WorldWideScience

Sample records for anti-infective agents urinary

  1. Infections and exposure to anti-infective agents and the risk of severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Petersen, Liselotte; Mors, O

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe infections are associated with increased risks of mental disorders; however, this is the first large-scale study investigating whether infections treated with anti-infective agents in the primary care setting increase the risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders. METHOD: W....../inflammation on the brain, alterations of the microbiome, genetics, or other environmental factors.......OBJECTIVE: Severe infections are associated with increased risks of mental disorders; however, this is the first large-scale study investigating whether infections treated with anti-infective agents in the primary care setting increase the risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders. METHOD: We...... identified all individuals born in Denmark 1985-2002 (N = 1 015 447) and studied the association between infections treated with anti-infective agents and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders during 1995-2013. Cox regression analyses were adjusted for important confounders. RESULTS...

  2. Chalcone scaffolds as anti-infective agents: structural and molecular target perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Asati, Vivek

    2015-08-28

    In recent years, widespread outbreak of numerous infectious diseases across the globe has created havoc among the population. Particularly, the inhabitants of tropical and sub-tropical regions are mainly affected by these pathogens. Several natural and (semi) synthetic chalcones deserve the credit of being potential anti-infective candidates that inhibit various parasitic, malarial, bacterial, viral, and fungal targets like cruzain-1/2, trypanopain-Tb, trans-sialidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fumarate reductase, falcipain-1/2, β-hematin, topoisomerase-II, plasmepsin-II, lactate dehydrogenase, protein kinases (Pfmrk and PfPK5), and sorbitol-induced hemolysis, DEN-1 NS3, H1N1, HIV (Integrase/Protease), protein tyrosine phosphatase A/B (Ptp-A/B), FtsZ, FAS-II, lactate/isocitrate dehydrogenase, NorA efflux pump, DNA gyrase, fatty acid synthase, chitin synthase, and β-(1,3)-glucan synthase. In this review, a comprehensive study (from Jan. 1982 to May 2015) of the structural features of anti-infective chalcones, their mechanism of actions (MOAs) and structure activity relationships (SARs) have been highlighted. With the knowledge of molecular targets, structural insights and SARs, this review may be helpful for (medicinal) chemists to design more potent, safe, selective and cost effective anti-infective agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening for potential anti-infective agents towards Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Su Anne; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The established treatment for melioidosis is antibiotic therapy. However, a constant threat to this form of treatment is resistance development of the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, towards antibiotics. One option to circumvent this threat of antibiotic resistance is to search for new alternative anti-infectives which target the host innate immune system and/or bacterial virulence. In this study, 29 synthetic compounds were evaluated for their potential to increase the lifespan of an infected host. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was adopted as the infection model as its innate immune pathways are homologous to humans. Screens were performed in a liquid-based survival assay containing infected worms exposed to individual compounds and survival of untreated and compound-treated worms were compared. A primary screen identified nine synthetic compounds that extended the lifespan of B. pseudomallei-infected worms. Subsequently, a disc diffusion test was performed on these selected compounds to delineate compounds into those that enhanced the survival of worms via antimicrobial activity i.e. reducing the number of infecting bacteria, or into those that did not target pathogen viability. Out of the nine hits selected, two demonstrated antimicrobial effects on B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the findings from this study suggest that the other seven identified compounds are potential anti-infectives which could protect a host against B. pseudomallei infection without developing the risk of drug resistance.

  4. Anti-infective strategies of the future: is there room for species-specific antibacterial agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Rudolf L; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics, directed against conserved bacterial targets, are the mainstay of antibacterial therapy. Increasing resistance, however, demands new strategies. Over time a number of therapeutic concepts have evolved, starting out with the use of polyclonal antisera, which were rapidly replaced by the easier to use antibiotics. Other concepts, such as immunotherapy, radioimmunotherapy, anti-virulence agents, phage therapy and others are under evaluation and often limited in application. In the discovery process of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry quite a number of new agents have emerged, which exhibit a surprisingly high degree of species-specificity. None of them has been considered for development so far. Some examples from the literature which show selectivity for Helicobacter pylori, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobes, and others, will be discussed here. It is postulated that there is a room for such agents in future antibacterial therapy, e.g. in difficult to treat infections caused by nonfermenters such as multiresistant P. aerugoinosa, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and S.aureus, including MRSA. Their application would include monotherapy as well as combination therapy with other antibiotics, anti-virulence agents or immunotherapy and these possibilities would greatly expand the current anti-infective armamentarium.

  5. Development of inhibitors of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes as potential anti-infective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Tiziana; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2014-12-11

    Important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agents of tuberculosis and malaria, respectively, and plants, utilize the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP, 5) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (1) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (2), the universal precursors of isoprenoids, while humans exclusively utilize the alternative mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of 1 and 2. This distinct distribution, together with the fact that the MEP pathway is essential in numerous organisms, makes the enzymes of the MEP pathway attractive drug targets for the development of anti-infective agents and herbicides. Herein, we review the inhibitors reported over the past 2 years, in the context of the most important older developments and with a particular focus on the results obtained against enzymes of pathogenic organisms. We will also discuss new discoveries in terms of structural and mechanistic features, which can help to guide a rational development of inhibitors.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline and other anti-infective agents against microbial pathogens recovered from the surgical intensive care patient population: a prevalence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Krepel, Candace J; Leaper, David; Ledeboer, Nathan A; Mackey, Tami-Lea; Graham, Mary Beth; Lee, Cheong; Rossi, Peter J; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Seabrook, Gary R

    2014-12-01

    Ceftaroline is a new parenteral cephalosporin agent with excellent activity against methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Critically ill surgical patients are susceptible to infection, often by multi-drug-resistant pathogens. The activity of ceftaroline against such pathogens has not been described. Three hundred thirty-five consecutive microbial isolates were collected from surgical wounds or abscesses, respiratory, urine, and blood cultures from patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a major tertiary medical center. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standard methodology and published breakpoints, all aerobic, facultative anaerobic isolates were tested against ceftaroline and selected comparative antimicrobial agents. All staphylococcal isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline at a breakpoint of ≤1.0 mcg/mL. In addition, ceftaroline exhibited excellent activity against all streptococcal clinical isolates and non-ESBL-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae (93.5%) recovered from SICU patients. Ceftaroline was inactive against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and selective gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. At present, ceftaroline is the only cephalosporin agent that is active against community and healthcare-associated MRSA. Further studies are needed to validate the benefit of this novel broad-spectrum anti-infective agent for the treatment of susceptible serious infections in the SICU patient population.

  7. Anti-infective and wound healing properties of Flabellaria paniculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-infective and wound healing properties of Flabellaria paniculata. A Abo, JAO Olugbuyiro, SA Famakinde ... was recorded in Pseudomonas aeruginosa group on day 18. This drug is anti-infective as well as wound healing agent thus justifying the local uses of the plant for the treatment of skin diseases and sores.

  8. Evidence for the hERG Liability of Antihistamines, Antipsychotics, and Anti-Infective Agents: A Systematic Literature Review From the ARITMO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Lorna; Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Thomas, Simon H L; Salvo, Francesco; Ahlberg Helgee, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Shakir, Saad

    2017-05-01

    A systematic review was performed to categorize the hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) liability of antihistamines, antipsychotics, and anti-infectives and to compare it with current clinical risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Eligible studies were hERG assays reporting half-minimal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). A "hERG safety margin" was calculated from the IC50 divided by the peak human plasma concentration (free C max ). A margin below 30 defined hERG liability. Each drug was assigned an "uncertainty score" based on volume, consistency, precision, and internal and external validity of evidence. The hERG liability was compared to existing knowledge on TdP risk (www.credibledrugs.org). Of 1828 studies, 82 were eligible, allowing calculation of safety margins for 61 drugs. Thirty-one drugs (51%) had evidence of hERG liability including 6 with no previous mention of TdP risk (eg, desloratadine, lopinavir). Conversely, 16 drugs (26%) had no evidence of hERG liability including 6 with known, or at least conditional or possible, TdP risk (eg, chlorpromazine, sulpiride). The main sources of uncertainty were the validity of the experimental conditions used (antihistamines and antipsychotics) and nonuse of reference compounds (anti-infectives). In summary, hERG liability was categorized for 3 widely used drug classes, incorporating a qualitative assessment of the strength of available evidence. Some concordance with TdP risk was observed, although several drugs had hERG liability without evidence of clinical risk and vice versa. This may be due to gaps in clinical evidence, limitations of hERG/C max data, or other patient/drug-specific factors that contribute to real-life TdP risk. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Development of inhibitors of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes as potential anti-infective agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masini, Tiziana; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2014-01-01

    Important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agents of tuberculosis and malaria, respectively, and plants, utilize the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP, 5) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (1) and dimethylallyl

  10. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal,...

  11. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  12. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Marine peptides and their anti-infective activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-16

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present.

  14. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish from 2006 to the present.

  15. Catheter associated urinary tract infection: Aetiologic agents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify microbial pathogens associated with bacteriuria and UTI in patients with indwelling urethral catheters and determine their susceptibility patterns to commonly used antimicrobial agents in our institution. Catheter urine and catheter tip specimens of all the patients were analyzed by ...

  16. Injectable bulking agents for urinary incontinence after radical prostaectomy, mimicking local recurrence: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Je Hong; Ahn, Sung Eun; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Sun Ju [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Periurethral bulking agent injection (or transurethral submucosal injection) is a comparatively less invasive procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in patients who develop incontinence after radical prostatectomy, and who are more frequently being treated with transurethral submucosal injection. However, as the radiologic findings of bulking agents are not very well known, they can be mistaken for local recurrence in prostate cancer patients who have undergone prostatectomy. Unlike some of the literatures, in which the radiologic features of collagen injections have been reported, the radiologic findings of silicone injections are yet to be determined. Thus, it is our intention to report this case along with the literature review as the authors have experienced an actual case of a silicone injection mistaken as local recurrence.

  17. The role of prostanoids in the urinary bladder function and a potential use of prostanoid-targeting pharmacological agents in bladder overactivity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome involving urinary urgency with accompanying increased daytime urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, in the absence of an urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. The detailed OAB pathophysiology remains unclear. There is evidence that OAB pathogenesis also includes abnormal bladder paracrine activity, associated with release of local prostanoids. Those agents contribute to disturbances of peripheral neuronal bladder control resulting in detrusor instability. Thus, pharmacological agents abolishing prostanoid-induced bladder overactivity seem to be a potential, future OAB therapeutical option. This paper shortly describes the rationale for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and EP-1 receptor antagonists administration in future OAB pharmacotherapy.

  18. Bacterial agents and antibiotic sensitivity in children with urinary infection in two hospitals of Popayan, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Álvarez-Czeczotta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is a common condition in children. Isolation of bacteria and early management is a priority in order to contribute to the reduction of morbidity and avoid bacterial resistance. Objectives: To identify bacterial etiologic agents and antibiotic sensitivity in children (1 month to 5 years of age with UTI in two hospitals of Popayán, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in children aged 1 month to 5 years of age who consulted the emergency services of two hospitals with clinical suspicion of UTI. The sample was 123 children. Using an instrument collected demographic variables, signs and symptoms, results of urinalysis, urine culture, sensitivity testing, treatment, and UTI classification. We determined the frequency and proportions of sociodemographic and clinical variables, bacterial agents and antibiotic resistance. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5 program. Results: We included 129 children diagnosed with UTI with positive urine culture, bladder catheter taken with 97.7% of cases. 74.8% of patients were female. Escherichia coli was the seed that was isolated more frequently (95.4%, then Sp Proteus (2.4%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.6%. The antibiotics to which the bacteria showed adequate sensitivity were: ceftriaxone, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and cephalexin. Showed low sensitivity: ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfa. Conclusions: Escherichia coli was the bacteria that cause of UTI in our study population. For initial empiric treatment of hospitalized patients would recommend parenteral drug third generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin. For outpatient management, oral antibiotics showed greater sensitivity were nalidixic acid, cefuroxime and cephalexin.

  19. Injectable biomaterials for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: their potential and pitfalls as urethral bulking agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2013-06-01

    Injectable urethral bulking agents composed of synthetic and biological biomaterials are minimally invasive treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The development of an ideal urethral bulking agent remains challenging because of clinical concerns over biocompatibility and durability. Herein, the mechanical and biological features of injectable urethral biomaterials are investigated, with particular emphasis on their future potential as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. A literature search for English language publications using the two online databases was performed. Keywords included "stress urinary incontinence", "urethral bulking agent" and "injectable biomaterial". A total of 98 articles were analysed, of which 45 were suitable for review based on clinical relevance and importance of content. Injectable biomaterials are associated with a lower cure rate and fewer postoperative complications than open surgery for SUI. They are frequently reserved as secondary treatment options for patients unwilling or medically unfit to undergo surgery. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen remains the most commonly injected biomaterial and has a cure rate of up to 53 %. Important clinical features of an injectable biomaterial are durability, biocompatibility and ease of administration, but achieving these requirements is challenging. In carefully selected patients, injectable biomaterials are feasible alternatives to open surgical procedures as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. In future, higher cure rates may be feasible as researchers investigate alternative biomaterials and more targeted injection techniques for treating SUI.

  20. Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Anti-infective Activity Screening of Marine Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila M.; Hanora, Amro; Radwan, Mona; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Ahmed, Safwat; Hentschel, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial actinomycetes are noteworthy producers of a multitude of antibiotics, however the marine representatives are much less studied in this regard. In this study, 90 actinomycetes were isolated from 11 different species of marine sponges that had been collected from offshore Ras Mohamed (Egypt) and from Rovinj (Croatia). Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 18 different actinomycete genera representing seven different suborders. Fourteen putatively novel species were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other strains in the NCBI database. A putative new genus related to Rubrobacter was isolated on M1 agar that had been amended with sponge extract, thus highlighting the need for innovative cultivation protocols. Testing for anti-infective activities was performed against clinically relevant, Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, fungi (Candida albicans) and human parasites (Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei). Bioactivities against these pathogens were documented for 10 actinomycete isolates. These results show a high diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges as well as highlight their potential to produce anti-infective agents. PMID:20411105

  1. Oligopeptide Targeting Sortase A as Potential Anti-infective Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sortase A (SrtA-catalyzed anchorage of surface proteins in most Gram-positive bacteria is indispensable for their virulence, suggesting that this transpeptidase is a promising target for antivirulence therapy. Here, an oligopeptide, LPRDA, was identified as an effective inhibitor of SrtA via virtual screening based on the LPXTG substrate sequence, and it was found to inhibit SrtA activity in vitro and in vivo (IC50 = 10.61 μM by competitively occupying the active site of SrtA. Further, the oligopeptide treatment had no anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity, but it provided protection against S. aureus-induced mastitis in a mouse model. These findings indicate that the oligopeptide could be used as an effective anti-infective agent for the treatment of infection caused by S. aureus or other Gram-positive bacteria via the targeting of SrtA.

  2. Innovative Approaches to Improve Anti-Infective Vaccine Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R; Hennessey, John P

    2017-01-06

    Safe and efficacious vaccines are arguably the most successful medical interventions of all time. Yet the ongoing discovery of new pathogens, along with emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and a burgeoning population at risk of such infections, imposes unprecedented public health challenges. To meet these challenges, innovative strategies to discover and develop new or improved anti-infective vaccines are necessary. These approaches must intersect the most meaningful insights into protective immunity and advanced technologies with capabilities to deliver immunogens for optimal immune protection. This goal is considered through several recent advances in host-pathogen relationships, conceptual strides in vaccinology, and emerging technologies. Given a clear and growing risk of pandemic disease should the threat of infection go unmet, developing vaccines that optimize protective immunity against high-priority and antibiotic-resistant pathogens represents an urgent and unifying imperative.

  3. Regional monitoring of the urinary tract infections causative agents antibiotic resistance in the child population of the Chernivtsi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bezruk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of current medical practice the “viewpoint” regarding the growth of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms is a threat to national security. A reasonable use of antibiotics on the basis of uropathogen regional bacterial sensitivity gives the opportunity to “restrain” the growth of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms and increase the effectiveness of the UTI treatment. The aim of the article is to determine the range and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance of major groups of infectious-inflammatory diseases causative agents of the urinary tract in the child population of the Chernivtsi region. Materials and methods. The analysis of etiologic spectrum and antibiotic resistance of uropathogens was conducted and observed in the urine samples of 657 patients who were provided with a specialized medical care in the Nephrology department of the “Municipal Children’s Clinical Hospital”, Chernivtsi (2014–2015 with the purpose of the dynamic control of possible changes in the regional antibiotic resistance of pathogens of causative pathogens of the “urinary tract infections” (UTI; identify the age and gender differences of the child population of the Chernivtsi region (2014–2015 compared to the monitoring data for the period of 2009–2013. Results. When UTI among of the child population of the Chernivtsi region leading etiologic organisms include strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae and uropathogen of the genus Proteus. A “wave-like” curve of the dynamics of antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens with a decreasing tendency to the “drugs of choice” was observed among the child population of the region (2009–2015: penicillin (p < 0.01, cephalosporin II–III generation (p < 0.01 and medicine of the fluoroquinolone series (p < 0.01. A “wave-like” curve of the dynamics of antibiotic resistance of Proteus uropathogens with a decreasing tendency to the “drugs of choice” was

  4. The development of an analytical method for urinary metabolites of the riot control agent 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, James R; Read, Robert W; Black, Robin M; Harrison, John M; Shand, Dawn A; Tomsett, Eleanor V; Newsome, Catherine R; Bailey, Nicola C; Roughley, Neil; Gravett, Matthew R; Stubbs, Sarah J; McColm, Richard R

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of biomedical samples such as urine and blood can provide evidence of exposure to chemicals for a range of applications including occupational exposure monitoring, detection of drugs of abuse, performance enhancement in sport and investigations of poisoning and incapacitation. This paper reports the development of an analytical method for two suspected urinary metabolites of the riot control agent 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS): 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was identified in all 2h post-exposure samples from a set of urine samples taken from army recruits exposed to low levels of thermally dispersed CS during training. 2-Chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine, a metabolite known to be formed in the rat, was not identified in any of the samples. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) for 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine was 1ng/ml and 0.5ng/ml in pooled urine from the pre-exposed subjects. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was rapidly excreted but was detectable in the urine of 17 of the 19 subjects tested 20h after exposure. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  6. Urinary Tract Infections Among Hospitalized Adults in the Early Post-Liver Transplant Period: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Causative Agents, and Microbial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Jafarpour, Zahra; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rasekh, Razieh; Khosravifard, Leila; Janghorban, Parisa

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are among the most common infections after liver transplant, especially soon after surgery. This study analyzed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria, their causative agents, and related risk factors in the early period after liver transplant in hospitalized adult transplant recipients in the main liver transplant referral center in Iran. In this prospective study, 389 consecutive adult patients who underwent liver transplant at the Nemazee Teaching Hospital were enrolled between October 2014 and October 2015. Risk factors were compared for patients who developed urinary tract infections or bacteriuria ("infection group "; n = 63 [16.2% ]) and patients without evidence of infection ("control group "; n = 211 [54.2% ]). Patients with sites of infection other than the urinary tract were excluded. Antimicrobial sus ceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared variables between the 2 groups. Seventy-nine episodes of urinary tract infections or bacteriuria occurred in the infection group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, hospitalization 2 to 7 days before transplant, and frequency of abdominal exploration were 11.0, 5.9, and 3.0 times more common in the infection group than in the control group. The chance of infection rises 1.1 times with each one unit increase of body mass index. The most common infection causes were gram-negative bacteria (n = 50; 63.3%), predominantly Escherichia coli (n = 24; 30.4%); followed by gram-positive bacteria (n = 20; 25.3%), predominantly Enterococcus species (n = 14; 17.8%) that had a high incidence of vancomycin resistance (n = 10; 71.4%); and non-Candida albicans species isolates (n = 9; 11.4%). Urinary tract infections are a common infection in hospitalized adult patients soon after liver transplant. Female sex, hospitalization shortly before transplant, more frequent abdominal exploration, and higher

  7. Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticle-Modified Natural Diatomite with Anti-Infective Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haolin Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver as an alternative antibacterial agent of antibiotics has been researched for possible applications in various orthopedic implants. However, it is imperative to achieve controllable release of Ag+ to reduce its cytotoxic effect on normal tissue. Here, a nanosilver release system that has potential to be used in anti-infective bone cement was reported. Nanosilver modified diatomite was developed through the reaction of Tollens’ reagent to improve the antibacterial effect and natural diatomite was used as the carrier of Ag+ ions for controlled release. Cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the nanosilver release system were characterized. After 3 days, the NIH3T3 cells cultured in the extract of nanosilver modified diatomite with an initial concentration of 0.5 mg/ml showed better cell viability than cells cultured in α-MEM. The density of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in the extract of nanosilver modified diatomite at the same concentration did not differ significantly from the density of cells cultured in α-MEM. The nanosilver modified diatomite exhibited antibacterial effect against E. coli and S. aureus when the concentration was higher than 0.5 mg/ml. With appropriate selection of Ag+ concentration, the nanosilver modified diatomite is promising for improving the antibacterial effect while not affecting the biocompatibility of reinforced calcium phosphate bone cement.

  8. Gender differences in the use of anti-infective medications before and after widowhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santacroce, Adriana; Wastesson, Jonas W; Höhn, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    widowhood among both men and women. Also, age-related changes in the use of anti-infective medications were similar in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that individuals are more likely to use anti-infective medication after being widowed than before being widowed, but this change is likely...... to be related to increasing age and it is similar in both genders....

