agents for wide application in infectious pathology. PMID:22135899

  20. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate. PMID:26997870

  1. In vitro susceptibility of community-acquired urinary tract pathogens to commonly used antimicrobial agents in Spain: a comparative multicenter study (2002-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garcia, M I; Munoz Bellido, J L; Garcia Rodriguez, J A

    2007-06-01

    The susceptibility patterns of 2724 uropathogens isolated in 9 Spanish regions during 2002, and 3013 obtained in 2004 were determined. The antibiotics tested were fosfomycin trometamol, amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefixime, cefuroxime-axetil, pipemidic, ceprofloxacin, trimethoprim plus sulphamethoxazole and nitrofurantoin. Escherichia coli was the main pathogen in both studies (73% vs. 68.3%) followed by Proteus mirabilis 7.2% vs. 6.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.4% vs. 5.2%). Enteroccocus spp. (4.7% vs. 6.8%), Streptoccocus agalactiae (1.7% vs. 3.1%) and Staphyloccocus saprophyticus (0.7% vs. 1.3%)were the most frequent Gram-positive pathogens. 31.3% of E. coli in 2002 and 32% in 2004 were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Around 40% of E. coli were resistant to a single agent. 21.6-24.1% were resistant to two antibiotics. 35.4% of first period isolates, and 37.6% of second period ones were resistant to two or more classes of antibiotics. Fosfomycin (2.1- 2.8%) and nitrofurantoin (3.5-5.7%) had the lowest resistance rates for E. coli. Amoxicillin (58.2-58.7%), co-trimoxazole (30.8-33.8%) and ciprofloxacin (22.6-22.7%) showed the highest resistance rates, and their suitability as empiric treatments for UTI should probably be re-evaluated. PMID:17594920

  2. Ertapenem: A new antibiotic choice for complicated urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Filiz; YAŞAR, Kadriye Kart; Şengöz, Gönül; SANDOKÇI, Semra; NAZLICAN, Özcan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) may require the use of a parenteral antimicrobial agent active against the extended spectrum |3 lactamases-producing urinary pathogens. The activity of ertapenem, a new once-a-day carbapenem, was investigated in pathogens isolated from complicated and non-complicated UTIs. Material and method: A total of 256 urinary pathogen were studied. The half of the strains were isolated from complicated and the others were from non-...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  4. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  6. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in ... al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated ... in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frye -tus), or a kidney infection, and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  9. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women. PMID:24585116

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up ... should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms. ...

  11. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common kidney and urinary tract problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal ... congenital abnormalities (meaning abnormalities that exist at birth) is ...

  12. Multifunctional Electrospun Nanofibers Incorporated with an Anti-infection Drug and Immobilized with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shufei

    Electrospinning has been used to fabricate ultrafine fibers with sizes ranging from nano to micrometers. Nanofibers electrospun from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers have been extensively investigated for their potential applications in wound healing and tissue regeneration. These nanofiber materials can be modified to incorporate bioactive molecules, such as antibacterial agents that provide infection control, or functional proteins which promote cell proliferation and tissue reconstruction. Despite the numerous studies on the development and design of nanofibers for biomedical applications, there has been little research on multifunctional nanofibers that are incorporated with both antibacterial drug(s) and bioactive proteins. The objective of the current study is, therefore, to develop nanofibers that are functionalized by several bioactive molecules. In this study, electrospinning was utilized to fabricate nanofibers from biodegradable polymers PLLA (Poly-L-lactide) and the copolymer PLLA-PEG (Polyethylene glycol)-NH2.A water soluble antibiotic drug, Tetracycline Hydrochloride (TCH), was incorporated into the electrospun nanofibers via emulsion electrospinning. The TCH-loaded nanofibers were surface modified to produce functional groups that can be further conjugated with a model protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA).Drug releasing profiles of the medicated nanofibers were monitored and their antimicrobial properties were evaluated. Proteins (BSAs) immobilized on the fiber surface were verified by ATR-FTIR. The number of immobilized BSAs was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results of the study suggested that this multifunctional nanofibrous material could be a promising material for wound dressing or scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  13. Urinary Tract Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, V. Allen

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the current imaging investigations usually required in the work-up of common urinary tract problems such as urinary tract infection, colic, trauma, hematuria and renal failure. Radiological therapeutic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy for drainage of obstructed systems and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of renal calculi are briefly mentioned. The virtual elimination of percutaneous or open surgery for renal and upper urinary tract stones, resulting ...

  14. Continent Urinary Diversion

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Andrew; Vasdev, Nikhil; Thorpe, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    We present a review on the current options for continent urinary diversion and their different indications on the basis of patient selection. In current clinical practice continent urinary diversion is being used world-wide in patients undergoing radical cystectomy and in severe cases of benign bladder pathologies. We also discuss the specific complications of continent urinary diversion and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these patients in the long- term specifically in terms of the...

  15. Analysis of 120 Clinical Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infections%糖尿病合并尿路感染120临床治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳雷

    2013-01-01

      目的探索糖尿病合并尿路感染患者的有效治疗方法。方法回归性分析120例糖尿病合并尿路感染患者的临床资料,比较采用二甲双胍联合比格列酮控制血糖及抗感染治疗其他方法控制血糖及抗感染治疗对糖尿病尿路感染的治疗效果。结果120例患者中43例采用二甲双胍联合比格列酮及抗感染治疗,治愈40例,好转2例,无效1例,治愈率93%,好转率5%,有效率98%。77例采用其他方法控制血糖及抗感染治疗,治愈54,好转19例,无效4例,治愈率70%,好转率25%,有效率95%。结论采用二甲双胍联合比格列酮及抗感染治疗,更有助于糖尿病尿路感染的治疗。%Objective To explore the effective treatment of diabetic patients with urinary tract infection. Methods Regression analysis of 120 cases of diabetic patients with urinary tract infections in patients with clinical data, was used to compare than pioglitazone, metformin combined with other methods to control blood sugar and anti-infection treatment to control blood sugar and anti-infection treatment of diabetes urinary tract infection treatment effect. Results 43 cases of 120 patients with pioglitazone, metformin combined ratio and anti-infection treatment, 40 cases were cured, improved in 2 cases and 1 case, the cure rate was 93%, the improvement rate of 5%, 98%efficiency. 95%of the 77 cases of other methods to control blood sugar and anti-infection treatment, cure 54, improved in 19 cases, 4 cases, 70%cure rate, improvement rate was 25%efficient. Conclusion Pioglitazone, metformin combined ratio and anti-infection treatment, but also contribute to the treatment of diabetes urinary tract infection.

  16. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Roy; Sahana Yasmin; Subhadeep Ghosh; Somesankar Bhattacharya; Debdulal Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance re...

  17. From in vitro to in vivo : establishment of a test system for the biological evaluation of novel quorum sensing inhibitors as anti-infectives against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christine Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Innovative, efficient anti-infectives are needed because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Thus, strategies have been proposed interfering with bacterial pathogenicity instead of viability such as inhibition of quorum sensing. This intercellular communication system uses signal molecules to coordinate virulence and biofilm formation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses unique signal molecules such as 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-(1H)-quinolone (PQS). Therefore, compounds should be developed blocking their...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  1. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Wasamwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

  2. From Pichia anomala killer toxin through killer antibodies to killer peptides for a comprehensive anti-infective strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonelli, Luciano; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    "Antibiobodies", antibodies (Abs) with antibiotic activity, internal image of a Pichia anomala killer toxin (PaKT) characterized by microbicidal activity against microorganisms expressing β-glucans cell-wall receptors (PaKTRs), were produced by idiotypic vaccination with a PaKT-neutralizing monoclonal Ab (PaKT-like Abs) or induced by a protein-conjugated β-glucan. Human natural PaKT-like Abs (PaKTAbs) were found in the vaginal fluid of women infected with KT-sensitive microorganisms. Monoclonal and recombinant PaKT-like Abs, and PaKTAbs proved to be protective against experimental candidiasis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis. A killer decapeptide (KP), synthesized from the sequence of a recombinant PaKT-like Ab or produced in transgenic plants, showed a microbicidal activity in vitro, neutralized by β-glucans, a therapeutic effect in vivo, against experimental mucosal and systemic mycoses, and a prophylactic role in planta, against phytopathogenic microorganisms, respectively. KP showed fungicidal properties against all the defective mutants of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae library, inclusive of strains recognized to be resistant to conventional antifungal drugs. KP inhibited in vitro, ex vivo and/or in vivo HIV-1 and Influenza A virus replication, owing to down-regulation of CCR5 co-receptors, physical block of the gp120-receptor interaction and reduction in the synthesis of glycoproteins, HA and M1 in particular. KP modulated the expression of costimulatory and MHC molecules on murine dendritic cells, improving their capacity to induce lymphocyte proliferation. KP, proven to be devoid of cytotoxicity on human cells, showed self-assembly-releasing hydrogel-like properties, catalyzed by β 1,3 glucan. PaKT's biotechnological derivatives may represent the prototypes of novel antifungal vaccines and anti-infective drugs characterized by different mechanisms of action. PMID:20714805

  3. Best pharmacological practice: urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay

    2003-05-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection. Acute uncomplicated urinary infection and acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis occur in young women with normal genitourinary tracts. Empirical short-course therapy is preferred for the management of acute cystitis, but evolving resistance requires continuing reassessment of optimal antimicrobial selection. Empirical trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has been recommended, but increasing resistance to these agents suggests that pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and perhaps fosfomycin trometamol should be considered. Although flouroquinolones are effective as short-course therapy, widespread empirical use of these agents should be discouraged because of potential promotion of resistance. For acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis, flouroquinolones are the empirical oral treatment of choice, although urine culture results should direct continuing therapy. Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in men or women of all ages with underlying abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Treatment of complicated urinary infection is individualised, taking into consideration the underlying abnormality and susceptibilities of the infecting organism. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated except in pregnant women, in patients prior to undergoing an invasive surgical procedure, or renal transplant recipients in the early postrenal transplant period. PMID:12739995

  4. Auditing urinary catheter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailly, Sue

    Urinary catheters are the main cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections among inpatients. Healthcare staff can reduce the risk of patients developing an infection by ensuring they give evidence-based care and by removing the catheter as soon as it is no longer necessary. An audit conducted in a Hampshire hospital demonstrated there was poor documented evidence that best practice was being carried out. Therefore a urinary catheter assessment and monitoring tool was designed to promote best practice and produce clear evidence that care had been provided. PMID:22375340

  5. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  6. Urinary Retention Associated with Atomoxetine Use: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nilfer Sahin

    2016-01-01

    Atomoxetine is a well-studied non-stimulant treatment agent, and is also the first-choice non-stimulant drug for the conventional treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder owing to its effectiveness and tolerability. Urinary retention is a type of urological emergency that is associated with the inability to urinate despite the bladder being full and a strong urge to urinate. It is known that urinary retention can also develop due to the use of anticholinergic drugs. In this manus...

  7. Herbal medicines for urinary stone treatment. A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Monti; Alberto Trinchieri; Vittorio Magri; Anne Cleves; Gianpaolo Perletti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical evidence on the efficacy of phytotherapy in the treatment of calculi in the urinary tract. Methods: To be eligible, full-length articles should include the results of randomized controlled trials enrolling patients affected by urolithiasis, reporting any comparison between an experimental herbal agent versus placebo or any active comparator, aimed at preventing the formation or facilitating the dissolution of calculi in any portion of the urinary tract. Fift...

  8. Urinary Retention Associated with Atomoxetine Use: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilfer Sahin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine is a well-studied non-stimulant treatment agent, and is also the first-choice non-stimulant drug for the conventional treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder owing to its effectiveness and tolerability. Urinary retention is a type of urological emergency that is associated with the inability to urinate despite the bladder being full and a strong urge to urinate. It is known that urinary retention can also develop due to the use of anticholinergic drugs. In this manuscript, we present a 12-year-old male case who developed acute urinary retention in the period following atomoxetine treatment.

  9. 32P Postlabelling analysis of urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco implicates 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) as a major DNA-damaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Friesen, M; Garren, L; Hautefeuille, A; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1991-04-01

    When mutagens extracted from the urine of two smokers of black tobacco were reacted with DNA in vitro in the presence of a metabolic activation system, several DNA adducts were detected by 32P-postlabelling analysis. Some of these adducts were also visible, but only faintly, on the autoradiogram for a non-smoker's urine. DNA adducts produced in vitro by 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[3,5-b]pyridine could not account for the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagens. However, three or four 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-related DNA adducts were present among the five or six adducts observed for smokers in the autoradiograms of urinary mutagen-adducted nucleotides. Mutagenicity testing combined with HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts also supported the postlabelling data which implicates PhIP as a mutagen in the urine of smokers of black tobacco. PMID:2013135

  10. Urinary tract infection by Chryseobacterium indologenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bhuyar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium species is an uncommon human pathogen although recovered from various sources in the hospital environment. Most infections have been detected in hospitalized patients with severe underlying diseases and who had indwelling devices or implants. Despite their low virulence, chryseobacteria are inherently resistant to many antimicrobial agents. We report a rare case of urinary tract infection by Chryseobacterium indologenes in a young girl, operated for renal calculus and successfully treated with piperacillin-tazobactam combination.

  11. Urinary Tract Infection: How It Happens?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Altarac

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, affect a large proportion of the world population and account for substantial morbidity and medical costs. Classification of the UTIs is based on the anatomical level of infection, the grade of severity of infection, the underlying risk factors, and the microbiological findings. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is the causative agent in 70-95% of community-acquired uroinfections and about 50% of all cases of nosocomial u...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  13. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  14. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The synthetic midurethral slings were introduced in the 1990s and were rapidly replaced the Burch colposuspension as the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence. It has been reported that the retropubic midurethral tape has an objective and subjective cure rate of 85% at 5...... years of follow-up, but the rate of reoperation after retropubic midurethral tape at the long-term follow-up is less well described. The existing literature specifies an overall lifetime rate of reoperation of about 8-9% after an initial operation for urinary incontinence. There are, however......, conflicting statements about the risk of reoperation after specific surgical procedures for urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the cumulative incidence of reoperation within a 5 year period after different types of surgical procedures for urinary incontinence based...

  15. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or in your abdomen above your pubic bone (suprapubic catheter). The catheter is used to drain urine from ... Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter care Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ... Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a UTI. The doctor also can choose to send the urine sample to a lab for testing. ... Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend Reprint Guidelines Sign up for ...

  19. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  1. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  2. Acute Urinary Tract Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksic Djordje

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are paired organs with the primary function of helping to remove toxins from the body and regulate water balance. They are vital to survival. After urine is produced in the kidneys, it must pass into the bladder, where it can be stored before being eliminated from the body through the urethra. Urinary tract obstruction is a common problem encountered by urologists, primary care physicians, and emergency medicine physicians. Urine can become obstructed at any point in this pathway. There are three groups of urinary tract obstructions: 1 obstruction of the urinary tract lumen; 2 obstruction of the urinary tract wall; and 3 extrinsic obstruction, which can press on the urinary tract lumen. An obstruction can be present from birth or develop later in life. The most common causes of obstruction include stones, strictures, tumours, and bladder dysfunction. These obstructions may result in the hydronephrosis of one or both kidneys, which, if left untreated, may lead to the deterioration of renal function. The goal of an initial treatment of urinary tract obstruction is to remove the obstruction. Later, we treat the cause that led to the obstruction. The bottom line is that all efforts should be made to preserve kidney function to avoid the need for dialysis or renal transplantation.

  3. [Urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  4. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  5. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  6. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  7. Technetium-99m Labelled Infection Imaging Agents. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection specific radiopharmaceuticals can be used for diagnosis as well as for decision making in therapy and treatment follow-up. Most of the currently used tracers are not able to discriminate between infection and inflammation. Research has been going on to develop infection specific markers, and radiolabelled anti-infective agents look promising towards developing infection specific agents. Technetium-99m labelled antibiotics might also have the potential to differentiate sterile inflammation from infection. There are numerous ongoing studies reporting the use of other radiolabelled antibacterial and antifungal agents for detecting infection. Other promising agents are antimicrobial peptides as they preferentially bind to membranes of bacteria over mammalian cells and, therefore, will discriminate between infection and sterile inflammation. Clinical studies are now being undertaken with these agents and further evaluation with different types of pathogens such as viruses, fungi, parasites and intracellular pathogens in humans will provide new infection specific diagnostic agents. (author)

  8. MedlinePlus: Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also in Spanish Stress incontinence Also in Spanish Suprapubic catheter care Also in Spanish Urge incontinence Also in ... catheterization - male Skin care and incontinence Stress incontinence Suprapubic catheter care Urge incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary catheters - what ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...

  10. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina;

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's ... near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. Gross! Reviewed by: T. Ernesto Figueroa, ... Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  12. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  13. Urinary Incontinence in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of wastes and extra fluid. In order for normal urination to occur, all parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order. Kidneys. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below ...

  14. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation, im...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  16. Antifouling coating with controllable and sustained silver release for long-term inhibition of infection and encrustation in urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Chiong, Edmund

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections constitute a large proportion of nosocomial infections, and the urinary catheter is the most important predisposing factor. Encrustation induced by urease-producing uropathogens like Proteus mirabilis causes further complications. In the present work, a strategy for controllable and sustained release of silver over several weeks has been developed for combating bacterial infection and encrustation in urinary devices. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were first immobilized on polydopamine (PDA) pre-treated silicone catheter surface and this was followed by another PDA coating. The number of AgNP-PDA bilayers could be manipulated to control the amount of silver loaded and its subsequent release. Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate-co-acrylamide) was then grafted to provide an antifouling outer layer, and to ensure free diffusion of Ag from the surface. The micron-scale combination of an antifouling coating with AgNP-PDA bilayers reduced colonization of the urinary catheter by uropathogens by approximately two orders of magnitude. With one and two AgNP-PDA bilayers, the coated catheter could resist encrustation for 12 and 45 days, respectively, compared with approximately 6 days with the Dover™ silver-coated catheter. Such anti-infective and anti-encrustation catheters can potentially have a large impact on reducing patient morbidity and healthcare expenditure. PMID:24922113

  17. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  18. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  19. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  20. [Urinary complications after anorectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Cristache, C; Popescu, R; Botea, F; Panait, L

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary complications after various anorectal operations was studied in a group of 273 patients. The overall prevalence of urinary complications was 26.7%; most of these complications affected men between 41 and 50, mainly after hemorrhoidectomy. In 10.6% of patients, bladder catheterization was needed. These urinary complications result from nervous reflexes originating from the anus and determined by the operative trauma and/or rectal distinction. In the treatment of these urinary complications, the role of the muses is essential for reassuring the patients. Parasympathomimetic drugs are often efficient. Urinary catheterization must be delayed until the 18th hour. Fluid restriction may be useful to prevent urinary retention. PMID:14870531

  1. Diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological exploration of the urinary tract has become highly sophisticated. The information provided by the new imaging techniques is extremely accurate and useful in the diagnosis and pretherapeutic assessment of most urinary tract diseases. Interventional radiology has given radiologists an important role in the treatment of some types of pathology. The authors describe the value of modern imaging and its different aspects in each of the principal branches of urinary tract pathology. viz.: tumours, obstructions, infections, vascular and prostatic diseases

  2. Urinary extracellular microvesicles: isolation methods and prospects for urinary proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danqi; Sun, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular microvesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles, which are released from diverse cells. These EVs have also been found in a wide range of body fluids. The cargo of EVs, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, can be stably preserved in EVs. Researchers have found that EVs can mediate intercellular communication by shuttling the cargo components. Therefore, EVs can be used for the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. As one class of EVs, urinary exosomes can reflect the status of the renal system. Moreover, urinary exosome analysis can minimize the interference of high abundant proteins in the whole urine sample. Therefore, urinary exosomes have gained much attention in recent years. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of urinary exosome studies in recent years, including collection, storage, and isolation methods. The normal and disease proteomic analyses of urinary exosomes are also presented. Thus, this review may provide a valuable reference for future research. PMID:24962155

  3. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, S; Deschênes, G

    2002-05-01

    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  4. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and...... renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  5. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  6. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  7. Study on synergy of fosfomycin combined with 4 kinds of antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains i-solated from urinary system%磷霉素与4种抗菌药物对泌尿系统分离铜绿假单胞菌的协同作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正谷; 苏世芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro antibacterial activity of fosfomycin combined with other 4 kinds of antimicrobial agents against 40 clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa .Methods The bacteria were i‐solated and identified by the conventional culture and the microbiological analyzer .The drug sensitive test was per‐formed by using Kirby‐Bauer disk diffusion test and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was examined by u‐sing the agar double dilution test and the micrdilution checkerboard technique .The fractional inhibitory concentration index(FICI) was calculated .Results A total of 40 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to most of anti‐bacterial agents .The fosfomycin exclusive use had a good antibacterial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the re ‐sistance rate was 37 .5% ;the combination use of fosfomycin with 4 kinds of antimicrobial agent showed the addictive action and independent action ,little synergic effect and no antagonism .Conclusion Fosfomycin is still a choice of an‐tibacterial drugs to treat the urinary tract infection induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa .%目的:研究磷霉素与4种抗菌药物分别联合应用对40株临床分离铜绿假单胞菌的体外抗菌活性。方法采用常规培养方法和微生物分析仪对细菌进行分离、鉴定。采用 K‐B 纸片扩散法进行药敏试验。采用琼脂倍比稀释法和微量棋盘法测定最低抑菌浓度(MIC),计算部分抑菌浓度指数(FICI)。结果40株铜绿假单胞菌对大多数抗菌药物具有耐药性。磷霉素单独使用对铜绿假单胞菌具有较好的抗菌活性,耐药率为37.5%;磷霉素与4种抗菌药物联用后,对铜绿假单胞菌表现为相加和无关作用,协同作用较少,未见拮抗作用。结论治疗铜绿假单胞菌引起的泌尿系统感染,磷霉素仍是一个可供选择的抗菌药物。

  8. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  9. An open multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, Gunnar; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard;

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence.......Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence....

  10. The efficacy and safety of urethral injection therapy for urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Katsumi Matsuoka; Rafael Fagionato Locali; Aparecida Maria Pacetta; Edmund Chada Baracat; Jorge Milhem Haddad

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different bulking agents for treating urinary incontinence in women, a systematic review including only randomized controlled trials was performed. The subjects were women with urinary incontinence. The primary outcomes were clinical and urodynamic parameters. The results were presented as a weighted mean difference for non-continuous variables and as relative risk for continuous variables, both with 95% confidence intervals. Initially, 942 studies were ...

  11. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your urinary tract, take these steps: Keep clean. Wash your private parts every day when you take ... choices. Those trips to the bathroom can help wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice ...

  13. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FIC. To help reduce the chances of recurrence: • Feed small meals on a frequent basis. • Consult with your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  16. Diseases of the urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-dependent anatomo-physiological regularities of development urogenital system of in children are considered. A description of performing examination methods is given: summarized roentgenography, excretary urography, cystography, kidney angiography. Great attention is given to the choice of contrast media, dose calculation, excretion and pharmokinetic mechanism of contrast media. Particular items of roentgenodiagnosis of urinary tract diseases are given: anomalies and acquired diseases of urinary system

  17. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  18. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  19. Analysis of Anti-infection in One Case of Pulmonary Abscess%一例肺脓肿患者的抗感染方案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金旭辉; 裴素娟; 柳小飞

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of clinical pharmacists in the clinical treatment of a case of pulmonary abscess by clinical pharmacists. Methods: Pharmacistsparticipatedand assisted doctors in a case of patients with lung abscesses, for theanti-infection treatment.Results: The clinical pharmacists involved in the treatment of patients with anti-infection treatment, and improved the effect of drug treatment.Conclusion: Clinical pharmacists directly participated in the formulation and adjustment of the treatment plan, andpromoted the clinical rational drug use.%目的:通过临床药师参与并分析对一例肺脓肿患者抗感染治疗,探讨临床药师在临床治疗中发挥的作用。方法:药师通过参与一例完整的肺脓肿病例的治疗,与临床医生一起制定抗感染治疗方案并协助医生及时调整。结果:该患者在临床医生与临床药师一起的抗感染治疗下,获得了很好的治疗效果,临床治愈出院。结论:临床药师直接参与医生治疗方案的制定与调整可促进临床合理用药。

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  1. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience

  2. 2009~2010年我院抗感染药物使用分析%Application analysis of anti-infective drugs in our hospital from 2009 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诗鸿; 王秀中; 郑丽莹

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解我院抗感染药物的应用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法 依托我院药品管理系统的原始数据,对我院2009~2010年抗感染药物的销售金额和用药频度(DDDs)等进行回顾性分析.结果 2009~2010年我院抗感染药物销售金额占药品销售总金额的比例呈下降趋势,在销售金额构成上,注射用药占90%以上,头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类位居前列,注射用头孢地嗪的销售金额和DDDs排序两年均居首位.结论我院抗感染药物使用基本合理,但仍存在少数品种过量使用,选择起点过高等问题,应进一步加强监管力度,促进抗感染药物的合理使用.%Objective To investigate and analyze the application of anti-infective drugs in our hospital, in order to provide references for rational clinical medication. Methods Depending on the original data from the management system of the drug stock, the data of anti-infective drugs application in our hospital from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed in respect of consumption sum, DDDs and so on. Results The consumption sum of anti-infective drugs in our hospital from 2009 to 2010 showed a downward trend. In the constitution of sales amount, intravenous drugs occupied more than 90% among all the anti-infective drugs. Cephalosporins and quinolones ranked the top places in respect of the consumption sum. Cefodizime for injection ranked the first place in respect of the consumption sum and DDDs from 2009 to 2010. Conclusion The use of antiinfective drugs is basically rational in our hospital. However, there are also some inappropriate problems such as drug overdose, selection of senior antibiotics and so on. It's necessary to strengthen supervision dynamicsc for promoting ration use of anti-infective drugs.