  9. Ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents tested against urinary tract isolates from a global surveillance program (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-11-01

    Ceftazidime-avibactam, a combination of ceftazidime and the non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam, is in advanced clinical development. In this study, we report results of in vitro testing of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents against a collection of urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates from the United States (USA), Europe and Mediterranean region (EMR), Latin America (LATAM), and the Asia-Pacific/South Africa regions (APAC). Clinical isolates (1 per patient episode) were collected from patients with a UTI during 2011. A total of 1797 isolates were collected from 159 medical centers. Isolates were processed at the medical centers and forwarded to a central monitoring laboratory for confirmatory identification and reference susceptibility testing. Ceftazidime-avibactam was highly active against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC90 values for ceftazidime-avibactam against Enterobacteriaceae in the USA, EMR, and LATAM regions ranged from 0.25 to 0.5μg/mL. The MIC90 in the APAC was slightly elevated at 1μg/mL. A total of 6.1% (8/131) of Escherichia coli in the USA, 23.5% (43/183) in the EMR, 61.2% (30/49) in LATAM, and 75.0% (9/12) in APAC exhibited an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) screen-positive phenotype. A total of 1.6% (2/129) of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the USA were meropenem-non-susceptible (MIC ≥2μg/mL), but a rate of 10.3% (10/97) was observed in the EMR. All ESBL screen-positive phenotype and meropenem-non-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates exhibited a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC ≤4μg/mL. All isolates of P. aeruginosa in the USA and 80.9% (38/47) in the EMR were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤8μg/mL compared to 88.2% (15/17) and 61.7% (29/47) for ceftazidime alone. Ceftazidime-avibactam demonstrated wide in vitro activity against Gram-negative bacteria from patients with UTI including high potencies against multidrug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  10. Sex- and age-specific trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli urinary isolates from outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jessina C; Elman, Miriam R; Bearden, David T; Smith, David H

    2013-02-22

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age- and sex-specific trends in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from ambulatory primary care patients in a regional health maintenance organization. Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females. A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18-64 compared to females of the same age. We did not observe clinically meaningful differences in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among E. coli isolated from males versus females. These data suggest that male sex alone should not be used as an indication for empiric use of second-line broad-spectrum antibiotic agents

  11. Besifloxacin: a novel anti-infective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Comstock

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L Comstock1, Paul M Karpecki2, Timothy W Morris3, Jin-Zhong Zhang41Global Medical Affairs, Pharmaceuticals, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 2Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Research and Development Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 4Global Preclinical Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is demographically unbiased in its prevalence and can be caused by a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Timely empiric treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-infective, such as a topical fluoroquinolone, is critical in preventing potentially irreversible ocular damage. However, the rise in ocular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance for patients with other ocular bacterial infections mandate the need for new agents targeted for ocular use. Besifloxacin, a novel broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, is approved for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. It has a uniquely balanced dual-targeting activity that inhibits both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and is associated with a lower incidence of resistance development. Besifloxacin is not marketed in other formulations, ensuring that its exposure is limited to bacterial populations in and around the eye. This specifically precludes any bacterial exposure to besifloxacin resulting from systemic use, which further reduces the likelihood of emergence of bacterial resistance. In vitro, besifloxacin has demonstrated equivalent or superior activity compared with other commonly used topical antibiotics. In clinical trials, besifloxacin has consistently demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin is considered safe and is well tolerated with no observed contraindications.Keywords: conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  12. In vitro susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents of urinary tract infection bacteria in women: a 5-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Melgarejo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing resistance rates of urinary pathogens represent a serious problem. The aim of this study was to analyze the etiology of community-acquired urinary tract infections, their first-line antimicrobial resistance and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL in gram negative bacilli. Methods: The study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015 using data from the Microbiology Laboratory at the teaching hospital Hospital de Clínicas, which belongs to the National University of Asunción. Results: A total of 1957 urinary pathogens were found in women. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated bacterium (57%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (11% and Streptococcus agalactiae (2%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2% and Proteus mirabilis (2%. The resistance rates of Escherichia coli were the following: to trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, 43%; to ciprofloxacin, 32%; to ampicilin/sulbactam, 32%; to cefotaxime, 13 %; to piperacillin/tazobactam, 8%; nitrofurantoin, 2%, whereas it did not show resistance to meropenem during this period. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were produced by 11% of the E. coli isolates and 30% of the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Conclusions: The resistance and cross-resistance rates found in this study pose a serious problem which compels the continuous assessment of the empirical therapy for urinary tract infections at this hospital.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of antiseptic agents for meatal cleaning in the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasugba, O; Koerner, J; Mitchell, B G; Gardner, A

    2017-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections. Antiseptic cleaning of the meatal area before and during catheter use may reduce the risk of CAUTIs. To undertake a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effectiveness of antiseptic cleaning before urinary catheter insertion and during catheter use for prevention of CAUTIs. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and compared across intervention and control groups using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was estimated using the I 2 statistic. In total, 2665 potential papers were identified; of these, 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. There was no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs when comparing antiseptic and non-antiseptic agents (pooled OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.73-1.10; P=0.31), or when comparing different agents: povidone-iodine vs routine care; povidone-iodine vs soap and water; chlorhexidine vs water; povidone-iodine vs saline; povidone-iodine vs water; and green soap and water vs routine care (P>0.05 for all). Comparison of an antibacterial agent with routine care indicated near significance (P=0.06). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =0%; P>0.05). Subgroup analyses showed no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs in terms of country, setting, risk of bias, sex and frequency of administration. There were no differences in CAUTI rates, although methodological issues hamper generalizability of this finding. Antibacterial agents may prove to be significant in a well-conducted study. The present results provide good evidence to inform infection control guidelines in catheter management. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Global occurrence of anti-infectives in contaminated surface waters: Impact of income inequality between countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Pedro A; Takada, Hideshige; Correa, José A; El Saadi, Karim; Koike, Tatsuya; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Wasonga, Oliver V; Mghalu, Joseph M; dos Santos Junior, Antonio Manuel; Newman, Brent; Weerts, Steven; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    The presence anti-infectives in environmental waters is of interest because of their potential role in the dissemination of anti-infective resistance in bacteria and other harmful effects on non-target species such as algae and shellfish. Since no information on global trends regarding the contamination caused by these bioactive substances is yet available, we decided to investigate the impact of income inequality between countries on the occurrence of anti-infectives in surface waters. In order to perform such study, we gathered concentration values reported in the peer-reviewed literature between 1998 and 2014 and built a database. To fill the gap of knowledge on occurrence of anti-infectives in African countries, we also collected 61 surface water samples from Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa, and measured concentrations of 19 anti-infectives. A mixed one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model, followed by Turkey-Kramer post hoc tests was used to identify potential differences in anti-infective occurrence between countries grouped by income level (high, upper-middle and lower-middle and low income) according to the classification by the World Bank. Comparison of occurrence of anti-infectives according to income level revealed that concentrations of these substances in contaminated surface waters were significantly higher in low and lower-middle income countries (p=0.0001) but not in upper-middle income countries (p=0.0515) compared to high-income countries. We explained these results as the consequence of the absence of or limited sewage treatment performed in lower income countries. Furthermore, comparison of concentrations of low cost anti-infectives (sulfonamides and trimethoprim) and the more expensive macrolides between income groups suggest that the cost of these substances may have an impact on their environmental occurrence in lower income countries. Since wastewaters are the most important source of contamination of anti-infectives and other

  15. [Systemic therapy with anti-infective agents. Principles of rational use of systemic antibiotics in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderkötter, C; Brehler, R; Becker, K

    2014-02-01

    Antibiotics are frequently prescribed and extremely valuable drugs, because they are curative. However, their often incorrect use is the main reason for the increase of multiresistant pathogens. Inappropriate prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections favors the selection and spread of multiresistant bacteria not only in the skin, but also in remote visceral organs (e.g. in the intestines), due to their systemic distribution and effects in the body (so-called collateral damage). For this reason basic knowledge and special prudence when using antibiotics are just as desirable as an awareness of responsibility for the public welfare. This article intends to convey basic knowledge on the indications and selection of suitable antibiotics as well as on the development of bacterial resistance and it gives recommendations for allergological procedures when patients report alleged drug reactions to antibiotics. Systemic antibiotics for soft tissue infections are indicated when the infection spreads within the tissue so that it is no longer accessible for local antiseptics. In addition to the clinical symptoms, important parameters are high blood sedimentation rates (BSR) and high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytosis with neutrophilia and fever (not always present in elderly or immunosuppressed patients). Certain constellations, such as the presence of severe underlying diseases, perfusion disorders or a particular localization (e.g. infection of the face) may necessitate early or parenteral administration. There is no need for systemic administration of antibiotics for uncomplicated wounds without soft tissue infections. Due to their curative effects, the decisive criterion for the use of antibiotics is their sufficient antimicrobial efficacy at the site of infection. An inappropriate administration increases both the selection pressure and costs of treatment and can have fatal consequences in serious situations. In dermatological patients the beta-lactam antibiotics penicillin V, penicillin G and cephalosporins of groups 1 and 2 are the antibiotics most commonly indicated for skin and soft tissue infections. If the patient's history arouses the suspicion of incompatibility to these antibiotics, allergological diagnostics should be carried out in order to avoid as often as possible the alternative use of antibiotics which result in more undesired effects and development of resistance.

  16. Current status of imaging infections with radiolabeled anti-infective agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.M.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Pirmettis, I.; Brouwer, C.P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Infection specific radiopharmaceuticals can be used for diagnosis, decision-making in therapy and treatment follow-up. Research has been ongoing to develop infection specific markers since clinically used tracers cannot discriminate between infection and inflammation. A specific radiopharmaceutical

  17. Small cationic antimicrobial peptidomimetics: emerging candidate for the development of potential anti-infective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Sandeep; Bisht, Gopal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increase in the emergence and spread of microbes resistant to conventionally used antibiotics has become a major threat to global health care. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as a potential source of novel antibiotics because of their numerous advantages such as broad-spectrum activity, lower tendency to induce resistance, immunomodulatory response and unique mode of action. However, AMPs have several drawbacks such as; susceptibility to protease degradation, toxicity and high costs of manufacturing. Therefore, extensive research efforts are underway to explore the therapeutic potential of these fascinating natural compounds. This review highlights the potential of small cationic antimicrobial peptidomimetics (SCAMPs; M.W. ≅ 700 Da) as new generation antibiotics. In particular, we focused on recently identified small active pharmacophore from bulky templates of native AMPs, β-peptides, and lipopeptides. In addition, various design strategies recently undertaken to improve the physicochemical properties (proteolytic stability & plasma protein binding) of small cationic peptides have also been discussed.

  18. Display technology on filamentous phage in the search for anti-infective biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Santiago Vispo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex. The phage display technology has been used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and peptides directed against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Today, this technology is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits the phage display technology to discover new drugs against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies. Methods: Basic and recent literature review was made, mainly focused on general aspects of phage display technology and the application in the search of new peptides or antibodies of pharmaceutical use to combat the infectious diseases transmitted by bacteria and virus. Results: Updated information on the selected topics is shown, with a guiding and practical approach aimed at researchers in the field of molecular biology to continue deepening the technology with special emphasis in the applications that have been developed in Cuba. Conclusions: Advances in methods of screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies show that phage display technology can significantly contribute in the fight against clinically important pathogens.

  19. LC-MS/MS for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of anti-infective drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veringa, Anette; Sturkenboom, Marieke G. G.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Koster, Remco A.; Roberts, Jason A.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Touw, Daan J.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a tool used to integrate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic knowledge to optimise and personalize drug therapy. TDM is of specific interest for anti-infectives: to assure adequate drug exposure and reduce adverse events, to increase patient compliance and to

  20. Comparison of agents and sensitivity profile in urinary tract infection in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora da Silva Krenke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study diabetic and non diabetic patients in UTI, regardingthe prevalence of broad spectrum beta-lactamase producing pathogensand quinolone resistance. Methods: Inclusion criteria for this studywas the presence of positive urine culture and fasting glucose equal toor above 126 mg/dl and below 100 mg/dl. We managed to include 494patients, 210 diabetics and 284 non-diabetics. Results: Escherichiacoli was the most frequently found pathogen in both diabetic andnon-diabetic groups, and significantly more frequent in non diabeticpatients (p = 0.0001 – 60% to 31% when compared to their diabeticcounterparts. Candida albicans infecting the urinary tract was foundin 30% of diabetics and in 16% of non-diabetics (p = 0.003. Broadspectrum beta-lactamase production was more frequently present inKlebsiella pneumoniae, however without significant difference betweenthe groups. Broad spectrum beta-lactamase production was morefrequent in diabetic patients (12% than in non-diabetics (4% (p =0.03. Quinolones resistance was more common in diabetics (40%when compared to non-diabetics (14% (p = 0.0001. Escherichiacoli is one of the pathogens more frequently found in patients withUTI. Conclusion: Diabetics have a greater likelihood of developingfungal urinary tract infection by Candida albicans, have more broadspectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and more quinolone-resistant pathogens.

  1. Comparison of Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection Rates by Perineal Care Agents in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihnsook Jeong, PhD, RN

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions: The type of perineal care does not influence the incidence of CAUTIs. Further confirmatory studies with a larger patient population should be conducted, as well as determining perineal agent preference.

  2. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (PCP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, PCP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention.

  3. Causes and consequences of anti-infective drug stock-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luans, C; Cardiet, I; Rogé, P; Baslé, B; Le Corre, P; Revest, M; Michelet, C; Tattevin, P

    2014-10-01

    Anti-infective drugs stock-outs are increasingly frequent, and this is unlikely to change. There are numerous causes for this, mostly related to parameters difficult to control: i) 60 to 80% of raw material or components are produced outside of Europe (compared to 20% 30 years ago), with subsequent loss of independence for their procurement; ii) the economic crisis drives the pharmaceutical companies to stop producing drugs of limited profitability (even among important drugs); iii) the enforcement of regulatory requirements and quality control procedures result in an increasing number of drugs being blocked during production. The therapeutic class most affected by drug stock-outs is that of anti-infective drugs, especially injectable ones, and many therapeutic dead ends have recently occurred. We provide an update on this issue, and suggest 2 major actions for improvement: i) to implement a group dedicated to anticipating drug stock-outs within the anti-infective committee in each health care center, with the objectives of organizing and coordinating the response whenever a drug stock-out is deemed at risk (i.e., contingency plans, substitution, communication to prescribers); ii) a national reflection lead by scientific societies, in collaboration with government agencies, upstream of the most problematic drug stock-outs, to elaborate and disseminate consensus guidelines for the management of these stock-outs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. A review of the clinical implications of anti-infective biomaterials and infection-resistant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoccia, Davide; Montanaro, Lucio; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2013-11-01

    Infection is currently regarded as the most severe and devastating complication associated to the use of biomaterials. The important social, clinical and economic impacts of implant-related infections are promoting the efforts to obviate these severe diseases. In this context, the development of anti-infective biomaterials and of infection-resistant surfaces is being regarded as the main strategy to prevent the establishment of implant colonisation and biofilm formation by bacteria. In this review, the attention is focused on the biomaterial-associated infections, from which the need for anti-infective biomaterials originates. Biomaterial-associated infections differ markedly for epidemiology, aetiology and severity, depending mainly on the anatomic site, on the time of biomaterial application, and on the depth of the tissues harbouring the prosthesis. Here, the diversity and complexity of the different scenarios where medical devices are currently utilised are explored, providing an overview of the emblematic applicative fields and of the requirements for anti-infective biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Etiologic agents of urinary tract infections and their resistance to antibiotics in the pediatric population; Medellín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J; Universidad de Manizales; Carvajal, P; Universidad de Manizales; López, Y; Universidad de Manizales; Palacio, D; Universidad de Manizales; Torres, T; Universidad de Manizales; Torres, T; Universidad de Manizales; Restrepo, M; Universidad de Manizales; Martínez, H; Universidad de manizales; Calvo, V; Universidad de Manizales; Olarte, M; Universidad de Manizales

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes: La infección urinaria es una de las causas más frecuentes de consulta en la población pediátrica. En la mayoría de los casos manejada empíricamente, siendo el Trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol el antibiótico más utilizado. El propósito de esta investigación es establecer la frecuencia de los diferentes agentes etiológicos causantes de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU), su resistencia y sensibilidad a losantibióticos en población pediátrica.Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un anális...

  6. High-throughput screening for novel anti-infectives using a C. elegans pathogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, Annie L; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Ausubel, Frederick M; Kirienko, Natalia V

    2014-03-14

    In recent history, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided a compelling platform for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. In this protocol, we present an automated, high-throughput C. elegans pathogenesis assay, which can be used to screen for anti-infective compounds that prevent nematodes from dying due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. New antibiotics identified from such screens would be promising candidates for treatment of human infections, and also can be used as probe compounds to identify novel targets in microbial pathogenesis or host immunity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Microbial Agents Causing Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infection in Surgical Ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashmin Afroz Binte Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections pose substantial risk to patients receiving care in hospitals. In Bangladesh, this problem is aggravated by inadequate infection control due to poor hygiene, resource and structural constraints and lack of awareness regarding nosocomial infections. Objective: We carried out this study to determine the prevalence of different microorganisms from urine in surgery ward and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern against various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka over a period of 12 months from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 urine specimens were collected from catheterized patients admitted in general surgery ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH and incubated in blood agar, MacConkey agar media and the isolates were identified by different biochemical tests – oxidase test and reaction in MIU (motility indole urease and Simmon’s citrate and TSI (triple sugar iron media. ESBL producers were detected by double-disk synergy test (DDST. Results: Bacteria were isolated from 35 specimens and Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (23, 65.71% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (17.14%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 (8.57%, Acinetobacter baumannii 2 (5.72% and Proteus vulgaris 1 (2.86% respectively. Among the isolates, 10 (28.57% ESBL producers were detected and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (8, 22.85% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (2.86% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (2.86%. The isolates were resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians who have limited therapeutic options. However, the high rate of nosocomial infections and multi-resistant pathogens necessitate urgent comprehensive interventions of infection control.

  8. Starch-Chitosan Polyplexes: A Versatile Carrier System for Anti-Infectives and Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzey Yasar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous potential of nanomedicine, the search for materials from renewable resources that balance bio-medical requirements and engineering aspects is still challenging. This study proposes an easy method to make nanoparticles composed of oxidized starch and chitosan, both isolated from natural biopolymers. The careful adjustment of C/N ratio, polymer concentration and molecular weight allowed for tuning of particle characteristics. The system’s carrier capability was assessed both for anti-infectives and for nucleic acid. Higher starch content polyplexes were found to be suitable for high encapsulation efficiency of cationic anti-infectives and preserving their bactericidal function. A cationic carrier was obtained by coating the anionic polyplex with chitosan. Coating allowed for a minimal amount of cationic polymer to be employed and facilitated plasmid DNA loading both within the particle core and on the surface. Transfection studies showed encouraging result, approximately 5% of A549 cells with reporter gene expression. In summary, starch-chitosan complexes are suitable carriers with promising perspectives for pharmaceutical use.

  9. Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rui; Dai, Tianhong; Avci, Pinar; Jorge, Ana Elisa Serafim; de Melo, Wanessa CMA; Vecchio, Daniela; Huang, Ying-Ying; Gupta, Asheesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200–280nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized that the possible adverse effects to host tissue were relatively minor compared to its high activity in killing pathogens. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of non-toxic photosensitizing dyes with harmless visible light that together produce abundant destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain cationic dyes or photosensitizers have good specificity for binding to microbial cells while sparing host mammalian cells and can be used for treating many localized infections, both superficial and even deep-seated by using fiber optic delivered light. Many microbial cells are highly sensitive to killing by blue light (400–470 nm) due to accumulation of naturally occurring photosensitizers such as porphyrins and flavins. Near infrared light has also been shown to have antimicrobial effects against certain species. Clinical applications of these technologies include skin, dental, wound, stomach, nasal, toenail and other infections which are amenable to effective light delivery. PMID:24060701

  10. Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rui; Dai, Tianhong; Avci, Pinar; Jorge, Ana Elisa Serafim; de Melo, Wanessa C M A; Vecchio, Daniela; Huang, Ying-Ying; Gupta, Asheesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200-280 nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized that the possible adverse effects to host tissue were relatively minor compared to its high activity in killing pathogens. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of non-toxic photosensitizing dyes with harmless visible light that together produce abundant destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain cationic dyes or photosensitizers have good specificity for binding to microbial cells while sparing host mammalian cells and can be used for treating many localized infections, both superficial and even deep-seated by using fiber optic delivered light. Many microbial cells are highly sensitive to killing by blue light (400-470 nm) due to accumulation of naturally occurring photosensitizers such as porphyrins and flavins. Near infrared light has also been shown to have antimicrobial effects against certain species. Clinical applications of these technologies include skin, dental, wound, stomach, nasal, toenail and other infections which are amenable to effective light delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased resistance to first-line agents among bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections in Latin America: time for local guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Andrade

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogens recovered from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI is an increasing problem in specific regions, limiting therapeutic options. As part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, a total of 611 isolates were collected in 2003 from patients with CA-UTI presenting at Latin American medical centers. Each strain was tested in a central laboratory using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI broth microdilution methods with appropriate controls. Escherichia coli was the leading pathogen (66%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (7%, Proteus mirabilis (6.4%, Enterococcus spp. (5.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.6%. Surprisingly high resistance rates were recorded for E. coli against first-line orally administered agents for CA-UTI, such as ampicillin (53.6%, TMP/SMX (40.4%, ciprofloxacin (21.6%, and gatifloxacin (17.1%. Decreased susceptibility rates to TMP/SMX and ciprofloxacin were also documented for Klebsiella spp. (79.1 and 81.4%, respectively, and P. mirabilis (71.8 and 84.6%, respectively. For Enterococcus spp., susceptibility rates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin were 88.2, 85.3, 55.9, and 97.1%, respectively. High-level resistance to gentamicin was detected in 24% of Enterococcus spp. Bacteria isolated from patients with CA-UTI in Latin America showed limited susceptibility to orally administered antimicrobials, especially for TMP/SMX and fluoroquinolones. Our results highlight the need for developing specific CA-UTI guidelines in geographic regions where elevated resistance to new and old compounds may influence prescribing decisions.

  12. Association between exposure to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) and urinary metabolite 2-chlorohippuric acid in U.S. Army Mask Confidence Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Maccon A; Stubner, Alex; Hout, Joseph J; Brueggemeyer, Mary; Bragg, William

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted among U.S. Army soldiers to evaluate the association between exposure to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) and urinary metabolite 2-chlorohippuric acid (CHA) detected in test subjects (n = 87) after completion of Mask Confidence Training. CS exposures ranged 0.086-4.9 mg/m³ ([Formula: see text] = 2.7 mg/m³). CHA levels (corrected for creatinine) at 2-, 8-, 24-, and 30-hr post-exposure resulted in ranges of 94.6-1120 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 389 µg/g-cr), 15.80-1170 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 341 µg/g-cr), 4.00-53.1 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 19.3 µg/g-cr), and 1.99-28.4 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 10.6 µg/g-cr), respectively. Spearman's correlation revealed CHA levels strongly correlated with time sampled (r = -0.748, p < 0.05) and weakly correlated with CS concentration (r = 0.270, p < 0.05). A linear relationship was observed between CHA, CS concentration, and time of urine sample according to the following regression equation: ln(CHA, μg/g-cr) = 5.423 + 0.316 (CS conc., mg/m³) - 0.002 (time sampled), (R = 0.910, R² = 0.827, p < 0.05). This relationship suggests that CHA has the potential to be an effective retrospective indicator of CS exposure in future biomarker developments.

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ...

  14. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in bladder control, causing urinary incontinence. Risk factors Factors that increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. Pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and normal female anatomy account for ...

  15. Bioprospecting Micromonospora from Kaziranga National Park of India and their anti-infective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Madhumita; Duarah, Aparajita; Talukdar, Shruti; Gohain, Manorama Bura; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Jha, Dhruva K; Bora, Tarun C

    2012-08-01

    Large number of strains was isolated from soils of Kaziranga National Park of North-East India using selective isolation procedure. They were assigned to the genus Micromonospora on the basis of their typical colonial and pigmentation features. The taxonomic identities of the isolates were confirmed on the basis of their molecular characters (16SrDNA). A total of one hundred Micromonospora strains were isolated during the present investigation. The diagnostic cell wall sugar and amino acids were determined from these Micromonospora strains. After preliminary screening most of the isolates exhibited excellent anti-infective activity against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureas, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Echerichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans. Among these isolates one strain designated as HK-10 showed promising activity against human pathogens S. aureas, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris and P. aeroginosa.

  16. 77 FR 12063 - Joint Meeting of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Nonprescription Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Joint Meeting of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public...

  17. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in a Gram Positive Pathogen by Linear Imprinted Copolymers with anti-Infective Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motib, Anfal; Guerreiro, Antonio; Al-Bayati, Firas; Piletska, Elena; Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kadam, Anagha; Kuipers, Oscar; Hiller, Luisa; Cowen, Todd; Piletsky, Sergey; Andrew, Peter; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe the development, characterization and biological testing of a new type of linear molecularly imprinted polymer (LMIP) designed to act as anti-infective by blocking the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism and so preventing virulence of the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. The LMIP is

  18. Virulence evolution in response to anti-infection resistance: toxic food plants can select for virulent parasites of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, J C; de Castillejo, C Lopez Fernandez; Faits, T; Alizon, S

    2011-04-01

    Host resistance to parasites can come in two main forms: hosts may either reduce the probability of parasite infection (anti-infection resistance) or reduce parasite growth after infection has occurred (anti-growth resistance). Both resistance mechanisms are often imperfect, meaning that they do not fully prevent or clear infections. Theoretical work has suggested that imperfect anti-growth resistance can select for higher parasite virulence by favouring faster-growing and more virulent parasites that overcome this resistance. In contrast, imperfect anti-infection resistance is thought not to select for increased parasite virulence, because it is assumed that it reduces the number of hosts that become infected, but not the fitness of parasites in successfully infected hosts. Here, we develop a theoretical model to show that anti-infection resistance can in fact select for higher virulence when such resistance reduces the effective parasite dose that enters a host. Our model is based on a monarch butterfly-parasite system in which larval food plants confer resistance to the monarch host. We carried out an experiment and showed that this environmental resistance is most likely a form of anti-infection resistance, through which toxic food plants reduce the effective dose of parasites that initiates an infection. We used these results to build a mathematical model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of food plant-induced resistance. Our model shows that when the effective infectious dose is reduced, parasites can compensate by evolving a higher per-parasite growth rate, and consequently a higher intrinsic virulence. Our results are relevant to many insect host-parasite systems, in which larval food plants often confer imperfect anti-infection resistance. Our results also suggest that - for parasites where the infectious dose affects the within-host dynamics - vaccines that reduce the effective infectious dose can select for increased parasite virulence.