  3. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation

  4. 抗生素在抗感染中应用的药理分析%Pharmacological Analysis of Antibiotics in Application of Anti-infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗春红

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pharmacological analysis on antibiotics and its application to anti-infection are to be investigated. Methods Chose 172 patients with infectious disease who were given antibiotics treatment in hospital from September 2014 to November 2015 to study,and then made a pharmacological analysis on antibiotics and its application effect. Results Based on pharmacological analysis on antibiotics,it could be separated into time-dependent antibiotics and concentration-dependent antibiotics,and as for patients with a cold or diarrhea,they must be cautious to antibiotics usage. It was necessary to use antibiotics reasonably in accordance with il ness condition in order to increase treatment efficiency,otherwise,it would be ineffective and harmful to patients’immune system. Conclusion Antibiotics abuse is a serious problem in our nation,this study starts with pharmacological analysis on antibiotics and explores proper usage of it with investigation on its application method and principle in order to standard antibiotics application.%目的:探究抗生素在抗感染中的应用和药理分析。方法本次研究选取2014年9月~2015年11月收治的172例感染患者采用抗生素的治疗,对抗生素的药理进行分析,观察患者的治疗效果。结果对抗生素进行药理分析,有时间依赖性抗生素和浓度依赖性抗生素,感冒和腹泻患者慎用抗生素,要针对疾病类型,合理采用抗生素的治疗,才可提高治疗效果,否则不仅没有治疗效果,还会降低患者的免疫力。结论我国抗生素滥用的问题严重,本次研究在药理入手,对抗感染采用抗生素治疗进行合理应用,分析用药方法和用药原则,规范抗生素的合理应用。

  5. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... prevalence risk indicators. The 1987 period prevalences of stress and urge urinary incontinence were 15.9% and 8.7%, respectively. Forty-one percent had ceased to menstruate. Irrespective of the UI risk indicators mentioned, UI prevalence was significantly raised from 1 year before until 1 year after...

  6. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  7. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery-store ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, a ...

  8. Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

  9. Radiology of continent urinary diversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continent urinary diversions are gaining wide acceptance as alternatives to the ideal conduit following cystectomy. Clean intermittent catheterization of the pouch at regular intervals obviates the inconvenience of an external stomal appliance. A variety of surgical techniques have been described for continent pouches. These use the small bowel alone or a combination of the cecum and the terminal ileum. The optimum pouch protects upper tracts by preventing reflux, provides urinary continence, and has sufficient capacity to require infrequent catheterization. Simplified construction techniques for the common pouches are graphically presented, and methods are suggested for identification and study of continent diversions

  10. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Møller; Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  11. Urinary incontinence in children Invited Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Canpolat, Nur; ,; Çalışkan, Salim

    2007-01-01

    Urinary incontinence which is defined as the involuntary loss of urine is a very common clinical problem in childhood Its etiology includes delayed bladder control effects of environmental and social factors on toilet training urinary tract infection anatomic abnormalities of lower urinary tract and neurogenic disorders The more common cause of childhood urinary incontinence is non neurogenic abnormalities classified as anatomic abnormalities or bladder dysfunction Voiding dysfunction is asso...

  12. [Practice guideline 'Urinary incontinence in women' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damen-van Beek, Z; Wiersma, Tj

    2016-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) practice guideline 'Urinary incontinence in women' provides guidelines for diagnosis and management of stress, urgency and mixed urinary incontinence in adult women.- General practitioners (GPs) should be alert to signals for urinary incontinence in women and offer active diagnosis and treatment if necessary.- Shared decision making is central in the guideline; the GP and the patient should discuss therapeutic options and decide on treatment policy in mutual consultation.- Women with stress urinary incontinence can choose between pelvic floor exercises or a pessary as initial treatment. Placing a midurethral sling (MUS) will be discussed if initial treatment is insufficiently effective or in the case of serious symptoms.- When bladder training is ineffective in urgency incontinence, the GP will discuss the pros and cons of adding an anticholinergic agent.- Exercise therapy can take place in the GPs practice or under supervision of a pelvic physical therapist. PMID:27484432

  13. Clinical Observation on Electroacupuncture Against Urinary Incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文洁; 胡昌东; 王洁茹; 洪珏

    2009-01-01

    @@ Urinary incontinence is a common problem, usually classified as stress incontinence or urge incontinence[1]. With the development of medical science, people have got more and more profound knowledge towards urinary incontinence. We treated urinary incontinence with electroacupuncture since 2006, and now reported it as follows.

  14. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  15. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manjula; Sharma, Jyoti; Bhardwaj, Sonia

    2016-03-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM) and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome. PMID:27275323

  16. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  17. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long...

  18. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes pictures of the body’s internal organs and soft tissues without using x rays. MRI machines use radio waves and magnets to ... Urinary tract imaging techniques include conventional radiology, or x rays; ... tomography (CT) scans; and radionuclide scans. Preparations for an ...

  19. Biofilm infections of urinary tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holá, V.; Růžička, F.; Horáková, L.; Renata, R.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul, 2008. s. 232. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Keywords : catheter related urinary tract infections * affection of culture conditions * capillary isoelectric focusing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Agent engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  1. The efficacy and safety of urethral injection therapy for urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Katsumi Matsuoka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different bulking agents for treating urinary incontinence in women, a systematic review including only randomized controlled trials was performed. The subjects were women with urinary incontinence. The primary outcomes were clinical and urodynamic parameters. The results were presented as a weighted mean difference for non-continuous variables and as relative risk for continuous variables, both with 95% confidence intervals. Initially, 942 studies were identified. However, only fourteen eligible trials fulfilled the prerequisites. Altogether, the review included 1814 patients in trials of eight different types of bulking agents, and all studies were described and analyzed. The measured outcomes were evaluated using a large variety of instruments. The most common complications of the bulking agents were urinary retention and urinary tract infection. Additionally, there were certain major complications, such as one case of death after use of autologous fat. However, the lack of adequate studies, the heterogeneous populations studied, the wide variety of materials used and the lack of long-term follow-up limit guidance of practice. To determine which substance is the most suitable, there is a need for more randomized clinical trials that compare existing bulking agents based on standardized clinical outcomes.

  2. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well described neurologic, gastrointestinal, and potential abortion-causing agent in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described here in ...

  3. Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections using diagnostics tests in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Hasan SK

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Physicians should distinguish urinary tract infections caused by different organisms for an effective treatment and appropriate clinical information gives clues for better diagnostic evaluation and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents as well addressing host factors that contribute to the occurrence of infection. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 415-421

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Wareham David W.; Krahe Daniel; Bean David C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI). Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ...

  5. Prevention of urinary tract infections in nursing homes: lack of evidence-based prescription?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman Jenny; Schjøtt Jan; Blix Hege S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs, including upper and lower symptomatic) are the most common infections in nursing homes and prevention may reduce patient suffering, antibiotic use and resistance. The spectre of agents used in preventing UTIs in nursing homes is scarcely documented and the aim of this study was to explore which agents are prescribed for this purpose. Methods We conducted a one-day, point-prevalence study in 44 Norwegian nursing homes during April-May 2006. N...

  6. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections In Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    N Sivalingam; Loh KY

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in...

  8. Approach to urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

  9. URINARY INCONTINENCE IN ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, S.; Augustine, M.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY A prospective two year study of consecutive admissions (n=984) to a psychiatry ward revealed that the incidence of temporary urinary incontinence in psychiatric patients without delirium or dementia was 1.63% (n=l6). When compared with controls (n=64) the incontinent patients were more often psychotic, gave a history of childhood enuresis and a past history of temporary incontinence during psychosis. Compared with psychotic controls (n=26), incontinent patients (n=16) had been exposed...

  10. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi; Saleh Mansoor Aulaqi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30t...

  11. Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S M

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodent...

  12. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Christine V; Zhang, Fan; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edi...

  13. Resistance profiles of urinary tract infections in general practice - an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmiemann Guido

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guideline recommendations on therapy in urinary tract infections are based on antibiotic resistance rates. Due to a lack of surveillance data, little is known about resistance rates in uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI in general practice in Germany. In a prospective observational study, urine cultures of all women presenting with urinary tract infections in general practice were analysed. Resistance rates against antibiotics recommended in German guidelines on UTI are presented. Methods In a prospective, multi-center observational study general practitioner included all female patients ≥ 18 years with clinically suspected urinary tract infection. Only patients receiving an antibiotic therapy within the last two weeks were excluded. Results 40 practices recruited 191 female patients (mean age 52 years; range 18–96 with urinary tract infections. Main causative agent was Escherichia coli (79% followed by Enterococcus faecalis (14% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.3%. Susceptibiliy of E.coli as the main causative agent was highest against fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin, with low resistance rates of 4,5%; 2,2%. In 17,5%, E.coli was resistant to trimethoprim and in 8,5% to ciprofloxacin. Conclusions Resistance rates of uropathogens from unselected patients in general practice differ from routinely collected laboratory data. These results can have an impact on antibiotic prescribing and treatment recommendations.

  14. Urinary PGE-M: a promising cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N

    2013-06-01

    Cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and targeted therapies are the keys to success in better cancer control and treatment. A big challenge remains to identify biomarkers for predicting who may have higher cancer risk and are able to respond to certain chemopreventive agents as well as for assessing a patient's response during treatment. Although a large body of evidence indicates that chronic inflammation is a risk factor for cancer, it is unclear whether inflammatory biomarkers can be used to predict cancer risk, progression, and death. Considering the importance of the proinflammatory COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in inflammation and cancer, Morris and colleagues found that urinary PGE-M is positively associated with obesity, smoking, and lung metastases in patients with breast cancer (4). Along the same lines, Kim and colleagues showed a potential association between urinary PGE-M and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women (beginning on page 511). In agreement with previous reports, their findings indicate that urinary PGE-M may serve as a promising biomarker for prognosticating cancer risk and disease progression. PMID:23636051

  15. Paliperidone Palmitate-induced Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karslıoǧlu, Ersin Hatice; Özalp, Elvan; Çayköylü, Ali

    2016-02-29

    Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients' compliance. Amitriptyline, desmopressin, ephedrine, and anticholinergics such as oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl are the most frequently used agents to treat incontinence. We think that the frequency of incontinence is higher than reported in the literature, and that follow-up routines should include a form of standardized screening for all possible adverse effects, including incontinence, of any given antipsychotic. In this article, we report a case of urinary incontinence as an adverse effect of paliperidone palmitate use during maintenance therapy in a patient with schizophrenia. PMID:26792046

  16. Observation of the Effect of Vitamin C in the Treatment of TypeⅡDiabetes Mellitus with Urinary Tract Infection%维生素C在2型糖尿病合并尿路感染治疗中的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廷海; 付研

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of vitamin C (VitC, Vc) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (MD) in the therapeutic efficacy with urinary tract infection.Methods: 2 MD patients with urinary tract infection patients were divided into two groups, the premise of anti infection control blood sugar, the treatment group was treated with Vc for 3 ~ 4G orally, the control group without Vc, to observe the influence of two groups of solutions to fight infection effect.Results:In Vc treated patients complicated with urinary MD in patients with type 2 infection, anti infection treatment cure rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: 2 MD complicated with urinary tract infection of patients using Vc acidification of urine, blood glucose control can better improve the cure rate of infection.%目的:观察维生素C(VitC,Vc)在2型糖尿病(MD)合并尿路感染治疗中的疗效。方法:将2型MD合并尿路感染患者分为两组,抗感染控制血糖的前提下,治疗组加用Vc3~4g口服,对照组不用Vc,观察两组方案对抗感染疗效的影响。结果:2型MD患者合并尿路感染患者使用Vc时,抗感染治疗的有效率治疗组明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:2型MD合并尿路感染的患者使用Vc酸化尿液,可以更好的控制血糖,提高感染治愈率。

  17. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment. PMID:26390591

  18. Female urinary incontinence: effective treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R A; Arruda, R M; Bortolini, M A T

    2015-04-01

    Urinary incontinence is a dysfunction that tremendously affects women's quality of life, involving social, emotional and economic aspects. Although various treatments for urinary incontinence have been described, it is important to know which of them are truly effective. This review seeks to determine the current available therapies for women with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome, based on the best scientific evidence. PMID:25307986

  19. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    BEHZADI, Payam; BEHZADI, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution o...

  20. Urinary Tract Infection: How It Happens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Altarac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, affect a large proportion of the world population and account for substantial morbidity and medical costs. Classification of the UTIs is based on the anatomical level of infection, the grade of severity of infection, the underlying risk factors, and the microbiological findings. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is the causative agent in 70-95% of community-acquired uroinfections and about 50% of all cases of nosocomial uroinfections. Virulence factors associated with uropathogenic strains of E. coli contain toxins such as haemolysin and cytotoxic necrotising factor, capsules, lipopolysaccharide, the siderophore aerobactin, and adhesive organelles. The ability to attach to urothelial cells is the most important determinant of pathogenicity. An adherence is followed by inflammation involving the urothelial cells’ cytokine response. Whereas interleukin (IL-6 can cause the fever and systemic response of the UTIs, IL-8 can function as a neutrophil chemoattractant. Cytokines released by T cells and monocytes modify initiative urothelial cells’ cytokine response to bacteria. Nevertheless, antibiotic treatments can effectively sterilise the urine, but bacteria can survive and persist in the bladder tissue, serving as a reservoir for the recurrent UTIs. The severity of UTI reflects the quality and magnitude of the host response. While strong local and systemic innate immune activation occurs in patients with acute pyelonephritis, the response to asymptomatic bacteriuria is low. It should be reasonable to ‘individualise’ diagnosis and therapy by interconnecting information on uropathogenic bacterial virulence and the host response.

  1. [Uncomplicated urinary tract infection and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Watermann, D; Weidner, W; Naber, K G

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are frequent infections in the outpatient and hospital setting. With respect to treatment options, UTI can generally be stratified into uncomplicated and complicated / nosocomial infections. Uncomplicated UTI are represented by the acute uncomplicated cystitis and the uncomplicated pyelonephritis. They are mainly caused by E. coli. There are, however, also increasing resistance rates found in uncomplicated UTI, e. g., against aminopenicillins, cotrimoxazole and increasingly also fluoroquinolones. This development has called for a new evaluation of the treatment recommendations in uncomplicated UTI. As an empirical therapy for uncomplicated cystitis fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin or pivmecillinam are recommended as first-line agents. As the oral first line therapy for uncomplicated pyelonephritis fluroquinolones in high dosages are recommended. The frequent asymptomatic bacteriuria does not need to be treated, with only a few exceptions. Due to the increasing antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant uropathogens, empirical antibiotic treatment becomes more difficult. Therefore the results of susceptibility testing should be awaited whenever possible. PMID:21267803

  2. Efficacy of selective alpha-1 blocker therapy in the treatment of acute urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an alpha-1 adrenoreceptor blocking agent for acute urinary symptoms in patients treated with radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1987 and 1995, 743 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 3D-CRT. A total of 275 (37%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary symptoms as defined by the RTOG morbidity scoring system. Terazosin hydrochloride (THC), a selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocking agent, was given to 119 (43%) patients for treatment of their urinary symptoms, whereas nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAID) were administered to 71 patients (26%). Thirty-one patients (11%) were treated with other medications, and 54 (20%) did not seek pharmacologic intervention for their urinary symptoms. Patients were monitored weekly to assess changes in urinary urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Results: Treatment with THC resulted in a significant resolution of urinary symptoms in 79 of 119 patients (66%), while 26 (22%) had moderate improvement, and 14 (12%) had minimal to no response to this drug. In contrast, only 11 of 71 (16%) of the patients treated with NSAIDs experienced significant symptom relief, 20 (28%) had moderate improvement, and 40 (56%) had minimal to no response. The difference in the significant symptomatic improvement between THC and NSAID therapy (66% vs. 16%) was highly significant (p < 0.001). For patients treated with THC, a higher likelihood of significant symptom relief was observed in patients who did not receive neoadjuvant androgen ablation (p = 0.04) and in those who were younger than 65 years of age (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Alpha-1 selective adrenoceptor blocking agents are effective in ameliorating the acute urinary symptoms in patients receiving radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Although this was not a randomized prospective study, the data suggest that NSAIDs were less effective in relieving radiation-induced urinary

  3. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  4. 临床药师在1例ICU重症患者抗感染药物治疗中的作用%Role of Clinical Pharmacists in Anti-infective Drug Therapy for a Severe Patient in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 王婧; 陆瑶华; 李颖川; 周明; 郭澄

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of clinical pharmacists in the determining of drug therapy for ICU severe patients. METHODS: One case of intestinal obstruction patient with septic shock was analyzed descriptively in terms of disease course, drug therapy and outcome. The empirical anti-infective therapeutic strategies for the sepsis induced by the abdominal infection with unsatisfactory anti-infection and undetected pathogen were analyzed. Pharmaceutical care mainly concerned about the change of the routine blood test, biochemical function and other laboratory index, especially the specific inflammatory markers. RESULTS: In the course of therapy, clinical pharmacists identified the intraperitoneal drug-resistant E. coli infection was the main problem and selected a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic for the treatment. De-escalation therapy was performed after controlling severe infection, and then the individual anti-infective program was formulated in the course of antibiotic therapy to promote disease condition. CONCLUSION: Clinical pharmacists should participate in the health care team, and help clinicians to adjust drug treatment programs. This attempt may enhance the effect of drug therapy.%目的:探讨临床药师在ICU重症患者药物治疗方案确定中的作用.方法:描述性分析1例肠梗阻术后休克患者的病程发展、药物治疗情况及转归,分析腹腔感染引起脓毒症、感染控制不佳、病原体不明确时的经验治疗策略.药学监护重点关注血常规、生化功能等实验室指标趋势,特别是特异性炎性指标.结果:临床药师针对多部位的耐药菌感染,明确腹腔大肠埃希菌感染为需解决的主要矛盾,选用耐酶广谱的碳青霉烯类及时控制感染后降阶梯治疗,制订个体化抗感染方案,使得病情好转.结论:临床药师参与医疗团队,协助医师调整药物治疗方案,有利于提升患者的药物治疗效果.

  5. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Laneve

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire with an kit of the BIO-DETECTOR while the identification of germs with Apy sistem. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were assaied with the ATB UR strip. Results: About the total of samples analysed, 320 (22% had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common etiologic agent isolated (62%, followed by Klebsiella ssp. (10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5,95% and Proteus mirabilis (5%. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for only 7.32% , with prevalence of Staphylococcus ssp (5,32 and Enterococcus spp (2%. The most effective antibiotics for Gram- were: Imipenem, Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxim, while for Gram+ were: Minocyclin,Vancomycin and Oxacillin. Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the microrganism more frequently isolated between Gram negative bacteria with very susceptible to Amoxicillin. Currently, the empirical use of Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin is not recommended for Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to get a UTI once past the age of 65. Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of IVU.

  6. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  7. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings.

  8. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings

  9. TERMINALIA CHEBULA: A TREATMENT AGAINST PATHOGENIC PROTEUS VULGARIS STRAINS ASSOCIATED WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq A.L.; Reyaz. A. L

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia chebula was used to find out the new sort of treatment for the urinary tract infections caused by Proteus vulgaris. The causative agent was identified as Proteus vulgaris by staining and biochemical methods. It is responsible to cause urinary tract infection and most of strains show the resistance against the broad spectrum antibiotics: Ceftazidime (30μg), Ofloxacin (50μg), Norfloxacin (30μg), Tetracycline (30μg), Ampicillin (30μg), Chloramphenicol (25μg) and Gentamycin (20μg). The...

  10. Prevention of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum using locally applied dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the preventi.on of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum for cervical cancer patients was worked out. It was based on the iocal application of the radioprotective agent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) before a session of interstitial irradiation with the AGAT-B apparatus. Concomitant radiation therapy with DMSO was provided to 22 cervical cancer patients. The control group included 59 patients who received similar treatment without DMSO. The experession of early reactions and late injuries of the rectum and urinary bladder were signifncantly lower in the DMSO group. A radioprotective DMSO effect with relation to tumor was not found

  11. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tract Infection” What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, which includes the bladder (which stores the ...

  12. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions for...... lithium, anticonvulsants, and other psychotropic agents used for bipolar disorder, and among unexposed individuals. METHODS: This was a nationwide, population-based longitudinal study including time-specific data from all individuals exposed to lithium (n = 24,272) or anticonvulsants (n = 386,255), all......) benign. Analyses were adjusted for the number of prescriptions for lithium/anticonvulsants, antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, and use of all other types of medication; age; gender; employment status; calendar year; and a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Continued treatment with lithium was...

  13. [Oral antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Claus; Småbrekke, Lars; Døllner, Henrik; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov

    2009-06-25

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood. Empiric antibiotic therapy is guided by the clinical presentation, the patient's ability to take oral agents and the local resistance pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli), the most common pathogen. Most children (with both upper and lower UTI) can safely be treated with oral antibiotics. We recommend pivmecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid as first-line empiric therapy for upper UTI. Amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer first-line oral agents due to increasing E. coli resistance to both drugs. For lower UTI nitrofurantoin is an excellent first choice. In Norway, lack of paediatric antibiotic syrups is a great challenge and we recommend that such formulations are introduced to the Norwegian market. PMID:19561661

  14. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  15. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  16. 终末期肺癌127例抗感染治疗分析%Analysis of 127 Cases of Terminal Lung Cancer Patients with Anti-infection Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓安; 邱钧; 钟小红; 康美玲; 陈建清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of terminal lung cancer patients with lung infection and anti-infection treatment. Methods To retrospectively analyze the clinical cases of 127 patients of terminal lung cancer with pulmonary infection and antimicrobial drug used in our hospital for the past three years. Results In the 127 cases of terminal lung cancer patients with pulmonary infection in 112 cases ( 88. 2% ),of which 103 patients( 81. 1% ) who died within 1 month were given anti-infection treatment, all patients were not meet clinical symptoms improved. Conclusion Terminal lung cancer patients are with a high proportion of lung infection,antibiotics are widely used,and there is abuse.%目的 探讨终末期肺癌患者的抗感染治疗.方法 对近3年来我院收治的127例终末期肺癌患者临床表现、合并肺部感染及抗菌药物应用和获益等情况进行回顾性分析.结果 127例终末期肺癌患者中合并肺部感染者112例(88.2%),其中103例(81.1%)患者给予抗感染治疗后症状均未改善,且均于1个月内死亡.结论 终末期肺癌患者合并感染率高,抗菌药物应用品种广泛,但效果差.

  17. Undertreatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning-van Beest, F.J.A.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Herings, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the urinary incontinence guidelines that are issued by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, treatment guidelines are related to the type of incontinence. It is unknown whether treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice complies with these guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To de

  18. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  19. Isolated Primary Schwannoma of Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Primary schwannoma of urinary bladder is a very rare tumour. It usually occurs in association with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. It arises from Schwann’s cells in the nerve sheath. We report here a very rare case of primary schwannoma of urinary bladder managed by complete transurethral resection. PMID:27437301

  20. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  1. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders. In kids, the more common problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal shape or position. One common congenital abnormality (an abnormality that exists at birth) is ...

  2. Follow the Stream: Imaging of Urinary Diversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomjian, Lauren N; Carucci, Laura R; Guruli, Georgi; Klausner, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    Urinary diversion is a surgical technique to redirect the stream of urine, most often after cystectomy. Cystectomy may be performed both for benign and for malignant conditions. Bladder cancer is the most common indication for cystectomy, and most patients who undergo radical cystectomy and urinary diversion have muscle-invasive or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. There are two major surgical approaches for urinary diversions performed after radical cystectomy: continent and incontinent diversions. For incontinent urinary diversions, a cutaneous ostomy is used for continuous urine drainage (eg, ileal conduit). With a continent diversion procedure, the patient may void through the native urethra or self-catheterize through a surgically created stoma. The goals of imaging after urinary diversion are to assess postoperative anatomy, detect postoperative complications, evaluate for residual or recurrent tumor and metastatic disease, and monitor for upper tract distention and/or deterioration. Multiple imaging modalities and techniques may be used to evaluate urinary diversions, including computed tomographic and magnetic resonance urography, intravenous pyelography, ultrasonography, pouchography, loopography, and nephrostomy studies. Knowledge of the expected postoperative appearance after urinary diversions and potential postoperative complications is crucial because many complications may be clinically silent. Radiologists must be able to recognize the expected postoperative appearance as well as complications to facilitate appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients after cystectomy and urinary diversion. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27058730

  3. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractWe investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  4. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinarySalmonella entericaserotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection. PMID:25953964

  5. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  6. ENTEROCOCCAL URINARY TARACT INFECTION: AN EMERGING THREAT

    OpenAIRE

    Mohua; Shiv Sekhar; Kheya;; Sanjeev; Chinmoy; Banya; Mitali; Mandira

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is a frequent cause of hospital acquired urinary tract infection and is being increasingly recognized as a cause of community acquired urinary tract infection. The organism is resistant to commonly used antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology and resistogram of enterococcal ...