  19. Urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... Karram MM, eds. Atlas of Pelvic Anatomy and Gynecologic Surgery . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ...

  20. γδ-T cells: an unpolished sword in human anti-infection immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Liu, Yinping; Lau, Yu-Lung; Tu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    γδ-T cells represent a small population of immune cells, but play an indispensable role in host defenses against exogenous pathogens, immune surveillance of endogenous pathogenesis and even homeostasis of the immune system. Activation and expansion of γδ-T cells are generally observed in diverse human infectious diseases and correlate with their progression and prognosis. γδ-T cells have both 'innate' and 'adaptive' characteristics in the immune response, and their anti-infection activities are mediated by multiple pathways that are under elaborate regulation by other immune components. In this review, we summarize the current state of the literature and the recent advancements in γδ-T cell-mediated immune responses against common human infectious pathogens. Although further investigation is needed to improve our understanding of the characteristics of different γδ-T cell subpopulations under specific conditions, γδ-T cell-based therapy has great potential for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  1. An anti-infective synthetic peptide with dual antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, O N; de la Fuente-Núñez, C; Haney, E F; Fensterseifer, I C M; Ribeiro, S M; Porto, W F; Brown, P; Faria-Junior, C; Rezende, T M B; Moreno, S E; Lu, T K; Hancock, R E W; Franco, O L

    2016-11-02

    Antibiotic-resistant infections are predicted to kill 10 million people per year by 2050, costing the global economy $100 trillion. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative technologies. We have engineered a synthetic peptide called clavanin-MO, derived from a marine tunicate antimicrobial peptide, which exhibits potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. The peptide effectively killed a panel of representative bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant hospital isolates. Antimicrobial activity of the peptide was demonstrated in animal models, reducing bacterial counts by six orders of magnitude, and contributing to infection clearance. In addition, clavanin-MO was capable of modulating innate immunity by stimulating leukocyte recruitment to the site of infection, and production of immune mediators GM-CSF, IFN-γ and MCP-1, while suppressing an excessive and potentially harmful inflammatory response by increasing synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and repressing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, treatment with the peptide protected mice against otherwise lethal infections caused by both Gram-negative and -positive drug-resistant strains. The peptide presented here directly kills bacteria and further helps resolve infections through its immune modulatory properties. Peptide anti-infective therapeutics with combined antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties represent a new approach to treat antibiotic-resistant infections.

  2. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  3. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun, E-mail: weiywswzy@163.com [Anhui Agricultural University, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2016-01-15

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion–solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100–150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus (M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application.

  4. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly ( d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion-solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100-150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus ( M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application.

  5. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion–solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100–150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus (M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application

  6. An Independent Evaluation of a Novel Peptide Mimetic, Brilacidin (PMX30063), for Ocular Anti-Infective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Mah, Francis S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Brilacidin (BRI), a novel defensin mimetic, was evaluated as an ocular anti-infective. Methods: In vitro: Potency based on MIC90s was compared for 50 Staphylococcus aureus (SA), 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), and 25 each of Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), Streptococcus viridans (SV), Moraxella (MS), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Serratia marcescens (SM). In vivo: Using established methods, ocular toxicity was graded with Draize testing. For efficacy testing, both corneas of 24 rabbits were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas the corneal epithelium was removed in the left eye. After 4 h, 21 topical drops over 5 h were administered to 4 groups: BRI 0.5%, vancomycin (VAN) 5%, saline, and no treatment. The eyes were clinically graded and the corneas were harvested for colony counts. Results: In vitro: Both SA and SE had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations among the bacterial groups. The MIC90s to BRI for SP, SV, MS, HI, PA, and SM were 4, 32, 256, 32, 16, and 128-fold higher, respectively, than SA and SE. In vivo: Draize testing determined BRI 0.5% to be minimally irritating. For abraded corneas, BRI was not statistically different from VAN for reducing MRSA. BRI was bactericidal. For intact corneas, VAN reduced more CFU than BRI. BRI reduced CFU in abraded corneas more than intact corneas suggesting poor corneal penetration. Conclusions: BRI has Gram-positive in vitro activity; topical BRI 0.5% was minimally irritating; and BRI 0.5% was equally efficacious as VAN in a MRSA keratitis model when the corneal epithelium was removed. PMID:26501484

  7. Ultrashort self-assembling Fmoc-peptide gelators for anti-infective biomaterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Alice P; Draper, Emily R; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2017-02-01

    Biomaterial-related infections have a significant impact on society and are a major contributor to the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. Current licensed antibiotic classes struggle to breakdown or penetrate the exopolysaccharide biofilm barrier, resulting in sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic at the surface of the biomaterial, treatment failure and increased spread of resistant isolates. This paper focuses for the first time on the ability of ultrashort Fmoc-peptide gelators to eradicate established bacterial biofilms implicated in a variety of medical device infections (Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The effect of increasing the cationicity of FmocFF via addition of di-lysine and di-orntithine was also studied with regard to antibacterial activity. Our studies demonstrated that Fmoc-peptides (FmocFF, FmocFFKK, FmocFFFKK, FmocFFOO) formed surfactant-like soft gels at concentrations of 1% w/v and above using a method of glucono-δ-Lactone pH induction. The majority of Fmoc-peptides (0.5-2% w/v) demonstrated selective action against established (grown for 24 h) biofilms of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These results are likely to increase the clinical translation of short-peptide gelator platforms within the area of anti-infective biomaterials including as wound dressings and coatings for prostheses, catheters, heart valves and surgical tubes. In the long term, this will lead to wider treatment choices for clinicians and patients involved in the management of medical device infections and reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Anti-Infective Potential of Marine Invertebrates and Seaweeds from the Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Steindel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the Brazilian coast. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by the disk diffusion method. Antiprotozoal activity was evaluated against Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3 promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi (MHOM/BR/00/Y epimastigotes by MTT assay. Activity against intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis in murine macrophages was also evaluated. Antiviral activity was tested against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain by the plaque number reduction assay (IC50. Cytotoxicity on VERO cells was evaluated by the MTT assay (CC50. The results were expressed as SI = CC50/IC50. The most promising antimicrobial results were obtained against S. aureus and C. albicans with Dragmacidon reticulatum. Among the seaweeds, only Osmundaria obtusiloba showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Concerning antiprotozoal activity, Bugula neritina, Carijoa riseii, Dragmaxia anomala and Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. showed the most interesting results, mainly against extracellular promastigote forms of L. braziliensis (66, 35.9, 97.2, and 43.6% inhibition, respectively. Moreover, six species of seaweeds Anadyomene saldanhae, Caulerpa cupressoides, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Dictyota sp., Ochtodes secundiramea, and Padina sp. showed promising results against L. braziliensis (87.9, 51.7, 85.9, 93.3, 99.7, and 80.9% inhibition, respectively, and only Dictyota sp. was effective against T. cruzi (60.4% inhibition. Finally, the antiherpes activity was also evaluated, with Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. and Petromica citrina showing the best results (SI = 11.9 and SI > 5

  9. Use of human immunoglobulins as an anti-infective treatment: the experience so far and their possible re-emerging role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Jordi; Jorquera, Juan I

    2017-06-01

    Pooled human immunoglobulins (IGs) are prepared from plasma obtained from healthy donors as a concentrated antibody-containing solution. In addition, high-titer IGs (hyperimmune) against a specific pathogen can be obtained from vaccinated or convalescing donors. Currently, IGs can be used for the treatment of a variety of infections for which no specific therapy exists or that remain difficult to treat. Moreover, the recent pathogen outbreaks for which there is no approved treatment have renewed attention to the role of convalescent plasma and IGs. Areas covered: In this review, a historical perspective of the use of sera and IGs in humans as anti-infective agents (any viral, bacterial, parasitic infection), excluding immunodeficient patients, is presented from early development to the latest clinical studies. A Medline search was conducted to examine the peer-reviewed literature, with no date limits. Expert commentary: Human pooled plasma-derived IG products benefit from the polyclonal response of every individual donor and from the interindividual variability in such response. The trend to increased availability of vaccines for infectious diseases also opens new potential applications of hyperimmune IGs for emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases (e.g.: Ebola, Zika, Dengue), for the prevention and treatment in the general population, healthcare personnel and caregivers.

  10. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincters to relax. As the sphincters relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra. Male and female urinary tracts Kidney Ureter Bladder Prostate Urethra 2   ...

  11. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall asleep for the test. CT scans can show urinary tract stones UTIs tumors traumatic injuries abnormal, fluid-containing sacs called cysts Urodynamic tests . Urodynamic tests include a variety of procedures that look at how well the ...

  12. Practice Points: Pharmacological therapy of female urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... selectively modulate the electrophysiological properties and the intracellular pathways of the smooth muscles of the lower urinary tract in women as therapeutic agents for UI is awaited with interest. Key words: Drugs, pharmacology, urinary incontinence, women. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol.5(1) 2005: 79-85 ...

  13. The Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Thyme, Eucalyptus, Chamomile and Fennel on Virulence Factors of Escherichia Coli, Causative Agent of Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dashti-Zadeh

    2017-11-01

    Results: The results showed that, the alcoholic extract of thyme in three concentrations of 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/ml can prevent motility of the studied strain. Among the four plants studied, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of thyme had the most effect in inhibiting the formation of biofilm. Alcoholic extract of thyme at concentration of 218.75 µg/ml and the alcoholic eucalyptus Extract at Concentration of 54.6875 µg/ml had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacterium, also the thyme alcoholic extract at concentration of 3500 μg / ml had bactericidal effect. None of the extracts had an effect on hemolysin production. Conclusion: Considering the inhibitory effect of thyme and eucalyptus alcoholic extracts on bacterial growth and the ability of these extracts to prevent biofilm formation and bacterial motility, these two herbs can be considered as the first choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  14. Effect of Winemaking on the Composition of Red Wine as a Source of Polyphenols for Anti-Infective Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral infections and related bone (osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, periprosthetic joint infections and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, fifteen red wine samples derived from grapes native to the Oltrepò Pavese region (Italy, obtained from the winemaking processes of “Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese” red wine, were analyzed alongside three samples obtained from marc pressing. Total polyphenol and monomeric anthocyanin contents were determined and metabolite profiling was conducted by means of a chromatographic analysis. Antibacterial activity of wine samples was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, responsible for dental caries, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes, two oral bacterial pathogens. Results highlighted the winemaking stages in which samples exhibit the highest content of polyphenols and the greatest antibacterial activity. Considering the global need for new weapons against bacterial infections and alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as well as the favorable bioactivities of polyphenols, results point to red wine as a source of antibacterial substances for developing new anti-infective biomaterials and coatings for biomedical devices.

  15. Mussel-inspired alginate gel promoting the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and anti-infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiwen; Xu, Kaige; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Yuan, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Alginate hydrogels have been used in cell encapsulation for many years but a prevalent issue with pure alginates is that they are unable to provide enough bioactive properties to interact with mammalian cells. This paper discusses the modification of alginate with mussel-inspired dopamine for cell loading and anti-infection. Mouse bone marrow stem cells were immobilized into alginate and alginate-dopamine beads and fibers. Through live-dead and MTT assay, alginates modified by dopamine promoted cell viability and proliferation. In vitro cell differentiation results showed that such an alginate-dopamine gel can promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell after PCR and ALP assays. In addition to that, the adhesive prosperities of dopamine allowed for coating the surface of alginate-dopamine gel with silver nanoparticles, which provided the gel with significant antibacterial characteristics. Overall, these results demonstrate that a dopamine-modified alginate gel can be a great tool for cell encapsulation to promote cell proliferation and can be applied to bone regeneration, especially in contaminated bone defects. - Highlights: • Dopamine modified alginate bead and fiber promote cell viability and proliferation. • Alginate-dopamine gel promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. • Dopamine reduced nanosilver for anti-infection. • Alginate-dopamine bead and fiber for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

  16. Anti-infective properties of the melanin-glucan complex obtained from medicinal tinder bracket mushroom, Fomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr. (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Olga F; Gorovoj, Leontiy F; Beketova, Galina V; Savichuk, Hatalia O; Rytik, Petr G; Kucherov, Igor I; Prilutskay, Alla B; Prilutsky, Alexandr I

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to comparatively study the efficiency of traditionally used anti-infective drugs and biopolymer complexes originated from the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius (L.:Fr.) Fr.: 1) water-soluble melanin-glucan complex (MGC; -80% melanins and -20% beta-glucans) and 2) insoluble chitin-glucan-melanin complex (ChGMC; -70% chitin, -20% beta-glucans, and -10% melanins). Infectious materials (Helicobacter pylori, Candida albicans, and Herpes vulgaris I and HIV-1(zmb) were used in pure cultures of in vitro and in vivo models on experimental animals. Comparison studies of fungal biopolymers and effective modern antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral drugs were used in in vitro models. The comparative clinical efficiency of ChGMC and of etiotropic pharmaceuticals in models of H. pylori, C. albicans, and H. vulgaris I infection contamination were studied. Using in vitro models, it was established that MGC completely depresses growth of C. albicans. MGC had an antimicrobial effect on H. pylori identical to erythromycin in all concentrations, and had a stronger action on this bacterium than other tested antibiotics. Tested MGC possesses simultaneously weak toxicity and high anti-HIV-1 activity in comparison with zidovudine (Retrovir). The obtained results show that CLUDDT therapy in Wistar rats with the application of ChGMC is, on average, 1.35-1.43 times as effective as a traditional one. Considering the absence of MGC and ChGMC toxic properties on blood cells even in very high concentrations, these complexes may be used as a source of biopolymers for the creation of essentially new agents for wide application in infectious pathology.

  17. Intra-specific differentiation of fungal endosymbiont Alternaria longissima CLB44 using RNA secondary structure analysis and their anti-infective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H C Yashavantha; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-08-01

    New antimicrobial agents derived from endosymbio-tic fungi with unique and targeted mode of action are crucially rudimentary to combat multidrug-resistant infections. Most of the fungi isolated as endosymbionts show close morphological feature resemblance to plant pathogenic or free-living forms, and it is difficult to differentiate these different lifestyles. A fungal endosymbiont strain CLB44 was isolated from Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae). CLB44 was then identified as Alternaria longissima based on morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) intervening 5.8S rRNA gene sequence analysis. ITS2 RNA secondary structure analysis was carried out using mfold server with temperature 37 °C, and anti-infective potential was determined by MIC and disk diffusion methods. ITS2 RNA secondary structure analysis clearly distinguished endosymbiotic A. longissima CLB44 from free-living and pathogenic A. longissima members in the same monophyletic clade. Secondary metabolites produced effectively inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (25 μg/ml), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (50 μg/ml), Candida albicans (100 μg/ml), and other human pathogens. This study emerges as an innovative finding that explores newly revealed ITS2 RNAs that may be an insight as new markers for refining phylogenetic relations and to distinguish fungal endosymbionts with other free-living or pathogenic forms. A. longissima CLB44, in the emerging field of endosymbionts, will pave the way to a novel avenue in drug discovery to combat multidrug-resistant infections. The sequence data of this fungus is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KU310611.

  18. Biomedical applications of synthetic, biodegradable polymers for the development of anti-infective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertesteanu, Serban; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Printza, Atnanasia G; Marie-Paule, Thill; Grumezescu, Valentina; Mihaela, Vlad; Lazar, Veronica; Grigore, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in microbial strains is representing one of the major threats to public health worldwide, due to the decreased or total cancelling of the available antibiotics effectiveness, correlated with the slow development of novel antibiotics. Due to their excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility, the synthetic polymers could find a lot of biomedical applications, such as the development of biomaterials with optimized properties and of drug delivery systems. This review is focusing on the applications of synthetic, biodegradable polymers for the improvement of antiinfective therapeutic and prophylactic agents (i.e., antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents and vaccines) activity, as well as for the design of biomaterials with increased biocompatibility and resistance to microbial colonization.

  19. Clinical analysis of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y-H; Li, G-Q; Guo, S-M; Che, Y-N; Wang, X; Cheng, F-T

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the related influencing factors of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to this hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, were selected and treated by TURP. Patients were divided into infection group and non-infection group according to the occurrence of urinary tract infection after operation. The possible influencing factors were collected to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 53 cases with urinary tract infection after operation among 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, accounting for 15.5%. The univariate analysis displayed that the occurrence of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing TURP was closely associated with patient's age ≥ 65 years old, complicated diabetes, catheterization for urinary retention before operation, no use of antibiotics before operation and postoperative indwelling catheter duration ≥ 5 d (p urinary tract infection in patients receiving TURP (p urinary tract infection after TURP, while preoperative prophylactic utilization of anti-infective drugs can reduce the occurrence of postoperative urinary tract infection.

  20. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  1. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  2. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  3. [Case of urinary mycobacterium fortuitum in a patient with urinary tract tuberculosis posttreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Takeshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirobe, Megumi; Taguchi, Keisuke

    2008-11-01

    A 70-year-old male who complained of urinary frequency and a feeling of incomplete emptying was admitted to our hospital. Imaging findings showed dilation of the left renal pelvis and ureter. He was diagnosed as having urinary tuberculosis because a positive urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis result was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). He was treated with a combination of the antituberculosis agents isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for six months. The symptoms and pyuria disappeared and M. tuberculosis was negative by PCR; however, Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated by culture. Due to asymptomatic urinary tract infection by the multidrug resistant M. fortuitum, he was followed up with observation. Currently, he remains unchanged with regard to symptoms and imaging examination. M. fortuitum is a nontubercular mycobacterium, and clinical relevance between urinary tract infection and M. fortuitum has rarely emerged. However, we should be aware that nontubercular mycobacteria such as M. fortuitum can infect the urinary tract, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  4. Evaluation of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides as Topical Anti-Infectives with Broad-Spectrum Activity against Combat-Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    succeeded in developing resistance to a variety of AMPs. 2. Keywords Antimicrobial, peptides, anti-fungal, wounds, burns, bacterial resistance ...against Combat- Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Louis Edward Clemens Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Riptide...Anti-Infectives with Broad- Spectrum Activity against Combat-Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  5. INFECTIOUS AETIOLOGY OF MARGINAL ZONE LYMPHOMA AND ROLE OF ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal zone lymphomas have been associated with several infectious agents covering both viral and bacterial pathogens and in some cases a clear aetiological role has been established. Pathogenetic mechanisms are currently not completely understood, however the role of chronic stimulation of the host immune response with persistent lymphocyte activation represents the most convincing explanation for lymphoproliferation. Gastric MALT lymphoma is strictly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and various eradicating protocols, developed due to increasing antibiotic resistance, represent the first line therapy. The response rate to eradication is good with 80% of response at 1 year; this finding is also noteworthy because recapitulates a cancer cured only by antibacterial approach and it satisfies the Koch postulates of causation, establishing a causative relationship between Hp and gastric MALT lymphoma. Patients with chronic HCV infection have 5 times higher risk to develop MZL, in particular an association with splenic and nodal MZL has been shown in several studies. Moreover, there is evidence of lymphoma regression after antiviral therapy with interferon+ribavirin, thus rising hope that new available drugs, extremely effective against HCV replication, could improve outcome also in HCV-driven lymphomas. The rare cases of MZL localized to orbital fat and eye conjunctivas have been associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection carried by birds. Efficacy of antibacterial therapy against C. psittaci are conflicting and generally poorer thain gastric MALT. Finally some case-reports will cover the relationship between primary cutaneous B-cell Lymphomas and Borrelia Burgdorferi.

  6. Tweaking Innate Immunity: The Promise of Innate Immunologicals as Anti-Infectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L Rosenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New and exciting insights into the importance of the innate immune system are revolutionizing our understanding of immune defense against infections, pathogenesis, and the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. The innate immune system uses multiple families of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs to detect infection and trigger a variety of antimicrobial defense mechanisms. PRRs are evolutionarily highly conserved and serve to detect infection by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are unique to microorganisms and essential for their survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are transmembrane signalling receptors that activate gene expression programs that result in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, type I interferons and antimicrobial factors. Furthermore, TLR activation facilitates and guides activation of adaptive immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells. TLRs are localized on the cell surface and in endosomal/lysosomal compartments, where they detect bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins and RNA helicases are located in the cell cytoplasm, where they serve as intracellular PRRs to detect cytoplasmic infections, particularly viruses. Due to their ability to enhance innate immune responses, novel strategies to use ligands, synthetic agonists or antagonists of PRRs (also known as 'innate immunologicals' can be used as stand-alone agents to provide immediate protection or treatment against bacterial, viral or parasitic infections. Furthermore, the newly appreciated importance of innate immunity in initiating and shaping adaptive immune responses is contributing to our understanding of vaccine adjuvants and promises to lead to improved next-generation vaccines.

  7. Preparation of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite and coating on polymers for anti-infection biomaterial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were prepared by chemical reduction method, for anti-infection biomaterial application. There is a growing interest in attempts in using biomolecular as the templates to grow inorganic nanocomposites in controlled morphology and structure. By optimizing the experiment conditions, we successfully fabricated high yield of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite with full coverage of high-density polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating. More importantly, ZnO/Ag nanocomposites were shown to significantly inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in solution. It was further shown that ZnO/Ag nanocomposites induced thiol depletion that caused death of S. aureus. The coatings were fully characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Most importantly, compared to uncoated metals, the coatings on PVC promoted healthy antibacterial activity. Importantly, compared to ZnO-Ag -uncoated PVC, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated was approximately triplet more effective in preventing bacteria attachment. The result of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are chemically stable in the temperature range from 50 to 900 °C. This result, for the first time, demonstrates the potential of using ZnO/Ag nanocomposites as a coating material for numerous anti-bacterial applications.

  8. Preparation of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite and coating on polymers for anti-infection biomaterial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak

    2014-01-24

    ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were prepared by chemical reduction method, for anti-infection biomaterial application. There is a growing interest in attempts in using biomolecular as the templates to grow inorganic nanocomposites in controlled morphology and structure. By optimizing the experiment conditions, we successfully fabricated high yield of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite with full coverage of high-density polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating. More importantly, ZnO/Ag nanocomposites were shown to significantly inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in solution. It was further shown that ZnO/Ag nanocomposites induced thiol depletion that caused death of S. aureus. The coatings were fully characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Most importantly, compared to uncoated metals, the coatings on PVC promoted healthy antibacterial activity. Importantly, compared to ZnO-Ag -uncoated PVC, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated was approximately triplet more effective in preventing bacteria attachment. The result of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are chemically stable in the temperature range from 50 to 900°C. This result, for the first time, demonstrates the potential of using ZnO/Ag nanocomposites as a coating material for numerous anti-bacterial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug loaded homogeneous electrospun PCL/gelatin hybrid nanofiber structures for anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; He, Min; Liu, Hao; Niu, Yuzhao; Crawford, Aileen; Coates, Phil D; Chen, Dafu; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-01

    Infection is the major reason for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membrane failure in clinical application. In this work, we developed GTR/GBR membranes with localized drug delivery function to prevent infection by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gelatin blended with metronidazole (MNA). Acetic acid (HAc) was introduced to improve the miscibility of PCL and gelatin to fabricate homogeneous hybrid nanofiber membranes. The effects of the addition of HAc and the MNA content (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.% of polymer) on the properties of the membranes were investigated. The membranes showed good mechanical properties, appropriate biodegradation rate and barrier function. The controlled and sustained release of MNA from the membranes significantly prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. Cells could adhere to and proliferate on the membranes without cytotoxicity until the MNA content reached 30%. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that MNA-loaded membranes evoked a less severe inflammatory response depending on the dose of MNA than bare membranes. The biodegradation time of the membranes was appropriate for tissue regeneration. These results indicated the potential for using MNA-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes as anti-infective GTR/GBR membranes to optimize clinical application of GTR/GBR strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Patient Education FAQs Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Patient Education ...

  11. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in sexually active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aresearch to investigate the prevalence of urinary tract infections in sexually active women (18 – 41 years) from selected health care centres in Abakaliki was carried out. Attempt was made to fined out the number of treated cases, aetiologic agents and age range with highest incdence o urinary tract infections over the study ...