  7. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  8. Analysis of naltrexone urinary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, R; de la Torre, R; Segura, J

    1988-01-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method using ion-pair formation has been developed for the simultaneous determination of naltrexone and three urinary metabolites. The extraction of the free and conjugated metabolites was studied by liquid-solid procedures using styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (Amberlite XAD-2) and bonded octadecyl silica supports (ODS-silica). Optimum recovery was obtained with ODS-silica extraction using 25% acetonitrile in a 5 mM diammonium phosphate buffer pH 2.1 as elution solvent. The chromatographic behaviour of naltrexone metabolites and naloxone (internal standard) was examined by varying the mobile phase composition. Increments of both the diammonium phosphate buffer concentration and the percentage of organic solvent in the eluent decreases the retention of compounds in a non-linear manner. Increments of the dodecyl sulphate (counter-ion) concentration, increases the retention time. The method was applied to determine the urinary levels of major naltrexone metabolites in a volunteer receiving a 50 mg oral dose. This is the first method reported which permits the simultaneous quantitative determination of naltrexone and its metabolites, 6beta-naltrexol, naltrexone glucuronide and 6beta-naltrexol glucuronide, in urine. PMID:16867358

  9. STUDY OF URINARY CALCIUM AND URINARY CREATININE LEVELS AND URINARY CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO IN GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertension (BP>140/90mmHg or pregnancy induced hypertension usually precedes pre - eclampsia (BP>140/90mmHg associated with proteniuria. Many tests to predict pre - eclampsia are coming up on the horizon. Hypocalciuria is one such test to predict pre - eclampsia which may be present before other clinical signs and symptoms. AIM: To determine urinary calcium, urinary creatinine and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in pregnancy induced hypertension and in normal pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 subjects with gestational age between 24 - 38 weeks and divided into two groups’ viz. control group and study group . The control group included 50 subjects who were normal pregnant women and study group included 50 subjects who were gestational hypertensive patients. Urinary calcium was estimated by Ortho - Cresolphthalein Complexone (CPC method, urinary creatinine was estimated by Jaffe’s method in all the subjects. RESULTS: The estimated mean levels (Mean±SD of urinary calcium, creatinine in control group were 263.0±80.3, 0.95±0.16 respectively and in patients with gestational hypertension they were 86.2±19.5, 1.21±0. 37 respectively. The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and the urinary creatinine were significantly increased (p <0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compar ed to healthy controls. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in control group were 0.28±0.08 and in gestational hypertensive patients were 0.07±0.03.The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a regular evaluation of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio after 20wks of gestation may be an effective screen ing method for

  10. 美国2007年批准的抗肿瘤、抗感染和抗病毒新药%The newly approved anti-tumor,anti-infection and anti-virus agents in USA in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马培奇

    2008-01-01

    2007年间,美国FDA共批准了17个新分子实体。其中包括4个抗肿瘤新药二甲苯磺酸拉帕替尼(1apatinib ditosylate/Tykerb。以下简称为拉帕替尼)、坦西莫司(ternsirolimus/Torisel)、伊沙匹隆(ixabepilone/Ixempra)和尼洛替尼(nilotinib/Tasigna),2个抗感染新药热他莫林(retapamulin/Altabax)和多利培南(doripenem/Doribax)及2个抗艾滋病毒新药马拉韦罗(maraviroc/Selzentry)和雷特拉韦钾(raltegravir potassium/Isentress)。

  11. Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r = −0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  13. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson’s disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (

  14. [Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: when to treat, how to treat, and what to treat with].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladenský, J

    2012-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) in pregnant women are a relatively frequent occurrence and the spectrum of these infections ranges from lower urinary tract disease (asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis) to upper urinary tract disease (acute pyelonephritis). Anatomical and functional changes in the urinary tract in pregnancy result in significantly higher susceptibility to progression of the infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria to the stage of acute pyelonephritis. Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy leads, in as much as 40%, to the development of acute pyelonephritis with all the subsequent negative effects not only for the woman herself, but particularly for the fetus. Bacteriuria in pregnancy accounts for a significantly higher number of newborns with a low birth weight, low gestational age and higher neonatal mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening for bacteriuria in pregnant women and, when the finding is positive, to treat this bacteriuria. The selection of an appropriate antimicrobial agent to treat urinary tract infection in pregnancy is limited by the safety of a given drug not only for the woman, but particularly for the fetus. The article provides an overview of medications that can be safely used throughout the pregnancy or only in certain stages of pregnancy. The selection of an appropriate antibiotic should always be preceded by the result of urine culture. The article presents the principles and rules for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis in pregnant women. PMID:22702077

  15. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  16. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  17. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  18. Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although urinary retention caused by the retroverted gravid uterus is uncommon, acute urinary retention is an emergency condition. Cases: We present here two cases of acute urinary retention at 12 weeks′ gestation secondary to retroverted gravid uterus. Although some preventive measures were suggested to the patients, recurrences of urinary retention occurred during the following 2-3 weeks and in their next pregnancies. Conclusion: In cases that urinary retention due to retroverted gravid uterus once occurred, we have to pay attention to the recurrence of urinary retention during the next pregnancies. (Suzuki S, Ono S, Satomi M. Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus

  19. Comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance and phylogenetic group patterns in human and porcine urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Krag, L.;

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals such as pigs. The most frequent infectious agent in such infections is Escherichia coli. Virulence characteristics of E. coli UTI strains range from highly virulent pyelonephritis strains...

  20. Mass-encoded synthetic biomarkers for multiplexed urinary monitoring of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Gabriel A.; von Maltzahn, Geoffrey; Murugappan, Gayathree; Abudayyeh, Omar; Mo, Steven; Papayannopoulos, Ioannis A.; Deanna Y Sverdlov; Liu, Susan B.; Warren, Andrew D.; Popov, Yury; Schuppan, Detlef; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are increasingly important in the clinical management of complex diseases, yet our ability to discover new biomarkers remains limited by our dependence on endogenous molecules. Here we describe the development of exogenously administered `synthetic biomarkers' composed of mass-encoded peptides conjugated to nanoparticles that leverage intrinsic features of human disease and physiology for noninvasive urinary monitoring. These protease-sensitive agents perform three functions in viv...

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Strains Isolated From Patients with Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Mersin

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Kandemir; Alper Akdag; Ahmet Oner Kurt

    2012-01-01

    AIM: This study objected to determination of distribution of bacterial agents, resistance proportions in community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) in center of Mersin province and objected to regional treatment guide towards to our evidence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In this study, included patients of pre-diagnosed as UTI based on clinical and laboratory in 11 health care centers between 11/01/2008–07/01/2009. Health care centers were checked for as daily and delivered appropriate ur...

  2. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  3. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents. PMID:26075812

  4. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts adverse outcomes in acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Michael A.; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Collings, Fitz B.; Sunderland, Kelsey E.; Gioules, Costas J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition with significant associated morbidity and mortality. The insensitivity and non-specificity of traditional markers of renal dysfunction prevent timely diagnosis, estimation of the severity of renal injury, and the administration of possible therapeutic agents. Here, we determine the prognostic ability of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and further characterize its sensitivity and specificity as a biomarker of AKI. Initial ...

  5. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  6. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin...... concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r = -0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity...

  7. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  8. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  9. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  10. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    OpenAIRE

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bla...

  11. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Wasamwar; Vijay S.Wadha; Gopal S. Gond

    2012-01-01

    It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vagin...

  12. Epidemiology of community urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Savoye-Rossignol, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (IUs) are a frequent reason for consultation and prescription of antibiotics in general practice. The choice of the antibiotic is based on the patient’s characteristics, the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria and cost analyzes. This therapeutic approach has become increasingly complex due to the increase in antibiotic resistance. In this context, my thesis is based on two main studies:From the data of IMS health France, a spectral analysis of urinary antibiotic sal...

  13. Antibiotics for Causative Microorganisms of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Esmaeili

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is a common bacterial disease in children which may cause chronic renal failure and hypertention. Many reports suggest that the rate of antibiotic resistance to infectious organisms is increasing. Therefore periodic surveillance of resistance rates is needed to ensure that appropriate recommendations can be made for better management & preventing of late sequelae. Methods In this cross sectional descriptive study we investigate the results of urinalysis, urine culture and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated organisms in the urine of 1556 children aged under 10 years in Mashhad city between April 2001 and June 2002. Described parameters are age, sex, incidence of significant bacteriuria, leucocyturia, causative bacterial agents, and antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Findings: The most common age group in both sexes was infantile period. Median age was 20.3 months in boys and 47.5 months in girls. E.coli, klebsiella and proteus were the causative organisms in 87.3%. They were sensitive to cefotaxime, cefixime, cephalotin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and gentamicin in more than 96% while resistant to trimetoprim-sultamethoxazol in about 75%. Conclusion: We recommend, with regard to continuous changing in causative microorganisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern, as a guideline for physicians, to determine bacterial sensitivity in populations yearly.

  14. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    , the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "nSympathetic nerves directly cause relaxation and expansion of the

  15. Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract.OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge relevant to complicated urinary tract infection, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for management.METHODS: The literature was reviewed through a PubMed search, and additional articles were identified by journal reference review. A draft guideline was prepared and critically reviewed by members of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada Guidelines Committee, with modifications incorporated following the review.RESULTS: Many urological abnormalities may be associated with complicated urinary infection. There is a wide spectrum of potential infecting organisms, and isolated bacteria tend to be more resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Morbidity and infection outcomes in subjects with complicated urinary infection are principally determined by the underlying abnormality rather than the infection. Principles of management include uniform collection of a urine specimen for culture before antimicrobial therapy, characterization of the underlying genitourinary abnormality, and nontreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria except before an invasive genitourinary procedure. The antimicrobial regimen is determined by clinical presentation, patient tolerance, renal function and known or anticipated infecting organisms. If the underlying abnormality contributing to the urinary infection cannot be corrected, then early post-treatment recurrence of infection is anticipated.CONCLUSIONS: The management of complicated urinary infection is individualized depending on patient variables and the infecting organism. Further clinical investigations are necessary to assist in determining optimal antimicrobial regimens.

  16. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  17. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  18. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  19. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  20. Disintegration of urinary calculi by laser beam: drilling experiment in extracted urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Y; Orikasa, S; Chiba, R; Tahira, K; Fukatsu, T; Miyakawa, T

    1979-06-01

    Disintegration of urinary calculi was attempted by the use of laser beam. As a first step, drilling of extracted urinary stones was attempted using a continuous wave CO2 laser and a pulse ruby laser. Stones were drilled easily by either laser beam. The power around 10 W of continuous CO2 laser beam was sufficient to drill through the stone. PMID:462477

  1. Antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  2. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  3. Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Ono

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although urinary retention caused by the retroverted gravid uterus is uncommon, acute urinary retention is an emergency condition. Cases: We present here two cases of acute urinary retention at 12 weeks’ gestation secondary to retroverted gravid uterus. Although some preventive measures were suggested to the patients, recurrences of urinary retention occurred during the following 2-3 weeks and in their next pregnancies. Conclusion: In cases that urinary retention due to retroverted gravid uterus once occurred, we have to pay attention to the recurrence of urinary retention during the next pregnancies.

  4. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for

  5. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  6. Pivmecillinam--therapy of choice for lower urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graninger, W

    2003-10-01

    Pivmecillinam is the pro-drug of mecillinam, a beta-lactam antibiotic with a novel site of action and with specific and high activity against Gram-negative organisms such as Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae. Since its introduction, it has been widely used for the treatment of acute lower urinary tract infections (UTI), primarily in the Nordic countries. In contrast to the increasing resistance of urinary pathogens to other beta-lactams particularly ampicillin/amoxycillin and to other UTI antibiotics such as trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), the level of resistance has remained on a low level. Less than 2% of E. coli community isolates are resistant to mecillinam. This paper reviews the clinical data on pivmecillinam with a special focus on the safety aspects. A large number of studies from the 70s to 80s have proven the clinical efficacy and safety of pivmecillinam for empirical treatment of acute cystitis. More recent studies confirm short-term treatment with pivmecillinam results in clinical and bacteriological cure rates similar to those obtained with other UTI agents. Both clinical studies in pregnant women with UTI and large epidemiological studies have confirmed the safety of pivmecillinam used in pregnancy. In the Nordic countries pivmecillinam has been the most widely used agent for treatment of UTI in pregnancy for many years. Ecological aspects of antibiotic treatment are important both with regard to adverse effects and development of resistance due to disturbance of the normal micro flora. Studies have shown that pivmecillinam has a very minor impact on the normal oropharyngeal, intestinal and skin microflora. The clinical implications of this are a low frequency of diarrhoea and Candida vaginitis as confirmed in the clinical studies. The high and increasing level of resistance among E. coli to currently recommended first-line agents for acute cystitis requires a re-evaluation of treatment guidelines. With the low

  7. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  8. [Serious infections associated with transurethral operations for lower urinary tract obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Ts; Vacheva, R; Nikolov, S

    1999-01-01

    Serious urinary infections associated with transurethral surgery are a problem of current interest. The underlying causes of their occurrence and the therapeutic approach used are discussed. The study covers 139 patients treated over a two-year period. The types of diseases giving rise to lower urinary tract obstruction and the transurethral operations performed--optic urethrotomy, laser photocoagulation and transurethral resection--are analyzed. In all patients sterile urine assessment is done before, during and after treatment. Identification of the bacterial strains and antimicrobial sensitivity testing are conducted with mini API system--Bio-Merieux, France. The frequency of microbical causing agents and their antibacterial resistance are studied. The tactics in selecting the most adequate drug is discussed. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is identified as urinary infection cause in 49.5 per cent. Good results are obtained in 118 patients (84.9%); among those without urethral catheter prior to operation--97.3 per cent, and in the group with urethral catheter--70.3 per cent. Conclusions are drawn concerning the necessity of microbiological study of the urine in transurethral operations, and undertaking treatment in due course. Retaining of the indwelling urethral catheter prior to intervention should be reduced to a minimum. The clinical efficacy of oral beta-lactams is lower by comparison with fluoroquinolines owing to the multiple resistance of strains. The tenets of picking out an antibiotic for handling significant urinary infections are outlined. PMID:11194624

  9. Identifying plasma glycerol concentration associated with urinary glycerol excretion in trained humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jeff L; Harmon, Molly E; Robergs, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Glycerol has been used as a means to legitimately hyperhydrate the body in an attempt to offset the deleterious effects of dehydration. It has the potential to mask blood doping practices and as a result has been added to the WADA prohibited substance list. The purpose of this study was to identify the plasma glycerol concentration coinciding with urinary glycerol excretion. Twelve healthy, trained male subjects completed five separate trials under resting conditions. For each trial, subjects consumed a different glycerol dose (0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, or 0.20 g glycerol/kg LBM) of a 5% glycerol solution in order to determine at what plasma glycerol concentration an increase in urine glycerol concentration becomes apparent. Based on regression analysis, plasma glycerol concentrations > 0.327 ± 0.190 mmol/L and a glycerol dose > 0.032 ± 0.010 g glycerol/kg LBM would be associated with urinary glycerol excretion. There were significant linear relationships between peak plasma glycerol concentration and time to reach peak plasma glycerol concentration to the ingested glycerol doses. Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the effect of urinary glycerol excretion on legitimate hyperhydration regimens as well as suggesting that it is possible to detect surreptitious use of glycerol as a masking agent through urinary analysis. PMID:22080901

  10. Antilithic effects of extracts from Urtica dentata hand on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Shasha; Lu, Jingli; Li, Lulu; Hou, Wenrui; Xie, Mingxing; Zeng, Ying

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential antilithic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Urtica dentata Hand (UDH) in experimental rats and screened the optimal extract of UDH as a possible therapeutic agent for kidney stones. The rat model of urinary calcium oxalate stones was induced by intragastric (i.g.) administration of 2 mL of 1.25% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for 28 days and was confirmed by Color Doppler ultrasound imaging. The rats in different experimental groups were then intragastrically given petroleum ether extract (PEE), N-butanol extract (NBE), aqueous extract (AqE) of UDH, Jieshitong (positive control drug), and saline, respectively. Treatment with NBE significantly reduced the elevated levels of urinary calcium, uric acid, phosphate, as well as increased urinary output. Accordingly, the increased calcium, oxalate levels and the number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits were remarkably reverted in the renal tissue of NBE-treated rats. In addition, NBE also prevented the impairment of renal function to decrease the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Taken together, these data suggest that NBE of UDH has a beneficial effect on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats by flushing the stones out and protecting renal function. PMID:22038359

  11. Stented ureterovesical anastomosis in renal transplantation: does it influence the rate of urinary tract infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathe Z

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine use of double-J stents on the incidence of urinary tract infection after renal transplantation. Methods We conducted a retrospective-comparative single-centre study in 310 consecutive adult deceased donor kidney recipients transplanted from 2002 to 2006. Patients were divided in two groups, with or without urinary stent implantation. To evaluate the predictive factors for UTI, donor and recipients pre- and post-transplantation data were analysed. Early urological complications and renal function within 12 months of transplantation were included as well. Results A total of 157 patients were enrolled to a stent (ST and 153 patients to a no-stent (NST group. The rate of urinary tract infection at three months was similar between the two groups (43.3% ST vs. 40.1% NST, p = 0.65. Of the identified pathogens Enterococcus and Escherichia coli were the most common species. In multivariate analysis neither age nor immunosuppressive agents, BMI or diabetes seemed to have influence on the rate of UTI. When compared to males, females had a significantly higher risk for UTI (54.0% vs. 33.5%. Conclusion Prophylactic stenting of the ureterovesical anastomosis does not increase the risk of urinary tract infection in the early postoperative period.

  12. Prospective risk analysis of the anti-infective medication administration process Análisis prospectivo de riesgo del proceso de administración de medicamentos anti-infecciosos Análise prospectiva de risco do processo de administração de medicamentos anti-infecciosos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo Silva; Silvia Helena de Bortoli Cassiani

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the potential risks involved in the administration process of intravenous anti-infective medication at a medical clinic, using the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. METHOD: This exploratory study was conducted at the medical clinic of a hospital in the State of Goiás. For data collection we convened a team comprised of six professionals involved in medication treatment: a doctor, nurse, nursing technician, pharmacist, a nursing and a risk ...

  13. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  14. CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

  15. Urinary infections in children: main radiological alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present 120 cases of urinary tract infection in children. Radiological evaluation of every child with urinary tract infection included both excretory urography and voiding cyst urethrography. Fifty eight percent of the children were found to have urinary anomalies. Reflux was present in 26.6% of the cases and congenital anomalies in 25%. Among the latter, duplication of collecting system and pyeloureteral and ureterovesical stenosis were the more frequent findings. Hypo tony of the collecting systems, loss of cortical renal tissue and irregularities of the renal contour were the main radiological signs. The delay in performing the radiological evaluation (46% of the children presenting radiological abnormalities were examined only one year after the beginning of the symptoms) contributed to a greater incidence of irreversible lesions, showing therefore that it should be done immediately. A scheme for radiological investigation is also proposed. (author)

  16. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  17. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  18. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from ...

  19. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  20. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  1. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  2. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M;

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly of...... different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p < 0.00005), although some overlap between the groups was...

  3. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  4. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Hamid; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Nibedeta Paul; Nadia Nusrat; Rafia Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an importa...

  5. Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    BALAT, Ayse

    1999-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children, and the urinary tract is one of the most common sites of these infections. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 1,221 children discharged with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1994. Of the 1,221 UTIs, there were 137 (11.2%) cases of nosocomial UTI (NUTI) in 136 patients. NUTI accounted for 0.28% of all discharges (48, 382 patients) at a single institution...

  6. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  7. Pivmecillinam treatment of chronic urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalager, T; Bøe, E; Digranes, A; Høisaether, P; Solberg, C O

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with chronic urinary tract infections were treated with 400 mg pivmecillinam orally three times daily for 10 to 15 days. The diagnosis was confirmed by a history of cystitis or cystopyelitis four to six times annually, microscopy of urine sediment, and growth of pathogens in urine specimens obtained by suprapubic bladder puncture. Three days, three and six weeks after completion of therapy the success rates were 24/28, 20/28 and 19/28 respectively. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated. Two patients developed nausea and vomiting. Other side-effects were not observed. Pivmecillinam is a useful drug in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections. PMID:204581

  8. Does the Urinary Microbiome Play a Role in Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Its Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Lisa; Asquith, Mark; Davin, Sean; Stauffer, Patrick; Fair, Damien; Gregory, W. Thomas; Rosenbaum, James T.; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Nardos, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). The goal of this prospective pilot study was to determine how the urinary microbiome is different between women with and without UUI. We also sought to identify if characteristics of the urinary microbiome are associated with UUI severity. Methods: We collected urine from clinically well-characterized women with UUI (n = 10) and normal bladder function (n = 10) using a transurethral catheter to avoid bacterial contamination from external tissue. To characterize the resident microbial community, we amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene by PCR and performed sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were processed using the workflow package QIIME. We identified bacteria that had differential relative abundance between UUI and controls using DESeq2 to fit generalized linear models based on the negative binomial distribution. We also identified relationships between the diversity of the urinary microbiome and severity of UUI symptoms with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: We successfully extracted and sequenced bacterial DNA from 95% of the urine samples and identified that there is a polymicrobial community in the female bladder in both healthy controls and women with UUI. We found the relative abundance of 14 bacteria significantly differed between control and UUI samples. Furthermore, we established that an increase in UUI symptom severity is associated with a decrease in microbial diversity in women with UUI

  9. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  10. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mungli Prakash; Phani, Nagaraj M; Kavya R; Supriya M

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary pepti...

  11. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute d...

  12. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    OpenAIRE

    Willette, Paul A.; Coffield, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary ca...

  13. Prevention of urinary tract infections in nursing homes: lack of evidence-based prescription?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Jenny

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs, including upper and lower symptomatic are the most common infections in nursing homes and prevention may reduce patient suffering, antibiotic use and resistance. The spectre of agents used in preventing UTIs in nursing homes is scarcely documented and the aim of this study was to explore which agents are prescribed for this purpose. Methods We conducted a one-day, point-prevalence study in 44 Norwegian nursing homes during April-May 2006. Nursing home residents prescribed any agent for UTI prophylaxis were included. Information recorded was type of agent and dose, patient age and gender, together with nursing home characteristics. Appropriateness of prophylactic prescribing was evaluated with references to evidence in the literature and current national guidelines. Results The study included 1473 residents. 18% (n = 269 of the residents had at least one agent recorded as prophylaxis of UTI, varying between 0-50% among the nursing homes. Methenamine was used by 48% of residents prescribed prophylaxis, vitamin C by 32%, and cranberry products by 10%. Estrogens were used by 30% but only one third was for vaginal administration. Trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin were used as prophylaxis by 5% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions The agents frequently prescribed to prevent UTIs in Norwegian nursing homes lack documented efficacy including methenamine and vitamin C. Recommended agents like trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and vaginal estrogens are infrequently used. We conclude that prescribing of prophylactic agents for UTIs in nursing homes is not evidence-based.

  14. Prevention of urinary tract infections in nursing homes: lack of evidence-based prescription?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs, including upper and lower symptomatic) are the most common infections in nursing homes and prevention may reduce patient suffering, antibiotic use and resistance. The spectre of agents used in preventing UTIs in nursing homes is scarcely documented and the aim of this study was to explore which agents are prescribed for this purpose. Methods We conducted a one-day, point-prevalence study in 44 Norwegian nursing homes during April-May 2006. Nursing home residents prescribed any agent for UTI prophylaxis were included. Information recorded was type of agent and dose, patient age and gender, together with nursing home characteristics. Appropriateness of prophylactic prescribing was evaluated with references to evidence in the literature and current national guidelines. Results The study included 1473 residents. 18% (n = 269) of the residents had at least one agent recorded as prophylaxis of UTI, varying between 0-50% among the nursing homes. Methenamine was used by 48% of residents prescribed prophylaxis, vitamin C by 32%, and cranberry products by 10%. Estrogens were used by 30% but only one third was for vaginal administration. Trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin were used as prophylaxis by 5% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions The agents frequently prescribed to prevent UTIs in Norwegian nursing homes lack documented efficacy including methenamine and vitamin C. Recommended agents like trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and vaginal estrogens are infrequently used. We conclude that prescribing of prophylactic agents for UTIs in nursing homes is not evidence-based. PMID:22040144

  15. Quaternized Chitosan as an Antimicrobial Agent: Antimicrobial Activity, Mechanism of Action and Biomedical Applications in Orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS is a linear polysaccharide with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, which makes it potentially useful for biomedical applications, including an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other polymers. However, the poor solubility of CS in most solvents at neutral or high pH substantially limits its use. Quaternary ammonium CS, which was prepared by introducing a quaternary ammonium group on a dissociative hydroxyl group or amino group of the CS, exhibited improved water solubility and stronger antibacterial activity relative to CS over an entire range of pH values; thus, this quaternary modification increases the potential biomedical applications of CS in the field of anti-infection. This review discusses the current findings on the antimicrobial properties of quaternized CS synthesized using different methods and the mechanisms of its antimicrobial actions. The potential antimicrobial applications in the orthopedic field and perspectives regarding future studies in this field are also considered.

  16. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  17. Rho kinase : a target for treating urinary bladder dysfunction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Stephan L. M.; Schmidt, Martina; Michel, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and other urinary storage symptoms are frequent in the general population but available treatments have limited efficacy and tolerability. Rho kinase (ROCK) has a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction, including that of the urinary bladder. Recent experimen

  18. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  19. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  20. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    OpenAIRE

    Willette, Paul A.; Coffield, Scott K

    2012-01-01

    Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands orother potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failedcatheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts aturinary cathe...