  12. A fully automated on-line preconcentration and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of anti-infectives in wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Pedro A; Gagnon, Christian; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-12-05

    We developed and validated a novel on-line preconcentration liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of anti-infectives in wastewaters. The presented method preconcentrates 1 mL of sample in a load column using a switching-valve technique. The method was optimized with respect to sample load flow rate, volume of the load column wash and organic solvent content of the load column wash. The sample is cleaned using a 30% organic solvent washing step and then gradually eluted to an analytical column for separation. To compensate for matrix effects, quantitation was performed using standard additions. Confirmation of the presence of the detected compounds was done using a second selective reaction monitoring transition. Method intra-day precision was less than 9% and inter-day precision %R.S.D. varied between 2.5 and 23%. Limits of detection for the selected anti-infective compounds ranged from 13 to 61 ng L(-1). All the target anti-infectives were found in the city of Montréal WWTP effluent in concentrations ranging from 71 to 289 ng L(-1). This automated method eases the rapid quantitation of those trace contaminants using small sample volumes.

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  15. Anti-infective activity of apolipoprotein domain derived peptides in vitro: identification of novel antimicrobial peptides related to apolipoprotein B with anti-HIV activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKnight Áine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have shown that peptides derived from the apolipoprotein E receptor binding region and the amphipathic α-helical domains of apolipoprotein AI have broad anti-infective activity and antiviral activity respectively. Lipoproteins and viruses share a similar cell biological niche, being of overlapping size and displaying similar interactions with mammalian cells and receptors, which may have led to other antiviral sequences arising within apolipoproteins, in addition to those previously reported. We therefore designed a series of peptides based around either apolipoprotein receptor binding regions, or amphipathic α-helical domains, and tested these for antiviral and antibacterial activity. Results Of the nineteen new peptides tested, seven showed some anti-infective activity, with two of these being derived from two apolipoproteins not previously used to derive anti-infective sequences. Apolipoprotein J (151-170 - based on a predicted amphipathic alpha-helical domain from apolipoprotein J - had measurable anti-HSV1 activity, as did apolipoprotein B (3359-3367 dp (apoBdp, the latter being derived from the LDL receptor binding domain B of apolipoprotein B. The more active peptide - apoBdp - showed similarity to the previously reported apoE derived anti-infective peptide, and further modification of the apoBdp sequence to align the charge distribution more closely to that of apoEdp or to introduce aromatic residues resulted in increased breadth and potency of activity. The most active peptide of this type showed similar potent anti-HIV activity, comparable to that we previously reported for the apoE derived peptide apoEdpL-W. Conclusions These data suggest that further antimicrobial peptides may be obtained using human apolipoprotein sequences, selecting regions with either amphipathic α-helical structure, or those linked to receptor-binding regions. The finding that an amphipathic α-helical region of

  16. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  17. Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

  18. Urinary nitrite in symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, H R; McCredie, D A; Ritchie, M A

    1987-01-01

    The dipstrip test for urinary nitrite is fairly unreliable in symptomatic urinary infections and only 104 (52%) of 200 symptomatic children with urinary infection attending an emergency department had a positive result. The test yielded positive results, however, in 83 of 100 outpatients with largely asymptomatic urinary infection attending a follow up clinic because of known predisposition to urinary infection. This difference was highly significant. The finding of urinary nitrite is highly ...

  19. Clinical and microbiological effects of systemic antimicrobials combined to an anti-infective mechanical debridement for the management of aggressive periodontitis: a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Senem, Mayra Xavier E; Heller, Débora; Varela, Victor Macedo; Torres, Maria Cynesia Barros; Feres-Filho, Eduardo Jorge; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2013-03-01

    To compare the 1-year clinical and microbiological outcomes of an enhanced anti-infective therapy with versus without systemic antimicrobials in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP). In this 12-month randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 35 individuals assigned to a control (n = 17) or test group (n = 18) received full-mouth supra and subgingival ultrasonic debridement followed by scaling and root planing with chlorhexidine rinsing, brushing, and irrigation. Subjects received either amoxicillin (AMX, 500 mg) + metronidazole (MET, 250 mg) or placebos, TID for 10 days. Subgingival samples were obtained and analysed for their composition by checkerboard. Data were subjected to non-parametric tests. Both therapeutic protocols resulted in similar significant clinical improvement for most parameters at 1 year (p periodontal pathogens decreased, whereas beneficial bacteria increased in counts in both groups over time (p periodontal and other microbial pathogens were associated with disease persistence regardless treatment. The enhanced anti-infective mechanical therapy is comparable with its combination with systemic AMX+MET for most clinical parameters and for maintaining low levels of periodontal pathogens for up to 1 year after treatment of GAP. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.

    1984-01-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. [3H]-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized [3H]-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood [3H]-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors

  1. Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.

    1984-02-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. (3H)-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized (3H)-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood (3H)-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors.

  2. Urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate treatment and control of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) depends on a good knowledge of the agents causing the infection. The study was designed to assess the aetiology of childhood UTI and the susceptibility of these pathogens to the commonly available antimicrobial agents. Methodology: Children ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ... and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ...

  6. The Urinary Tract Microbiome in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Isabel M; Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo; Queipo-Ortuño, María I; Castillo, Elisabeth; Del Moral, Julia Sequeira-García; Gómez-Millán, Jaime; Yucel, Gozde; Lara, María F

    2016-11-14

    The urinary tract, previously considered a sterile body niche, has emerged as the host of an array of bacteria in healthy individuals, revolutionizing the urology research field. To review the literature on microbiome implications in the urinary tract and the usefulness of probiotics/prebiotics and diet as treatment for urologic disorders. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Medline from inception until July 2016. The initial search identified 1419 studies and 89 were included in this systematic review. Specific bacterial communities have been found in the healthy urinary tract. Changes in this microbiome have been observed in certain urologic disorders such as urinary incontinence, urologic cancers, interstitial cystitis, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The role of probiotics, prebiotics, and diet as treatment or preventive agents for urologic disorders requires further investigation. There is a microbiome associated with the healthy urinary tract that can change in urologic disorders. This represents a propitious context to identify new diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive microbiome-based biomarkers that could be used in clinical urology practice. In addition, probiotics, prebiotics, and diet modifications appear to represent an opportunity to regulate the urinary microbiome. We review the urinary microbiome of healthy individuals and its changes in relation to urinary disorders. The question to resolve is how we can modulate the microbiome to improve urinary tract health. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of post-stroke urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuong, Nicole E; Klausner, Adam P; Hampton, Lance J

    2016-06-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents, or strokes, are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Urinary incontinence is a prevalent morbidity experienced by post-stroke patients that is associated with long term disability and institutionalization effects on these patients. An extensive literature review was conducted using multiple academic search engines using the keywords: 'stroke,' 'CVA,' 'urinary incontinence,' 'urodynamics,' 'pharmacologic treatments,' and 'conservative treatments.' Articles were reviewed and summarized to explain incidence, assessment, and treatments of urinary incontinence in post-stroke individuals. Twenty-eight percent to seventy-nine percent of stroke survivors experience urinary incontinence with detrusor overactivity being the most common type of incontinence assessed by urodynamic studies. There continues to be insufficient data studying the effects and benefits of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments in post-stroke patients. Similarly, urinary incontinence remains an indicator of increased morbidity, disability, and institutionalization rates in the post-stroke patient. Stroke is a debilitating disease which causes urinary incontinence in many patients. As a result, patients have increased rates of hospitalization and disability compared to post-stroke patients without urinary incontinence. The history and physical exam are key in diagnosing the type of urinary incontinence with urodynamic studies being an adjunctive study. Non-pharmacologic treatment, such as behavioral therapy, and pharmacologic agents including antimuscarinics and beta adrenergic medications, are not well studied in the post-stroke patient. Urinary incontinence in stroke patients needs to be further studied to help decrease morbidity and mortality rates within this population.

  8. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes ...

  9. URINARY STONES IN CHIULDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philip

    Urinary stones were previously thought to be uncommon in the paediatric age however this may be due to differences in presentation and evaluation of children with stones. There are variations in the incidence worldwide; affected by diet and climate. Common aetiological factors are metabolic changes, urinary tract ...

  10. Urinary retention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Saad

    2014-07-01

    This review is a summary of the most pertinent published studies in the literature in the last 18 months that address cause, diagnosis, and management of urinary retention in women. Symptoms, uroflow, and pressure-flow studies have a low predictive value for and do not correlate with elevated postvoid residual urine (PVR). Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy do not cause de-novo bladder outlet obstruction in the majority of patients with elevated PVR, and the cause of elevated PVR may be other factors such as pain or anxiety causing abnormal relaxation of the pelvic floor and contributing to voiding difficulty. The risk of urinary retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small. The risk of urinary tract infection and urinary retention after chemodenervation of the bladder with onabotulinumtoxin-A (100 IU) in patients with non-neurogenic urge incontinence is 33 and 5%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus among experts on the timing of sling takedown in the management of acute urinary retention following MUS procedures. There has been a significant progress in the understanding of the causation of urinary retention. Important areas that need further research (basic and clinical) are post-MUS and pelvic organ prolapse repair urinary retention and obstruction, and urinary retention owing to detrusor underactivity.

  11. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  12. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and a...

  13. [Urinary incontinence and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to systematically review the literature concerning urinary incontinence and pregnancy, in order to develop recommendations for clinical practice. The prevalence of urinary stress incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms increase with gestational age during pregnancy (from the first to the third trimester), and decrease during the third months following delivery. Obstetrics factors (position during delivery, length of the second part of the labour, forceps, episiotomy, epidural or pudendal anaesthesia) do not modify the risk of post-partum or long term urinary incontinence. At short term follow-up, caesarean delivery is associated with a lower rate of post-partum urinary incontinence. At long term follow-up, data are lacking. Non elective caesarean section is not associated with a decrease in the rate of post-partum or long-term urinary incontinence. Elective caesarean section and systematic episiotomy are not recommended methods for the prevention of post-partum urinary incontinence (grade B), even in "high risk" women. Pelvic floor muscle therapy is the first line treatment for prenatal or post-partum urinary incontinence (grade A). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's in ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  15. Effect of sputum suction by bronchofiberoscope combined with routine anti-infective therapy on lung function and inflammatory state in patients with severe lung infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of sputum suction by bronchofiberoscope combined with routine anti-infective therapy on lung function and inflammatory state in patients with severe lung infection. Methods: A total of 52 patients with severe lung infection who received treatment in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015 were selected as research subjects and were divided into observation group 26 cases and control group 26 cases according to different treatment methods. Differences in levels of lung function indexes, serum inflammation-related factors, disease severity-related indexes, JNK/SAPK and TLR2/NF-κB signaling pathways were compared between two groups. Results: FEV1, MMV, MMEF, FRC and TLC values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum PAF, MIP-1毩, sTREM-1 and PCT values of observation group were lower than those of control group while APN value was higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum ACE, NO, ET-1, SP-A and HMGB1 values of observation group were lower than those of control group while CC16 and ChE values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; JNK, SAPK, TLR2 and NF-κB protein expression levels of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Sputum suction by bronchofiberoscope combined with routine anti-infective therapy for patients with severe lung infection has positive significance in improving patients’ lung function, inhibiting systemic inflammation and other aspects.

  16. Urinary incontinence - collagen implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007373.htm Urinary incontinence - injectable implant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to ...

  17. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskår, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Po...

  18. Infecções do trato urinário: análise da freqüência e do perfil de sensibilidade dos agentes causadores de infecções do trato urinário em pacientes com cateterização vesical crônica Analysis of the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibilities to urinary tract infections agents in chronic catheterized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Lucchetti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções do trato urinário (ITU ganharam maior importância entre as infecções hospitalares, principalmente a relacionada à sondagem vesical crônica (80% de todas as ITU. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a freqüência e o perfil de sensibilidade dos agentes causadores de ITU em pacientes cronicamente sondados em acompanhamento ambulatorial. MÉTODO: Dividido em duas etapas: coleta de dados laboratoriais com análises do perfil de sensibilidade dos agentes encontrados por laminocultivo e de prontuários, sendo instituída uma correlação clinicolaboratorial com os dados dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: A amostra do trabalho foi de 109 pacientes, com uma análise de 858 culturas das quais 674 (78,57% foram positivas. Em relação às culturas de urina, os agentes etiológicos mais comuns encontrados foram a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42,77% - 288 amostras, seguida por Escherichia coli (13,14% - 89 amostras e Candida sp. (7,68% - 52 amostras. Segundo as medicações orais de escolha para o tratamento ambulatorial, a sensibilidade do norfloxacino para bacilos gram-negativos variou de 40% a 44,34% e do ciprofloxacino de 35,13% a 51,37%. Os principais fatores de risco foram tempo de cateterização, idade e diagnóstico de base. DISCUSSÃO: A faixa etária predominante dos pacientes foi a da sétima década de vida, o tempo de sondagem foi inferior a três anos e o diagnóstico de base principal a hiperplasia prostática benigna (HPB. O perfil de sensibilidade para os bacilos gram-negativos mostrou uma sensibilidade variável perante antibióticos indicados para a ITU. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos em nosso estudo que n = 674 (78,57% das uroculturas dos pacientes sondados são positivas para bactérias ou fungos. O agente mais freqüente de ITU nesses pacientes é a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, seguida da Escherichia coli, o segundo agente mais freqüente.BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI are gaining a new role of importance in nosocomial infections

  19. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P .... coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents....

  20. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  1. [Urinary incontinence and menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Ringa, V; Lesavre, M; Fernandez, H

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the relationship between menopause and urinary incontinence (UI). Our work is based on a review of the literature on the epidemiology of UI in women and the effects of hormone therapy on symptoms of urinary leakage. A search of the Medline database between January 2000 and April 2012 was performed by crossing the keywords "urinary incontinence, stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge incontinence, over active bladder, menopause, estrogen therapy". Twenty-nine articles over the 482 articles were initialy selected. The UI was a common symptom during menopause, with a prevalence of 15 to 30% and an annual incidence of 5 to 10%. The association between UI and menopause was controversial. Indeed, although underpinned by pathophysiological mechanisms such as the sensitivity of tissues of the urogenital sinus to estrogen, the epidemiological data available were contradictory and should be interpreted, if possible, depending on the type of UI. Thus, it remained difficult to distinguish the effect of menopause of the aging. The effects of estrogen on IU differed depending on the route of administration and of the type of UI. Randomized trials showed that oral administration of estrogen after menopause increased the occurrence of UI or SUI. However a vaginal administration of estrogen improved urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and overactive bladder. The data of this review were consistent with the French and European guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  3. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  4. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  10. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  11. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  13. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection in Patients Undergoing Pelvic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiation therapy is known to induce the breakdown of certain body defence factors. In the patient who has carcinoma of the cervix, pelvic radiotherapy increases the risk of infection with both opportunistic and pathogenic agents,. Objectives: This study was done to determine the prevalence of urinary tract ...

  14. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Urinary Tract Pathogens in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    New mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. New. England Journal of Medicine, 324: 601-612. Kabins, A E and Cohen, S (1966). Resistance factor in. Enterobacteriaceae. New England Journal of. Medicine, 275: 248-252. Kunin, C M (1987). Detection, Prevention and. Management of Urinary Tract ...

  15. Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy may cause complications such as pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, anaemia, chronic renal failure, premature delivery and foetal mortality. This study aimed to identify the etiologic agents of UTI and to determine the patterns of antimicrobial drug susceptibility ...

  16. What is Urinary Incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before you urinate. Urge incontinence is most common in the elderly and may be a sign of a urinary ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family ... Men Seniors In The News Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End- ...

  17. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation...

  18. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  19. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  20. The female urinary microbiome in urgency urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Meghan M; Zilliox, Michael J; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Thomas-White, Krystal J; Richter, Holly E; Nager, Charles W; Visco, Anthony G; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Barber, Matthew D; Schaffer, Joseph; Moalli, Pamela; Sung, Vivian W; Smith, Ariana L; Rogers, Rebecca; Nolen, Tracy L; Wallace, Dennis; Meikle, Susan F; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J; Brubaker, Linda

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the urinary microbiota in women who are planning treatment for urgency urinary incontinence and to describe clinical associations with urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection, and treatment outcomes. Catheterized urine samples were collected from multisite randomized trial participants who had no clinical evidence of urinary tract infection; 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to dichotomize participants as either DNA sequence-positive or sequence-negative. Associations with demographics, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection risk, and treatment outcomes were determined. In sequence-positive samples, microbiotas were characterized on the basis of their dominant microorganisms. More than one-half (51.1%; 93/182) of the participants' urine samples were sequence-positive. Sequence-positive participants were younger (55.8 vs 61.3 years old; P = .0007), had a higher body mass index (33.7 vs 30.1 kg/m(2); P = .0009), had a higher mean baseline daily urgency urinary incontinence episodes (5.7 vs 4.2 episodes; P urinary incontinence episodes, -4.4 vs -3.3; P = .0013), and were less likely to experience urinary tract infection (9% vs 27%; P = .0011). In sequence-positive samples, 8 major bacterial clusters were identified; 7 clusters were dominated not only by a single genus, most commonly Lactobacillus (45%) or Gardnerella (17%), but also by other taxa (25%). The remaining cluster had no dominant genus (13%). DNA sequencing confirmed urinary bacterial DNA in many women with urgency urinary incontinence who had no signs of infection. Sequence status was associated with baseline urgency urinary incontinence episodes, treatment response, and posttreatment urinary tract infection risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A high throughput amenable Arabidopsis-P. aeruginosa system reveals a rewired regulatory module and the utility to identify potent anti-infectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that in a metasystem consisting of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium (in 96 well plates even microbes considered to be innocuous such as laboratory strains of E. coli and B. subtilis can cause potent damage to the host. We further posited that such environment-induced adaptations are brought about by 'system status changes' (rewiring of pre-existing cellular signaling networks and components of the host and the microbe, and that prolongation of such a situation could lead to the emergence of pathogenic states in real-life. Here, using this infection model, we show that the master regulator GacA of the human opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa (strain PA14 is dispensable for pathogenesis, as evidenced by three independent read-outs. The gene expression profile of the host after infection with wild type PA14 or the gacA mutant are also identical. GacA normally acts upstream of the quorum sensing regulatory circuit (that includes the regulator LasR that controls a subset of virulence factors. Double mutants in gacA and lasR behave similar to the lasR mutant, as seen by abrogation of a characteristic cell type specific host cell damage caused by PA14 or the gacA mutant. This indicates that a previously unrecognized regulatory mechanism is operative under these conditions upstream of LasR. In addition, the detrimental effect of PA14 on Arabidopsis seedlings is resistant to high concentrations of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. These data suggest that the Arabidopsis seedling infection system could be used to identify anti-infectives with potentially novel modes of action.

  2. A high throughput amenable Arabidopsis-P. aeruginosa system reveals a rewired regulatory module and the utility to identify potent anti-infectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Suresh; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2011-01-21

    We previously demonstrated that in a metasystem consisting of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium (in 96 well plates) even microbes considered to be innocuous such as laboratory strains of E. coli and B. subtilis can cause potent damage to the host. We further posited that such environment-induced adaptations are brought about by 'system status changes' (rewiring of pre-existing cellular signaling networks and components) of the host and the microbe, and that prolongation of such a situation could lead to the emergence of pathogenic states in real-life. Here, using this infection model, we show that the master regulator GacA of the human opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa (strain PA14) is dispensable for pathogenesis, as evidenced by three independent read-outs. The gene expression profile of the host after infection with wild type PA14 or the gacA mutant are also identical. GacA normally acts upstream of the quorum sensing regulatory circuit (that includes the regulator LasR) that controls a subset of virulence factors. Double mutants in gacA and lasR behave similar to the lasR mutant, as seen by abrogation of a characteristic cell type specific host cell damage caused by PA14 or the gacA mutant. This indicates that a previously unrecognized regulatory mechanism is operative under these conditions upstream of LasR. In addition, the detrimental effect of PA14 on Arabidopsis seedlings is resistant to high concentrations of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. These data suggest that the Arabidopsis seedling infection system could be used to identify anti-infectives with potentially novel modes of action.

  3. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  4. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rortveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2007-04-01

    To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence, in addition to type, frequency, and amount of incontinence. Potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of incontinence increased from 26% before pregnancy to 58% in week 30. The corresponding figures for nulliparous women were 15% and 48%, and for parous women 35% and 67%. The cumulative incidence was 46%. Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence in week 30 of pregnancy, experienced by 31% of nulliparous and 42% of parous women. The majority of pregnant women had leakage less than once per week and droplets only, both before and during pregnancy. Parity was a strong and significant risk factor for incontinence in adjusted analyses both before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-2.7 for primiparous and OR 3.3, 95% CI 3.1-3.5 for multiparous women) and during pregnancy (ORs 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1 and 2.1, 95% CI 2.0-2.2, respectively). Age and body mass index were weaker, but still statistically significant, risk factors. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases substantially during pregnancy. Incontinence both before and during pregnancy seems to be associated with parity, age, and body mass index. II.

  5. [The features in preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhieva, Z K; Kazilov, Yu B

    2016-08-01

    This review outlines characteristics of medications most commonly used for preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). It shows that the treatment and prophylaxis of UTI should be comprehensive and include the restoration of the normal urogenital tract anatomy and use in addition to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, agents, normalizing the function of the lower urinary tract, as well as drugs for local and systemic immunoprophylaxis, protection of the urothelium from recurrent infection, local hormone replacement therapy in menopause, and dietary supplements to acidify the urine.

  6. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity. PMID:26999391

  7. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Non-toxic brominated perfluorocarbons radiopaque agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Non-toxic bromofluorocarbon radiopaque agents are disclosed. Certain monobrominated acyclic fluorocarbons, e.g., CF 3 (CF 2 ) 6 CF 2 Br, are improved non-toxic radiopaque agents useful in diagnostic roentgenology, for example in visualizing the gastrointestinal tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the alveolar spaces or parenchyma of the lung, the spleen, the urinary bladder and ureters, the common bile duct and its radicals, the pancreatic ducts, the blood vessels, etc. 13 claims, no drawings

  9. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  10. Managing therapeutic competition in patients with heart failure, lower urinary tract symptoms and incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Johnell, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    Up to 50% of heart failure patients suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence has been associated with worse functional status in patients with heart failure, occurring three times more frequently in patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV symptoms compared with those with milder disease. The association between heart failure and urinary symptoms may be directly attributable to worsening heart failure pathophysiology; however, medications used to treat heart failure may also indirectly provoke or exacerbate urinary symptoms. This type of drug-disease interaction, in which the treatment for heart failure precipitates incontinence, and removal of medications to relieve incontinence worsens heart failure, can be termed therapeutic competition. The mechanisms by which heart failure medication such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers aggravate lower urinary tract symptoms are discussed. Initiation of a prescribing cascade, whereby antimuscarinic agents or β3-agonists are added to treat symptoms of urinary urgency and incontinence, is best avoided. Recommendations and practical tips are provided that outline more judicious management of heart failure patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Compelling strategies to improve urinary outcomes include titrating diuretics, switching ACE inhibitors, treating lower urinary tract infections, appropriate fluid management, daily weighing, and uptake of pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  11. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Horvath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  12. Serum and urinary silver levels in thermal injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; McCall, J T; Ahrenholz, D H; Solem, L D; McClain, C J

    1987-01-01

    Although silver sulfadiazine has been used extensively as an effective topical antimicrobial agent in thermal injury patients, little is known about the cutaneous absorption of the silver moiety in these patients. Therefore, we longitudinally evaluated both serum silver concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of silver in 23 patients with second- and third-degree thermal burns. Mean serum silver concentrations were modestly elevated throughout the patients' hospital course. Urinary excretion of silver was markedly elevated, especially in those patients with more severe burns. Indeed, in patients who had burns covering more than 60% of the total body surface area mean peak silver excretion was 1100 micrograms/24 hr (normal, less than 1 micrograms/24 hr). Thus, silver ion is absorbed across the burn wound in thermal injury patients treated with silver sulfadiazine. The 24-hour urinary excretion of silver appears to be a very sensitive indicator of cutaneous absorption in these patients. Possible implications of this cutaneous silver absorption warrant further evaluation.

  13. Can Urinary Catheterization Before Birth Reduce Postpartum Urinary Retention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet B. Şentürk

    2016-04-01

    Results: The time to first micturition was determined to be shorter in the group where urinary catheterization was applied before birth, the PUR rate was lower and the amount of residual urine was less (p0.05. Conclusion: Urinary catheterization before birth reduces the rate of PUR.

  14. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Urinary Incontinence (UI) is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra re...

  15. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    for urinary incontinence (retropubic midurethral tape, transobturator tape, urethral injection therapy, Burch colposuspension, pubovaginal slings, and miscellaneous operations). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for factors...... risk was for urethral injection therapy (44%). In a Cox proportional hazard model that adjusted for age, department volume, and calendar effect, the transobturator tape carried a 2-fold higher risk of reoperation (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-2.9), and urethral injection therapy carried a 12 fold-higher risk...

  16. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  17. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with half of all women experiencing at least one in their lifetime.1 Of the women affected, 25-30% develop recurrent infections unrelated to any functional or anatomical abnormality of the urinary tract.2 Most UTIs in women are episodes of acute.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  20. An open multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, Gunnar; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence.......Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence....

  1. Urinary tract trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1983-09-01

    From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations.

  2. [The pathogenesis and prevention of urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabad, A L; Minakov, N K; Mkrtchan, G G; Zabirov, K I; Vasil'ev, M M; Khodyreva, L A; Tolstova, S S; Kisina, V I

    1995-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in females occurs significantly more frequently than in males because of specific anatomical and functional features of female urinary system, sequelae of pregnancy, delivery, gynecological diseases. Much controversy still exists as to pathogenesis of UTI and UTI-induced urinary inflammation. We have examined 233 females of different age with UTI and obtained evidence which shows participation of such factors as early and intensive sex, ignorance of sex hygiene, multiple pregnancies, deliveries, abortions, inflammatory gynecological diseases, anogenital infection in its pathogenesis. These factors were registered 2-4 times more frequently in UTI females than in controls without UTI. Bacteriological urinary and genital findings coincide in 80% of cases in terms of an infective agent. This suggests that it is essential to detect urogenital infection in girls and females as early as possible and to treat it adequately with antibacterial and other drugs. The leading role of an ascending urinogenic route in urinary tract infection from local sources in anogenital zone, sexual factor and the absence of relevant hygienic habits proved most contributing to UTI pathogenesis. This concept serves the basis for UTI prevention in females.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  4. The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    OpenAIRE

    Behzadi, Elham; Behzadi, Payam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are caused by different types of microbial agents such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Candida albicans. The presence of strong physical barriers may prevent the breach of pathogens into the urinary tract. However, sometimes the pathogenic microorganisms may pass through the barriers and stimulate the innate and adaptive responses. Among a variety of innate immune responses, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are one of the most unique and int...

  5. An initially unidentified case of urinary tract infection due to Aerococcus urinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletis, Georgios; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Tsingerlioti, Fani; Chatzopoulou, Fani; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    Aerococcus urinae is a microorganism responsible for urinary tract and blood stream infections which are rarely reported in clinical practice. However, it has been proposed that the infrequency of such reports may be partially due to difficulties related to pathogen identification. We present here a case of an elderly male patient with urinary tract infection where A. urinae was initially not identified by a private microbiology laboratory. Our report highlights the need to consider A. urinae as a causative agent of urinary tract infections because if not identified and properly treated it may lead to endocarditis or septicemia.

  6. Surgery for stress urinary incontinence in women: A 2006 review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil FM Blok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence is a rapidly changing field. This review discusses recent advances in various injectables, minimally invasive techniques and open procedures. It particularly evaluates data from long-term outcome studies and describes peri- and postoperative complications from several procedures, such as bulking agents, tension-free vaginal tape and its modifications (TOT, TVT-O as well as open and laparoscopic colposuspension.

  7. Preventing urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Cardozo, Linda; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report. Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency. Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.

  8. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Gülşah; Güven, Emine Seda G; Tekin, Yeşim B; Şentürk, Şenol; Kağitci, Mehmet; Üstüner, Işık; Mete Ural, Ülkü; Şahin, Figen K

    2016-05-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) can frequently be seen in pregnant women. Pregnancy and delivery have been considered as risk factors in the occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction and determinants of LUTS. The main associated risk factor is parity. In the present study, we aim to determine the frequency of LUTS and urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy and the associated risk factors. This prospective study was carried out in a total of 250 women during their 28- and 40-gestational week checks. The Urinary Distress Inventory-6, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7, and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form were used to determine LUTS and its effect on quality of life. The mean age and gestational age of the participants were 29.41 ± 5.70 year (range 18-44) and 35.45 ± 2.98 weeks (range 28-40), respectively. The prevalence of LUTS was 81.6%. The prevalence of UI during pregnancy was 37.2%. Stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were diagnosed as 15.6, 4.8 and 16.8%, respectively. We found that advanced age, smoking and multiparity were risk factors associated with incontinence. Incontinence reduced pregnant women's quality of life. Lower urinary tract symptoms are commonly seen among pregnant women and these symptoms negatively affect the quality of life of pregnant women. Advanced age, smoking and multiparity were risk factors associated with urinary incontinence and LUTS. Obstetricians should be on the lookout for individual urological problems in pregnancy. Resolving any urological issues and cessation of smoking for the affected individuals will help alleviate the problem. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  10. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria. We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, encrusted cystitis

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Afshar, Ali Taghizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's ... signs of a kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified ( ...

  16. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems ... Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters ( ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  1. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, John F.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Newman, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thi...

  2. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  3. Artificial urinary sphincter implantation: an important component of complex surgery for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with refractory urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liao, Limin

    2018-01-08

    We review our outcomes and experience of artificial urinary sphincter implantation for patients with refractory urinary incontinence from different causes. Between April 2002 and May 2017, a total of 32 patients (median age, 40.8 years) with urinary incontinence had undergone artificial urinary sphincter placement during urinary tract reconstruction. Eighteen patients (56.3%) were urethral injuries associated urinary incontinence, 9 (28.1%) had neurogenic urinary incontinence and 5 (15.6%) were post-prostatectomy incontinence. Necessary surgeries were conducted before artificial urinary sphincter placement as staged procedures, including urethral strictures incision, sphincterotomy, and augmentation cystoplasty. The mean follow-up time was 39 months. At the latest visit, 25 patients (78.1%) maintained the original artificial urinary sphincter. Four patients (12.5%) had artificial urinary sphincter revisions. Explantations were performed in three patients. Twenty-four patients were socially continent, leading to the overall success rate as 75%. The complication rate was 28.1%; including infections (n = 4), erosions (n = 4), and mechanical failure (n = 1). The impact of urinary incontinence on the quality of life measured by the visual analogue scale dropped from 7.0 ± 1.2 to 2.2 ± 1.5 (P urinary sphincter implantation in our center are unique, and the procedure is an effective treatment as a part of urinary tract reconstruction in complicated urinary incontinence cases with complex etiology.

  4. Does the Urinary Microbiome Play a Role in Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Its Severity?

    OpenAIRE

    Karstens, Lisa; Asquith, Mark; Davin, Sean; Stauffer, Patrick; Fair, Damien; Gregory, W. Thomas; Rosenbaum, James T.; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Nardos, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an ...

  5. Does the urinary microbiome play a role in urgency urinary incontinence and its severity?

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Karstens; Lisa Karstens; Mark Asquith; Sean Davin; Patrick Stauffer; Damien Fair; Damien Fair; Damien Fair; W Thomas Gregory; James T Rosenbaum; James T Rosenbaum; Shannon K McWeeney; Rahel Nardos; Rahel Nardos

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an ...

  6. Eimeria-induced chicken cNK-2 is an anti-infective host defense peptide and an immunomodulator of host innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of chickens. The etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis is Eimeria, a genus of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Clinical manifestations of infection include damage to the intestinal epit...

  7. [Characteristic features of urinary tract infection in malnourished children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stârcea, Magdalena; Munteanu, Mihaela; Brumariu, O

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prove a relationship between urinary tract infection and malnutrition in children 0-3 years old, hospitalized in the IVI Pediatric Clinic, Hospital St. Mary Iaşi, between January 2000 and December 2004. We have made a retrospective study for 298 infant and young children with urinary tract infection, 237 eutrophic and 61 malnourished. We studied comparatively the both groups with urinary tract infection (UTI), and we applied statistic methods for results. The statistic methods prove that relative risk for UTI increases in malnutrition, predictive positive value is 72.5%. The clinical manifestation is similar in malnourished and eutrophic, but many co morbidities were associated with dystrophic status. Malformation of urinary tract was associate two times more in malnourished child. The etiology of infection was dominated by Escherichia coli, Proteus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In malnourished children 5% of UTI was determinate by opportunist etiological agents like: Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter. More frequently, bacterium develops resistance of antibiotics like amino-penicilina, Trimethoprim and Cephalosporin. Accurate and fast diagnosis and treatment of UTI in infant and child with malnutrition is the best way for nutritional rehabilitation and prevention of serious consequence.

  8. Identification of Bioactive Agents and Immunomodulatory Factors from Seashells of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Najafi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research in marine pharmacology will promise new bioactive agents. The marine bioenvironment is the unique resource for bioactive agents that could not be found in terrestrial organisms. Methods: A total of known 611 seashells species in the Persian Gulf were investigated for synonymy in OBIS database. Then, all the species, including their synonymy were searched in PubMed database to find their isolated bioactive agents. Results: From 611 known seashells in the Persian Gulf, 172 genera/species had bioactive compounds. Bioactive agents were isolated and purified for 16 genera/ species. The crude or purified extracts from these seashells had immunomodulatory effects (6 seashells, anti-toxicologic effects (4 seashells, analgesic (1 seashell, cardiotonic and vasoactive agents (2 seashells, hypolipidemic agents (4 seashells, anti-osteoporotic and osteoblastic agents (2 seashells and anti-dermatitis effect (1 seashell. Conclusion: The known seashells from the Persian Gulf have bioactive and immunomodulatory compounds and increase in the efforts to isolate these agents will promise a treasure for novel anti-infective agents.

  9. Pathophysiology and diagnostic value of urinary trypsin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugia, Michael J; Lott, John A

    2005-01-01

    Inflammation is an important indicator of tissue injury. In the acute form, there is usually accumulation of fluids and plasma components in the affected tissues. Platelet activation and the appearance in blood of abnormally increased numbers of polymorphonucleocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages usually occur. Infectious disorders such as sepsis, meningitis, respiratory infection, urinary tract infection, viral infection, and bacterial infection usually induce an inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation is often associated with diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, kidney diseases, and certain auto-immune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, organ failures and other disorders with an inflammatory component or etiology. The disorder may occur before inflammation is apparent. Markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary trypsin inhibitors have changed our appraisal of acute events such as myocardial infarction; the infarct may be a response to acute infection and (or) inflammation. We describe here the pathophysiology of an anti-inflammatory agent termed urinary trypsin inhibitor (uTi). It is an important anti-inflammatory substance that is present in urine, blood and all organs. We also describe the anti-inflammatory agent bikunin, a selective inhibitor of serine proteases. The latter are important in modulating inflammatory events and even shutting them down.

  10. [The role of the uretral catheter in the development of catheter- related urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A O; Govorov, A V; Shiryaev, A A; Pushkar, D Yu

    2017-12-01

    The most common source of nosocomial infection is the urinary tract, especially if they it is drained with a urethral catheter. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for at least 80% of all complicated urinary tract infections and are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. Intestinal microflora plays the leading role in the pathogenesis of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, whereas the most important risk factor for their development is the long duration of urinary catheter drainage. In the case of short-term and intermittent catheterization, routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not required, but if a patient develops clinically significant infection, antibiotic therapy is required followed by definitive therapy based on culture. Urethral catheters coated with antimicrobial substances and anti-inflammatory agents can significantly reduce the adhesion and migration of bacteria, thereby reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections. Despite this, the incidence of catheter-associated infection remains high. We have reviewed recent literature related to catheter-associated urinary tract infections and the best means of preventing this condition.

  11. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All Sections ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary tract ...

  12. Increased urinary zinc excretion after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; Cerra, F B; Konstantinides, F; Ahrenholz, D H; McCall, J T; McClain, C J

    1991-12-01

    Urinary zinc excretion normally plays a minor role in zinc homeostasis; however, urinary zinc excretion is markedly elevated after trauma or surgery, and mechanism(s) for this zinc loss are poorly defined. In this study we evaluated multiple potential mechanisms for increased urinary zinc excretion in patients with thermal injury. We documented that patients with severe thermal injury had markedly elevated urinary zinc excretion. Above 20% total body surface area burn, however, the severity of thermal injury did not correlate with urinary zinc excretion. Serum zinc concentrations were depressed on initial evaluation and gradually increased during the hospital course, whereas peak urinary zinc excretion occurred 2 to 5 weeks after injury. Thus the depression in serum zinc concentration did not temporally relate to the observed pattern of hyperzincuria. Increased urinary zinc excretion also did not temporally relate to urinary excretion of the amino acids cysteine and histidine (both of which tightly bind zinc) nor to urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion, a marker of muscle breakdown. Urinary amylase excretion, a marker of renal tubular dysfunction, did follow the pattern of urinary zinc loss to some extent, although this correlation was not perfect. Increased oral intake of zinc via zinc supplements resulted in significantly increased urinary zinc excretion. Patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) did not have significantly increased urinary zinc excretion when compared with people receiving their total nutrient intake by mouth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Urinary ATP as an indicator of infection and inflammation of the urinary tract in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Kiren; Horsley, Harry; Kupelian, Anthony S; Baio, Gianluca; De Iorio, Maria; Sathiananamoorthy, Sanchutha; Khasriya, Rajvinder; Rohn, Jennifer L; Wildman, Scott S.P.; Malone-Lee, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:\\ud Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a neurotransmitter and inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract disease. ATP additionally reflects microbial biomass thus has potential as a surrogate marker of urinary tract infection (UTI). The optimum clinical sampling method for ATP urinalysis has not been established. We tested the potential of urinary ATP in the assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms, infection and inflammation, and validated sam...

  14. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  15. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  16. Urinary Incontinence: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor, or surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Start Here Urinary Incontinence (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Urinary Tract Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) ...

  17. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  18. [Effects of anti-infection treatment on expressions of HLA-DR and CD86 in dendritic cells in rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tissue with inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhang; Nini, Zhang; Guilin, Huang; Xiaohua, Hu; Jie, Yi; Li, Yao

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of anti-infection treatment on the expressions of antigen-presenting-related membrane-surface molecules HLA-DR and CD86 in dendritic cells (DCs) in rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tissue complicated with local inflammation. Rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation models that were established by inflammation was induced by inoculation VX2 tumor, mechanical trauma, and drinking of milk with high sugar viscosity. The animals were divided into four groups. Group A (n=12): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation, procaine penicillin was intramuscularly given, and tinidazole tablets were given by gavage for three consecutive days. Group B (n = 12): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation, normal saline was intramuscularly given, and aspirin were given by gavage for three consecutive days. Group C (n = 12): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation, normal saline was given intramuscularly and by gavage for three consecutive days. Group D (n = 10): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma, normal saline was given intramuscularly and by gavage for three consecutive days. All the rabbits were sacrificed for collection of tumor specimens, and the expression levels of membrane-surface HLA-DR and CD86 in DCs of tumor specimens were detected viaflow cytometry. The positive expression rate of HLA-DR and the double positive expression rate of HLA-DR and CD86 were group A > group D > group B > group C. The positive expression rate of CD86 were group A > group D > group B and group C (P < 0.05). Anti-infection treatment significantly increased the expressions of HLA-DR and CD86 in DCs of rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tissue complicated with local inflammation.

  19. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Møller; Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  20. Does Urinary Bladder Shape Affect Urinary Flow Rate in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ziya Ateşçi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the role of urinary bladder shape which may potentially change with advancing age, increased waist circumference, pelvic ischemia, and loosening of the urachus on bladder emptying and UFR. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 76 men. The patients were divided into two groups according to bladder shapes in MRI scan (cone and spheric shapes. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IPSS, Qmax, Qave, and waist circumference. A positive correlation has been demonstrated between mean peak urinary flow rate measured with UFM and mean flow rate calculated using the CP. There was a significant difference between mean urinary flow rates calculated with CP of cone and sphere bladder shapes. The change in the bladder shape might be a possible factor for LUTS in men and LUTS may be improved if modifiable factors including increased waist circumference and loosening of the urachus are corrected.

  1. Can low urinary tract symptoms influence postprostatectomy urinary incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienza, Antonio; Hevia, Mateo; Merino, Imanol; Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Rosell, David; Pascual, Juan I; Zudaire, Juan J; Robles, José E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze what kind of urinary symptoms patients have before receiving treatment by radical prostatectomy (RP), and to evaluate their influence on urinary incontinence (UI). Between 2002 and 2012, 758 consecutive patients underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Surgery was carried out by open retropubic RP in 545 (73.1%) of patients and laparoscopic RP in 201 (27%) by 5 surgeons who were excluded from data collection and analysis. The following symptoms were collected from the last urological check-ups or pre-operative consultation and classified as: storage symptoms, voiding symptoms, post micturition symptoms, history of acute urinary retention, benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment, history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 661 patients were included on analysis: 136 (20.6%) patients reported low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 162 (24.5%) were considered incontinent after RP, and 45 (33.1%) of them reported LUTS before surgery. Postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI) was significantly different in patients with LUTS (117 [22.3%] vs. 45 [33.1%], P=0.009). The presence of any LUTS influence significantly in the appearance of PPUI (OR=1.72 [95% CI: 1.14-2.6), P=0.01). TURP is independently influential in PPUI (OR=6.13 [95% CI: 1.86-20.18], P=0.003). A patient with LUTS before surgery has an increased risk of 70% or even 200% to suffer PPUI and a patient who received treatment by TURP is 6 times at higher risk of PPUI. In conclusion, patients with LUTS are likely to present PPUI. History of TURP is influential by itself over PPUI. A good preoperative consultation is important to assess continence status and to create realistic expectations to patients before RP.

  2. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jamila Chahed; Riadh Jouini; Imed Krichene; Kaies Maazoun; Mohamed Ben Brahim; Abdellatif Nouri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years). All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%). Uri...

  3. Distinct Signature of Oxylipid Mediators of Inflammation during Infection and Asymptomatic Colonization by E. coli in the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Gandy, Jeff; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an extremely common infectious disease. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant etiological agent of UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuric E. coli (ABEC) strains successfully colonize the urinary tract resulting in asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) and do not induce symptoms associated with UTI. Oxylipids are key signaling molecules involved in inflammation. Based on the distinct clinical outcomes of E. coli colonization, we hypothesized that UPEC trigge...

  4. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  5. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: a retrospective study of 34 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahed, Jamila; Jouini, Riadh; Krichene, Imed; Maazoun, Kaies; Brahim, Mohamed Ben; Nouri, Abdellatif

    2011-01-01

    Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years). All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%). Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21%) and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%). The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases), uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases) and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases), but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  6. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  7. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-t...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney infection , and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make you very sick. How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why ...

  9. Drug-induced urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsakiris, Peter; Oelke, Matthias; Michel, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Physiological urinary continence depends on many factors that are potentially vulnerable to adverse drug effects, which may lead to incontinence. In principle, drugs could cause incontinence by lowering bladder outlet resistance and/or by increasing intravesical pressure, which disrupts the normal

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  11. Urinary tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (cystitis or urethritis) with no urological anomalies and mostly affects girls over the age of 2 years. Complicated UTIs involve the renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis), and are usually associated with underlying congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract.9 These UTIs may result in significant short-term morbidity,.

  12. Candida urinary tract infection: pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

    2011-05-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thigmotropism, and hydrolytic enzymes, to colonize and then invade the urinary tract. Antegrade infection occurs primarily among patients predisposed to candidemia. The process of adherence to and invasion of the glomerulus, renal blood vessels, and renal tubules by Candida species was elegantly described in early histopathologic studies. Armed with modern molecular biologic techniques, the various virulence factors involved in bloodborne infection of the kidney are gradually being elucidated. Disturbances of urine flow, whether congenital or acquired, instrumentation of the urinary tract, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobial therapy, and immunosuppression underlie most instances of retrograde Candida UTI. In addition, bacterial UTIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae may facilitate the initial step in the process. Ascending infections generally do not result in candidemia in the absence of obstruction.

  13. Post-stroke urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Z; Birns, J; Bhalla, A

    2013-11-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current evidence on post-stroke urinary incontinence. An electronic database search was performed to identify relevant studies and review articles related to Urinary Incontinence (UI) in the stroke population between the years 1966 and 2012. Urinary incontinence following stroke is a common problem affecting more than one-third of acute stroke patients and persisting in up to a quarter at 1 year. It is well established that this condition is a strong marker of stroke severity and is associated with poorer functional outcomes and increased institutionalisation and mortality rates compared with those who remain continent. Despite evidence linking better outcomes to those patients who regain continence, the results of national audits have demonstrated that the management of UI following stroke is suboptimal, with less than two-thirds of stroke units having a documented plan to promote continence. Current evidence supports a thorough assessment to categorise the type and severity of post-stroke urinary incontinence. An individually tailored, structured management strategy to promote continence should be employed. This has been associated with better stroke outcomes and should be the aim of all stroke health professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Anti-infective potential of caffeic acid and epicatechin 3-gallate isolated from methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta (L.) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, S; Mahmud, R; Ramanathan, S

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta (L.) plant is traditionally used in Malaysia for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by nosocomial infectious agents. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of E. hirta and analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography have led to the isolation of two antibacterial compounds. These compounds were identified as caffeic acid (CA) and (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) based on spectroscopic analyses and comparison with previously published data. Using broth microdilution method, both ECG and CA had demonstrated significant minimum inhibitory concentration of 15.6 and 31.3 μg/mL respectively, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Time-kill assessment of ECG and CA displayed bactericidal effect on P. aeruginosa cells.

  15. Antidepressant Use and Incident Urinary Incontinence: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Kathryn E; Gatewood, Sharon B S; Peron, Emily P

    2016-03-01

    To review available data examining antidepressant use and incident urinary incontinence (UI). PubMed was used to conduct the literature search for this review. In the primary search, the term "antidepressive agents" was searched as a medical subject heading, a pharmacological action, and a keyword phrase. This choice was made so that any relevant articles would include complete results for antidepressive agents. "Antidepressive agents" was combined with the key phrase "drug-induced urinary incontinence" to complete this primary search. Relevant articles published in English and examining human subjects were included. The study authors determined appropriateness of articles for inclusion, focusing on those examining antidepressant-associated UI. This literature review identified three cohort studies and 11 case reports examining various associations between antidepressant use and incident UI. All 11 case reports and 1 cohort study reviewed suggest an association between antidepressant use and incident UI. It remains unclear which drugs are most problematic and which patients are at greatest risk, and more data are needed to confirm an association, especially in older adults. Comprehensive medication reviews should be employed by pharmacists to identify potential medication-related causes of UI.

  16. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI using urinary nitrite and significant bacteriuria (SBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Anuli S

    2016-04-01

    as the most frequently isolated agent of bacteriuria. Furthermore, the study shows a high level of susceptibility of urinary isolates to Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin Levofloxacin, Augumentin and Tarivid

  18. Urinary glicosaminoglycans levels in women with urinary tract infection and non urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, H. P.; Hanifa, A.; Tala, R. Z.; Ardiansyah, E.; Simanjuntak, R. Y.; Effendy, I. H.