  1. Biological safety evaluation of the modified urinary catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczuk, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.kowalczuk@umlub.pl [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Przekora, Agata; Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro safety of the novel tosufloxacin (TOS)-treated catheters with the prolonged antimicrobial activity. The test samples of silicone latex catheter were prepared by the immobilization of TOS on chitosan (CHIT)-coated catheter by means of covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions. Each step of the modification process of catheter surface was observed using ATR–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of the modified and unmodified catheters was assessed by direct and indirect tests in accordance with ISO standards using green monkey kidney (GMK) cell line. The MTT, lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), WST-8, Sulforhodamine B (SRB) test results and microscopic observation clearly indicated that unmodified silicone latex catheters decrease cell metabolic activity, act as a cytotoxic agent causing cell lysis and induce cell death through necrotic or apoptotic process. We suggest that chitosan coat with TOS immobilized limits leaching of harmful agents from silicone latex material, which significantly enhances survivability of GMK cells and therefore is quite a good protection against the cytotoxic effect of this material. - Highlights: • Characterization of the novel antimicrobial urinary catheters • Monitoring of the catheter modification by FTIR analysis • Confirmation of high cytotoxicity of latex-based catheter used in urological practice • Chitosan-coated and tosufloxacin-treated catheter is less toxic than the untreated one. • The proposed surface modification protects cells against latex-induced death.

  2. Pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, L E

    1999-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a beta-lactam antimicrobial marketed almost two decades ago. It has been used widely for the treatment of acute cystitis in selected areas of the world, particularly in Scandinavia. With increasing resistance of community Escherichia coli isolates to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, as previously observed for ampicillin and sulphonamides, reassessment of empiric antimicrobial regimens for acute uncomplicated urinary infection is necessary. Thus, it is timely to revisit the role of pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute cystitis. Clinical studies document the efficacy of this antimicrobial with short course therapy for acute cystitis, and clinical practice in countries where it has been used for many years confirms its efficacy and tolerability. If this agent were more widely used for empiric treatment for acute cystitis, use of antimicrobials such as the quinolones might be avoided. Further trials to define the comparative efficacy of pivmecillinam with other antimicrobials, and further studies of community resistance in E. coli isolates to this agent are needed. PMID:10692756

  3. [Clinical studies on pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, M; Kiuchi, H; Suzuki, M; Morinaga, O; Tanaka, H

    1979-09-01

    Pivmecillinam (PMPC), semisynthetic penicillin for oral use, was studied clinically and following results were obtained. 1) Twenty-eight patients with acute simple cystitis treated with the drug 200 mg/day for 4 days, clinical results were excellent in 23 cases and moderate in 5 cases. Six patients with chronic simple cystitis treated with the drug 400 mg/day for 7 days, clinical results were excellent in 4 cases, moderate in 1 case and poor in 1 case. Eight patients with complicated urinary tract infections treated with the drug 400 mg/day for 7 days, clinical results were excellent in 2 cases, moderate in 2 cases and poor in 4 cases. Overall effectiveness amounted to 88.1%. 2) Pivmecillinam was clinically effective in patients infected by Gram-negative bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 3) No side effects were observed in all cases. The effectiveness of PMPC for acute simple cystitis was compared with that of talampicillin (TAPC), ampicillin (ABPC), amoxicillin (AMPC) and pivampicillin (PVPC) reported previously and PMPC was assessed as the most useful agent in these. Then, pivmecillinam should be chosen firstly as a chemotherapeutic agent for acute simple cystitis. PMID:228097

  4. Biological safety evaluation of the modified urinary catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro safety of the novel tosufloxacin (TOS)-treated catheters with the prolonged antimicrobial activity. The test samples of silicone latex catheter were prepared by the immobilization of TOS on chitosan (CHIT)-coated catheter by means of covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions. Each step of the modification process of catheter surface was observed using ATR–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of the modified and unmodified catheters was assessed by direct and indirect tests in accordance with ISO standards using green monkey kidney (GMK) cell line. The MTT, lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), WST-8, Sulforhodamine B (SRB) test results and microscopic observation clearly indicated that unmodified silicone latex catheters decrease cell metabolic activity, act as a cytotoxic agent causing cell lysis and induce cell death through necrotic or apoptotic process. We suggest that chitosan coat with TOS immobilized limits leaching of harmful agents from silicone latex material, which significantly enhances survivability of GMK cells and therefore is quite a good protection against the cytotoxic effect of this material. - Highlights: • Characterization of the novel antimicrobial urinary catheters • Monitoring of the catheter modification by FTIR analysis • Confirmation of high cytotoxicity of latex-based catheter used in urological practice • Chitosan-coated and tosufloxacin-treated catheter is less toxic than the untreated one. • The proposed surface modification protects cells against latex-induced death

  5. Epidemiology of urinary infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, B; Gentil, M A; Cabello, V; Fijo, J; Cordero, E; Cisneros, J M

    2006-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains a significant cause of infectious complications in renal transplant recipients. We evaluated prospectively all the UTIs in 161 kidney recipients transplanted between July 2003 and July 2005. All patients received prophylaxis with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. We excluded asymptomatic bacteriuria. Forty-one patients (25%) suffered at least one UTI episode. Ninety-two episodes of infection were confirmed with an incidence rate of 97 UTI episodes per 100 patient-years. The most common clinical features were uncomplicated acute bacterial cystitis, 71 episodes (77%), and acute pyelonephritis, 21 episodes (23%). Microbiological isolation was confirmed in 58 episodes (63%). Bacterial infections were the most frequent etiologies: gram-negative bacilli in 52 (90%), gram-positive cocci in 4 (7%), fungal in 2 (3%), and one viral BK virus (2%) infection. The causative microorganisms were E. coli as the principal isolated agent in 41 cases (71%), including 10 (24%) that were extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLEC). All episodes showed a favorable course. The survival rate of the graft at the end of the study period was 90.7%, and the survival rate of the transplant recipients was 97.5%. The incidence of UTI in transplant patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis was high. E. coli (ESBLEC) was the main agent isolated. Uncomplicated UTI, the most frequent post transplantation infection, showed a good prognosis. PMID:17097953

  6. Anti-infective immunoadhesins from plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wycoff, Keith; Maclean, James; Belle, Archana; Yu, Lloyd; Tran, Y.; Roy, Chad; Hayden, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Immunoadhesins are recombinant proteins that combine the ligand-binding region of a receptor or adhesion molecule with immunoglobulin constant domains. All FDA-approved immunoadhesins are designed to modulate the interaction of a human receptor with its normal ligand, such as Etanercept (Enbrel®), which interferes with the binding of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to the TNF-alpha receptor and is used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Like antibodies, immunoadhesins h...

  7. NEW ASPECTS OF ANTI-INFECTION IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kisseleva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Four types of adaptive immune response which are regulated by different T-cell populations, namely Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regs have been described. At the first time classification is based on the difference in transcription factors but not due to diversity of cytokines produced. Each population of T-lymphocytes possesses a set of unique transcription factors and directions of cell signaling. Each type of immune responses plays a key role in the protection against certain types of pathogens. The Th1-response is important against intracellular bacteria and fungi, the Th17 — against extracellular, the Th2 — against yeasts and protozoa. T-regulatory cells control all types of immune responses. Diversity of immune response mechanisms occurs due to involvement of different effector cells. The Th1-type of response is connected with macrophage activation, Th2-cells cooperate with B-lymphocytes as well as attract eosinophils and mast cells. Th17 lymphocytes stimulate neutrophils and epithelial cells. T-cell differentiation is directed by the cytokines produced by innate immune cells. Phagocytes recognize molecular patterns at the surface of pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors (PRR, become activated and synthesize cytokines. Pathogen plays important role in this process while instructing dendritic cells. Pathogen dials a special code from a number of phagocyte surface receptors, which is named as «combinatory» recognition. Phagocytes possess several different types of activation and synthesize different cytokines that direct T-lymphocytes to a certain type of differentiation.

  8. Taiwanese Continence Society clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hann-Chorng Kuo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the current evidence and expert opinions on diagnosis and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD in Taiwan. The main problems of NLUTD are failure to store, failure to empty, and combined failure to store and empty. The priority of management of NLUTD should follow the order of: (1 preservation of renal function; (2 freedom from urinary tract infection (UTI; (3 efficient bladder emptying; and (4 freedom from indwelling catheter, and patients' expectation of management should be respected. Management of the urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI or multiple sclerosis (MS must be based on urodynamic findings, rather than inferences from the neurologic evaluation. Selecting high risk patients is important to prevent renal function impairment in patients with chronic NLUTD. Patients with NLUTD should be regularly followed up for their lower urinary tract dysfunction by urodynamic study and any urological complication should be adequately treated. Avoiding a chronic indwelling catheter can reduce the incidence of developing a low compliant bladder. Antimuscarinic agents with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC may reduce urological complications and improve quality of life (QoL in patients with NLUTD. Intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A provides an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity (DO or low compliant bladder and can replace the need for bladder augmentation. When surgical intervention is necessary, we should consider the least invasive type of surgery and reversible procedure first and avoid any unnecessary surgery of the lower urinary tract. Keeping the bladder and urethra in a good condition without interference of the neuromuscular continuity provides patients with NLUTD a chance for future new technologies. It is most important to never give up on improving the QoL in patients with NLUTD.

  9. [Ketamine-associated urinary tract damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-hao; Guan, Zhi-chen

    2011-08-18

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures in both animals and humans. As its unique effects of inducing the dissociative hallucinatory,vivid dreams, out-of-body experiences, and delirium, it has diverted from legitimate uses to the illicit drug market, and abusing ketamine has become a serious social problem. The abusers may use ketamine alone or mixe it with other drugs to get an intense pleasure. There are case reports from all over the world in recent years that abusing ketamine may induce severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and a variety of anatomical and functional lesions can be found in the urinary tract if further examinations are administrated. There is no universally recognized treatment protocols for this syndrome. Ketamine cessation or even reduction is the most effective treatment to prevent deterioration of the urinary tract, and intravesical instillation of hyaluranic acid (cystitstat) and oral pentosan polysulphate (elmiron) may take effect. The pathogenesis of ketamine-associated urinary tract destruction is unclear, and further study is needed. PMID:21844983

  10. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  11. Preventing urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition in association with pregnancy. Incident UI in pregnancy or postpartum are significant risk factors for UI later in life. Epidemiological studies on UI during pregnancy and postpartum list numerous variables associated with UI. For women, the main...

  12. Correlates of urinary incontinence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Lone; Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.;

    2002-01-01

    In a population sample, the period prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy was found to be 19.9% and 24.1% among 352 nulliparous and 290 primiparous women, respectively. The first UI episode ever was experienced by 16.7% and 7.0% during the two last trimesters of the first...

  13. [Rare differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutty, Nadège; Dubreucq, Sylvie; Delahousse, Guy; Cosson, Michel

    2003-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 55-year-old woman with prolapse presenting a differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence: a peritoneo-vaginal fistula with serous discharge in a patient with ascites and a history of hysterectomy. The only cases of peritoneo-vaginal fistula reported in the literature were discovered during extra-uterine pregnancy after hysterectomy. PMID:12765075

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Urinary Organic Sulfides 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLE; CAOWEN-JUN

    2000-01-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(TTCA),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers.At the sme time,the total amout of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test(IAT).Nine of the volunteers had smoking higtories(5 to 10 cigarettes per day,as the smoking group),and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month,as the control group).Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis)and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette.Results showed that smoking a single cigaretter could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups,while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level.No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found,The influence of cigarette on uinary organic sulfides was temporary.The results suggest that cigaretter smoking might be a confounding factor in biomontoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers.

  15. Pyoderma gangrenosum and urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of pyoderma gangrenosum is reported in a 52 - year - old man who had skin lesions without any association. On investigation urinary tract infection was detected. Treatment of UTI led to spontaneous healing of the lesions in short period thus avoiding the need of oral corticosteroids.

  16. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  17. Measuring eosinophiluria, urinary eosinophil cationic protein and urinary interleukin-5 in patients with Lupus Nephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Tereza Neuma Souza; Vilar, Maria José; Almeida, José Bruno; Faria, Ana Luiza Souza Brito; Medeiros, Sarah Dantas Viana; Medeiros, Maria Carmo Cardoso; Silva, Edna Marques Araújo; Silva, Vanessa Marques Araújo; Souza, Luanda Bárbara F Canário; Arruda, Luisa Karla P; Costa, Tatiana Xavier; Junior, Geraldo Barroso Cavalcanti; Oliveira, Antonio G; Sales, Valéria Soraya Farias

    2014-01-01

    Background Urine is increasingly becoming an attractive biological fluid in clinical practice due to being an easily obtained, non-invasive sampling method, containing proteins and peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate eosinophiluria, urinary eosinophil cationic protein (uECP) and urinary IL-5 (uIL-5) in patients with Lupus Nephritis. Methods Seventy-four patients with SLE—20 with clinical and laboratory evidence of lupus nephritis (LN group) and 54 without evidence of renal invo...

  18. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B;

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had...... mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  19. Community acquired urinary tract infection: etiology and bacterial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed. UTI account for a large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption and have large socio-economic impacts. Since the majority of the treatments begins or is done completely empirically, the knowledge of the organisms, their epidemiological characteristics and their antibacterial susceptibility that may vary with time is mandatory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility of the community acquired UTI diagnosed in our institution and to provide a national data. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the results of urine cultures of 402 patients that had community acquired urinary tract infection in the year of 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this study was 45.34 ± 23.56 (SD years. There were 242 (60.2% females and 160 (39.8% males. The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli (58%. Klebsiella sp. (8.4% and Enterococcus sp.(7.9% were reported as the next most common organisms. Of all bacteria isolated from community acquired UTI, only 37% were sensitive to ampicillin, 51% to cefalothin and 52% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The highest levels of susceptibility were to imipenem (96%, ceftriaxone (90%, amikacin (90%, gentamicin (88%, levofloxacin (86%, ciprofloxacin (73%, nitrofurantoin (77% and norfloxacin (75%. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative agents are the most common cause of UTI. Fluoroquinolones remains the choice among the orally administered antibiotics, followed by nitrofurantoin, second and third generation cephalosporins. For severe disease that require parenteral antibiotics the choice should be aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or imipenem, which were the most effective.

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  1. Urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion on a Western diet: relation to soy, vegetable, and fruit intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, J W; Gustafson, D R; Hutchins, A M; Martini, M C; Li, S; Wähälä, K; Grandits, G A; Potter, J D; Slavin, J L

    1999-08-01

    Dietary isoflavone and lignan phytoestrogens are potential chemopreventive agents. This has led to a need to monitor exposure to these compounds in human populations and to determine which components of a mixed diet contribute to the exposure. Typically, urinary isoflavonoid excretion is associated with soy consumption and that of lignans is associated with whole grains. However, other plant foods are known to contain phytoestrogen precursors. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion and intakes of vegetables and fruits (V&F). Isoflavonoids (genistein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and equol) and lignans (enterolactone, enterodiol, and matairesinol) were measured in urine collected for 3 days from 49 male and 49 female volunteers (age, 18-37 years) reporting a wide range of habitual V&F intakes. Dietary intakes were assessed using 5-day diet records and a food frequency questionnaire. V&F groupings (total V&F, total V, total F, soyfoods, and V&F grouped by botanical families) were used to assess the relationship between V&F intake and urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion. Pearson correlations were performed. Intake of soyfoods was correlated significantly with urinary genistein (r = 0.40; P = 0.0001), O-desmethylangolensin (r = 0.37; P = 0.0002), daidzein (r = 034; P = 0.0007), and the sum of isoflavonoids (r = 0.39; P = 0.0001). There was no association between equol excretion and soy intake or between the isoflavonoids and any other V&F groupings. In addition, isoflavonoid excretion was correlated positively with intake of high-fat and processed meats, particularly among men who did not consume soy. This suggests that, even in the United States, on a Western diet, soyfoods are the primary contributors to isoflavone intake; however, additional "hidden sources" of soy may also contribute to exposure. In contrast, a variety of fiber-containing foods contributed to lignan excretion; the sum of

  2. INCIDENCE OF FLUOROQUINOLONE RESISTANCE IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Poiata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of 105 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from patients with urinary tract infectionswas assessed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs using agar dilution method against thefollowing agents: norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin.Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to tested fluoroquinolones was fairly uniformly distributed between compounds asfollowed: norfloxacin - 52.4%, ofloxacin- 49.5%, ciprofloxacin - 51.4%, pefloxacin - 49.5%. Analysis of cross-resistancein P. aeruginosa showed a correlated magnitude of resistance between fluoroquinolones. Among the P.aeruginosa strainsthe number of those showing simultaneously resistance to all tested agents is high (n=50.The significant increase in fluoroquinolone resistance probably reflects the widspread use of this agent and the clinicaluse of these compunds should be carefully monitored since most bacterial strains shows cross-resitance.

  3. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age

  4. Pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, L E

    2000-09-01

    The efficacy of pivmecillinam for empirical treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) was initially reported in clinical trials published in the 1970s and 1980s. Bacteriological cure rates observed in these trials were consistently >85%, and studies of different dosing regimens suggested that a 3 day course was appropriate. Comparative studies reported that pivmecillinam was equivalent to other antimicrobial agents in terms of clinical and bacteriological outcomes. These studies also documented that pivmecillinam was effective for treatment of Staphylococcus saprophyticus infections, was acceptable for use in pregnancy and was well tolerated. Subsequent widespread use of pivmecillinam in Scandinavian countries has led to a body of clinical experience which confirms the efficacy and safety of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. Recently, two large, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre clinical trials have been completed to assist in defining the role of this antimicrobial agent in the treatment of acute cystitis. A comparison of 3 day courses of pivmecillinam or norfloxacin, both at 400 mg bd, showed higher bacteriological cure rates with norfloxacin but generally similar clinical outcomes. A second, dose-ranging study found that pivmecillinam, given bd for 7 days, led to superior bacteriological and clinical outcomes at short-term follow-up than the 3 day regimen. Pooling bacteriological outcomes from the two studies showed similar outcomes with 7 days of pivmecillinam 200 mg bd or 3 days of norfloxacin 400 mg bd. The shorter, 3 day, course achieved similar short-term clinical outcomes to 7 days of pivmecillinam and 3 days of norfloxacin in women aged pivmecillinam is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of acute cystitis in women. PMID:11051622

  5. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  6. Effective Factors on Urinary Incontinence in Natural Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence are common urogenital problems affecting 7 - 10% of menopausal women. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to quantify effective factors on urinary incontinence in a cohort of menopausal women. Patients and Methods A sample of 150 menopausal women (natural menopause for at least 12 months were recruited from 13 healthcare centers in Ilam, Iran. Data regarding diagnosis, medical history and clinical symptoms were collected using a structured questionnaire and screening patient medical records. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between urinary incontinence and other variables. Results Multiple atrophic urogenital changes were identified including vaginal dryness (42%, decreased libido (41.3%, dyspareunia (16%, vaginal itching (11.3% and vaginal discharge and burning (10.7%. The prevalence of urinary frequency, stress urinary incontinence, nocturia and urge urinary incontinence were 33.3%, 28.7%, 22.7% and 17.3%, respectively. A multivariate logistic model found that urinary infection (OR 5.6; 95% CI: 2.6 - 11.58, cystocele (OR 1.73; 95% CI: 1.29 - 2.33 and rectocele (OR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20 - 1.80 were potential risk factors for incontinence. A significant association was observed between marital status and vaginal atrophy, body mass index and urinary incontinence and parity type and urinary incontinence (P < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Multiple associations existed between atrophic urogenital changes and urinary incontinence. The most significant interaction was between urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence in menopausal women, with urinary tract infections increasing the risk of incontinence by 5.6 fold. We recommend health professionals to focus on early screening of these issues and implement educational programs for women as part of standard practice.

  7. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  8. Analysis of risk factors with influence on urinary tract infection in urinary surgery patients%影响泌尿外科患者尿路感染的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛东方

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨引起泌尿外科患者尿路感染的危险因素,以采取预防措施降低留置尿管患者尿路感染发生率。方法26例合并尿路感染者为研究组,同期无尿路感染的26例泌尿外科患者为对照组,使用单因素和多因素Logistic回归法分析可能引起尿路感染的因素。结果240例患者中,共有26例患者合并尿路感染,发生率为10.83%;单因素分析结果显示有9个影响因素;多因素logistic回归分析显示,其中的独立危险因素有年龄大、合并其他疾病、有创诊治措施、预防使用抗菌药物。结论泌尿外科住院患者尿道感染率高,影响因素多,需采取相应的措施进行积极预防。%Objective To investigate risk factors of urinary tract infection in urinary surgery patients, in order to take prevention measures for reducing incidence of urinary tract infection in patients with indwelling catheter.Methods There were 26 urinary tract infection patients as research group, and another 26 patients without urinary tract infection in the same period as control group. Single and multivariate Logistic regression methods were applied for analyzing possible factors of urinary tract infection.Results Among the 240 patients, there were 26 cases with combined urinary tract infection, and the occurrence rate was 10.83%. Single Logistic regression results showed 9 influencing factors, and multivariate Logistic regression showed that independent risk factors included old age, combined other disease, invasive treatment measures, and preventive administration of antibacterial agents.Conclusion Urinary surgery patients have high incidence of urinary tract infection with multiple influencing factors. Thus, corresponding measures are necessary for positive prevention.

  9. The role of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors in treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Umul, Mehmet; Serel, Tekin Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors are approved as the first line of therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, different studies have been performed to study the use of these agents in other areas of urology. There are many studies related to the use of PDE-5 inhibitors as a monotherapy or combination therapy with alpha-blockers for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It has been shown that contractions induced by ...

  10. Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in urinary tract infection: A need for strict antibiotic prescription policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vinita Dogra; Abha Sharma; Bibhavati Mishra; Archana Thakur; Poonam S Loomba

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The etiology of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens have been changing over the past years. This retrospective study was conducted to survey the resistance pattern of Gram-negative uropathogens to first-line agents for UTIs; this would be helpful for the clinicians to facilitate the empiric treatment and management of patients with UTI and maybe useful for the formulation of guidelines of antibiotic policies. Materials and Methods: Isola...

  11. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, P.; Hema, M.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Sridharan, V.; Prabu, P. C.; Sumana, M. N.; Princy, S. Adline

    2015-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA) is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent de...

  12. Prevalence of commonly prescribed medications potentially contributing to urinary symptoms in a cohort of older patients seeking care for incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Mandavi; Tu, Le Mai; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Background Several medication classes may contribute to urinary symptoms in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of these medications in a clinical cohort of incontinent patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 390 new patients aged 60 years and older seeking care for incontinence in specialized outpatient geriatric incontinence clinics in Quebec, Canada. The use of oral estrogens, alpha-blocking agents, benzodiazepines, antidepre...

  13. Development of non-natural flavanones as antimicrobial agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L Fowler

    Full Text Available With growing concerns over multidrug resistance microorganisms, particularly strains of bacteria and fungi, evolving to become resistant to the antimicrobial agents used against them, the identification of new molecular targets becomes paramount for novel treatment options. Recently, the use of new treatments containing multiple active ingredients has been shown to increase the effectiveness of existing molecules for some infections, often with these added compounds enabling the transport of a toxic molecule into the infecting species. Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites and have been shown to have natural abilities as microbial deterrents and anti-infection agents in plants. Combining these ideas we first sought to investigate the potency of natural flavonoids in the presence of efflux pump inhibitors to limit Escherichia coli growth. Then we used the natural flavonoid scaffold to synthesize non-natural flavanone molecules and further evaluate their antimicrobial efficacy on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Of those screened, we identified the synthetic molecule 4-chloro-flavanone as the most potent antimicrobial compound with a MIC value of 70 µg/mL in E. coli when combined with the inhibitor Phe-Arg-ß-naphthylamide, and MICs of 30 µg/mL in S. cerevesiae and 30 µg/mL in C. neoformans when used alone. Through this study we have demonstrated that combinatorial synthesis of non-natural flavonones can identify novel antimicrobial agents with activity against bacteria and fungi but with minimal toxicity to human cells.

  14. Discovery of triazine mimetics as potent antileishmanial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Kuldeep; Sharma, Moni; Shivahare, Rahul; Debnath, Utsab; Gupta, Suman; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S; Chauhan, Prem M S

    2013-11-14

    The World Health Organization has classified the leishmaniasis as a major tropical disease. The discovery of new compounds for leishmaniasis is therefore a pressing concern for the anti-infective research program. We have synthesized 19 compounds of triazine dimers as novel antileishmanial agents. Most of the synthesized derivatives exhibited better activity against intracellular amastigotes (IC50 ranging from 0.77 to 10.32 μM) than the control, pentamidine (IC50 = 13.68 μM), and are not toxic to Vero cells. Compounds 14 and 15 showed significant in vivo inhibition of 74.41% and 62.64%, respectively, in L. donovani/hamster model. Moreover, expansion of Th1-type and suppression of Th2-type immune responses proved that compound 14 stimulates mouse macrophages to prevent the progression of leishmania parasite. The molecular docking studies involving PTR1 protein PDB further validated the concepts involved in the design of these compounds. Among the investigated analogues, compound 14 has emerged as the potential one to enlarge the scope of the study. PMID:24900613

  15. Urinary tract infection and indirect hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamdine Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Jaundice is a common problem during the neonatal period. About 60% of the full term and 80% of premature infants develop jaundice. It can be associated with serious illnesses such as Urinary tract infections. Aims : The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of urinary tract infection in newborns with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to find a relationship with prolonged jaundice. Patients and Methods : We retrospectively evaluated asymptomatic, jaundiced neonates for evidence of a urinary tract infection. Data reviewed including demographic and historical data were included with data of blood studies, radiological evaluation and treatment. Results : 32 neonates of 152 cases had urinary tract infection. Most commonly isolated organisms were Klebsiella and Escherishia coli. Maximum duration of phototherapy was 4 days in the urinary tract infection group versus 7 in the non-urinary tract infection group. Intensive phototherapy was used in 18.7% in the urinary tract infection group versus 29.16% in the non-urinary tract infection group. None of the newborns in the urinary tract infection group underwent exchange transfusion therapy. Conclusion : Urinary tract infection can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced newborns. Thus, it may be the first in these babies before other signs become evident.

  16. Native and contrast-radiographic examination of the urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govorčin Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. Plain film of the urinary tract Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis, muscles (m. iliopsoas as well as calculi. Excretory urography X-ray visualization of the urinary tract with contrast substances is intravenous urography. It is used for diagnosing diseases of the upper urinary system with symptoms such as: pain, colic, hydronephrosis, as well as acute cortical infections, urinary bladder tumors, etc. Retrograde urography Retrograde urography is a procedure recommended when either the pyelocalyx system or the ureter are not seen unilaterally or bilaterally. Cystography and urethrocystography Cystography is used to visualize the bladder. It is recommended in case of intravesical obstruction. Urethrocystography is a technique for investigation of the anterior and prostatic urethra as well as the neck of the urinary bladder. Conclusion Plain film of the urinary tract, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, cystography and urethrocystography, used along with ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance, are useful diagnostic procedures which provide accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  17. [Urinary infection in the pregnant woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcroix, M; Zone, V; Cheront, C; Adam, M H; Duquesne, G; Noel, A M

    1994-05-01

    Urinary tract infections are common during pregnancy. When unrecognized, they can be responsible for complications such as threatened premature labour and impaired intra-uterine development. Detection and appropriate treatment are thus essential. This article reviews the pathophysiology of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and the three major entities involved--different but related to each other--are detailed (significant asymptomatic bacteriuria or SAB, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis), together with their specific treatment. SAB tends to persist during pregnancy, then leading in the absence of treatment to a potentially serious complication (acute pyelonephritis) in approximately one woman in five. SAB should be sought at the first prenatal visit by microscopic and bacteriological examination of a properly obtained urine specimen. Lower genital infections should also be sought and treated, without forgetting to remind the patient of preventive measures (adequate hygiene, sufficient urine output, post-coital micturition, regular bowel habit). PMID:8036390

  18. [Diagnosis of urinary stress incontinence in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M

    2014-03-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) occur more frequently with increasing age. LUTS can either be caused by benign prostatic syndrome (BPS) and consecutive subvesical obstruction as well as detrusor hyperactivity. On the other hand, stress urinary incontinence is mostly seen after surgical intervention in the pelvis like radical prostatectomy. Also high volume centers report persisting incontinence rates of 2-4 % after radical prostatectomy.The diagnostic procedure in men with LUTS is divided in two steps: basic diagnostics, followed by a conservative treatment option, and extended diagnostic procedures including measurement of bladder pressure during filling and voiding. In addition, radiologic examinations, including voiding cystouretherogram, retrograde cystogram, CT scan, MRI scan, are added according to the severity of the symptoms and the scheduled surgical procedure. According to the guidelines of the DGU, EAU, AUA, and ICS, this extended examination is also mandatory prior to any surgical procedure like suburethral tapes, artificial sphincters, and sacral foramen neuronal stimulators. PMID:24615463

  19. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1), and their...... ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Study-specific and combined multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on tertiles of estrogen metabolites. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit according to hormone receptor status.¿Results: Higher...

  20. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel;

    2016-01-01

    , fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn......, Germany, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the...

  1. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare tumor that exhibits aggressive behavior and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all primary bladder tumors. Small cell carcinoma generally occurs in the lung, accounting for 25% of all pulmonary malignancies. SCCUB exhibits a similar microscopic and immunohistochemical appearance to that of small cell carcinoma of the lung. There is no consensus about the standard therapy, owing to its rarity. Surgical resection seems to be the mainstay of treatment for patients with limited stage, together with neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has same small effect for palliative purposes, as well as being an alternative to radical cystectomy. Patients with advanced stage, although given platinum-based chemotherapy, have a poor prognosis. We herein review epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological features, and current management of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (author)

  2. COMMON ORGANISMS AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF E COLI IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION, IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanavas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI includes a spectrum of Asymptomatic Bacteruria (ABU, Cystitis, Prostitis and Pyelonephritis. Except in ABU, UTI is represented by symptomatic disease that warrants antimicrobial therapy. 1 Many of the studies have shown increasing antibiotic resistance to these agents. This study consists of a retrospective observational study of culture and sensitivity of 150 urinary samples, collected from patients who presented with symptoms of UTI, in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Northern Kerala, irrespective of their age and sex for a period of six months from June 2015 to November 2015. These results are then analyzed to find common organisms causing UTI in different age groups in either sex and their respective antibiotic resistance are noted. Out of 150 urinary samples 69.34% were sterile, while 30.66% were culture positive. Among the culture positive patients sex distribution was almost equal, with a slight female predominance, having a contribution of 54.35% females and 45.65% males. The most common organism was found to be E.coli, which contributed more than 50 per cent of total culture positivity (54.35%. Others include Staphylococci, Klebsiella Pnuemoniae, Proteus species, Pseudomonas, Enterococci, Candida Albicans etc. Collateral damage is an ecological adverse effect that resist the use of a highly efficacious drug to be considered as first line agent. Our study shows that drugs causing minimal collateral damages like Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin can be used as first line agent for treatment of UTI.

  3. MR of the urinary tract in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on the application of standard 2D-FT MR combined with RARE-MR-Urography in a pregnant woman with right sided abdominal pain, dilated upper urinary tract and possible stone or inflammatory disease. This technique visualised the complete obstructed ureter in relation to the surrounding organs (uterus, vessels), allows precise diagnosis of the cause of the obstruction and avoids ionising radiation. (orig.)

  4. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  5. The management of childhood urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Maternik, Michal; Krzeminska, Katarzyna; Zurowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The International Children’s Continence Society (ICCS) has undertaken an enormous effort to standardize both the terminology and management of various aspects of incontinence in children, including enuresis, bladder overactivity, dysfunctional voiding and psychological comorbidities. A number of guidelines have been published to aid those involved in the care of children with lower urinary tract symptoms. This review addresses a number of recommended diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, inc...

  6. Urinary Proteomics to Support Diagnosis of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, J.; Walters, M.; Delles, C.; Mischak, H.; Mullen, W

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69), compared to controls (n = 33), and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were seq...

  7. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  8. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Pant-Purohit, Mukta; López Beltrán, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Cheng, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder(SCCUB) is a rare and aggressive cancer of the bladder.SCCUB is part of neuroendocrine family of tumors thataffect several organ systems including respiratory,gastrointestinal and male and female genitourinary tract.SCCUB affect males predominantly with common riskfactors include smoking, bladder calculi, bladdermanipulation, and chronic cystitis. Prognosis of SCCUBremains poor due to high metastatic potential and lack ofsymptoms in earlier stages of...

  10. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  11. Improved method to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, T. S.; Chou, J. S.; Chen, C Y; Smith, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To simplify the current preparation of samples, and to improve the specificity and reliability of the conventional analytical methods to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids. METHODS: Samples containing alkoxyacetic acids including methoxy, ethoxy, and butoxyacetic acids (MAA, EAA, and BAA) were acidified with HCl and extracted with a mixed solvent of methylene chloride and isopropyl alcohol, then analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). RESULTS: Optimal resul...

  12. Hyperammonaemic coma in ureterosigmoid urinary diversion.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, R M; Talbot, S.; Raman, G. V.

    1989-01-01

    We report on a patient with ureterosigmoid anastomosis, who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, agitation and aggressive behaviour, culminating in coma. Investigations revealed profound hyperammonaemia, which responded to treatment with sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate. No definite cause was found for the abnormality, apart from possible urinary tract infection. The patient remains well on a protein restricted diet with mildly elevated levels of plasma ammonia.

  13. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  14. [Laparoscopy of the upper urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepushkin, S P; Chebanov, K O; Chaĭkovskiĭ, V P; Sokolenko, R V; Novikov, S P; Novikov, V O

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract is a wide field for using of laparoscopy. The aim of this work was to analyze retrospectively our experience in the development of laparoscopic techniques of surgical treatment of upper urinary tract pathology. 137 patients with pathology of the upper urinary tract were operated laparoscopically in our department during three years (July 2010 - July 2013). There were performed: nephrectomy--75 (54.7%, nephroureterectomy--3, 2.2%, partial nephrectomy--12 (8.7%), adrenalectomy--11 (8%), resection of the adrenal gland--2 (1.5%), cystectomy--10 : (7.3%) ureterolithotomy--15 (11%) pelviolithotomy--3 (2.2%), pyeloplasty--4 (2.9%) nephropexy--2 (14%). The results were evaluated by the comparative analysis of laparoscopic surgery and similar open interventions that were performed in our clinic. The mean operative time after laparoscopic nephrectomy was 180 min (80-220), the mean blood loss during surgery was 150 ml (50-370). The patients discharged at 4-5 days after operation. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was performed at an average tumor size 2.7 cm (1.5-3.5). We used warm ischemia in 75% of cases. Its average time was 27 min (9-39), which was significantly greater than in the open resection--17 min (10-27). At the beginning of the development of laparoscopic adrenalectomy the average operative time was 140 min (110-270). In the future, as we got experience, it declined to 70 min (60-90) min. The mean blood loss was 70 ml (range 20-400). After laparoscopic cystectomy, ureterolithotomy, pelviolithotomy and pyeloplastic the patients discharged at 2-3 days. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were not noted. Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of pathology of the upper urinary tract is an alternative to the operations performed by the open approach. The oncological outcomes, functional results and complication rates are comparable for both types of surgery. PMID:25286605

  15. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Damaser, Margot S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  16. Rationalisation of Legionella Urinary Antigen Testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Breda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legionnaires’ is a severe pneumonia, the diagnosis of which can be confirmed by a positive Legionella Urinary Antigen (LUA) test. The British Thoracic Society has specific guidelines for its use. Incorrect LUA test requests can result in false-positive results while accumulating costs. Aims and Objectives: The aim is the rationalisation of LUA testing. The first objective is to educate clinicians on indications for testing reducing unnecessary orders. The second is to develop...

  17. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

    OpenAIRE

    Sayaka Oshikawa; Hiroko Sonoda; Masahiro Ikeda

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper’s group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs fro...

  18. Survey on antibiotic usage in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, K G

    2000-09-01

    Ninety-two clinical microbiologists, infectious disease clinicians and clinicians with an interest in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) participated in an interactive session concerning the management of acute uncomplicated lower UTI. The antibacterials considered most appropriate as first-line agents were trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and fluoroquinolones. The current level of usage of fluoroquinolones for lower UTIs was, however, considered inappropriate by most delegates from a 'societal perspective', in terms of spread of resistance and potential impact on the environment. PMID:11051624

  19. Estimation of urinary angiotensin II by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine samples were collected from fasting subjects after maintaining posture for 2 hr in early morning. Urinary angiotensin II was extracted with SE-Sephadex. The extracts, after being dissolved in phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, were measured by radioimmunoassay. Recovery, sensitivity and accuracy were found to be satisfactory. The normal values obtained from 6 subjects were 52-280 pg/2 hr. The values were almost normal in essential hypertension and in chronic glomerulonephritis. They were high in 3 out of 6 cases with renovascular hypertension and subsequently dropped after surgery. In 6 cases with primary aldosteronism, very low levels were found. These increased after the removal of adrenal adenomas. No positive correlation between simultaneous plasma and urinary angiotensin samples was apparent. Also no positive correlation between urinary angiotensin and urine volume was found. In renovascular hypertention, during glucose infusion, lower values in urine volume and angiotensin excretion were observed on the stenotic side as compared to the intact side. Thus, the angiotensin excretion rate does not appear to be regulated by arterial angiotensin concentration, but rather by the angiotensin perfusion rate. (author)

  20. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  1. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, B

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years it has been clearly demonstrated that the concept of bacterial biofilm production permits an understanding and provides some explanation of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This concept describes the colonization of catheter surfaces and the movement of bacteria against the urinary flow. It explains the antibacterial resistance of these matrix-enclosed sessile populations of bacteria. The catheter encrustation can be observed as mineralizing bacterial biofilm. The differentiation in swarming cells exposing a much higher activity of the enzyme urease is responsible for the predominant role of Proteus mirabilis in obstructing encrustations. The guidelines for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were developed over the past decades by clinicians and are still valid. They can now be better understood taking into consideration these new theories. As overuse of urethral catheters and non-compliance of their recommended use are still apparent, educational and surveillance programmes are needed to help maintain good standards of care. PMID:11148750

  2. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  3. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  4. Prevalence of Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections in Patients before and after of Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Urinary tract infections and bacteremia are the major problems in renal transplant patients, which are mostly due to immunesuppressive regimens, surgery, and exposure to the germs in hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial agents in the blood and urine samples of kidney transplant candidates. Material and Methods: In this one-year-long study, thirty-three renal transplant candidates were assessed for urine and blood cultures. One urine and blood samples from each patient before transplantation and three samples after transplantation were collected. The Samples, using standard microbiological methods, were investigated and infectious organisms identified. Results: In 133 urine samples, Escherichia coli (20.5%, Enterobacter spp. (5.3%, Klebsiella spp. (3 % and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.5% were isolated. In the blood samples, Enterobacter spp. (9.1%, Escherichia coli (6.8%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (3.8% and Klebsiella spp. (0.8% were isolated. Conclusion: The results indicate that urinary tract infection was high in patients with transplanted kidney, and E. coli is the most common cause of this infection. Keywords: Kidney Transplantation; Bacterial infections; Urinary Tract and Blood Infections; Escherichia Coli

  5. Synthesis of 125 I - Salicyl Hydroxamic Acid for Urinary Bladder Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salicylhydroxamic acid is a salicylate derivative. Radiolabeling of Salicyl hydroxamic acid ( SHA ) with iodine-125 may have considerable interest for imaging of urinary bladder. This study is aimed to optimize the radiolabeling yield of Salicyl hydroxamic with radio iodine (125-123) using chloramine - T (CAT) as an oxidizing agent with respect to factors that affect the reaction conditions such as SHA amount, CAT amount, reaction time and ph of the reaction mixture. In - vitro stability of the radiolabeled complex was checked and it was found to be stable for up to 24 h. 125 I-SHA was injected via intravenous administration routes into normal male Sprague – Dawley rats. Bio - distribution studies have revealed that 125I-SHA was excreted in urine with extent that it could give a clear image for urinary bladder especially if the bladder it tightly closed. The amount of 125 I - Salicyl hydroxamic excreted was increased in case of giving potassium bicarbonate to rat before injection of 125 I-SHA. The result of biodistribution study of 125 I - SHA in experimental animal suggest ed the possibility of using 123 I-SHA to image the urinary bladder

  6. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron AP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne P Cameron, Allen McNeil HarawayDepartment of Urology, Division of Neurourology and Pelvic Floor Reconstruction, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses.Materials and methods: A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used.Results: Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive.Conclusion: There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, conservative and surgical treatment

  7. 儿童慢性骨髓炎应用抗感染活性骨Ⅰ期植骨治疗的疗效评价%Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of anti-infective reconstituted bone xenograft on chronic osteomyelitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志; 刘建; 胡蕴玉; 刘建敏; 黄鲁豫; 李丹; 孟国林; 毕龙

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of anti-infective reconstituted bone xenograft (ARBX) as one-stage grafting on treating various chronic osteomyelitis in children. Methods ARBX was used to treat 16 cases of various chronic osteomyelitis in children as one-stage grafting after debridement since September of 2001. There were 8 cases with haematogenous, 3 with primary and 5 with traumatic chronic osteomyelitis. All patients were followed up for an average period of 39 months (range, 12 to 79 months). Results Except 1 case got recurrent infection and another 1 with nonunion due to large segmental bone defect after operation, other 14 cases were cured with the cure rate was 87. 5% (14/16), which is higher than that of classical therapy. Conclusions ARBX has high osteoinductive activity and enhanced anti-infective capability, which enables it to be used as one-stage grafting to treat various chronic osteomyelitis in children.%目的 验证抗感染活性骨(anti-infective reconstituted bone xenograft,ARBX)Ⅰ期植骨治疗儿童慢性骨髓炎的疗效.方法 自2001年9月对21例慢性骨髓炎患儿进行病灶清除,应用抗感染活性异种骨(anti-infective reconstituted bone xenograft,ARBX)Ⅰ期植骨治疗,其中获得12个月以上随访的儿童慢性骨髓炎患儿共16例.包括血源性慢性骨髓炎8例,原发性慢性骨髓炎3例,创伤性慢性骨髓炎5例.结果 16例中除1例骨髓炎复发,1例骨髓炎合并大段骨缺损在术后发生骨不连外,其余14例感染均获得控制无复发,病变部位均获得确实骨修复.本组感染治愈率(感染控制且无复发)为93.8%,完全治愈率(感染控制既无复发又完成骨修复)为87.5%.结论 ARBX具有高效诱导成骨活性和强效抗感染能力,是Ⅰ期植骨治疗儿童慢性骨髓炎的有效方法.

  8. 卫生部抗感染专业临床药师培训模式及实施中问题的探讨%Investigation of Training Mode of Clinical Pharmacists in Anti-infection Area by Ministry of Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宇; 万瑞融; 朱子辉; 曾尚勇

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the advantages and disadvantages of training mode of clinical pharmacists in anti-infection area by Ministry of Health. METHODS: According to training method, training content and training requirement of clinical pharmacists in anti-infection area by Ministry of Health, training mode of clinical pharmacists was analyzed and summarized through the practice of writer. RESULTS: Training mode of clinical pharmacists in anti-infection area by Ministry of Health had advantages, and also had disadvantages. CONCLUSIONS: It needs everyone to consummate the training mode of clinical pharmacists in anti-infection area by Ministry of Health. Fine training mode could raise level of clinical pharmacist to be one of treatment team. Patients, doctors and nurses can obtain all round pharmaceutical care.%目的 探讨卫生部抗感染专业临床药师培训模式的优点与不足,为临床药师培养模式的丰富、完善提供参考.方法 根据卫生部临床药师抗感染专业的培训方法、内容和要求,通过笔者亲身实践进行分析总结.结果 目前卫生部抗感染专业临床药师培训模式有优点,也存在弊端,如培训时间短,要求高,学员难以在规定时间内高质量完成培训任务;学员临床知识缺乏,难以在实际操作中给临床医师做好辅助工作.结论 卫生部抗感染专业临床药师培训模式仍需进一步完善,如改进培训方法,加强药历书写训练,提高沟通、交流能力等,让患者、医师、护士真正得到全面的药学服务.

  9. LP-925219 maximizes urinary glucose excretion in mice by inhibiting both renal SGLT1 and SGLT2

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, David R.; Smith, Melinda G; Doree, Deon D; Harris, Angela L; Xiong, Wendy W; Mseeh, Faika; Alan WILSON; Gopinathan, Suma; Diaz, Damaris; Goodwin, Nicole C.; Harrison, Bryce; Strobel, Eric; Rawlins, David B; Carson, Ken; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control by inhibiting SGLT2-mediated renal glucose reabsorption. Currently available agents increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE) to 50% of filtered glucose when SGLT2 is completely inhibited. This led us to test whether LP-925219, a small molecule dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor, increases UGE to maximal values in wild-type (WT) mice. We first tested LP-925219 inhibition of gluc...

  10. Dynamics of Urinary Calprotectin after Renal Ischaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbing, Jan; Seibert, Felix S.; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Bauer, Frederic; Miller, Kurt; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Günzel, Karsten; Bachmann, Alexander; Seifert, Hans H.; Rentsch, Cyrill A.; Ardelt, Peter; Wetterauer, Christian; Amico, Patrizia; Babel, Nina; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary calprotectin has been identified as a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury. To date, however, the time-dependent changes of this parameter during acute kidney injury remain elusive. The aim of the present work was to define the time-course of urinary calprotectin secretion after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in comparison to neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin, thereby monitoring the extent of tubular damage in nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. Methods: The study population consisted of 42 patients. Thirty-two patients underwent either open or endoscopic nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. During the surgery, the renal arterial pedicle was clamped with a median ischaemic time of 13 minutes (interquartile range, 4.5–20.3 minutes) in 26 patients. Ten retro-peritoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy patients and 6 nephron sparing surgery patients in whom the renal artery was not clamped served as controls. Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin concentrations were repeatedly measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed according to renal function parameters. Results: Urinary concentrations of calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin increased significantly after ischaemia/reperfusion injury, whereas concentrations remained unchanged after nephron sparing surgery without ischaemia/reperfusion injury and after kidney donation. Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased 2 and 8 hours, respectively, post-ischaemia. Both proteins reached maximal concentrations after 48 hours, followed by a subsequent persistent decrease. Maximal neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin and calprotectin concentrations were 9-fold and 69-fold higher than their respective baseline values. The glomerular filtration rate was only transiently impaired at the first post-operative day after ischaemia

  11. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were not...... included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  12. Urinary Ghrelin Concentration in Children With Urinary Tract Infections Before and After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common in children. They can lead to hypertension and end stage renal disease (ESRD. Ghrelin is a regulatory hormone that maintains fat tissues and body composition. Ghrelin is mainly produced in the stomach and in smaller amounts in kidneys. It stimulates release of growth hormone (GH, increases food intake, and causes weight gain. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine weather urinary Ghrelin concentration is involved in anorexia in patients with UTI and its urinary concentration changes with treatment. Patients and Methods This study was performed on 40 hospitalized children with UTI at Mofid children’s hospital during years 2013 to 2014. Ghrelin and Creatinine were measured before and after treatment. statistical analyzes were performed using the SPSS software version 18 by student t test, Wilcoxon test and Spearman coefficient and differences were considered as significant if P < 0.05. Results Mean age was 4.5 ± 3.8 years and 34 (85% were females; 14 children (35% had proteinuria, nine patients (29% had Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR, eight (20% scare, five (12.5% hydronephrosis and 33 (82.5% anorexia. Mean urinary acylated Ghrelin before and after treatment were 138.4 ± 70.9 and 147.2 ± 72.6, respectively (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between mean urinary Ghrelin before and after treatment in children with UTI with or without anorexia. Acylated Ghrelin had a direct correlation with the incidence of renal scarring (r = 0.37, P = 0.034. Conclusions Urinary Ghrelin concentration was lower before treatment of UTI and significantly increased after cessation of inflammation. Further studies are required for more definite results.

  13. The Genetics of Urinary Tract Infections and the Innate Defense of the Kidney and Urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambite, Ines; Rydstrom, Gustav; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Hains, David S

    2016-03-01

    The urinary tract is a sterile organ system. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and often serious infections. Research has focused on uropathogen, environment, and host factors leading to UTI pathogenesis. A growing body of evidence exists implicating genetic factors that can contribute to UTI risks. In this review, we highlight genetic variations in aspects of the innate immune system critical to the host response to uropathogens. This overview includes genetic variations in pattern recognition receptor molecules, chemokines/cytokines, and neutrophil activation. We also comprehensively cover murine knockout models of UTI, genetic variations involved in renal scarring as a result of ascending UTIs, and asymptomatic bacteriuria. PMID:27617139

  14. In vitro activity of 79 antimicrobial agents against Corynebacterium group D2.

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rodriguez, J A; García Sánchez, J E; Muñoz Bellido, J L; Nebreda Mayoral, T; García Sánchez, E; García García, I

    1991-01-01

    Corynebacterium group D2 (CGD2) is involved in urinary tract infections in patients with underlying predisposing factors. This microorganism is highly resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents. We tested the activities of 79 antimicrobial agents against CGD2. beta-Lactams, aminoglycosides, and macrolides were ineffective. Fluorinated quinolones showed irregular activities, ofloxacin being the most active one. Doxycycline, rifampin, and mainly glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) wer...

  15. Migrated embolization coil: A rare cause of urinary tract obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bhageria, Anand; Seth, Amlesh; Bora, Girdhar S.

    2012-01-01

    Refractory bleeding following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is mainly due to formation of pseudoaneurysm. Transarterial embolization is required to control the bleeding in such cases. We report a case of post-PCNL hematuria in whom angioembolization was done. An early erosion of the embolization coil from the renal vasculature into the urinary collecting system occurred, causing urinary tract obstruction and urinary tract infection (UTI). The coil was retrieved ureteroscopically after c...

  16. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnarr, J; Smaill, F

    2008-10-01

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. A history of previous urinary tract infections and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for bacteriuria in pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common aetiologic agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and quantitative culture is the gold standard for diagnosis. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been shown to reduce the rate of pyelonephritis in pregnancy and therefore screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has become a standard of obstetrical care. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies limits the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Debate exists in the literature as to whether treated pyelonephritis is associated with adverse fetal outcomes. There is no clear consensus in the literature on antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for infection. With increasing antibiotic resistance, consideration of local resistance rates is necessary when choosing therapy. PMID:18826482

  18. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  19. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), 99mTC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and 99mTC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  20. Current Approaches in the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Stress Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Cavkaytar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The management of urinary stress incontinence which constitutes nearly the half of all urinary incontinence cases, mainly depends on surgical treatment. Before surgery, the type of incontinence should be determined and the treatment should be planned according to this. Several surgical techniques have been developed and long term outcomes comparing them have been published in recent years. Midurethral slings have become the most commonly performed procedures for urinary stress incontinence since they are safe, effective and have good long term outcomes. But it should be kept in mind that there is no single operation successful for the urinary stres incontinence and the treatment should be individualised for each patient.