    2018-03-01

    UTI is an infection that occurs in the urinary tract due to the proliferation of a microorganism. Female is fourteen times more vulnerable to UTI than male, because their urethra is shorter. Bladder epithelium is coated with a thin layer of glycosaminoglycans which act as a non-specific anti-adherence factor and nonspecific defense mechanisms against infection and can be found in the urine. An analytic study with cross sectional approach was conducted in 46 patients (23 with UTI and 23 non UTI) from June 2016 to determine differences in levels of urinary glycosaminoglycans between two groups. Urine samples were taken and tested for UTI and non UTI strips test. Laboratory examination of urine GAGs levels using ELISA kit for Human Glycosaminoglycans, then tabulated and analyzed using SPSS. The result showed no significant differences in the characteristics of women between two groups. There are significant differences in the mean levels of urinary GAGs in women with UTI compared with Non-UTI (69.74 ± 21.34; 21.39 ± 2.61 mg/l; p <0.001). There was no significant relationship between the sexual status and UTI incidence, with low odds ratio values and no significant difference in the mean of urinary glicosaminoglycans level based on sexual status.

  19. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions......) benign. Analyses were adjusted for the number of prescriptions for lithium/anticonvulsants, antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, and use of all other types of medication; age; gender; employment status; calendar year; and a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Continued treatment with lithium...

  20. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  1. Urinary NGAL deficiency in recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Catherine S; Johnson, Kathryn; Patel, Viral; Wax, Rebecca; Rodig, Nancy; Barasch, Jonathan; Bachur, Richard; Lee, Richard S

    2017-06-01

    Children with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) often show no identifiable cause of their infections. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to be upregulated within the uroepithelium and kidney of patients with UTI and exhibits a localized bacteriostatic effect through iron chelation. We hypothesize that some patients with rUTI without an identifiable cause of their recurrent infections have locally deficient NGAL production. We therefore explored whether a lack of NGAL production may be a factor in the pathogenesis of rUTI. Patients seen in the urology clinic for rUTI who were tract, or other reasons that predispose to UTI, such as neurogenic bladder, the need for intermittent catheterization, or unrepaired posterior urethral valves. Control patients were healthy children enrolled from the emergency department with no history of UTI or renal dysfunction, normal urinalysis at the time of enrollment, and presenting no diagnosis associated with increased NGAL levels, such as acute kidney injury or infection. NGAL was measured by immunoblot. Fifteen cases and controls were enrolled. Median urinary NGAL levels were significantly decreased in rUTI patients compared with controls [15 (14-29) ng/ml vs 30 (27-61) ng/ml; p = 0.002)] Although comparatively diminished, measurable NGAL levels were present in all patients with rUTI. Urinary NGAL is significantly decreased in patients with compared with patients without rUTI. These data suggest that some patients with rUTI may be predisposed to UTI because of a relative local deficiency in urinary NGAL production.

  2. Current interventional management of male stress urinary incontinence following urological procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Ireneusz; Śledź, Emil; Ciechan, Janusz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Przydacz, Mikolaj; Wiatr, Tomasz; Stangel-Wojcikiewicz, Klaudia; Chłosta, Piotr L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite improvements in surgical techniques and implementation of minimally invasive procedures, male stress urinary incontinence affects a substantial number of patients after prostatic surgery. In response to increasing demand of optimal treatment modality, new alternatives to artificial urinary sphincter have recently been introduced. This review summarises the therapeutic surgical options with their outcomes in management of postprostatectomy stress incontinence. Material and methods We performed a literature review by searching the PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases for articles published from January 2000 until April 2015 based on clinical relevance. Results Artificial urinary sphincter is currently considered the “gold standard” treatment of male stress urinary incontinence. Although the new devices in this group have recently been investigated, the AMS 800 remains the only widely used implant. Male slings and adjustable continence devices, achieve the social continence rates up to 60%. Periurethral injections of bulking agents, have limited efficacy of male stress incontinence. Argus sling and ProACT are both associated with substantial explantation rates. Stem cell therapy is a promising option but still requires additional testing. Conclusions The development of new alternatives to artificial urinary sphincter is constantly progressing. Although recently introduced minimally invasive treatment options have not yet surpassed the outcomes of the artificial urinary sphincter they should continue to be evaluated and compared against the gold standard. PMID:26568879

  3. [Urinary disorders, sexual dysfunction and hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sáánchez, F; Rodríguez-Martínez, E; Arés-Luque, A

    2010-02-08

    As Parkinson's disease progresses, its non-motor manifestations become increasingly more apparent to the point where, in advances phases of the disease, they are the most important clinical symptoms. A very wide range of non-motor symptoms can appear in Parkinson's disease. Impairment of the urinary function and the sexual function (understood as the capacity to carry out sexual activity) can be seen as belonging to the dysautonomic disorders. Hypersexuality would be included within the group of impulse control disorders. This study reviews the epidemiology, phenomenology and treatment of urinary disorders, sexual dysfunction and hypersexuality as non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Urinary disorders are the most frequent non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. They usually present as nocturia, urgency and increased mictional frequency (pollakiuria). Preferred treatment is with anticholinergic agents. Sexual dysfunction is a frequent complaint in patients with Parkinson. It has a multifactorial aetiology and is more frequent in males than in females. In males it manifests mainly as incapacity to achieve an erection, premature ejaculation or loss of the capacity to ejaculate, whereas in females the predominant signs are decreased libido, lowered arousal and difficulty in reaching an orgasm. Hypersexuality affects young males above all and has been related to the use of dopamine agonists.

  4. Artificial urinary sphincters for male stress urinary incontinence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordon BH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Billy H Cordon,1 Nirmish Singla,1 Ajay K Singla2 1Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 2Department of Urology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, USA Abstract: The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS, which has evolved over many years, has become a safe and reliable treatment for stress urinary incontinence and is currently the gold standard. After 4 decades of existence, there is substantial experience with the AUS. Today AUS is most commonly placed for postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. Only a small proportion of urologists routinely place AUS. In a survey in 2005, only 4% of urologists were considered high-volume AUS implanters, performing >20 per year. Globally, ~11,500 AUSs are placed annually. Over 400 articles have been published regarding the outcomes of AUS, with a wide variance in success rates ranging from 61% to 100%. Generally speaking, the AUS has good long-term outcomes, with social continence rates of ~79% and high patient satisfaction usually between 80% and 90%. Despite good outcomes, a substantial proportion of patients, generally ~25%, will require revision surgery, with the rate of revision increasing with time. Complications requiring revision include infection, urethral atrophy, erosion, and mechanical failure. Most infections are gram-positive skin flora. Urethral atrophy and erosion lie on a spectrum resulting from the same problem, constant urethral compression. However, these two complications are managed differently. Mechanical failure is usually a late complication occurring on average later than infection, atrophy, or erosions. Various techniques may be used during revisions, including cuff relocation, downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement, or tandem cuff placement. Patient satisfaction does not appear to be affected by the need for revision as long as continence is restored. Additionally, AUS following prior sling surgery has comparable

  5. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. For writing this review, Google Scholar -a scholarly search engine- (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future.

  6. [Urinary diversion in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, M; Boxler, S

    2015-12-01

    Bladder cancer represents one of the ten most prevalent cancers worldwide. More than 400,000 people worldwide are newly diagnosed every year. Within 2 years after diagnosis, 80% of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer without treatment die. The aggressive local surgical approach with a cystectomy is the therapy of choice. The median age of patients with de novo bladder cancer is 70 years. Thus bladder cancer is a cancer of the elderly. For demographical reasons, the number of eldery patients undergoing radical cystectomy will rise in the next few years. The type of urinary diversion is a major factor influencing perioperative morbidity and quality of life in these patients. Incontinent urinary diversions are preferentially used in daily practice. There are only a few contraindications for orthotopic neobladder; however, age alone is not a contraindication. Patient selection and a nerve sparing approach are crucial in men and women to achieve excellent functional results with orthotopic neobladder in elderly patients.

  7. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... the year of final menstruation. The findings suggest perimenopausal processes rather than the menopause in general to be responsible for an increased risk of developing UI. The elevation of UI prevalence in the perimenopause may reflect the adjustment of the female continence mechanism to function...

  8. Female mixed urinary incontinence: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Deborah L

    2014-05-21

    Mixed urinary incontinence, a condition of both stress and urge urinary incontinence, is prevalent in 20% to 36% of women and is challenging to diagnosis and treat because urinary symptoms are variable and guidelines for treatment are not clear. To review the diagnosis and management of mixed urinary incontinence in women, with a focus on current available evidence. MEDLINE was searched from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2013. Additional citations were obtained from references of the selected articles and reviews. Articles that discussed the prevalence, diagnosis, results, and treatment of mixed urinary incontinence were selected for review. Evidence was graded using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine levels of evidence for treatment recommendations. The MEDLINE search resulted in 785 articles. After selection and obtainment of additional citations, a total of 73 articles were reviewed. There is high-quality (level 1) evidence for treating urinary incontinence with weight loss, for treating stress urinary incontinence by performing anti-incontinence procedures of both traditional and mid-urethral slings and retropubic urethropexies, and for managing urge urinary incontinence with anticholinergic medications. However, direct high-quality evidence for treatment of women with mixed urinary incontinence is lacking, as are clear diagnostic criteria and management guidelines. High-quality, level 1 evidence for urinary incontinence therapy can guide clinicians in the treatment of the components of mixed urinary incontinence. Because high-quality evidence is lacking regarding the treatment of mixed urinary incontinence, treatment generally begins with conservative management emphasizing the most bothersome component. Randomized trials in women with mixed urinary incontinence populations are needed.

  9. [Urinary lithiasis: history and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichlinski, P

    2006-12-06

    This paper surveys the evolution of urinary stone treatment, primarily in the bladder, from ancient times to the 19th century, taking into consideration, not only technical breakthroughs, but also the moral sense of therapists, the social, political and religious context of the studied periods, the appreciation of symptoms and pain meaning by doctors or barber-surgeons; finally, a set of factors which contributes to the evolution of the medical thought.

  10. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  11. The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in urinary tract infections (UTIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Elham; Behzadi, Payam

    2016-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are caused by different types of microbial agents such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Candida albicans. The presence of strong physical barriers may prevent the breach of pathogens into the urinary tract. However, sometimes the pathogenic microorganisms may pass through the barriers and stimulate the innate and adaptive responses. Among a variety of innate immune responses, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are one of the most unique and interesting molecules regarding UTIs. Thus, the authors have focused their attention on the role of TLRs in urinary tract defense against pathogenic microbial agents such as UPEC and C.albicans through this literature review. Several papers regarding UTIs and TLRs including original and review articles were searched by PubMed and Google Scholar. They were studied and the most important aspects in association with the role of TLRs in UTIs were extracted. Additionally, this paper was prepared using the experience of the authors. The TLRs 2, 4 and 5 are the most functional molecules that contribute to urinary tract defense system and UTIs. It is incredible that TLRs are able to detect and recognize different parts of microbial components relating to the same pathogen. Besides, the flexibility of the TLR molecules may lead to identification of different types of microorganisms with different signaling pathways. Our knowledge associated with TLRs and their activities against microbial causative agents of UTIs may help us to prevent, control and treat UTIs at a higher quality level.

  12. Agent Building Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  13. Urinary Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Thomas, Joyce; Blanco, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Renal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the form of severe lupus nephritis is associated with a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Conventional laboratory biomarkers in current use have not been very successful in anticipating disease flares, predicting renal histology, or decreasing unwanted outcomes. Since early treatment is associated with improved clinical results, it is thus essential to identify new biomarkers with substantial predictive power to reduce the serious sequelae of this difficult to control lupus manifestation. Indeed, considerable efforts and progress have been made over the last few years in the search for novel biomarkers. Since urinary biomarkers are more easily obtainable with much less risk to the patient than repeat renal biopsies, and these may more accurately discern between renal disease and other organ manifestations than their serum counterparts, there has been tremendous interest in studying new candidate urine biomarkers. Below, we review several promising urinary biomarkers under investigation, including total proteinuria and microalbuminuria, urinary proteomic signatures, and the individual inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CXCL16, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis. PMID:20127204

  14. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  15. The use of nifuratel in the treatment of infections of the urinary system in gynecologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Ivanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections of the urinary system - a group of infectious and inflammatory diseases characterized by lesions of the urogenital system. The topic of this article is devoted to the etiology and key stages of the pathogenesis of infectious lesions of the urinary system in gynecologic patients, as well as the comparative characteristics of drugs used in the treatment of these patients. The main part of the article is an analysis of pharmacodynamics, efficacy, safety and expediency of using nifuratel, antimicrobial agent with broad spectrum of activity.

  16. Antibiotic resistance of urinary pathogens isolated from patients attending the Toronto Hospital between 1986 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C A; Bruce, A W; Reid, G

    1992-10-01

    A study was carried out on 1523 urinary isolates obtained at The Toronto Hospital, Canada's largest tertiary care establishment, over three 1-month periods in 1986, 1987 and 1990. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism, with Enterococcus spp. the second most common isolate in 1986 and 1987, and Streptococcus spp. in 1990. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were found to be resistant to many of the antimicrobial agents tested. Resistance patterns were found to commonly prescribed ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and, to some extent, the new fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. These results are relevant to the treatment and management of urinary tract infections in patients attending a tertiary care hospital.

  17. Competing agents in agent-mediated institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, Enric; Arcos, Josep Ll.; Noriega, Pablo; Sierra, Carles

    1998-01-01

    Social processes and agent interaction always take place in a specific context. A school of thought in social studies analyses them in the framework of institutions. We present in this paper the notion of agentmediated institutions and show how it is relevant for multi-agent systems (MAS) in general and, more specifically, for MAS that include human agents and software agents involved in socioeconomic interactions. We show how the social interactions of human and software agents taking place ...

  18. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Laneve

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire with an kit of the BIO-DETECTOR while the identification of germs with Apy sistem. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were assaied with the ATB UR strip. Results: About the total of samples analysed, 320 (22% had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common etiologic agent isolated (62%, followed by Klebsiella ssp. (10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5,95% and Proteus mirabilis (5%. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for only 7.32% , with prevalence of Staphylococcus ssp (5,32 and Enterococcus spp (2%. The most effective antibiotics for Gram- were: Imipenem, Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxim, while for Gram+ were: Minocyclin,Vancomycin and Oxacillin. Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the microrganism more frequently isolated between Gram negative bacteria with very susceptible to Amoxicillin. Currently, the empirical use of Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin is not recommended for Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to get a UTI once past the age of 65. Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of IVU.

  19. [Established treatment options for male stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, C; Gillitzer, R; Wiesner, C; Thüroff, J W

    2007-03-01

    Nowadays, male stress urinary incontinence is rare and almost always of iatrogenic origin (radiotherapy, pelvic surgery). However, the prognosis of urinary incontinence following surgery is good and can be improved by pelvic floor muscle exercises in combination with biofeedback systems. For the remaining patient cohort with persistent urinary incontinence, several established surgical treatment options are available. Suburothelial injections of bulking agents can easily be performed in an ambulatory setting. However, regardless of the material used, long-term results are disappointing. Moreover, the residual urethral function deteriorates due to cicatrization of the suburothelial plexus with consequent loss of urethral elasticity. The fascial sling procedure in males has to be performed in preoperated areas and is as technically demanding for the surgeon as it is burdening for the patient. Alloplastic material is not used, thus minimizing risks for arrosion or infection. Since the sling tension can neither be standardized nor postoperatively readjusted, the risk of overcorrection is considerable and the success of the procedure is heavily dependent on the surgeon's experience. Despite wear and high revision rates, the technically mature artificial sphincter produces excellent continence results and has become the gold standard in the therapy of male stress urinary incontinence. The circumferential and continuous urethral compression by the cuff is highly effective, but at the price of an almost inevitable urethral atrophy. To overcome this problem, various surgical techniques have been developed (tandem cuff, cuff downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement). However, the expensive artificial sphincter is not a nostrum for every incontinent man, since it requires certain minimal cognitive and manual capabilities. Therefore, the search for less demanding treatment alternatives seems to be necessary, even if one has to accept lower continence rates.

  20. Urinary manifestations in Isaacs's syndrome. Our experience in 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Primomo, Silvia N; Blas, Leandro; Bertotti, Alicia C; Ameri, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Isaacs's syndrome (IS), is a rare neurological disorder, characterized by sustained muscular activity, fasciculations, cramps, myokymia, excessive sweating, and occasional elevation of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme. To report our experience in patients with IS and urinary manifestations, describing clinical findings, test's results, and response to treatment. Methods An observational, retrospective analysis of patients with IS and urinary manifestations treated at German Hospital of Buenos Aires between 2001 and 2011 was done. Diagnosis was performed with clinical examination and electromyography (EMG) of external sphincter of the anus and/or urethra. Demographic, clinical, and treatment variables were analyzed. International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) at diagnosis and follow up was made. Eleven IS patients were recruited, of whom 8 (72.72%) were females with a mean age 47.87 years (DS ± 13.95) and presented associated lower tract urinary symptoms (LUTS). Six of them (75%) had voiding and 2 (25%) filling symptoms. Urodynamic and electromyographic findings reproduced symptomatology in all patients. Patients with voiding symptomatology were treated with combination of alpha-blockers with benzodiazepines; membrane stabilizings agents; antiepileptics; neurotropic; corticoids; posterior tibial nerve stimulation and botulinum toxin, achieving improvement in 4/6. The two patients with storage symptoms were treated in first instance with anticholinergic drugs, one of which did not respond completely was added oral pentosansulfate and electrical stimulation, reversing the symptomatology. Four patients had associated pathologies: Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Sjögren's syndrome; dysautonomia, and myasthenia gravis. In our experience, IS urinary manifestations are common and usually has a good evolution with adequate treatment for each patient. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Antibiotic CJ-16,264, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Designed Analogues, and Discovery of Highly Potent and Simpler Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Buchman, Marek; Shah, Akshay A; Cen, Nicholas; McCurry, Megan D; Beabout, Kathryn; Shamoo, Yousif

    2017-11-08

    An improved and enantioselective total synthesis of antibiotic CJ-16,264 through a practical kinetic resolution and an iodolactonization reaction to form the iodo pyrrolizidinone fragment of the molecule is described. A series of racemic and enantiopure analogues of CJ-16,264 was designed and synthesized through the developed synthetic technologies and tested against drug-resistant bacterial strains. These studies led to interesting structure-activity relationships and the identification of a number of simpler, and yet equipotent, or even more potent, antibacterial agents than the natural product, thereby setting the foundation for further investigations in the quest for new anti-infective drugs.

  2. Urinary stones following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Cheigh, J S; Ham, H W

    2001-06-01

    The formation of urinary tract stones following renal transplantation is a rare complication. The clinical features of stones after transplantation differ from those of non-transplant patients. Renal colic or pain is usually absent and rarely resembles acute rejection. We retrospectively studied 849 consecutive kidney transplant patients in The Rogosin Institute/The Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York who were transplanted between 1980 and 1997 and had functioning grafts for more than 3 months, to determine the incidence of stone formation, composition, risk factors and patient outcome. At our center, urinary stones were diagnosed in 15 patients (1.8%) of 849 functioning renal grafts for 3 or more months. Of the 15 patients, 10 were males and 5 were females in their third and fourth decade. Eight patients received their transplant from living donors and 7 from cadaveric donors. The stones were first diagnosed between 3 and 109 months after transplantation (mean 17.8 months) and 5 patients had recurrent episodes. The stones were located in the bladder in 11 cases (73.3%), transplanted kidney in 3 cases and in multiple sites in one case. The size of stones varied from 3.4 mm to 40 mm (mean 12 mm). The composition of stones was a mixed form of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 5 cases and 4 patients had infected stones consisting of struvite or mixed form of struvite and calcium phosphate. Factors predisposing to stone formation included tertiary hyperparathyroidism (n = 8), hypercalciuria (n = 5), recurrent urinary tract infection (n = 5), hypocitraturia (n = 4), and obstructive uropathy (n = 2). Many cases had more than one risk factor. Clinically, painless hematuria was observed in 6 patients and dysuria without bacteriuria in 5 patients. None had renal colic or severe pain at any time. There were no changes in graft function at diagnosis and after removal of stones. Five patients passed stones spontaneously and 8 patients underwent cystoscopy for stone

  3. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  4. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplas...

  5. Artificial urinary sphincters for male stress urinary incontinence: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Billy H; Singla, Nirmish; Singla, Ajay K

    2016-01-01

    The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS), which has evolved over many years, has become a safe and reliable treatment for stress urinary incontinence and is currently the gold standard. After 4 decades of existence, there is substantial experience with the AUS. Today AUS is most commonly placed for postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. Only a small proportion of urologists routinely place AUS. In a survey in 2005, only 4% of urologists were considered high-volume AUS implanters, performing >20 per year. Globally, ~11,500 AUSs are placed annually. Over 400 articles have been published regarding the outcomes of AUS, with a wide variance in success rates ranging from 61% to 100%. Generally speaking, the AUS has good long-term outcomes, with social continence rates of ~79% and high patient satisfaction usually between 80% and 90%. Despite good outcomes, a substantial proportion of patients, generally ~25%, will require revision surgery, with the rate of revision increasing with time. Complications requiring revision include infection, urethral atrophy, erosion, and mechanical failure. Most infections are gram-positive skin flora. Urethral atrophy and erosion lie on a spectrum resulting from the same problem, constant urethral compression. However, these two complications are managed differently. Mechanical failure is usually a late complication occurring on average later than infection, atrophy, or erosions. Various techniques may be used during revisions, including cuff relocation, downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement, or tandem cuff placement. Patient satisfaction does not appear to be affected by the need for revision as long as continence is restored. Additionally, AUS following prior sling surgery has comparable outcomes to primary AUS placement. Several new inventions are on the horizon, although none have been approved for use in the US at this point.

  6. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  7. Frailty and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Anne M

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of both frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms, including urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, underactive bladder, and benign prostatic hyperplasia, increases with age. However, our understanding of the relationship between frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms, both in terms of pathophysiology and in terms of the evaluation and management of such symptoms, is greatly lacking. This brief review will summarize definitions and measurement tools associated with frailty and will also review the existing state of the literature on frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms in older individuals.

  8. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia) is found to be a preneoplastic lesion of the rat urinary bladder. Therefore, the promoting and inhibitory effects of various chemicals in two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis were judged by measuring PN hyperplasia in rats. Dose-dependent and organ-specific effects of the urinary bladder promoter, saccharin, in the induction of PN hyperplasia were shown in rats after initiation by BBN. The promoting effect of saccharin was seen more clearly in the urinary bladder of rats after potent initiation. A strain difference in susceptibility of the urinary bladder to the promoter was also shown. These results suggest that the above various factors may also have modifying activities on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in man. PMID:6832095

  9. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    .6) (p acidosis during ammonium chloride...... loading and urinary excretion of calcium (r = 0.71, p = 0.02), and a negative correlation between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary citrate excretion (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). The results suggest that defective urinary acidification might play an important role...

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae and the emergence of carbapenem-resistant strains: A retrospective study from a university hospital in Morocco, North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. El Bouamri

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of urinary K. pneumoniae isolates showed a significantly high resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents. These data highlight the need for regular surveillance of microbial resistance to improve infection control and guide the use of antimicrobial agents.

  11. Pattern and Risk Factors of Urinary Bladder Neoplasms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It poses biologic and clinical challenges. ... Conclusion: There is significant relationship between urinary schistosomal infestation and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Sudanese patients. Keywords: Urinary Bladder, Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  13. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  14. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality (1). It may be symptomatic, in form of urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis; or it may remain asymptomatic (2). Urinary Tract Infection is more common in women.

  15. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 127. Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  16. Chemical Composition Urinary Calculi in Nigerians | Adetayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary stone disease is one of the oldest disorders known to man. It is most prevalent in the affluent industrially developed world and least common in the agricultural developed countries. In Nigeria, the disease has been reported to be rare, however recent study found a rising incidence. In this study, urinary calculi ...

  17. Nephroprevention in children by urinary dipstick screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nephroprevention in children by urinary dipstick screening. ... African Journal of Paediatric Nephrology ... Patients and Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study in which all children 2 months-16 years, attending the children outpatient clinic of Federal Medical Center, Asaba, were screened with urinary dipstick ...