  1. The role of urinary peptidomics in kidney disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julie; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Mischak, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P

    2016-03-01

    Urinary peptidomics focuses on endogenous urinary peptide content. Many studies now show the usefulness of this approach for the discovery and validation of biomarkers in kidney diseases that are as varied as chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract, and polycystic kidney disease. Most studies focus on chronic kidney disease and demonstrate that urinary peptidome analysis can substantially contribute to early detection and stratification of patients with chronic kidney disease. A number of multicenter studies are ongoing that aim further validation in a clinical setting and broaden the applicability of urinary peptides. The association of urinary peptides with kidney disease also starts to deliver information on the pathophysiology of kidney disease with emphasis on extracellular matrix remodeling. Bioinformatic peptide centric tools have been developed that allow to model the changes in protease activity involved in kidney disease, based on the urinary peptidome content. A novel application of urinary peptidome analysis is the back-translation of results obtained in humans to animals for animal model validation and improvement of readout in these preclinical models. In conclusion, urinary peptidomics not only contribute to detection and stratification of kidney disease in the clinic, but might also create a new impulse in drug discovery through better insight in the pathophysiology of disease and optimized translatability of animal models. PMID:26880450

  2. Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Opal, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    Steven Opal reviews the phenomenon of bacterial communities and discusses the role played by bacterial communication and cooperation in host-pathogen interactions, particularly in urinary tract infection.

  3. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  4. Role of Urinary Cathelicidin LL-37 and Human β-Defensin 1 in Uncomplicated Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben; Jakobsen, Lotte; Andersen, Paal S.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was investigated by comparing urinary peptide levels of UTI patients during and after infection to those of controls, as well as characterizing the fecal flora of participants with respect to susceptibility to LL-...

  5. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  6. Predictors of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced reduction of urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wal, Ruud M A; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Harst, Pim; Boomsma, Frans; Thijs Plokker, H W; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; de Jong, Paul E; van Gilst, Wiek H; Voors, Adriaan A

    2006-11-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In this substudy of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease Intervention Trial, 384 microalbuminuric patients were included. Patient and biochemical characteristics were obtained at baseline and after 3 months of double-blinded, randomized treatment (fosinopril 20 mg or placebo). Mean age was 51.1+/-11.5 years, and 65.6% were male. Median urinary albumin excretion was 22.2 mg per 24 hours. At baseline, mean arterial pressure (beta(standardized)=0.161; P=0.006), urinary sodium excretion (beta(standardized)=0.154; P=0.011), and estimated renal function were independently associated with albumin excretion. In these predominantly normotensive to prehypertensive subjects, fosinopril reduced albumin excretion by 18.5% versus a 6.1% increase on placebo after 3 months (Poutspoken in subjects with higher baseline albumin excretion. Based on our data, we hypothesize that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition may result in superior cardiovascular protection when compared with other blood pressure-lowering agents in subjects with higher baseline levels of albuminuria. PMID:17000930

  7. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  8. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  9. [Follow-up after surgical replacement of the urinary bladder (urinary diversion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubrig, B; Kories, C; Roth, S

    2013-01-01

    Surgical replacement of the urinary bladder is usually necessary after radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Besides uro-oncological follow-up (local, urethral, and systemic recurrence; tumor in the upper tract) functional follow-up of the urinary diversion is indicated. Guidelines are still scarce. Long contact time and large surface area in continent pouches made from long intestinal segments lead to absorption of contents of urine and thus to acidosis and imbalances in serum electrolytes. Compensation depends on renal function. Exclusion of long ileal segments out of the intestinal passage may lead to malabsorption of Vitamin B12 and bile acids. 30 % and more of long-term survivors with continent pouches take Vitamin B12 and sodium bicarbonate. Special attention has to be paid to obstruction of the upper urinary tract, total renal function and to secondary malignancy in the bladder substitute. For the latter, sigma-rectum pouches, augmentation cystoplasties and continent pouches with incorporation of colonic segments are at special risk. Functional follow-up affords good understanding of the specific complications of the different types of urinary diversions. PMID:23386377

  10. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  11. Stress Urinary Incontinence: Comparative Efficacy Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Erin Seifert; Zyczynski, Halina M

    2016-03-01

    Women seeking relief from symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may choose from a broad array of treatment options. Therapies range from lifestyle/behavioral modification to surgical interventions, and differ in terms of both effectiveness and risk. Individualized treatment plans can be developed to address a patient's expectations and goals for treatment, as well as her tolerance for potential adverse events. This article reviews the highest-quality clinical trials comparing contemporary treatment options for women with SUI. Clinicians and patients can use this compendium to inform their treatment selection. PMID:26880507

  12. Synchronous Rectovaginal, Urinary Bladder, and Pulmonary Endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilaris, Georgios E.; Payne, Christopher K.; Osias, Joelle; Cannon, Walter; Nezhat, Camran R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Extragenital endometriosis is an uncommon condition that can affect almost any organ system and tissue in the human body. Disease involving multiple distant sites is extremely uncommon. Methods: We report a rare case of synchronous rectovaginal, urinary bladder, and pulmonary endometriosis. We performed a Medline literature search using keywords “endometriosis,” “rectovaginal,” “pulmonary,” “bladder,” “ureteral,” “bowel,” “extrapelvic,” and “extragenital” and were unable to find a...

  13. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikawa, Sayaka; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper’s group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs from their discovery to clinical application. PMID:27322253

  14. [Catheter-associated urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, B

    2015-09-01

    In patients with indwelling urethral catheters significant bacteriuria develops within 4 weeks of indwelling time in practically 100% of the cases. Catheter encrustation and obstruction can occur in approximately 40% of patients. Symptomatic ascending urinary tract infections, urethral complications and urolithiasis can occur in significant numbers in the long term. Regular educational and surveillance programs in nursing homes, hospitals and in home care are important to instruct personnel in hygiene procedures, to learn the indications for catheterization, to keep the indwelling time of catheters as short as possible, to detect any complications early and to initiate appropriate diagnostics and therapy by the urologist. PMID:26275988

  15. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, J.H.; Prien, E.L.; Amis, E.S. Jr.; Dretler, S.P.; Pfister, R.C.

    1984-03-01

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo.

  16. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Keon Seok; Choo, Myung Soo [Ulsan Univ. Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angles of the controls were 125.3 deg ({+-}10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg ({+-}7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were 135.3 deg ({+-}11.3) and 139.6 deg({+-}10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg ({+-}4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg ({+-}4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm({+-}5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm({+-}7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm({+-}3.9) and 12.6 mm({+-}4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm ({+-}1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm ({+-}2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg ({+-}2.8) : 132.3 deg ({+-}12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg({+-}3.8) : 136.0 deg({+-}6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg({+-}5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence.

  17. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angels of the controls were 125.3 deg (±10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg (±7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were135.3 deg (±11.3) and 139.6 deg(±10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg (±4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg (±4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm(±5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm(±7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm(±3.9) and 12.6 mm(±4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm (±1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm (±2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg (±2.8) : 132.3 deg (±12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg(±3.8) : 136.0 deg( 6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg((±5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence

  18. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) µg g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted

  19. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  20. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikawa, Sayaka; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper's group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs from their discovery to clinical application. PMID:27322253

  1. Pharmacokinetics of human urinary kallidinogenase in rabbits and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the binding, degradation and concentration-time profiles of 125I-kallidinogenase in plasma after i.v. injection in rabbits. The distribution and excretion of kallidinogenase and its metabolites in urine and bile were also studied in rats. Methods: Using 125I-kallidinogenase combined with size-exclusive high performance liquid chromatography (SHPLC) or trichloroacetic acid precipitation method. Results: Determined by hydrolysis of chromogenic substrate (S-2266) of kallidinogenase, demonstrated that the enzymatic activity of 125I-kallidinogenase was similar to that of unlabelled enzyme. SHPLC analysis of plasma revealed that plasma protein bound 125I-kallidinogenase and 125I-degradation products were found after intravenous injection of various doses of the agent. Terminal half-lives of 125I-kallidinogenase-protein complex (AUC) after i.v. 5 x 10-3, 15 x 10-3, and 45 x 10-3 pNAu·kg-1 were (1.28 +- 1.31), (2.18 +- 1.08) and (2.03 +- 0.32) h, respectively. AUC increased with dose while clearance was similar. Maximal percentage of bound serum 125I-kallidinogenase in vitro was (94.3 +- 0.77)% and equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 8.9 x 10-8 mol·L-1. Levels of acid precipitable radioactivity in different organs were in a descending order: urinary system, the highest blood abundant organs the next and cerebral cortex the lowest. (96.9 +- 3.3)% of injected radioactivity was excreted within 2 days and the major route was urinary system. Conclusions: 125I-kallidinogenase was rapidly bound to plasma protein with high affinity after i.v. injection. The pharmacokinetics of 125I-kallidinogenase was rapidly bound to plasma protein with high affinity after i.v. injection. The pharmacokinetics of 125I-kallidinogenase-protein complex was linear within dosage range studied in rabbits. 125I-kallidinogenase was mainly distributed in blood abundant organs, not able to across blood-brain barrier and excreted through urine after i.v. injection in rats

  2. In vitro activity of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) on urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Method: In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 Degree C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. Results: A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E coli. (author)

  3. Dilatation and curettage of urinary bladder: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight-year-old female while undergoing a medical termination of pregnancy (MTP encounter complete urethral loss and massive bladder curettage. After resuscitation, she developed continuous urinary leakage followed by progressive decline in urine output. Case is highlighted here because of the massive vesico-urethral trauma because of MTP, leading to permanent urinary diversion.

  4. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John;

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects.......Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  5. Prostate cancer biomarker profiles in urinary sediments and exosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Birker, I.L.; Smit, F.P.; Leyten, G.H.J.M.; Reijke, T.M. de; Oort, I.M. van; Mulders, P.F.A.; Jannink, S.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urinary biomarker tests for diagnosing prostate cancer have gained considerable interest. Urine is a complex mixture that can be subfractionated. We evaluated 2 urinary fractions that contain nucleic acids, ie cell pellets and exosomes. The influence of digital rectal examination before uri

  6. Female urinary stress incontinence treated with Teflon injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Røhl, H

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six women with urinary stress incontinence underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades (good, moderate, and poor). Good or moderate results were obtained in 50%. No major immediate complications or long-term side-effects were...... for urinary incontinence should this prove necessary....

  7. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary tra

  8. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 μU kg-1 min-1. Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations (μU/ml) and excretion rates (μU/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay

  9. Urinary tract infection due to Enterobacter sakazakii

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat Gopalkrishna; Anandhi.R; Dhanya V; Shenoy Shalini

    2009-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare but important cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, bloodstream infection and central nervous system infections in humans, with mortality rates of 40-80%. It has not been reported to cause urinary tract infection. We report a case of urinary tract infection due to E. sakazakii in a 63-year-old lady with chronic renal failure.

  10. Visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Pain originating from the upper urinary tract is a common problem and stone colic is one of the most intense pain conditions that can be experienced in the clinic. The pain is difficult to alleviate and often leads to medical attention. In humans, pain mechanisms of the upper urinary tract pain are...

  11. Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods to localize the source of bacteriuria were evaluated in monkeys with experimental urinary tract infection. A high level of diagnostic accuracy was obtained with the combined study of antibody-coated urinary bacteria by immunofluorescence, 131I hippuran scintiphotos in the hydropenic state and 67gallium citrate scintiphotos. Unique patterns were found, which differentiate cystitis, ureteritis, pyelonephritis and renal or perinephric abscesses

  12. Biochemical tests for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: urinary versus plasma determinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Plouin, P F; Duclos, J M; Menard, J; Comoy, E; Bohuon, C; Alexandre, J M

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with hypertension due to phaeochromocytoma and 35 controls with essential hypertension were studied to assess the diagnostic value of urinary and plasma biochemical determinations in phaeochromocytoma. In every case of phaeochromocytoma the urinary concentration of vanillylmandelate, metanephrines, or adrenaline plus noradrenaline was diagnostic of the disease irrespective of whether the patient was normotensive or hypertensive at the time. Plasma determinations of adrenaline...

  13. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, M; Jacob, K; Zachoval, R

    1999-08-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive outpatients with chronic hepatitis C infection without signs of photosensitivity, using an ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography method. Increased total porphyrin excretion was found in 41 patients, with predominant excretion of coproporphyrins (whole study group: mean 146 microg/g creatinine, interquartile range 76-186; normal coproporphyrin, heptacarboxyporphyrin III increased) but the total porphyrin excretion was only slightly elevated in this case. In the whole group, total urinary porphyrin excretion correlated well with serum bilirubin and was inversely correlated with albumin and thrombin time. In conclusion, secondary coproporphyrinuria occurs frequently in heptatitis C infection, whereas in Germany, preclinical porphyria cutanea tarda seems to be rare in these patients. PMID:10536928

  14. ILEOCYSTOPLASTY IN INVASIVE URINARY BLADDER CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of surgical treatment of patients with the intestinal urinary bladder, to characterize its early and late postoperative complications, and to develop their correction tactics.  Subjects and methods. The results of treatment in 198 patients who had undergone ileocystoplasty were analyzed.  Results. The developed diagnostic approach and the determined examination periods could reduce the number of late postoperative complications of ileocystoplasty: acute and chronic pyelonephritis from 19.4 to 7.6%, urolithiasis from 17.2 to 1.9%, bladder dysfunction from 25.8 to 7.6%, and metabolic acidosis from 4.3 to 1.9%, and prevent the development of ureterovesical anastomosis stricture.  Conclusion. Radical cystectomy with the ileoplasty using an isolated segment of the ileum in patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma has been the operation of choice no longer; it has become an essential surgical adjunct. This method permits overall 5-year survival to be achieved in 69.7% of patients.  

  15. Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Ok Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-monthold infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient’s bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

  16. Urinary proteomics to support diagnosis of stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Dawson

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69, compared to controls (n = 33, and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were sequenced by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We developed two biomarker-based classifiers, employing 14 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.004 or 35 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.01. When tested on a blinded test set of 47 independent samples, the classification factor was significantly different between groups; for the 35 biomarker model, median value of the classifier was 0.49 (-0.30 to 1.25 in cases compared to -1.04 (IQR -1.86 to -0.09 in controls, p<0.001. The 35 biomarker classifier gave sensitivity of 56%, specificity was 93% and the AUC on ROC analysis was 0.86. This study supports the potential for urinary proteomic biomarker models to assist with the diagnosis of acute stroke in those with mild symptoms. We now plan to refine further and explore the clinical utility of such a test in large prospective clinical trials.

  17. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  18. Urinary incontinence nursing diagnoses in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Alteniza Leandro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying the prevalence of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI, Urge urinary incontinence (UUI, Functional urinary incontinence (FUI, Overflow urinary incontinence (OUI and Reflex urinary incontinence (RUI nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics in stroke patients. METHOD A cross-sectional study with 156 patients treated in a neurological clinic. Data were collected through interviews and forwarded to nurses for diagnostic inference. RESULTS 92.3% of the patients had at least one of the studied diagnoses; OUI showed the highest prevalence (72.4%, followed by FUI (53.2%, RUI (50.0%, UUI (41.0% and SUI (37.8%. Overdistended bladder and reports of inability to reach the toilet in time to avoid urine loss were the most prevalent defining characteristics. A statistically significant association of the defining characteristics with the studied diagnosis was verified. CONCLUSION The five incontinence diagnoses were identified in the evaluated patients, with different prevalence.

  19. Urinary symptoms in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Sousa Raimundo Nonato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cross-sectional study involving 61 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD who were consecutively examined and compared to a control group with 74 subjects. Only patients who fulfilled the standard diagnostic criteria for PD and whose brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal were included. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior urinary tract symptoms in PD and to study the possible association between clinical factors to urinary dysfunction. ln the patient group, 39.3% presented urinary symptoms when compared to 10.8% in the control group. All symptomatic patients presented irritative symptoms. The most common irritative symptom PD was nocturia, followed by frequency and urinary incontinence. Around 25% of the patients presented functional obstructive symptoms determined by the disease. The most frequent obstructive symptom was incomplete emptying of the bladder. Only the age of the patients and control group were correlated with urinary dysfunction.

  20. The Artificial Urinary Sphincter in the Management of Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Oscar A; McCammon, Kurt A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the emergence of different devices in the treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence, the AMS 800 (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN) remains the gold standard for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in men. We reviewed the current literature regarding the indications, surgical principles, outcomes, and complications of artificial urinary sphincter placement for stress urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. Despite all the available information, heterogeneous data, different success definitions, and the lack of high-quality prospective studies with long-term follow-up, it is difficult to compare outcomes between studies. In spite of these, the perineal implantation of a single cuff artificial urinary sphincter has withstood the test of time. PMID:26845050

  1. Urinary density measurement and analysis methods in neonatal unit care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess urine collection methods through cotton in contact with genitalia and urinary collector to measure urinary density in newborns. This is a quantitative intervention study carried out in a neonatal unit of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in 2010. The sample consisted of 61 newborns randomly chosen to compose the study group. Most neonates were full term (31/50.8% males (33/54%. Data on urinary density measurement through the methods of cotton and collector presented statistically significant differences (p<0.05. The analysis of interquartile ranges between subgroups resulted in statistical differences between urinary collector/reagent strip (1005 and cotton/reagent strip (1010, however there was no difference between urinary collector/ refractometer (1008 and cotton/ refractometer. Therefore, further research should be conducted with larger sampling using methods investigated in this study and whenever possible, comparing urine density values to laboratory tests.

  2. [Urodynamic parameters of fetal lower urinary tract in physiological pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhonatskaia, M L; Glybochko, P V; Demidov, V N

    2005-01-01

    The study of urodynamic parameters in 76 fetuses in physiological course of pregnancy at gestation term from 20 to 40 weeks has shown that urodynamics of the lower urinary tract in the prenatal period directly correlate with embryon and fetus formation. Urodynamic indices of fetal lower urinary tract have 13 significant correlations out of possible 43, indicating distinct interactions of various organs and strictures of fetal urinary system. The analysis of the structure of correlations between different urodynamic indices of the lower urinary tract of the fetus demonstrates that they vary greatly in pregnancy trimester II and remain constant in trimester III. Thus, interrelations between basic urodynamic parameters of the lower urinary tract get established to the end of trimester II. PMID:16097713

  3. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  4. Agents in domestic environments

    OpenAIRE

    van Moergestel, Leo; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; meyer, john-jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to tie the agents directly to the actuators, sensors and devices involved. This way a level of abstraction is created and all intelligence of the system as a whole is related to the agents involved. A pr...

  5. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko;

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  6. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  7. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  8. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  9. Plasmid mediated multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from community acquired infection of urinary tract in Aligarh Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad U Khan; Saeedut Zafar Ali; Mohammed S Zaman

    2008-01-01

    This study was to investigate the current trends of multiple drug resistance in bacteria against antibiotics for the proper empirical treatmen.Clinical isolates were collected from community-acquired infection of urinary tract patients in Aligarh India from March 1999 to August 1999.Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed,using the disc diffusion method followed by plasmid isolation by the method of Kado and Liu.Transfer experiments were performed by the method of Lederberg and Cohen.Clinical study revealed that this infection was more common in young women.Various strains of E.coli isolated during the course of study were found to show multiple antibiotic resistance which was further characterized as plasmid-borne drug resistance.This study shows that E.coli may be one of the important causative agents of urinary tract infection (UTI )in young women.

  10. Acute urinary retention in a 23-year-old woman with mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobe Hideyuki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients with clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion present with relatively mild central nervous system disturbances. Although the exact etiology of the condition remains poorly understood, it is thought to be associated with infective agents. We present a case of a patient with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion, who had the unusual feature of acute urinary retention. Case presentation A 23-year-old Japanese woman developed mild confusion, gait ataxia, and urinary retention seven days after onset of fever and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated T2 prolongation in the splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral cerebral white matter. These magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities disappeared two weeks later, and all of the symptoms resolved completely within four weeks. Except for the presence of acute urinary retention (due to underactive detrusor without hyper-reflexia, the clinical and radiologic features of our patient were consistent with those of previously reported patients with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of acute urinary retention recognized in a patient with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion can be associated with impaired bladder function and indicate that acute urinary retention in this benign disorder should be treated immediately to avoid bladder injury.

  11. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was

  13. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie;

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the...... utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and...... European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for...

  14. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...... system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested potential mechanisms....

  15. Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Urinary Tract Anomalies After First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, Emad E; Abdelaziz, Doaa M; Sheba, Maha F; Abdel-Azeem, Yasser S

    2016-05-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can demonstrate the size and shape of kidneys, presence of dilatation of the ureters, and the existence of anatomic abnormalities. The aim of the study is to estimate the value of ultrasound in detecting urinary tract anomalies after first attack of UTI. Methods This study was conducted at the Nephrology Clinic, New Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, from August 2012 to March 2013, and included 30 children who presented with first attack of acute febrile UTI. All patients were subjected to urine analysis, urine culture and sensitivity, serum creatinine, complete blood count, and imaging in the form of renal ultrasound, voiding cysto-urethrography, and renal scan. Results All the patients had fever with a mean of 38.96°C ± 0.44°C and the mean duration of illness was 6.23 ± 5.64 days. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had an ultrasound abnormality. The commonest abnormalities were kidney stones (15.8%). Only 2 patients who had abnormal ultrasound had also vesicoureteric reflux on cystourethrography. Sensitivity of ultrasound was 66.7%, specificity was 37.5%, positive predictive value was 21.1%, negative predictive value was 81.8%, and total accuracy was 43.33%. Conclusion We concluded that ultrasound alone was not of much value in diagnosing and putting a plan of first attack of febrile UTI. It is recommended that combined investigations are the best way to confirm diagnosis of urinary tract anomalies. PMID:26084536

  16. Agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites: Key factor to formation of urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle size analyzer, comparative studies were conducted on the property variation of nanocrystallites in the urine of 5 lithogenic patients and 5 healthy subjects following the placement time (t1). These properties include average particle size (d), size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation function, Zeta potential (ζ) and aggregation state. With the prolongation of t1 from 0 h to 4 h, d value of the nanocrystallites in urine of lithogenic patients increased from 742 nm to 1667 nm, the autocorrelation time increased from 7.68 ms to 1050 ms and ζ decreased from -1.52 mV to -4.44 mV, respectively; the autocorrelation curves were of fluctuating and unsmooth, and TEM showed that most of the patient's urinary nanocrystallites were in aggregation state and three types of agglomeration were observed. However, for nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects, there was little variation in the above properties within 4 h. The autocorrelation curves were of regular and smooth, and TEM showed that healthy urinary nanocrystallites were well-dispersed. The above results show that the nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects can keep stability, whereas those of lithogenic patients are easier to agglomerate gradually; and the agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites is the key factor to stone formation.

  17. Urinary Citrate: A view in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTHOSH KUMAR.N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: To evaluate the 24 hour urinary citrate levels in chronic renal failure and healthy controls and to define the role of urinary citrates in the chronic renal failures. Materials and Methods: The 24 hours urinary citrates, Blood urea, Serum creatinine, Na+, K+were evaluated in 25 chronic renal failure patients and25 healthy subjects taken as controls. In both groups participants were on their usual diet. In addition, none of the participant was taking any drugs that could interfere with the citrate excretion. Results: The mean 24 hour urinary citrate excretion in patients and healthy controls was 296.3 ± 8.543mg and 323.9 ± 4.304mg respectively. Using previously defined values of normal urinary citrates as more than 320 mg.The difference in 24 hour urinary citrateexcretion in all patients and healthy control was statistically significant (

    urinary citrate excretion in recurrent renal failures and healthy controls. Uniformly low citrate excretion in patients indicates that low citrate levels may be a feature seen in predisposing factor for renal failure

  18. The relationship of urinary incontinence to early spaying in bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcklin-Gautschi, N M; Hässig, M; Reichler, I M; Hubler, M; Arnold, S

    2001-01-01

    It is still controversial whether a bitch should be spayed before or after the first oestrus. It would be desirable to spay bitches at an age that would minimize the side effects of neutering. With regard to the risk of mammary tumours, early spaying must be recommended because the incidence of tumours is reduced considerably. The aim of the present study was to determine whether early spaying also reduces the risk of urinary incontinence. The owners of 206 bitches that had been spayed before their first oestrus and for at least 3 years were questioned on the occurrence of urinary incontinence as a result of spaying. At the time of the enquiry the average age of the bitches was 6.5 years, and the average age at the time of surgery was 7.1 months. Urinary incontinence after spaying occurred in 9.7% of bitches. This incidence is approximately half that of spaying after the first oestrus. Urinary incontinence affected 12.5% of bitches that were of a large body weight (> 20 kg body weight) and 5.1% of bitches that were of a small body weight (spaying and the occurrence of urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence occurred on average at 2 years and 10 months after surgery and occurred each day, while the animals were awake or during sleep. However, compared with late spaying the clinical signs of urinary incontinence were more distinct after early spaying. PMID:11787155

  19. Significance of Urinary Proteome Pattern in Renal Allograft Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhail, Sufi M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enabling early diagnosis of graft dysfunction and proper manipulation of immunosuppressive strategy that could impact graft prognosis. The methodology of the urinary proteome is nonetheless not more complex than that of other sophisticated assays of conventional urinary protein analysis. Moreover, the need for a centralized database is also felt by the researchers as more and more studies have been presenting their results from different corners and as systems of organizing these newly emerging data being developed at international and national levels. In this context concept of urinary proteomics in renal allograft recipients would be of significant importance in clinical transplantation. PMID:24757556

  20. Significance of Urinary Proteome Pattern in Renal Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi M. Suhail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enabling early diagnosis of graft dysfunction and proper manipulation of immunosuppressive strategy that could impact graft prognosis. The methodology of the urinary proteome is nonetheless not more complex than that of other sophisticated assays of conventional urinary protein analysis. Moreover, the need for a centralized database is also felt by the researchers as more and more studies have been presenting their results from different corners and as systems of organizing these newly emerging data being developed at international and national levels. In this context concept of urinary proteomics in renal allograft recipients would be of significant importance in clinical transplantation.