  18. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  19. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  20. The Role(s of Cytokines/Chemokines in Urinary Bladder Inflammation and Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder pain syndrome (BPS/interstitial cystitis (IC is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be bladder related and with at least one urinary symptom. It was recently concluded that 3.3–7.9 million women (>18 years old in the United States exhibit BPS/IC symptoms. The impact of BPS/IC on quality of life is enormous and the economic burden is significant. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of BPS/IC are unknown, numerous theories including infection, inflammation, autoimmune disorder, toxic urinary agents, urothelial dysfunction, and neurogenic causes have been proposed. Altered visceral sensations from the urinary bladder (i.e., pain at low or moderate bladder filling that accompany BPS/IC may be mediated by many factors including changes in the properties of peripheral bladder afferent pathways such that bladder afferent neurons respond in an exaggerated manner to normally innocuous stimuli (allodynia. The goals for this review are to describe chemokine/receptor (CXCL12/CXCR4; CCL2/CCR2 signaling and cytokine/receptor (transforming growth factor (TGF-β/TGF-β type 1 receptor signaling that may be valuable LUT targets for pharmacologic therapy to improve urinary bladder function and reduce somatic sensitivity associated with urinary bladder inflammation.

  1. The role(s) of cytokines/chemokines in urinary bladder inflammation and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eric J; Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be bladder related and with at least one urinary symptom. It was recently concluded that 3.3-7.9 million women (>18 years old) in the United States exhibit BPS/IC symptoms. The impact of BPS/IC on quality of life is enormous and the economic burden is significant. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of BPS/IC are unknown, numerous theories including infection, inflammation, autoimmune disorder, toxic urinary agents, urothelial dysfunction, and neurogenic causes have been proposed. Altered visceral sensations from the urinary bladder (i.e., pain at low or moderate bladder filling) that accompany BPS/IC may be mediated by many factors including changes in the properties of peripheral bladder afferent pathways such that bladder afferent neurons respond in an exaggerated manner to normally innocuous stimuli (allodynia). The goals for this review are to describe chemokine/receptor (CXCL12/CXCR4; CCL2/CCR2) signaling and cytokine/receptor (transforming growth factor (TGF-β)/TGF-β type 1 receptor) signaling that may be valuable LUT targets for pharmacologic therapy to improve urinary bladder function and reduce somatic sensitivity associated with urinary bladder inflammation.

  2. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  3. Urinary incontinence in the elderly: part 3 of a series of articles on incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, Mark; Kirschner-Hermanns, Ruth; Welz-Barth, Annette; Steinwachs, Klaus-Christian; Rübben, Herbert

    2010-07-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing complaint in the elderly. Its causes include structural changes in vesical muscle as well as impaired neural control and age-related changes of the lower urinary tract. Incontinence can also be a side effect of medication. The PubMed database was selectively searched for publications containing the terms "urinary incontinence" and "elderly." Studies with a high level of evidence were chosen as the main basis for this review. The individualized diagnostic evaluation of the incontinent elderly patient should generally be non-invasive. The evaluation may reveal urinary incontinence of several different types: stress incontinence, overactive bladder, and mixed incontinence. The treatment generally involves medication, such as anti-muscarinic agents, alpha-receptor blockers, and/or serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, combined with modifications of personal behavior, such as bladder training, altered fluid intake, and pelvic floor contraction. A number of minimally invasive surgical techniques can be useful for patients in operable condition, whenever such an operation seems reasonable in view of the patient's overall situation. Urinary incontinence in the elderly can be readily evaluated, and the currently available forms of treatment often bring satisfactory relief with an economical use of medical resources and with little or no additional discomfort for the patient.

  4. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus

    2014-01-01

    regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.......OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin...

  6. Effects of diuretics on urinary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins affected are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and 10 of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  7. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Craig

    2002-01-01

    ...., object and web technologies). The objective of the Agility project is to develop an open agent grid architecture populated with scalable, deployable, industrial strength agent grid components, targeting the theme 'agents for the masses...

  8. Mobile Agent Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a program, in the form of a software agent, can suspend its execution on a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host...

  9. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  10. Predictive model of urinary tract infection after surgical treatment for women with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Hiroko; Hom, Marianne S; Shabalova, Anastasiya; Grubbs, Brendan H; Matsuo, Koji

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) following hysterectomy-based surgical staging in women with endometrial cancer. This is a retrospective study utilizing an institutional database (2008-2016) of stage I-IV endometrial cancer cases that underwent hysterectomy-based surgery. UTIs occurring within a 30-day time period after surgery were examined and correlated to patient clinico-pathological demographics. UTIs were observed in 44 (6.4%, 95% confidence interval 4.6-8.2) out of 687 cases subsequent to the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. UTI cases were significantly associated with obesity, advanced stage, prolonged operative time, hysterectomy type, pelvic lymphadenectomy, non-β-lactam antibiotics, and intraoperative urinary tract injury (all, p Urinary tract infections are common in women following surgical treatment for women with endometrial cancer with risk factors being a prolonged surgical time, radical hysterectomy, and non-guideline perioperative anti-microbial agent use. Consideration of prophylactic anti-microbial agent use in a high-risk group of postoperative urinary tract infection merits further investigation.

  11. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  12. Cost-effectiveness of cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Judith E.; Beerepoot, Mariëlle A. J.; Prins, Jan M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and result in an enormous economic burden. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic agents to prevent UTIs. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cranberry prophylaxis compared to antibiotic

  13. Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle A. J.; ter Riet, Gerben; Nys, Sita; van der Wal, Willem M.; de Borgie, Corianne A. J. M.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Prins, Jan M.; Koeijers, Jeanne; Verbon, Annelies; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of uropathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in cranberries to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). In a double-blind, double-dummy noninferiority trial, 221 premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs were randomized to 12-month

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Cranberries vs Antibiotics to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.E.; Beerepoot, M.A.J.; Prins, J.M.; ter Riet, G.; Geerlings, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and result in an enormous economic burden. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic agents to prevent UTIs. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cranberry prophylaxis

  15. Urinary ATP as an indicator of infection and inflammation of the urinary tract in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kiren; Horsley, Harry; Kupelian, Anthony S; Baio, Gianluca; De Iorio, Maria; Sathiananamoorthy, Sanchutha; Khasriya, Rajvinder; Rohn, Jennifer L; Wildman, Scott S; Malone-Lee, James

    2015-02-21

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a neurotransmitter and inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract disease. ATP additionally reflects microbial biomass thus has potential as a surrogate marker of urinary tract infection (UTI). The optimum clinical sampling method for ATP urinalysis has not been established. We tested the potential of urinary ATP in the assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms, infection and inflammation, and validated sampling methods for clinical practice. A prospective, blinded, cross-sectional observational study of adult patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and asymptomatic controls, was conducted between October 2009 and October 2012. Urinary ATP was assayed by a luciferin-luciferase method, pyuria counted by microscopy of fresh unspun urine and symptoms assessed using validated questionnaires. The sample collection, storage and processing methods were also validated. 75 controls and 340 patients with LUTS were grouped as without pyuria (n = 100), pyuria 1-9 wbc μl(-1) (n = 120) and pyuria ≥10 wbc μl(-1) (n = 120). Urinary ATP was higher in association with female gender, voiding symptoms, pyuria greater than 10 wbc μl(-1) and negative MSU culture. ROC curve analysis showed no evidence of diagnostic test potential. The urinary ATP signal decayed with storage at 23°C but was prevented by immediate freezing at ≤ -20°C, without boric acid preservative and without the need to centrifuge urine prior to freezing. Urinary ATP may have a role as a research tool but is unconvincing as a surrogate, clinical diagnostic marker.

  16. NEW ASPECTS OF ANTI-INFECTION IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kisseleva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Four types of adaptive immune response which are regulated by different T-cell populations, namely Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regs have been described. At the first time classification is based on the difference in transcription factors but not due to diversity of cytokines produced. Each population of T-lymphocytes possesses a set of unique transcription factors and directions of cell signaling. Each type of immune responses plays a key role in the protection against certain types of pathogens. The Th1-response is important against intracellular bacteria and fungi, the Th17 — against extracellular, the Th2 — against yeasts and protozoa. T-regulatory cells control all types of immune responses. Diversity of immune response mechanisms occurs due to involvement of different effector cells. The Th1-type of response is connected with macrophage activation, Th2-cells cooperate with B-lymphocytes as well as attract eosinophils and mast cells. Th17 lymphocytes stimulate neutrophils and epithelial cells. T-cell differentiation is directed by the cytokines produced by innate immune cells. Phagocytes recognize molecular patterns at the surface of pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors (PRR, become activated and synthesize cytokines. Pathogen plays important role in this process while instructing dendritic cells. Pathogen dials a special code from a number of phagocyte surface receptors, which is named as «combinatory» recognition. Phagocytes possess several different types of activation and synthesize different cytokines that direct T-lymphocytes to a certain type of differentiation.

  17. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Frenkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5–4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000. It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA (Etanercept for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis.

  18. The current role of the artificial urinary sphincter in male and female urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islah, Mar; Cho, Sung Yong; Son, Hwancheol

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of the artificial urinary sphincter has affected the current surgical options for urinary incontinence. With its unique features, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has been an attractive option for the treatment of urinary incontinence regardless of gender. The current paper discusses the indications, contraindications, types of devices, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS in the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. A PubMed review of the available literature was performed and articles reporting implantation of artificial urinary sphincters for urinary incontinence in both male and female patients were evaluated. There was a comparable satisfactory continence rate after the implantation of an AUS (59~97% in males vs. 60~92% in females). In comparison, there were some differences in the indications, contraindications, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS implanted for urinary incontinence in male and female patients. AUS implantation is a safe and effective surgical option for the treatment of urinary incontinence of various etiologies. Continuous evolution of the device has made it an attractive option for the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence.

  19. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  20. [Urinary tract infection and neurogenic bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, J; Gory, A; Bernard, L; Ruffion, A; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E

    2007-05-01

    One of the main complications of spinal cord injury is neurogenic bladder when the bladder fails to empty spontaneously. Urinary tract infection is the leading cause of morbidity and the second cause of mortality in these subjects. Patient education and personalized medical follow-up must ensure adapted management depending on the risk factors and the voiding mode. The risk of urinary tract infection can be decreased by perfect neurological control of detrusor activity combined with a method of drainage: intermittent self-catheterization. Despite these measures, many patients experience recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections. Repeated antibiotic therapy increases the risk of selection of multiresistant bacteria without reducing either the incidence or the severity of symptomatic urinary tract infections. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very frequent in patients treated by intermittent catheterization and does not justify antibiotic therapy, as antiseptics and urinary alkalinizers or acidifiers have been shown to be effective. "Antibiocycle" strategies could have a beneficial role by significantly decreasing the number of infections and hospitalizations with no major ecological risks, by using molecules that are well tolerated orally with a low selection pressure. All febrile urinary tract infections require rapid investigation and an urgent urological and infectious diseases opinion (abscess, severe sepsis, resistance). The SPILF-AFU 2002 consensus conference provided answers to major questions concerning the definition, treatment and prevention of nosocomial urinary tract infection, especially in a context of neurogenic bladder.

  1. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  2. Urinary biomarkers in pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salö, Martin; Roth, Bodil; Stenström, Pernilla; Arnbjörnsson, Einar; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2016-08-01

    The diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis is still a challenge, resulting in perforation and negative appendectomies. The aim of this study was to evaluate novel biomarkers in urine and to use the most promising biomarkers in conjunction with the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), to see whether this could improve the accuracy of diagnosing appendicitis. A prospective study of children with suspected appendicitis was conducted with assessment of PAS, routine blood tests, and measurements of four novel urinary biomarkers: leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG), calprotectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and substance P. The biomarkers were blindly determined with commercial ELISAs. Urine creatinine was used to adjust for dehydration. The diagnosis of appendicitis was based on histopathological analysis. Forty-four children with suspected appendicitis were included, of which twenty-two (50 %) had confirmed appendicitis. LRG in urine was elevated in children with appendicitis compared to children without (p appendicitis compared to those with phlegmonous appendicitis (p = 0.003). No statistical significances between groups were found for calprotectin, IL-6 or substance P. LRG had a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99), and a better diagnostic performance than all routine blood tests. LRG in conjunction with PAS showed 95 % sensitivity, 90 % specificity, 91 % positive predictive value, and 95 % negative predictive value. LRG, adjusted for dehydration, is a promising novel urinary biomarker for appendicitis in children. LRG in combination with PAS has a high diagnostic performance.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device...

  4. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bladder. What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection? Some of the common symptoms of a urinary tract infection are: • Burning or ... catheter is removed. Sometimes people with catheter-associated urinary tract ... these symptoms of infection. Can catheter-associated urinary tract infections ...

  5. A single-center experience of antimicrobial resistance patterns in pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Saliha; Karacan, Candemir; Erkek, Nilgun; Gol, Nese

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of urinary tract pathogens and their resistance patterns against antimicrobial agents in a single center. In children <16 years of age admitted for urinary tract infection (UTI) to the Dr. Sami Ulus Teaching and Training Hospital from January 2004 to December 2008, positive urine cultures were reviewed. A total of 3,485 positive urine cultures were identified, of which 2,379 (68%) were from females and 106 (32%) from males. Their mean age was 63.5 +/- 40.7 months. Escherichia coli was the most common causative agent both in total and among different age groups. Ampicillin had the highest resistance rate from all the pathogens isolated (63.8%), followed by piperacillin (51.8%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 48.6%). Cephalotin also had a high resistance rate (32.7%). The least resistance was for imipenem, amikacin, netilmicin and ciprofloxacin (0.13, 1.7, 2.4 and 7.5%, respectively). None of the Klebsiella and Pseudomonas isolates were resistant to imipenem. None of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and vancomycin. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. were isolated from two cultures. E. coli was the most common causative agent of UTI in children. Ampicillin, TMP-SMX or cephalothin and piperacillin had the highest resistance rates against urinary tract pathogens in our center. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. [Urinary incontinence in degenerative spinal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riggo, J; Benčo, M; Kolarovszki, B; Lupták, J; Svihra, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of urinary incontinence in patients with chronic degenerative spinal disease and to identify factors affecting the occurrence and changes in urinary incontinence after surgery. The group evaluated comprised 214 patients undergoing surgery for degenerative spinal disease at our department between January 1 and December 31, 2008. The patients were categorised according to the type of their degenerative disease (cervical disc herniation, lumbar disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spinal instability or olisthesis) and the spine level involved (cervical or lumbar spine). The symptoms of urinary incontinence included leakage of urine and non-obstructive chronic urinary retention developing in association with the manifestation of vertebrogenic disorder. Patients with diseases known to increase the risk of incontinence were not included in the study. Based on a retrospective analysis of the patients' clinical notes, the occurrence of urinary incontinence in each type of degenerative spinal disease was assessed. The effect of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), neurological status and spinal disease type on the development of incontinence was statistically evaluated. The efficacy of surgical treatment was assessed on the basis of the patients' subjective complaints at the first follow-up one month after surgery. The data were evaluated by the statistical programme InSTAT (analysis of variance ANOVA, t-test). All tests were two-sided; a 0.05 level of statistical significance was used. Of the 214 patients with degenerative spinal disease, 27 (12.6%) had urinary incontinence. A higher risk of developing incontinence was found in women (p = 0.008) and in patients with radicular weakness (p = 0.023). The patients with urinary incontinence had their BMI significantly lower than patients without this disorder (p = 0.019). Age had no effect. The differences in the occurrence of urinary incontinence amongst the different types of

  7. Urinary incontinence and diabetes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dorothy B

    2006-01-01

    Both urinary incontinence and diabetes are chronic and costly conditions affecting millions of Americans. Unfortunately, these chronic conditions often coexist in the same person, compounding the economic and social costs and diminishing quality of life. The connection between urinary incontinence and diabetes has been mentioned in subsets of articles under prevalence or risk factors. The relationship is strong enough that researchers and clinicians should be aware of this link when formulating protocols or providing clinical care. This article summarizes knowledge of diabetes mellitus and urinary incontinence and explores the nature of their relationship.

  8. Development of non-natural flavanones as antimicrobial agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L Fowler

    Full Text Available With growing concerns over multidrug resistance microorganisms, particularly strains of bacteria and fungi, evolving to become resistant to the antimicrobial agents used against them, the identification of new molecular targets becomes paramount for novel treatment options. Recently, the use of new treatments containing multiple active ingredients has been shown to increase the effectiveness of existing molecules for some infections, often with these added compounds enabling the transport of a toxic molecule into the infecting species. Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites and have been shown to have natural abilities as microbial deterrents and anti-infection agents in plants. Combining these ideas we first sought to investigate the potency of natural flavonoids in the presence of efflux pump inhibitors to limit Escherichia coli growth. Then we used the natural flavonoid scaffold to synthesize non-natural flavanone molecules and further evaluate their antimicrobial efficacy on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Of those screened, we identified the synthetic molecule 4-chloro-flavanone as the most potent antimicrobial compound with a MIC value of 70 µg/mL in E. coli when combined with the inhibitor Phe-Arg-ß-naphthylamide, and MICs of 30 µg/mL in S. cerevesiae and 30 µg/mL in C. neoformans when used alone. Through this study we have demonstrated that combinatorial synthesis of non-natural flavonones can identify novel antimicrobial agents with activity against bacteria and fungi but with minimal toxicity to human cells.

  9. Development of non-natural flavanones as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Zachary L; Shah, Karan; Panepinto, John C; Jacobs, Amy; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2011-01-01

    With growing concerns over multidrug resistance microorganisms, particularly strains of bacteria and fungi, evolving to become resistant to the antimicrobial agents used against them, the identification of new molecular targets becomes paramount for novel treatment options. Recently, the use of new treatments containing multiple active ingredients has been shown to increase the effectiveness of existing molecules for some infections, often with these added compounds enabling the transport of a toxic molecule into the infecting species. Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites and have been shown to have natural abilities as microbial deterrents and anti-infection agents in plants. Combining these ideas we first sought to investigate the potency of natural flavonoids in the presence of efflux pump inhibitors to limit Escherichia coli growth. Then we used the natural flavonoid scaffold to synthesize non-natural flavanone molecules and further evaluate their antimicrobial efficacy on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Of those screened, we identified the synthetic molecule 4-chloro-flavanone as the most potent antimicrobial compound with a MIC value of 70 µg/mL in E. coli when combined with the inhibitor Phe-Arg-ß-naphthylamide, and MICs of 30 µg/mL in S. cerevesiae and 30 µg/mL in C. neoformans when used alone. Through this study we have demonstrated that combinatorial synthesis of non-natural flavonones can identify novel antimicrobial agents with activity against bacteria and fungi but with minimal toxicity to human cells.

  10. Synthesis of 99mTc-oxybutynin for M3-receptor-mediated imaging of urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustapha, M.E.; Benha University, Benha; Motaleb, M.A.; Ibrahim, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolabeling of oxybutynin, a muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist agent with 99m Tc is of considerable interest for imaging of urinary bladder. This study is aimed to optimize radiolabeling yield of oxybutynin with 99m Tc using SnCl 2 x 2H 2 O as a reducing agent with respect to factors that affect the reaction conditions such as oxybutynin amount, stannous chloride amount, reaction time and pH of the reaction mixture. In vitro stability of the radiolabeled complex was checked and it was found to be stable for up to 8 h. 99m Tc-oxybutynin was injected via subcutaneous and intravenous administration routes into normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Biodistribution studies have revealed that 99m Tc-oxybutynin exhibits high affinity and specificity for the muscarinic M 3 subtype located on the smooth muscle of urinary bladder relative to the M 1 and M 2 subtypes of the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. In vivo uptake of subcutaneous 99m Tc-oxybutynin in urinary bladder was 19.6 ± 0.42% ID at 0.5 h, whereas in intravenous administration route the accumulation in the urinary bladder was found to be 9.4 ± 0.31% ID at 0.5 h post injection. Administration of cold oxybutynin effectively blocked urinary bladder uptake and further confirms the high specificity of this complex for the M 3 receptor. (author)

  11. Pathophysiology of nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms in older patients with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Petrovic, Mirko; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-01

    To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output. The median age (n = 95) was 74 years (69-79), 87% were women and 73% had nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms (nocturnal urinary incontinence or nocturia ≥2). Participants with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms had a significantly higher nocturnal urine output (809 mL vs 650 mL; P = 0.001) and no significant difference in maximum voided volume (350 mL vs 437 mL; P = 0.079) compared with participants without nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants (nocturnal polyuria index >33% [n = 56], nocturnal polyuria index >40% [n = 42], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index >1.87 [n = 51]) showed higher night-time diuresis rates, free water and sodium clearance compared with during the daytime. Controls (nocturnal polyuria index ≤33% [n = 26], nocturnal polyuria index ≤40% [n = 40], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index ≤1.87 [n = 44]) had no circadian rhythm in their diuresis rate or sodium clearance, but more nocturnal free water clearance compared with during the daytime. The majority of older adults with urinary incontinence present nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. An increased nocturnal sodium diuresis seems to be the only mechanism differentiating patients with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms from controls. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Association Between Urinary Symptoms and Urinary Tract Infection in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Alireza; Salehi, Haideh; Foroughi, Amin Abolhasani; Nazeri, Masoumeh

    2015-09-28

    Urinary dysfunctions occur in the majority of MS patients and these patients are at higher risks of developing UTI due to multiple reasons. We determined to study the association between different urinary symptoms and UTI in MS patients. Eighty seven MS patients that referred to our medical care center with an acute attack of the disease, from November 2012 to April 2014, were included in the study. Patients were classified into two groups based on their urine culture results: UTI positive and non-UTI patients. The prevalence of different types of urinary symptoms was then compared among the two groups. The mean age of our patients was 36.8 years old. From the total 87 patients, 83 (95.4%) were female. Overall 56.3% of patients displayed urinary symptoms. The most prevalent urinary problems were urinary incontinence and frequency (25.3% and 24.1%, respectively). A positive urinary culture was seen in 71.3% of the patients. The prevalence of urinary problems was significantly higher in UTI patients in comparison to non-UTI patients (64.5% and 40% in UTI and non-UTI patients, respectively; p=0.036). Separately none of the different urinary symptoms displayed a significant difference between UTI and non-UTI patients (p>0.05). Not a single symptom can be diagnostic of UTI, but MS patient with urinary tract infections do present more urinary symptoms and this can be an indication for further urine analysis and screening measures for MS patients who display more urinary symptoms.

  13. Electrochemical Immunosensor Detection of Urinary Lactoferrin in Clinical Samples for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ying; Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of the urinary tract...

  14. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  15. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-03-01

    Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world's third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (pmarijuana users than in nonusers. We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Levels in Overactive Bladder Syndrome and Lower Urinary Tract Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a syndrome based on self-reported symptoms of urgency and frequency with or without urge incontinence. Although urgency is the core symptom of OAB, patients might have difficulty to distinguish urgency from the urge to void. Urodynamic study is a useful diagnostic tool to discover detrusor overactivity (DO in patients with OAB; however, not all OAB patients have DO. Therefore, a more objective and non-invasive way to diagnose and assess OAB including DO is needed. Recent research has focused on urinary biomarkers in assessment of OAB. Urinary nerve growth factor (NGF level increases in patients with OAB-wet, bladder outlet obstruction, mixed urinary incontinence and urodynamic DO. Urinary NGF levels are correlated with severity of OAB symptoms. In patients with OAB and DO who have been well treated with antimuscarinics or botulinum toxin injection, urinary NGF levels have been shown to decrease significantly in association with reduction of urgency severity. However, not all patients with OAB have an elevated urinary NGF level. It might also be increased in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, cerebrovascular accident and lower urinary tract diseases such as urinary tract stone, bacterial infection and urothelial tumor. It is possible to use urinary NGF levels as a bio-marker for diagnosis of OAB as well as for the assessment of therapeutic outcome in patients with OAB or DO. Here, we review the latest medical advances in this field.

  17. Factors Associated with Urinary Stress Incontinence in Primiparas

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ling Chou; Fang-Ping Chen; Li-Fen Teng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate obstetric and maternal risk factors for stress urinary incontinence in primiparas. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to August 2002, 378 primiparas were interviewed about stress urinary incontinence 1 year after delivery. The association between symptoms of urinary stress incontinence and obstetric factors was assessed. Results: Twenty-four (6%) primiparas had urinary stress incontinence after delivery. Maternal age was positively associated with urinary st...

  18. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis amongst primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , southwestern Nigeria. ... International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... This investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in selected primary schools in Ado-Ekiti, between June and August ...