  1. Urinary Bladder Xanthoma - Is Immunohistochemistry Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendran, M; Venugopal, A; Kaushik, Vinay N

    2016-09-01

    Urinary Bladder Xanthomas (UBX) are non-neoplastic reactive tumor like process. Isolated UBX is rare with only around 15 cases reported (Yu, Patel, & Bonert, 2015). UBX are reported in older patients who present with non specific symptoms like UTI or hematuria. Patients often have associated lipid anomalies. UBX have been vaguely described as yellowish white plaques or patches. Also, recent reports have stressed on the role of Immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis (Al-Daraji, Varghese, & Husain, 2007; Vimal, Masih, Manipadam, & Chacko, 2012). The objective of this report is to provide a cystoscopic view of the tumor which will enable easier identification and also to debate on the role of IHC in diagnosis. PMID:27462546

  2. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaderin, V.P.; Polyanichko, M.F. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Onkologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature and clinical data of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%).

  3. Urinary incontinence in the bitch: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, I M; Hubler, M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI), defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the filling phase of the bladder (Abrams et al. 2002), is a commonly seen problem in veterinary practice. Urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after spaying is the most common micturition disorder, and its medical treatment is normally successful, even though the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood. Hormonal changes inducing structural and functional alterations in the bladder, as well as in the urethra composition, are discussed. To manage incontinent patients successfully, possible underlying abnormalities besides USMI should be ruled out. In the majority of cases, history, physical examination and simple tests including urinalysis and urine bacterial culture lead to a presumed aetiology. If USMI is the most likely cause, then the advantage of further diagnostic tests should be discussed with the owner before starting a trial therapy with alpha-adrenergic drugs. Potential side effects of this therapy have to be mentioned even though they rarely occur. It is important to thoroughly evaluate the success of the initial treatment. Its failure should lead to further diagnostic testing. Specialized clinical assessments may provide an aetiological diagnosis, and this could serve as a basis for discussing further treatment options. Surgical procedures, which may in rare cases cause irreversible side effects, may be instituted. If incontinence reoccurs after initial treatment was successfully performed, the diagnostic work-up including urinalysis should always be repeated. As results of urinalysis did not correlate well with results of bacterial culture, a urine culture is recommended (Comer and Ling 1981). Cystocentesis is the preferred method of urine collection (Bartges 2004). Equivocal results of quantitative cultures of urine samples obtained during midstream voiding or by catheterization require repeat collection by cystocentesis (Comer and Ling 1981

  4. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  5. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  6. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    OpenAIRE

    Moréh Zsuzsanna; Voicu Lucia Sanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI). Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  7. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moréh Zsuzsanna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI. Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  8. Urinary fluoride concentration as an estimator of welding fume exposure from basic electrodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sjörgren, B; Hedström, L; Lindstedt, G.

    1984-01-01

    Urinary fluoride concentrations have been measured in electric arc welders using basic electrodes. The fluoride concentration and the total welding fume concentration in air showed a linear relation with postshift urinary fluoride concentration. The measured concentrations were below internationally recommended postshift urinary fluoride concentrations believed to cause fluorosis. Biological monitoring by postshift urinary fluoride measurements is evaluated for the prediction of total welding...

  9. Infection risk with nitrofurazone-impregnated urinary catheters in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Tvede, Michael; Looms, Dagnia;

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. It is predominantly associated with indwelling urinary catheters.......Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. It is predominantly associated with indwelling urinary catheters....

  10. Crimson carrier, a long-acting contrast agent for in vivo near-infrared imaging of injured and diseased muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Suresh I; Martinez, Carlo O; Abraham, Jinu; McCleish, Amanda T; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Rubin, Brian P; Shireman, Paula K; Keller, Charles

    2010-08-01

    The near-infrared wavelengths (700-900 nm) are the most suitable optical window for light penetration and deep tissue imaging in small animals. Herein we report a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent, crimson carrier, which acts as a blood pool contrast agent to detect and quantify injury and disease in live animals. After determining the excitation-emission spectra and pharmacokinetics, crimson carrier was injected into myoinjured mice to monitor their recovery. Crimson carrier was also used to image transgenic mice with spontaneous tumors. Crimson carrier has maximal excitation and emission wavelengths of 745 nm and 820 nm, respectively. Elimination occurs predominantly via urinary excretion. We demonstrate the utility of this contrast agent for serial imaging of traumatized muscle as well as muscle tumors. The unique long-acting pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion route characteristics make crimson carrier a contrast agent of choice for the visualization of tumors and injured muscle or other tissues in live animal studies. PMID:20544935

  11. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN MALE CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarada G; Rafiq Ahmed K; Sudhakar G* and Srilatha

    2015-01-01

    A total of 96 male children with Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) were included in the study to identify the risk factors predisposing to UTI in male children .78.83%  were in <1 yr age and 20.3% were in 1 to 5 yr of age. Dysuria, fever and frequency are the most common symptoms (33%). Culture positivity was only in 35 children (36.36%). E.coli was the most common organism isolated (80%). Urinary tract abnormalities were found in 34/96 (33%). Phimosis was the most common urinary anomaly note...

  12. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of...... only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans....

  13. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C.K. Ho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here another technique of dealing with a stuck and encrustated catheter, via direct crushing of the encrustations with a rigid cystoscope inserted through a suprapubic cystostomy tract.

  14. Renal origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been investigated. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased the concentration, total output of EGF and EGF/creatinine ratio by approximately 50%, while the output of creatinine was unchanged. Removal of the submandibular glands and duodenal......-phase HPLC. At isoelectric focusing the pI of submandibular EGF was 4.8 and 5.4 while that of urinary EGF was 5.3 and 6.4. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that urinary EGF mainly originates from the kidneys and is localized to the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus....

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Barringtonia acutangula against Selected Urinary Tract Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S; Panda, P K; Mishra, S R; Parida, R K; Ellaiah, P; Dash, S K

    2008-09-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%) extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens. PMID:21394275

  16. Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia acutangula (L. Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95% extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens.

  17. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intakeof water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and...... which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  19. Studies on incidence and prevention of nosocomial infection of urinary tract endoscopies by different antimicrobial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosocomial infections occur world wide and affect both developed and resource-poor countries. Infections acquired in health care settings are among the major causes of death and increased morbidity among hospitalized patients. They are a significant burden both for the patient and for public health. A prevalence survey conducted under the auspices of WHO in 55 hospitals of 14 countries representing 4 WHO Regions (Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia and Western Pacific) showed an average of 8.7% of hospital patients had nosocomial infections. At any time, over 1.4 million people worldwide suffer from infectious complications acquired in hospital (Tikhomirov , 1987 ) . In medical practice, an object should be disinfected or sterilized depending on its intended use. Items that come in direct contact with mucous membranes, such as endoscopes, require a high level of disinfection (Ayliffe et al., 2000) . The major problems leading to inadequate decontamination are inappropriate or incomplete decontamination methods, for example, choice of disinfectant and duration of contact, as well as use of water or other fluids of poor microbiological quality for decontamination (Fallis , 1994 ). Endoscopes had been used widely for the diagnosis and therapy of medical disorders and were used increasingly for performing laparoscopic surgery. Currently, greater than 10,000,000 gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures were performed each year. Endoscopes were contaminated routinely by microorganisms during clinical use. Failure to employ appropriate cleaning, disinfection, or sterilization of endoscopes have been responsible for multiple nosocomial outbreaks and serious, sometimes life-threatening infections (Spach et al ., 1993 ). Because the endoscope comes into intimate contact with mucous membranes, high-level disinfection was the current reprocessing standard after each patient use. High level disinfection refered to the use of a chemical sterilant at shorter exposure times than would achieve sterilization; this process inactivated all microorganisms (ie, bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria), but not high levels of bacterial spores (Martin and Reichelderfer , 1994 ) . The incidence of infections following endoscopic procedures had been evaluated by several investigators. For example, a questionnaire survey conducted in the United States in 1974 of more than 240,000 gastrointestinal endoscopies (esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy) found 24 infectious complications, including two fatal episodes of cholangitis and two fatal episodes of pancreatic sepsis. The overall infection rate was estimated to be less than 1 per 10,000 procedures ( Mandelstam et al., 1976 ). Problems with disinfection of endoscopes stem from endoscopes being heat sensitive; hence, one cannot use steam sterilization, the technique with the greatest margin of safety. Achieving disinfection and sterilization through the use of disinfectants and sterilization practices is essential for ensuring that medical and surgical instruments do not transmit infectious pathogens to patients. Disinfection describes a process that eliminates many or all-pathogenic microorganisms on inanimate objects with the exception of bacterial spores. Disinfection is usually accomplished by the use of liquid chemicals or wet pasteurization in health care settings. The efficacy of disinfection is affected by a number of factors, each of which may nullify or limit the efficacy of the process (Rutala and Weber , 2004)

  20. 临床药师参与2例产ESBLs大肠埃希菌抗感染治疗病例分析%Clinical pharmacists participating in Anti-infective treatment:Analysis of two gynecological cases of patients with ESBLs-producing bacte-ria-Escherichia coli infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂洪芹; 宁颖

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨临床药师如何在妇产科产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)大肠埃希菌抗感染治疗中发挥作用。方法临床药师参与剖宫产术后切口感染及子宫次全切除术后宫颈残端感染各1例治疗过程,协助医生调整抗感染治疗方案。结果临床药师建议被采纳,2例患者均痊愈出院。结论临床药师利用药学专业知识协助妇产科医师多次调整用药方案,对治疗效果进行评估,提高治疗成功率。%Objective To investigate the clinical pharmacists how to play a role in anti-infection treatment. Methods Clinical pharmacists participate in treatment process of two cases of patients with ESBLs-producing bacteria-Escherichia coli infection,and one was incision infection after cesarean section,the other was cervical stump infection after subtotal hysterectomy. And in the treatment,Clinical pharmacists helped the doctor to adjust the drug use of anti-in-fection treatment. Results Clinical pharmacists proposals are adopted,and two patients were recovered. Conclusion Clinical pharmacists’pharmaceutical professional knowledge could help the doctor to adjust the drug use of anti-infection treatment and improve the treatment effecacy.

  1. Enterococcal urinary tract infections: eight years experience at a regional hospital in Trinidad, West Indies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of significant enterococcal isolates from urine and determine what factors are associated with the increased prevalence, with particular reference to antibiotic susceptibilities. Methods Retrospective analysis over an 8-year period of hospital laboratory records of urinary isolates of enterococci was done. Species were identified via colony morphology, growth in 6.5% sodium chloride and their ability to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile salts. Susceptibility testing via the disc diffusion technique with 9 commonly used antibiotics was also done as defined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results From 39?881 urine specimens, 9116 (22.9%) were culture positive. Of this 9116, 1001 (11.0%) were enterococci, the 4th most common urinary isolate. E. coli was the most common (36.2%). Most enterococci were from pediatric patients (28.4%) and the urology unit (24.5%). All enterococci were fully sensitive to ampicillin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Sensitivity to gentamicin decreased significantly from 79% in 1990 to 58% in 1997 (P<0.005). Sensitivity to the cephalosporins and nitrofuratoin were relatively stable, but sensitivity to nalidixic acid varied. No resistance to vancomycin was detected during the study, and no cases of bacteremia complicated bacteriuria were seen. Conclusion Isolation of enterococci was relatively stable during the 8-year period, and all isolates were fully sensitive to the older β-lactams, ampicillin, cefaclor and augmentin, but displayed varying degrees of multi-resistance to other commonly used urinary agents such as nalidixic acid and co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Because of the emergence of multi-resistant enterococci in many countries, and the high cost of drugs in our society, it is imperative that vigilance be maintained in monitoring enterococcal infections in hospitals.

  2. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  3. Coping with stress and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Adamczuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI involves uncontrolled leakage of urine through the urethra as a result of damage to its sphincter muscle and a disturbed function of the urogenital diaphragm within the pelvis minor. The symptoms of UI radically impair psychological, somatic, and social functioning. The aim of each disease stress coping process is to reduce the impact of harmful agents as well as the acquisition of necessary preventive measures in order to combat the disorder. Aim of the study was to assess the relationship between coping styles used when dealing with stress associated with disease and the quality of life. Material and methods: The study was carried out at an outpatients’ clinic located in the Lublin Province (eastern Poland, covering 150 women with diagnosed stress urinary incontinence, aged between 32 and 79. The following methods were used: (a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker to assess coping styles, (b CASP-19 scale (Higgins, Hyde, Wiggins, Blade to measure the overall quality of life, and (c Urinary Incontinence Life Quality Scale (Szymona-Pałkowska, Kraczkowski. Results : The preferred style in the studied group of women was Task-Oriented Coping. This style is associated with a low score on the Independence from Symptoms scale and low Control, being simultaneously correlated with Autonomy and Self-Realisation. Emotion-Oriented Coping is associated with low psychological, physical and social well-being, as well as with little independence from the disease symptoms, little pleasure and self-realisation, but it gives a sense of internal control. Avoidance-Oriented Coping does not significantly correlate with any of the Overall Quality of Life dimensions. Conclusions : Women suffering from UI tend to try to solve their problem by means of cognitive transformation. In their situation, clinging to the problem turns out to be a depressing factor and entails a lower quality of their life.

  4. Is there an association between depressive and urinary symptoms during and after pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    De Pol, G.; van Brummen, H. J.; Bruinse, H.W.; Heintz, A. P. M.; van der Vaart, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and urinary symptoms are both highly prevalent in pregnancy. In the general population, an association is reported between urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms. The association of depressive and urinary symptoms has not yet been assessed in pregnancy. In this study, we assessed (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms, over-active bladder (OAB) syndrome, urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during and after pregnancy using the Center f...

  5. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  6. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  7. A Laboratory-Based Study for First Documented Case of Urinary Myiasis Caused by Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Wakid, Majed H.

    2008-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection remains an important problem for patients with spinal cord injury. Interventions used to promote bladder emptying and maintain low-pressure voiding have variable risks for urinary tract infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in this population and should not be treated. However, identification of symptomatic infection is compromised by difficulties in ascertainment of symptoms. Use of hydrophilic coated catheters for intermittent catheterization does not influence the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection. Botulinum toxin injection in the detrusor muscle or the urethral sphincter improves bladder emptying and does not influence the frequency of urinary infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common finding in pregnant women with spinal cord injury, but optimal management is not clear. Other research needs include further development and evaluation of interventions to decrease the frequency of infection, improve diagnostic precision, and limit the emergence of resistant organisms. PMID:24445675

  9. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  10. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S;

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P<0.0001) when microalbuminuria was present. An interaction between microalbuminuria and smoking was observed, and the presence of microalbuminuria more than doubled the predictive effect of the conventional...

  11. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary tract: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Papadaniil, Panteleimon; Stefanakis, Stefanos; Pantazis, Efstathios; Grigorakis, Alkiviadis; Petraki, Konstantina; Malovrouvas, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the urinary tract is rarely encountered and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we describe a case of small cell malignancy located contemporarily in the ureter and the bladder.

  12. The procedures that confirm and localize a urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory procedures are described that should be used after taking the history and noting the clinical findings. They included haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, survey and contrast radiography, additional diagnostic techniques and localizing the urinary tract infection

  13. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care ... Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ...

  14. Lower urinary tract symptoms after total and subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Birthe Jakobsen; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Toftager-Larsen, Kim; Sidenius, Katrine; Møller, Nini; Madsen, Ellen Merete; Vejtorp, Mogens; Clausen, Helle; Rosgaard, Annie; Villumsen, John; Gluud, Christian; Ottesen, Bent S; Tabor, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Danish multicenter trial was to compare the proportion of women with lower urinary tract symptoms after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SAH) for benign uterine disorders. A total of 319 women were randomized to TAH (n = 158) or SAH (n = 161......). Women were followed up for 1 year by strict data collection procedures, including postal questionnaires. Results were analyzed by intention-to-treat analyses. Urinary incontinence was found less often among TAH women than among SAH women. This was due to a larger reduction of the number of women with...... stress and urinary incontinence in the TAH group. No other differences were found between the two operation methods. The number of women with urinary incontinence and frequency was reduced from study entry for follow-up, while double/triple voiding was increased. Incontinent women had significantly lower...

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157809.html Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections Researchers ... coli bacteria are now failing to respond to antibiotic treatment, a new review warns. The culprit, according ...

  16. Phaechromocytoma of the urinary bladder in the computer tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 10% of the cases, phaeochromocytomas are extra-adrenal. This is a report on an 18 year old patient in whom the tumour was identified via sonography and computed tomography in the urinary bladder wall. (orig.)

  17. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...... h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space and...

  18. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 1H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS−/− C57BLKS and eNOS−/− C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS−/− C57BLKS and eNOS−/− C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be useful new tools in metabolomic

  19. Urinary incontinence in women: study of surgical practice in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Desseauve, David; Pierre, Fabrice; Fritel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and the types of surgical intervention for urinary incontinence among women in France. We are assuming that techniques by suburethral sling (SUS) have replaced Burch colposuspension. MATERIAL: Using French hospital discharge data from the 2009 medical information system program (PMSI), we analyzed with regard to three relatively homogeneous diagnosis-related groups of patients (DRG) comprising the majority of stress urinary incontinence surgical interventions (...

  20. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Ng, Yolanda W.; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G., II; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urine exosomes are small vesicles exocytosed into the urine by all renal epithelial cell types under normal physiologic and disease states. Urine exosomal proteins may mirror disease specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtrati...

  1. Urinary tract infection and indirect hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Chamdine Omar; Shadi Hamza; Abou Merhi Bassem; Rajab Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Background : Jaundice is a common problem during the neonatal period. About 60% of the full term and 80% of premature infants develop jaundice. It can be associated with serious illnesses such as Urinary tract infections. Aims : The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of urinary tract infection in newborns with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to find a relationship with prolonged jaundice. Patients and Methods : We retrospectively evaluated asymptomatic, jaundiced ne...

  2. Radiological abnormalities in infants with urinary tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourchier, D.; Abbott, G.D.; Maling, T M

    1984-01-01

    An intravenous urogram and micturating cystourethrogram were carried out in 100 infants presenting with documented urinary tract infections. Ninety three cases were identified by suprapubic aspiration and 7 by culture of two voided urine samples containing greater than 100 X 10(6) organisms per litre. The urinary tract abnormalities were analysed in respect of their clinical importance, patient's age, sex, and prematurity (in the 10 preterm infants). Radiological abnormalities were found in 4...

  3. Urinary Bisphenol A and Obesity in US Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity, a major public health problem, can lead to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Studies have implicated exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a commonly used chemical, in the development of obesity in adults. However, literature is limited on this association in children. We examined the association between urinary BPA and obesity in children aged 6–18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2008). The primary exposure was urinary BPA and the outcome ...

  4. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M;

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  5. Identification of Urinary Peptide Biomarkers Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Stalmach, Angelique; Johnsson, Hanna; McInnes, Iain B.; Husi, Holger; Klein, Julie; Dakna, Mohammed; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Porter, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are associated with improved outcomes but current diagnostic tools such as rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have shown limited sensitivity. In this pilot study we set out to establish a panel of urinary biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. We compared the urinary proteome of 33 participants of the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis inception...

  6. Determination of urinary peptides in patients with proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    M. Prakash(Ohio University, United States); Shetty, J. K.; Dash, S.; Barik, B. K.; Sarkar, A.; Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Although considered useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal diseases, proteinuria can only be detected after significant renal paranchymal changes. There is considerable interest in the estimation of urinary peptides as an early marker of renal disease. In the current study, we have estimated urinary peptides in patients with different grades of proteinuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 138 subjects and classified into three groups based on the urine protein excre...

  7. Nomograms to predict late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Romain; Arango, Juan David Ospina; Beckendorf, Véronique; Delobel, Jean-Bernard; Messai, Taha; Chira, Ciprian; Bossi, Alberto; Le Prisé, Elisabeth; Guerif, Stéphane; Simon, Jean-Marc; Dubray, Bernard; Zhu, Jian; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Pommier, Pascal; Gnep, Khemara

    2013-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: To analyze late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT): symptom description and identification of patient characteristics or treatment parameters allowing for the generation of nomograms. METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty-five patients underwent RT in seventeen French centers for localized prostate cancer. Median total dose was 70 Gy (range, 65-80 Gy), using different fractionations (2 or 2.5 Gy/day) and techniques. Late urinary toxicity an...

  8. Paliperidone Palmitate-induced Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Karslıoǧlu, Ersin Hatice; Özalp, Elvan; ÇAYKÖYLÜ, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. P...

  9. Urinary neurotransmitter testing: considerations of spot baseline norepinephrine and epinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini,Tom

    2011-01-01

    Marty Hinz1 Alvin Stein2 Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Laboratories, Duluth, MN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of statistical analysis of spot baseline urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine assays in correlation with spot baseline urinary serotonin and dopamine findings previously published by the authors. Our research indicates a need for physicia...

  10. Urinary stone disease in Kano, North Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary stone disease is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract after urinary tract infection and pathologic conditions of the prostate. Although the disease is commoner in the developed countries, the incidence is also increasing in the developing countries. In this study, we sought to determine the pattern and treatment given for patients with urinary stones in our institution. Patients and Method: A 5 year retrospective study of patients treated for urolithiasis was conducted in a Teaching Hospital in North-western Nigeria. The age, sex, clinical presentations, investigations and treatment offered to the patients were reviewed. Results: A total of seventy six patients were treated for urinary stones during the study period. 58(76.3% were males and 18(23.7% females. Majority of patients 39(51.3% presented with loin pain as the main presenting symptom. The diagnosis of stones was by plain abdominal Xray(KUB in 68 patients and abdominal ultrasound scan in 46 cases. Urine culture was positive in 27 patients with E. coli as the predominant organism. All had normal serum calcium, phosphate and uric acid. 56(73.7% patients had stones in the upper urinary tract and 20 (26.3% in the lower urinary tract. Thirty four (44.7% patients were found to have predisposing factors. Most of the patients 50(65.7% were treated by open surgery and 26(34.2% by endoscopic removal/lithotripsy. Conclusion: Urinary stone disease is common in this environment. Majority of the stones are radio-opaque on plain xrays. Significant number of patients had a predisposing factor and majority of the stones were found in the upper tract. Most of the patients were treated by open surgery while a significant number were treated with endoscopic removal/lithotripsy.

  11. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Narter; Fehmi Narter; Kemal Sarıca

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur wit...

  12. Association of Urinary Injury Biomarkers with Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    OpenAIRE

    Sarnak, Mark J.; Katz, Ronit; Newman, Anne; Harris, Tamara; Peralta, Carmen A.; Devarajan, Prasad; Bennett, Michael R.; Fried, Linda; Ix, Joachim H; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney damage is a common sequela of several chronic pathologic conditions. Whether biomarkers of kidney damage are prognostic for more severe outcomes is unknown. We measured three urinary biomarkers (kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], IL-18, and albumin) in 3010 individuals enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study and used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations of urinary KIM-1/creatinine (cr), IL-18/cr, and albumin/cr (ACR) with all-caus...

  13. Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Essential and Mineralocorticoid Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, O. Bryan; Chud, James M.; Braunstein, Helen

    1980-01-01

    Urinary kallikrein excretion has been reported to be decreased in patients with essential hypertension and elevated in patients with primary aldosteronism as a reflection of mineralocorticoid activity. Low renin essential hypertension (LREH) has been postulated to result from excess production of an unknown mineralocorticoid(s). Urinary kallikrein excretion was compared in outpatients with essential hypertension, mineralocorticoid hypertension (primary aldosteronism and 17α-hydroxylase defici...

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Hindryckx, A.; De Catte, L.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and the urinary tract are the most common sonographically identified malformations in the prenatal period. Obstructive uropathies account for the majority of cases. The aim of prenatal diagnosis and management is to detect those anomalies having impact on the prognosis of the affected child and requiring early postnatal evaluation or treatment to minimize adverse outcomes. In this paper, we summarize the embryology of kidneys and urinary tract, the norm...

  15. PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN PREGNANT W OMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz; Siddesh; Sirwar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequen tly seen medical complications in pregnancy. UTI in pregnancy is an important concern, as it possesses risk of complications such as acute and chronic pyelonephritis, toxaemia, anaemi a, hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation and increased perinatal mortality. The detection of bacteriuria allows an approach to be made for the prevention of chronic urinary dis ease in ...

  16. Embryonic Origin and Remodeling of the Urinary and Digestive Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Wang; JingYing Wang; Borer, Joseph G.; Xue Li

    2013-01-01

    Separating digestive and urinary outlets is a critical step during mammalian embryogenesis. However, the natural history of these structures is poorly studied, and little is known about their embryonic origin. Here, we show that peri-cloacal mesenchymal (PCM) progenitors are the major source of these structures. Surprisingly, PCM progenitors also contribute to perineum, a structural barrier separating the urinary and digestive tracts, suggesting a potential role of PCM progenitors in establis...

  17. Superficial urinary bladder tumors treatment results: A 10-year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Jablan; Dinić Ljubomir; Pavlović Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim. The most common urinary bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Due to their tension to relapse and progress towards deeper layers after surgical therapy, an adequate therapy significantly contributed to the improvement of the results of urinary bladder tumors treatment. Staging and gradus of the tumor, presence of the carcinoma in situ (CIS) or relapses significantly influenced the choice of the therapy. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the intravesi...

  18. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholar children

    OpenAIRE

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr; Danilo V. Barroso; Modesto Jacobino; Antonio J. Vinhaes; Antonio Macedo Jr; Miguel Srougi

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the prevalence of vesicourethral dysfunction in children over 3 years old, comparing it with the occurrence rate for other potential factors that cause urinary infection in this age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 girls and 9 boys were assessed, with mean age of 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 13.9 years. These children were prospectively assessed regarding the presence of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. These data were compared with the retrospec...

  19. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Mehta; Jyoti Sharma; Sonia Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of an...

  20. Engineering out the risk for infection with urinary catheters.

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, D G; Tambyah, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection. Each year, more than 1 million patients in U.S. acute-care hospitals and extended-care facilities acquire such an infection; the risk with short-term catheterization is 5% per day. CAUTI is the second most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection, and studies suggest that patients with CAUTI have an increased institutional death rate, unrelated to the development of urosepsis. Novel urinary ca...

  1. Role of biofilm in catheter-associated urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2004-01-01

    The predominant form of life for the majority of microorganisms in any hydrated biologic system is a cooperative community termed a “biofilm.” A biofilm on an indwelling urinary catheter consists of adherent microorganisms, their extracellular products, and host components deposited on the catheter. The biofilm mode of life conveys a survival advantage to the microorganisms associated with it and, thus, biofilm on urinary catheters results in persistent infections that are resistant to antimi...

  2. Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in the childhood. Two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein) and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography)

  3. Rat Indwelling Urinary Catheter Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Jeniel E.; Brooks, Erin G.; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-a...

  4. Principles of diagnostic research applied to lower urinary tract symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Sonke, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis addresses the object and methods of diagnostic test evaluation, focussing on the diagnosis of men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). The first part of this thesis serves as an introduction to this ill-defined disease, describing its etiology, prevalence, and clinical characteristics. The second part of the thesis covers issues of reproducibility. Multilevel regression analysis are used to study the variability in maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and pressure-flow studies in...

  5. S-C复合制剂在临床的应用和研究%Application and Study of the S-C Compound Agent in Burned Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严根荣; 陈国华

    2003-01-01

    173 patients with burn injury were admitted to Shanghai Power Hosptial from 2001 to 2002.These patients include 116 malesand 57 females with a mean age of 33 years. Ther bum injury involved 15% ± 2.3% per cent of TBSA(Total Body Surface Area). With fullthickness burn of 5.5 % ± 1.2% per cent of TBSA.These patients with burn injury were charged medicine by the S. C compound agent,57 casesof burned patients were changed medicine by silver sulfadiazin as a control. S. C compound agent is consisted of cerium nitrate,silver salt andsome additive agent etc. It is possessed of good anti - infection curative effects. Therefore many bacteriums that include Staphylococcus aureus,pseudomonas, aeruginosa, E. coli, E. cloacae, proteus, and some C. albicans etc have been killed by S. C compound agent in vitro, anantimicrobial susceptibility testing in vitro that includes a disk agar diffusion test and a dilution test namely minimal inhibitory concentration, MIChas approved it. Therefore, the wound healing time of partial thickness bum in an experimmt group was significant in statistics ( P < 0.05) ascompared with a control; group. No side - effects, no allergic reactions occurred in all course of applyning S. C compound agent for burned patients.

  6. Contamination of chlorhexidine cream used to prevent ascending urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salveson, A.; Bergan, T.

    1981-06-01

    Chlorhexidine-containing cream is often used as an antimicrobial barrier to ascending urinary tract infection in patients with indwelling urethral catheters. The cream is dispensed in small tubes for personal use but repeated use of a tube still entails a potential infection hazard. The extent of cream contamination was analysed by emulsifying it in 1% peptone broth with 1% Tween-80 added as a wetting agent, and culturing quantitatively for bacteria and fungi by membrane filtration. Twenty-three per cent of cream samples and 35% of swabs taken from outside the tube beneath the screw cap demonstrated microbial contamination. Isolates included potential pathogens such as enterococci, staphylococci, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, opportunists like Moraxella spp. and diphtheroids, and contaminants such as Bacillus spp., micrococci, and a mould of the genus Cladosporium. Contamination of cream with a particular bacterial strain was found to precede urinary tract infection with the same microbe. We recommend that chlorhexidine cream for this use be dispensed in single dose units to ensure sterility.

  7. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and genital and urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Richard F

    2016-05-01

    Coincident with the high and increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a growing armamentarium of antidiabetes medications has been introduced to target different organ systems that play a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. Among these, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were introduced in the United States in 2013 as a new treatment option to address the hyperglycemia associated with T2D. SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glucosuria, alleviation of hyperglycemia, and modest weight loss and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have been linked to an increased incidence of genital mycotic infections and, to a lesser extent, urinary tract infections, which may limit their utility in some patients. This review examines the prevalence, recurrence rates, treatment options, and responses to treatment of genital and urinary tract infections in patients with T2D receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors, with the aim of guiding clinicians in the most effective use of these agents for the treatment of hyperglycemia. PMID:26982554

  8. A comparison of cell-collecting methods for the Comet assay in urinary bladders of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Ohnuma, Aya; Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2012-02-18

    Conducting the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in the urinary bladders of rodents is technically problematic because the bladder is small and thin, which makes it difficult to collect its mucosal cells by scraping. We performed the Comet assay using a simple mincing method in which tissues are minced with scissors. We then compared data obtained with this method with data obtained using the scraping method. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were orally given twice the known carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or o-anisidine (OA). Three hours after the second administration, the bladder of each rat was divided into two parts and each part was processed by either the mincing or the scraping method. Both mincing and scraping methods detected DNA damage in MNU-, EMS-, but not OA-treated rats, and thus the mincing method had a sufficient capability to detect DNA damaging agents. The morphological analysis of the prepared cell suspensions revealed that more than 80% of the cells collected by the mincing method were from the epithelium. Because the mincing method requires only one-half of a bladder, the other half remains intact and can be used for histopathological examination. We conclude that the mincing method is easier and more appropriate for the Comet assay in urinary bladder tissue than the scraping method. PMID:22155339

  9. Antimicrobial activities against biofilm formed by Proteus mirabilis isolates from wound and urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wasfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial species are capable of living as biofilm and/or planktonic forms. There is increasing evidence for the role of bacterial biofilm in various wound and urinary tract infections (UTIs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the bacteria, isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs and wound infections, to form biofilm and correlate the role of biofilm with their antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods: All the isolated bacteria were screened for their ability to form biofilm using the microtitre plate method. Results: Wound isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter sp. had more biofilm forming capacity than the UTI isolates. Proteus mirabilis isolates were among the strongest biofilm forming bacteria and were chosen for antimicrobial study. In sub-MIC concentrations of antimicrobial agents used, ciprofloxacin was found to be the most effective in decreasing biofilm formation. On the other hand, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were effective in partial removal of preformed biofilm biomass. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin was more effective in killing bacterial cells especially at high antimicrobial concentrations that could be reached in urine levels and can be used in impregenating catheters.

  10. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered

  11. Specific pharmacokinetic aspects of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstanje, Cees; Krauwinkel, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for "specific" pharmacokinetics playing a role in currently marketed drugs intended to treat lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms. Principles of drug targeting include intrinsic properties of drugs or organs as well as drug formulations to modify drug release or to create confinement of drug presence. Prodrugs and specific formulations to deliver high drug concentrations at the site(s) of action as well as other ways to manipulate drug distribution to achieve enrichment in target tissues are considered. In overactive bladder (OAB), specific formulations for oxybutynin have been introduced to reduce the level of side effects of the active drug. Extended release tablet formulations and a topical gel formulation have been introduced, with efficacy similar to immediate release (IR) tablets, but with a reduction in anticholinergic adverse effects. However, these modifications have not led to outstanding performance parameters compared to other anticholinergic drugs marketed as IR formulations. Urinary excretion is discussed as potential mechanism for targeting LUT symptoms, but no strong indications appear to exist that this mechanism would contribute for currently available drugs. Intravesical administration of drugs is not a preferred option and only considered for drugs like botulinum toxin, where the inconvenient application compensates for a reasonable degree of long-term efficacy in severe refractory OAB. Alpha acid glycoprotein binding is discussed as a potential factor to influence drug tissue distribution, and it is concluded that there is reasonable evidence that for tamsulosin this mechanism is responsible for the difference in free fraction of the drug observed in plasma and prostate, which could contribute to its relative absence of blood pressure effects in patients with LUT symptoms related to benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS-BPH). The principle of irreversible inhibition of type II 5α-reductase as a tool to develop drugs

  12. Helical CT of the urinary organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, H.H.; Uggowitzer, M.M.; Ruppert-Kohlmayr, A. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-03-01

    Despite of the diagnostic potential of conventional CT (CCT), limitations being inherent in this technology reduce its diagnostic confidence and limit clinical CT applications as 3D imaging. Helical CT (HCT) has far overcome the limitations of CCT and has become the standard CT technology. After a short overview on the technique of HCT and its advantages over CCT, the impact of HCT on the detection of disorders of the urinary organs is discussed. Due to the high quality of 3D reconstructions, vessels are visualized free of artefacts resulting in a dramatic improvement and acceptance of CT angiography, which has become a clinically important examination in the evaluation of obstructive renal artery disease. Fast HCT provides a precise assessment of the three phases of the nephrogram and it is a prerequisite for an improved depiction of abnormal vascular perfusion and impaired tubule transit of contrast material. Helical CT enables an improved characterization of cystic mass lesions reducing the diagnosis of indeterminate masses and thus facilitating a better therapeutic management. The diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has improved due to an increased sensitivity in detecting small RCCs, and an increased specificity in the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions. Improved staging of RCCs is the result of accurate assessment of venous tumour extension. When planning nephron-sparing surgery 3D display of the renal tumour helps to determine the resectability of the mass depicting its relation to major renal vessels and the renal collecting system. In the evaluation of renal trauma HCT provides shorter scanning time and thus fewer artefacts in the examination of traumatized patients who cannot cooperate adequately. Three-dimensional postprocessing modalities allow the assessment of the renal vascular pedicel by CT angiography and improve the demonstration of complex lacerations of the renal parenchyma. In the evaluation of the upper urinary tract unenhanced HCT has

  13. Helical CT of the urinary organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of the diagnostic potential of conventional CT (CCT), limitations being inherent in this technology reduce its diagnostic confidence and limit clinical CT applications as 3D imaging. Helical CT (HCT) has far overcome the limitations of CCT and has become the standard CT technology. After a short overview on the technique of HCT and its advantages over CCT, the impact of HCT on the detection of disorders of the urinary organs is discussed. Due to the high quality of 3D reconstructions, vessels are visualized free of artefacts resulting in a dramatic improvement and acceptance of CT angiography, which has become a clinically important examination in the evaluation of obstructive renal artery disease. Fast HCT provides a precise assessment of the three phases of the nephrogram and it is a prerequisite for an improved depiction of abnormal vascular perfusion and impaired tubule transit of contrast material. Helical CT enables an improved characterization of cystic mass lesions reducing the diagnosis of indeterminate masses and thus facilitating a better therapeutic management. The diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has improved due to an increased sensitivity in detecting small RCCs, and an increased specificity in the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions. Improved staging of RCCs is the result of accurate assessment of venous tumour extension. When planning nephron-sparing surgery 3D display of the renal tumour helps to determine the resectability of the mass depicting its relation to major renal vessels and the renal collecting system. In the evaluation of renal trauma HCT provides shorter scanning time and thus fewer artefacts in the examination of traumatized patients who cannot cooperate adequately. Three-dimensional postprocessing modalities allow the assessment of the renal vascular pedicel by CT angiography and improve the demonstration of complex lacerations of the renal parenchyma. In the evaluation of the upper urinary tract unenhanced HCT has

  14. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  15. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  16. Potential urinary aging markers of 20-month-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Urine is a very good source for biomarker discovery because it accumulates changes in the body. However, a major challenge in urinary biomarker discovery is the fact that the urinary proteome is influenced by various elements. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, can be used to establish associations between physiological or pathological conditions and alterations in the urinary proteome. In this study, the urinary proteomes of young (two months old) and old rats (20 months old; nine in each group) were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and quantified using the Progenesis LC-MS software. A total of 371 proteins were identified, 194 of which were shared between the young and old rats. Based on criteria of a fold change ≥2, P humans. However, no shared proteins between our results and the previous aging plasma proteome were identified. Twenty of the 33 (60%) altered proteins have been reported to be disease biomarkers, suggesting that aging may share similar urinary changes with some diseases. The 33 proteins corresponded to 28 human orthologs which, according to the Human Protein Atlas, are strongly expressed in the kidney, intestine, cerebellum and lung. Therefore, the urinary proteome may reflect aging conditions in these organs. PMID:27330854

  17. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro [Nagoya Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  18. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Narter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur with inherited metabolic changes such as hypercalciuria, primary hyperoxaluria or cystinuria. Stone formation can be effected by iatrogenic causes such as hyperalimentation (parenteral nutrition, diuretic therapy (furosemide, acetazolamide that is especially in the bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The stone formation may occur due to anatomic or functional obstructions and infections of urinary system. Most of the urinary stones in the neonatal period are diagnosed as a nephrocalcinosis. However there aren’t any exact differences between nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Some authors suggested nephrocalcinosis is the initial step of urinary stone formation. On the other hand, the others purposed that both of them are different pathologies. In this review, we tried to summarized differences and similarities, in the context of urinary stones and the nephrocalcinosis in the neonates.

  19. Group D Salmonella Urinary Tract Infection in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  20. Development of the lower urinary tract and its functional disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal development of lower urinary tract function control evolves from involuntary bladder empting (incontinence during infancy to daytime urinary continence, and finally a successful day and night continence that is generally achieved by the 5th to 7th year of age. This gradual process primarily depends on the progressive maturation of the neural control of the lower urinary tract, but it is also influenced by behavioral training that evolves through social support. Functional voiding disorders (bladder dysfunction are common problems during childhood. They are present in 5-15 % of general pediatric population, and in one-fifth of school-age children or in over one-third of patients of the pediatric urologist or nephrologist. More than half of children with bladder dysfunction have vesicoureteral reflux, and more than two-thirds have recurrent urinary tract infections. There is also a frequent association of bladder dysfunction with constipation and encopresis (dysfunctional elimination syndrome. Bladder dysfunction may cause a permanent damage to the upper urinary tract and kidneys. In addition, urinary incontinence, as the most common manifestation of bladder dysfunction can be the cause of major stress in schoolage children and have a negative effect on the child’s feeling of self-esteem. Thus, a timely detection and treatment of this group of disorders in children is highly significant.

  1. Clinical Guideline for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Takei, Mineo; Nishizawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Kato, Kumiko; Gotoh, Momokazu; Yoshimura, Yasukuni; Takeyama, Masami; Ozawa, Hideo; Shimada, Makoto; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Yoshida, Masaki; Tomoe, Hikaru; Yokoyama, Osamu; Koyama, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    The "Japanese Clinical Guideline for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms," published in Japan in November 2013, contains two algorithms (a primary and a specialized treatment algorithm) that are novel worldwide as they cover female lower urinary tract symptoms other than urinary incontinence. For primary treatment, necessary types of evaluation include querying the patient regarding symptoms and medical history, examining physical findings, and performing urinalysis. The types of evaluations that should be performed for select cases include evaluation with symptom/quality of life (QOL) questionnaires, urination records, residual urine measurement, urine cytology, urine culture, serum creatinine measurement, and ultrasonography. If the main symptoms are voiding/post-voiding, specialized treatment should be considered because multiple conditions may be involved. When storage difficulties are the main symptoms, the patient should be assessed using the primary algorithm. When conditions such as overactive bladder or stress incontinence are diagnosed and treatment is administered, but sufficient improvement is not achieved, the specialized algorithm should be considered. In case of specialized treatment, physiological re-evaluation, urinary tract/pelvic imaging evaluation, and urodynamic testing are conducted for conditions such as refractory overactive bladder and stress incontinence. There are two causes of voiding/post-voiding symptoms: lower urinary tract obstruction and detrusor underactivity. Lower urinary tract obstruction caused by pelvic organ prolapse may be improved by surgery. PMID:26789539

  2. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection.3H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  3. An individual urinary proteome analysis in normal human beings to define the minimal sample number to represent the normal urinary proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xuejiao; Shao Chen; Wei Lilong; Duan Jindan; Wu Shuzhen; Li Xuewang; Li Mingxi; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The urinary proteome has been widely used for biomarker discovery. A urinary proteome database from normal humans can provide a background for discovery proteomics and candidate proteins/peptides for targeted proteomics. Therefore, it is necessary to define the minimum number of individuals required for sampling to represent the normal urinary proteome. Methods In this study, inter-individual and inter-gender variations of urinary proteome were taken into consideration to ...

  4. The Effect of Pelvic Muscle Exercises on Urinary Incontinency and Self-Esteem of Elderly Females With Stress Urinary Incontinency, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. Material and Method: In this interventional study, 50 old females age...

  5. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  6. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  7. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  8. Interplay between Bladder Microbiota and Urinary Antimicrobial Peptides: Mechanisms for Human Urinary Tract Infection Risk and Symptom Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Nienhouse, Vanessa; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E; Toh, Evelyn; McKinley, Kathleen; Schreckenberger, Paul; Shibata, Noriko; Cynthia S Fok; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J.; Katherine A Radek

    2014-01-01

    Resident bacterial communities (microbiota) and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (...

  9. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  10. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  11. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  12. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction

  13. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  14. Congenital urinary tract obstruction: the long view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Maldevelopment of the collecting system resulting in urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is the leading identifiable cause of CKD in children. Specific etiologies are unknown; most cases are suspected by discovering hydronephrosis on prenatal ultrasonography. Congenital UTO can reduce nephron number and cause bladder dysfunction, which contribute to ongoing injury. Severe UTO can impair kidney growth in utero, and animal models of unilateral ureteral obstruction show that ischemia and oxidative stress cause proximal tubular cell death, with later development of interstitial fibrosis. Congenital obstructive nephropathy, therefore, results from combined developmental and obstructive kidney injury. Because of inadequacy of available biomarkers, criteria for surgical correction of upper tract obstruction are poorly established. Lower tract obstruction requires fetal or immediate postnatal intervention, and the rate of progression of CKD is highly variable. New biomarkers based on proteomics and determination of glomerular number by magnetic resonance imaging should improve future care. Angiotensin inhibitors have not been effective in slowing progression, although avoidance of nephrotoxins and timely treatment of hypertension are important. Because congenital UTO begins in fetal life, smooth transfer of care from perinatologist to pediatric and adult urology and nephrology teams should optimize quality of life and ultimate outcomes for these patients. PMID:26088076

  15. Use of antioxidants in urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allameh, Zahra; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory process, and oxidative stress plays a major role in it. Anti-inflammatory or antioxidant therapy given concomitantly with antibiotics should lower the risk of postpyelonephritic scarring. As the lack of review studies in the use of antioxidants in urinary tract infections was detected, this study was designed. We conducted a review of available articles in PubMed and Google Scholar with a simple review, using keywords of "antioxidant" and "pyelonephritis" with all their possible synonyms and combinations. Only interventional studies were collected. There were neither limitations on time, nor the location of the study, type of subjects, administration rout of the antioxidant drug, and the antioxidant drug used. After studying the abstracts or in some cases the full text of articles, they were categorized based on the type of antioxidant, type and number of subjects, rout of administration, dosing, duration of treatment, year of publication of the paper, and the results. A total of 66 articles published from 1991 to 2015 were found by studying just the title of the papers. Studying the abstracts reduced this number to 51 studies. Antioxidants used for this condition were Vitamins A, E, and C, cytoflavin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, ebselen, allopurinol, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, oleuropein, montelukast, oxytocin, ozon, dapsone, pentoxifyllin, tadalafil, bilirubin, cranberry, meloxicam, L-carnitine, colchicine, perfluoran, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone. Studies show that antioxidants are capable of reducing oxidative stress and can be used effectively along with antibiotics to reduce the scar formation. PMID:27162800

  16. Urinary Melatonin Levels and Skin Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaderi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78% patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22% had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (P<0.001. Also, sleep duration had a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001. It seems that a low level of 24-hour urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin renders human beings prone to skin cancer. This association, however, requires further investigation.

  17. Urinary porphyrins in children exposed transplacentally to polyhalogenated aromatics in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladen, B.C.; Rogan, W.J.; Ragan, N.B.; Spierto, F.W.

    In 1979, there was a large (>2000 cases) outbreak of poisoning due to contaminated rice oil in central Taiwan. The causal agent was a mixture of thermally degraded polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated quaterphenyls, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, which had become mixed with the oil during processing. Patients remained symptomatic for several years afterward, and the chemicals persisted in their tissue. Women who became pregnant had children with high perinatal mortality and a dysmorphic syndrome. We examined urines from 75 children born to exposed mothers after the oil was confiscated, 74 controls, and 12 sibs of the exposed children. Four of the transplancentally exposed children, 2 controls, and 1 sib had a type B hepatic porphyria (i.e., uroporphyrin > coproporphyrin); total porphyrin excretion was elevated in the exposed children as a group (95 vs. 81 ..mu..g/L); and 8 of the 75 exposed children and 2 controls had total urinary porphyrin concentrations of >200 ..mu..g/L.

  18. Interplay between bladder microbiota and urinary antimicrobial peptides: mechanisms for human urinary tract infection risk and symptom severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nienhouse

    Full Text Available Resident bacterial communities (microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (DOS urine specimens from female pelvic floor surgery participants, we report that the relative abundance and/or frequency of specific urinary microbiota distinguished between participants who did or did not develop a post-operative UTI. Furthermore, UTI risk significantly correlated with both specific urinary microbiota and β-defensin AMP levels. Finally, urinary AMP hydrophobicity and protease activity were greater in participants who developed UTI, and correlated positively with both UTI risk and pelvic floor symptoms. These data demonstrate an interdependency between the urinary microbiota, AMP responses and symptoms, and identify a potential mechanism for UTI risk. Assessment of bacterial microbiota and host innate immune AMP responses in parallel may identify increased risk of UTI in certain populations.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Escherichia coli Strains to Fluoroquinolones, in Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA Nakhjavani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed all over the world. Meanwhile most episode of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (up to 85% and frequently fluoroquinolones are preferred as initial agents for empiric therapy of UTIs. Widespread use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in an increasing incidence of resistance these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from UTI patients against common fluoroquinolones. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk agar diffusion (DAD and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration methods as described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Results: One hundred sixty four clinical isolates of E. coli were collected by urine cultures from patients with UTI. The extent of resistant to nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, by disk diffusion method was 49.3%, 44.5%, 41.4% and 40.2%, respectively. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by MIC method was 4.9%. Conclusion: This study represents high level resistant of E. coli isolates from UTI patients. It is because of inappropriate and incorrect administration of antimicrobial agents in blind cases. This problem remarks significance of performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing before empiric antibiotic therapy. To overcome this problem use of unnecessary antibiotics therapy should be limited.

  20. Effect on the human normal microflora of oral antibiotics for treatment of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, C; Nord, C E

    2000-09-01

    Oral administration of antibiotics for treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) can cause ecological disturbances in the normal intestinal microflora. Poorly absorbed drugs can reach the colon in active form, suppress susceptible microorganisms and disturb the ecological balance. Suppression of the normal microflora may lead to reduced colonization resistance with subsequent overgrowth of pre-existing, naturally resistant microorganisms, such as yeasts and Clostridium difficile. New colonization by resistant potential pathogens may also occur and may spread within the body or to other patients and cause severe infections. It is therefore important to learn more about the ecological effects of antibacterial agents on the human microflora. The impact on intestinal microorganisms of oral antibiotics used for the treatment of UTIs is reviewed here. Ampicillin, amoxycillin and co-amoxiclav suppress both the aerobic and anaerobic intestinal microflora with overgrowth of ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Pivmecillinam also affects the intestinal microflora, suppressing Escherichia coli, but does not have a major effect on the anaerobic microflora. Several orally administered cephalosporins, such as cefixime, cefpodoxime, cefprozil and ceftibuten, reduce the number of Enterobacteriaceae and increase the number of enterococci. Colonization with C. difficile has also been observed. Fluoroquinolones eliminate or strongly suppress intestinal Enterobacteriaceae, but affect enterococci and anaerobic bacteria only slightly. When antimicrobial agents are prescribed for the treatment of UTIs, not only the antimicrobial spectrum of the agent but also the potential ecological disturbances, including the risk of emergence of resistant strains, should be considered. PMID:11051623