  19. Current and Emerging Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Parker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common malignancies. Those who have been already diagnosed are at high risk for recurrence, especially if the pathology demonstrates high-grade disease. Diagnosis and surveillance is reliant on invasive evaluation with cystoscopy. Urinary cytology has been used to aid in diagnosis, but its use is limited. Other assays have been developed that may aid in clinical decision making. The ultimate goal will be the development of a highly sensitive and specific urinary marker for bladder cancer. This would provide a noninvasive means of diagnosing the disease and limit the number of unnecessary cystoscopies. This article will review the currently available urinary bladder cancer markers. It will also review new and investigational urinary markers that have shown promise for future clinical use.

  20. Current and Emerging Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Justin; Spiess, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common malignancies. Those who have been already diagnosed are at high risk for recurrence, especially if the pathology demonstrates high-grade disease. Diagnosis and surveillance is reliant on invasive evaluation with cystoscopy. Urinary cytology has been used to aid in diagnosis, but its use is limited. Other assays have been developed that may aid in clinical decision making. The ultimate goal will be the development of a highly sensitive and specific urinary marker for bladder cancer. This would provide a noninvasive means of diagnosing the disease and limit the number of unnecessary cystoscopies. This article will review the currently available urinary bladder cancer markers. It will also review new and investigational urinary markers that have shown promise for future clinical use. PMID:21623456

  1. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  2. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bladder. Neuropeptides have tissue-specific distributions and functions in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes in expression and function with LUT dysfunction following neural injury, inflammation and disease. LUT dysfunction with abnormal voiding including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence and pain may reflect a change in the balance of neuropeptides in bladder reflex pathways. LUT neuropeptide/receptor systems may represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21290237

  3. Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiena, Izak; Patel, Neal; Parihar, Jaspreet S; Calabrese, Marc; Tunuguntla, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients’ quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. PMID:26543427

  4. Urinary incontinence in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K Y; Sivalingam, N

    2006-10-01

    Urinary incontinence is an important and common health care problem affecting the elderly population. Common types of incontinence affecting the elderly are: stress incontinence, urge incontinence, overflow incontinence and mixed type. The elderly patient suffering from urinary incontinence does not often seek treatment voluntary due to a misconception that it is part of a normal ageing process. Without treatment, urinary incontinence may lead to serious psychological and social complications such as depression, anxiety, embarrassment, low self-esteem and social isolation. Overall it is associated with significant poor quality of life for the elderly. Life style modification and behavioural therapy with or without pharmacotherapy help in improving the symptoms. Pelvic floor muscles' training is beneficial for stress incontinence in up to fifty percent of the patients. Elderly patients with urinary incontinence should be encouraged to seek treatment early, as the problem can be treated and they will have a better quality of life.

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  6. Diagnostic performance of screening methods for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for urinary schistosomiasis has been conducted using various indirect diagnostic tests such as interview technique for unqualified haematuria, terminal haematuria and dysuria, visual examination of urine specimen for macrohaematuria, chemical reagent strip technique for microhaematuria and proteinuria, and.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Souka, S.; Sanad, W.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  8. No. 186-Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Magali; Ross, Sue

    2018-02-01

    To outline the evidence for conservative management options for treating urinary incontinence. Conservative management options for treating urinary incontinence include behavioural changes, lifestyle modification, pelvic floor retraining, and use of mechanical devices. To provide understanding of current available evidence concerning efficacy of conservative alternatives for managing urinary incontinence; to empower women to choose continence therapies that have benefit and that have minimal or no harm. The Cochrane Library and Medline (1966 to 2005) were searched to find articles related to conservative management of incontinence. Review articles were appraised. The quality of evidence is rated, and recommendations are made using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Evidence for the efficacy of conservative management options for urinary incontinence is strong. These options can be advocated as primary interventions with minimal or no harm to women. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Chronobiologic fluctuation of cyclophosphamide induced urinary bladder damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, M P; Ershler, W B; Newman, R A; Fagan, M A

    1983-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is the most widely used alkylating agent in clinical medicine. The usefulness of this drug is often limited by its propensity to produce hemorrhagic cystitis. To be active cyclophosphamide must be metabolized by the mixed function oxidase system. It has been previously demonstrated that the oncolytic activity and host lethality of cyclophosphamide are dependent upon circadian fluctuations. When cyclophosphamide is administered i.p. to male mice there is a dose dependent increase in urinary bladder weight. Histopathologic examination of these bladders revealed hemorrhage, edema, inflammation and stretching of the epithelial lining. When administered i.p. at 4-h intervals throughout a 24-h time period, cyclophosphamide produced maximum bladder damage when administered at 0500 and 1700 and little or no damage to the bladder when administered at 0100 or 1300. These studies suggest that cyclophosphamide induced cystitis, a toxicity resulting from the metabolic production of acrolein, may also be dependent upon chronobiologic fluctuations.

  10. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  11. Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Okrągła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system’s action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy, but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  12. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    OpenAIRE

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bla...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in community acquired urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.Y.H; Ahmad, N.; Shah, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent disease for which patients seek medical care. The antimicrobial agents causing UTI and their sensitivity patterns have remarkably changed throughout the world over the past few years. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the uropathogens and their susceptibility to various molecules in our region. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Medical C Unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2015 to January 2016. Patients with clinical features of UTI were evaluated using Urine R/E and Urine culture and sensitivity. Ten antibiotics were checked for susceptibility. Results were analysed using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 630 patients presented with urinary complaints. Of these, 236 patients had more than 8-10 pus cells on urine R/E. They were further evaluated using culture and sensitivity and positive culture was obtained in 75 patients. Of these 34 (45.3%) were males and 41 (54.7%) were females. E Coli was the predominant isolate being present in 49 (65.3%) patients. This was followed by Klebsiella in 9 (12%) patients. Tazobactam-piperacillin and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most sensitive drugs having overall sensitivity of 96% and 93.3% respectively. The isolates were highly resistant to Fluoroquinolones 77.3% followed by Penicillins 72% and TMP-SMX 69.3%.Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns have enormously changed over the past decade. Newer agents are quite efficacious but their use should be highly judicious to prevent the development of resistance to these molecules. (author)

  14. Basic mechanisms of urinary acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, B M; Steinmetz, P R

    1983-07-01

    This article has examined the process of urinary acidification from the perspective of events occurring at the cellular and single nephron level. Accordingly, the reabsorption of filtered HCO3- and the titration of urine buffers can be ascribed to the fundamental process of H+ secretion. The precise mechanism of H+ secretion by the tubule cells, the rate by which this occurs, and the factors regulating transport differ between nephron segments. Despite these differences, the cellular process of urinary acidification can be viewed as the extrusion of H+ against an electrochemical gradient across the luminal cell membrane and the movement of an HCO3- equivalent across the basolateral cell membrane. In the proximal tubule (convoluted and straight portions) approximately 90 per cent of the filtered load of HCO3- is reabsorbed. This occurs without the development of large lumen-to-blood pH gradients. The secretion of H+ across the luminal membrane occurs primarily via an electrically neutral Na-H exchange mechanism. Since it is the lumen-to-cell Na+ gradient which provides the energy, the secretion of H+ is a "secondary active" process dependent on the function of the Na-K-ATPase located in the basolateral cell membrane. During the elaboration of an acid urine, the distal nephron (distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct) reabsorbs that portion of the filtered HCO3- escaping proximal reabsorption, titrates luminal buffers, and lowers urine pH. The secretion of H+ occurs by a "primary active" mechanism, which involves the extrusion of H+ across the luminal cell membrane by an electrogenic H+ pump driven by the hydrolysis of ATP. The rate at which H+ is secreted depends on the electrochemical gradient for H+ across the luminal membrane. Thus, changes in both lumen pH and potential will effect H+ secretion, with low lumen pH inhibiting transport and large lumen-negative potentials stimulating transport. In some animals, depending on their homeostatic needs, secretion

  15. [Lower urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, F; Roumeguère, T

    2015-12-01

    Radical hysterectomy is associated with a significant amount of urinary functional complications and a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the neurological etiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy and to establish an optimal postoperative management strategy. We performed a comprehensive overview using the following terms: "radical hysterectomy" and "urologic diseases etiology" or "urologic disease prevention and control". The reported incidence of lower urinary tract dysfunction after radical hysterectomy varies from 12 to 85%. Several animal and clinical urodynamic studies corroborate the neurologic etiology of the dysfunction. Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common postoperative finding (70-85%) but spontaneous recovery is to be expected within 6-12 months after surgery. The most frequent long term sequela is stress urinary incontinence (40% of cases) and its management is complex and challenging. Postoperative refractory overactive bladder and bladder underactivity can be treated by neuromodulation of sacral roots and superior hypogastric plexus, respectively. In the absence of good clinical predictors, preoperative urodynamic examinations could have a role in understanding the pathophysiology of the dysfunction before such interventions. The pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy is multifactorial. Its management is complex and should be multidisciplinary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  17. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Mann, Kristy Pamela; Dietz, Hans P

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on the symptoms and signs of stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Records of women who attended a tertiary urogynecological unit were reviewed retrospectively. A standardized interview included evaluations of symptoms, menopause age (ie, time since last menstrual period or onset of menopausal symptoms), current or previous hormone use, and visual analogue scales for bother. Multichannel urodynamics, including urethral pressure profilometry and determination of abdominal leak point pressure, was performed. Of 382 women seen during the inclusion period, 62% were postmenopausal. Current systemic or local hormone use was reported by 7% and 6%, respectively. Two hundred eighty-eight women (76%) reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 5.7, and 273 women (72%) reported symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 6.4. On univariate analysis, symptoms and bother of urge incontinence were significantly related to menopause age, whereas this relationship was not found for stress incontinence. After calendar age was controlled for, length of menopause showed no significant relationship with any symptom or sign of urinary incontinence. Hormone deficiency after menopause is unlikely to play a major role in urinary incontinence.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of human urinary kallikrein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, W.

    1980-01-01

    Using a human urinary kallikrein, purified by means of Trasylol sepharose, it has been possible to develop a radioimmunoassay of kallikrein capable of detecting the substance down to a concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The specific activity of the tracer labelled with 125-iodine using the Chloramine-T method was 30-70 nCi/ng of kallikrein. The antiserum titres for the antikallikrein serum were 1:20.000 up to 1:50.000. Human urine, submandibular and parotid salivae as well as pancreatic secretion in this RIA reacted in the same manner as the kallikrein standard solution. The kallikrein content in urine, as determined by the RIA was between 0 and 300 ng/ml, in the saliva between 400 and 2.000 ng/ml, and in the pancreatic juice between 300 and 12.000 ng/ml. Using human serum, only an incomplete immunological cross-reaction could be achieved. In human liquor as well as in animal preparation, no cross-reacting substances could be detected. (orig.) [de

  19. [Female urinary incontinence: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz de León, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; Jalón-Monzón, A; García-Rodríguez, J

    The urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom in the adult female population. It has important psychosocial and economic connotations, and affects the quality of life of these patients. As it is an under-diagnosed problem due to patients not always consulting for it, it is very important to keep this in mind and to provide an opportunistic screening from Primary Health Care. It is difficult to determine the costs of this, but it is estimated to be the 2% of the health budget. Because of all of this, it is very important to know how to make a correct diagnose of this condition, to determine the different types of incontinence, possible causes, and treatments available. The purpose of this review is to show the different diagnostic and therapeutic tools available, to show the Primary Health Care role in this condition, and when to refer to specialist care. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of mixed urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomelsky, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a prevalent condition and imposes a significant impact on a woman's quality of life. Treatment is often challenging, as a single modality may be inadequate for alleviating both the urge and stress component. Materials and methods A MEDLINE search was conducted regarding English-language literature pertaining to the pathophysiology, diagnosis of, and treatment for MUI. Non-English language articles were considered if they could be translated into English using GOOGLE translator. Results The identification of an ideal single treatment has also been made more challenging by the poor characterization of the pathophysiology of MUI. Behavioral and lifestyle modification, as well as pelvic floor muscle therapy, should be considered first-line options for all women with MUI. Treatment of the urge component with anti-muscarinics is effective; however the stress component is likely to persist after therapy. Anti-incontinence surgery may have a positive impact on both the stress and urge components of MUI, with emerging evidence suggesting that transobturator MUS may be associated with lower rates of de novo and persistent urge component compared to other procedures. The presence of concomitant, preoperative detrusor overactivity has not been consistently associated with postoperative outcomes. Conclusions The optimum treatment of MUI may often require multiple treatment modalities. While surgery may have a positive impact on both the urge and stress component, its implementation should be approached with caution and patients should be carefully selected. Detailed informed consent in women with MUI cannot be overstated. PMID:24578878

  1. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  2. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p

  3. Prevention of urinary tract infections in nursing homes: lack of evidence-based prescription?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Jenny

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs, including upper and lower symptomatic are the most common infections in nursing homes and prevention may reduce patient suffering, antibiotic use and resistance. The spectre of agents used in preventing UTIs in nursing homes is scarcely documented and the aim of this study was to explore which agents are prescribed for this purpose. Methods We conducted a one-day, point-prevalence study in 44 Norwegian nursing homes during April-May 2006. Nursing home residents prescribed any agent for UTI prophylaxis were included. Information recorded was type of agent and dose, patient age and gender, together with nursing home characteristics. Appropriateness of prophylactic prescribing was evaluated with references to evidence in the literature and current national guidelines. Results The study included 1473 residents. 18% (n = 269 of the residents had at least one agent recorded as prophylaxis of UTI, varying between 0-50% among the nursing homes. Methenamine was used by 48% of residents prescribed prophylaxis, vitamin C by 32%, and cranberry products by 10%. Estrogens were used by 30% but only one third was for vaginal administration. Trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin were used as prophylaxis by 5% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions The agents frequently prescribed to prevent UTIs in Norwegian nursing homes lack documented efficacy including methenamine and vitamin C. Recommended agents like trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and vaginal estrogens are infrequently used. We conclude that prescribing of prophylactic agents for UTIs in nursing homes is not evidence-based.

  4. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  5. Urinary adiponectin and albuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive patients: an analysis of the ESPECIAL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Seok; Bae, Eunjin; Ahn, Shin Young; Kim, Sejoong; Park, Jung Hwan; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Chin, Ho Jun; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Suhnggwon; Kim, Dong Ki

    2015-08-01

    Although adiponectin levels have been reported to be correlated with albuminuria, this issue remains unresolved in non-diabetic hypertensive subjects, particularly when urinary adiponectin is considered. Urinary adiponectin levels were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 229 participants. who used olmesartan as a hypertensive agent. Their albuminuria levels were measured for 16 weeks after randomization and initiation of conventional or intensive diet education. Linear or logistic regression models were applied, as appropriate, to explore the relationship with albuminuria itself or its response after the intervention. Urinary adiponectin levels were positively related to baseline albuminuria level (r = 0.529). After adjusting for several covariates, the adiponectin level was associated with the albuminuria level (β = 0.446). Among the 159 subjects with baseline macroalbuminuria, the risk of consistent macroalbuminuria (> 300 mg/day) at 16 weeks was higher in the 3(rd) tertile of adiponectin than in the 1(st) tertile (odds ratio = 6.9), despite diet education. In contrast, among all subjects, the frequency of the normoalbuminuria achievement (< 30 mg/day) at 16 weeks was higher in the 1(st) tertile than in the 3(rd) tertile (odds ratio = 13.0). Urinary adiponectin may be a useful biomarker for albuminuria or its response after treatment in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

  6. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Bien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs.

  7. Considerations in the modern management of stress urinary incontinence resulting from intrinsic sphincter deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary, Christopher James; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) is a common cause of stress urinary incontinence and is associated with more severe symptoms, often being associated with failed previous surgery. Due to the impaired sphincteric function, alternative surgical approaches are often required. The purpose of this review is to appraise the contemporary literature on the diagnosis and management of ISD. A PubMed search was performed to identify articles published between 1990 and 2014 using the following terms: ISD, stress urinary incontinence and type III stress urinary incontinence. Publications were screened for relevance, and full manuscripts were retrieved. Most studies base the diagnosis of ISD upon urodynamic appearances using recognized criteria (Valsalva leak point pressure <60 cm H2O or a maximum urethral closure pressure <20 cm H2O) in addition to clinical features. A range of non-surgical and surgical treatment options are available for the patient. Pubovaginal slings are more effective than retropubic colposuspensions with outcomes comparable to those reported with midurethral slings. The artificial urinary sphincter provides long-term cure rates; however, it is associated with specific morbidity including device erosion, mechanical failure and revision. The benefits of bulking agents, however, are not sustained beyond 1 year. There are few randomized controlled trials that compare accepted treatments specifically for patients with ISD. The lack of standardization in the definition and diagnostic criteria used limits inter-study comparisons. An assessment of urethral pressure profile when combined with the clinical features may help predict outcomes of surgical intervention.

  8. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Justyna; Sokolova, Olga; Bozko, Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs. PMID:22506110

  9. Stented ureterovesical anastomosis in renal transplantation: does it influence the rate of urinary tract infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathe Z

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine use of double-J stents on the incidence of urinary tract infection after renal transplantation. Methods We conducted a retrospective-comparative single-centre study in 310 consecutive adult deceased donor kidney recipients transplanted from 2002 to 2006. Patients were divided in two groups, with or without urinary stent implantation. To evaluate the predictive factors for UTI, donor and recipients pre- and post-transplantation data were analysed. Early urological complications and renal function within 12 months of transplantation were included as well. Results A total of 157 patients were enrolled to a stent (ST and 153 patients to a no-stent (NST group. The rate of urinary tract infection at three months was similar between the two groups (43.3% ST vs. 40.1% NST, p = 0.65. Of the identified pathogens Enterococcus and Escherichia coli were the most common species. In multivariate analysis neither age nor immunosuppressive agents, BMI or diabetes seemed to have influence on the rate of UTI. When compared to males, females had a significantly higher risk for UTI (54.0% vs. 33.5%. Conclusion Prophylactic stenting of the ureterovesical anastomosis does not increase the risk of urinary tract infection in the early postoperative period.

  10. Species Identification And Antibiotic Susceptibilities Of Coagulase- Negative Staphylococci Isolated From Urinary Tract Infection Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, A.; Abdullah, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of Coagulase- negative S. aureusin urinary tract infections and sensitivities of these isolates to antimicrobial agents. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Essa Laboratory and Immunology and Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IIDRL), Microbiology Department, University of Karachi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: Urine specimens, suggestive of urinary tract infection (UTI), were identified. Speciation of isolates was done using API-20 Staph.system. Screening of extracellular products was done using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Hemolysin on blood-agar plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of antibiotics was estimated by microtiter well plate method. Frequency and percentages were determined and chi-square test was used for comparing proportions with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Coagulase - negative S. aureus(CONS) were the cause of urinary tract infection in 56 out of 1866 outpatient (3 percent) and 164 of 1261 in patient (13 percent), urinary tract infections (p < 0.001). Two hundred and twenty CONS isolates were identified. The most common CONS identified was S. saprophyticus (31 percent, 68 strains). The relative frequency of Coagulase - negative S. aureus was 6 percent (13 strains). All isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. Resistance was 69 percent to Ampicillin, 53 percent to Methicillin, and 37.5 percent to Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: CONS are a potential uropathogens, with capability of slime production and resistance to common empirical prescriptions. This also warrants formulation of an appropriate antibiotic policy that covers CONS. (author)

  11. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  12. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIVIRAL AGENTS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIVIRAL AGENTS. Chandipura virus can be regarded as a model system to design and develop antiviral agents. These agents could be small molecules or RNA/PNA aptamers or Antisense RNA to speicific gene sequence in the viral genome.

  14. The Burden of Urinary Incontinence and Urinary Bother Among Elderly Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Ryan P.; Marshall, Lynn M.; Wang, Patty Y.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Parsons, J. Kellogg

    2014-01-01

    Background Data describing urinary health in elderly, community-dwelling prostate cancer (PCa) survivors are limited. Objective To elucidate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary bother, and incontinence in elderly PCa survivors compared with peers without PCa. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of 5990 participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research Group, a cohort study of community-dwelling men ≥65 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We characterized urinary health using self-reported urinary incontinence and the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI). We compared urinary health measures according to type of PCa treatment in men with PCa and men without PCa using multivariate log-binomial regression to generate prevalence ratios (PRs). Results and limitations At baseline, 706 men (12%) reported a history of PCa, with a median time since diagnosis of 6.3 yr. Of these men, 426 (60%) reported urinary incontinence. In adjusted analyses, observation (PR: 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–3.21; p = 0.01), surgery (PR: 4.68; 95% CI, 4.11–5.32; p incontinence. Daily incontinence risk increased with time since diagnosis independently of age. Observation (PR: 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00–1.78; p = 0.05), surgery (PR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10–1.42; p = 0.0008), and ADT (PR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.26–1.79; p urinary incontinence, which rose with increasing survivorship duration. Observation, surgery, and ADT were each associated with increased urinary bother. These data suggest a substantially greater burden of urinary health problems among elderly PCa survivors than previously recognized. PMID:23587870

  15. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Soman N.; Miao, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract as the adaptive immune responses are limited, particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  16. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  17. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latacz, P.; Kluczewska, E.; Kuleta-Bosak, E.; Koszutski, T.; Tobiasz, K.

    2006-01-01

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for

  18. Antibacterial and anti-encrustation biodegradable polymer coating for urinary catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayyoub, Eyas; Frant, Marion; Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Liefeith, Klaus; Bakowsky, Udo

    2017-10-05

    Bacterial biofilm and crystalline deposits are the common causes of failure of long-term indwelling urinary catheter. Bacteria colonise the catheter surface causing serious infections in the urinary tract and encrustations that can block the catheter and induce trauma in patients. In this study, the strategy used to resist bacterial adhesion and encrustation represents a combination of the antibacterial effects of norfloxacin and silver nanoparticles and the PLGA-based neutralisation of alkali products of urea hydrolysis gained through the degradation of the polymer in an aqueous milieu. Silver nanoparticles were coated with tetraether lipids (TEL) to avoid aggregation when dispersed in acetone and during the film formation. The polymer films loaded with the two antibacterial agents were applied on Polyurethane (PUR) and Silicon sheets. We demonstrated the antibacterial and anti-adhesion effectiveness of the coatings whereby commercially available biocompatible polymers PUR and Silicon were used as controls. Using artificial urine and an in vitro encrustation model, it was shown that the coatings resist the encrustation for at least 2 weeks. This combination of a biodegradable polymer and wide-range antibacterial agents represents a potentially attractive biocompatible coating for urinary catheters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Consensus document of the Spanish Urological Association on the management of uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L; Esteban, M; Salinas, J; Adot, J M; Arlandis, S; Peri, L; Cozar, J M

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of urinary infections, commonly mild and uncomplicated, have resulted in a generally empirical therapeutic decision-making process, which does not help fight resistances to antibacterial agents, thus causing a high rate of recurrence. This study seeks to reduce the clinical variability in the diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs). The consensus document was developed using a nominal group methodology, using scientific evidence on RUTIs extracted from a systematic (noncomprehensive) literature review, along with the expert judgment of specialists and their experience in clinical practice. RUTIs are considered the manifestation of at least 3 episodes of uncomplicated infection, with a positive culture in the past 12 months, in addition to (for men) the absence of structural or functional abnormalities. We maintain that the treatment should be empiric when suspecting RUTIs (prior to obtaining a urine sample for culture) in those patients who have a high probability of recurrence, associated risk factors and/or urinary or general symptoms, such as fever and chills. Homogeneous criteria are recommended for the diagnosis and treatment in order to fight the increased rates of resistance that the microorganisms develop against antimicrobial agents. Imprecision in the identification of the infection requires a search for agreements on homogenized criteria and decision algorithms that guide the management of these patients. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  1. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  2. Rat animal model for preclinical testing of microparticle urethral bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Gow, Travis K; Blaivas, Jerry G; King, Benjamin J; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe, Christine; Lam, Michael K; Kida, Masatoshi; Sikavi, Cameron S; Plante, Mark K; Krhut, Jan; Zvara, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To develop an economic, practical and readily available animal model for preclinical testing of urethral bulking therapies, as well as to establish feasible experimental methods that allow for complete analysis of hard microparticle bulking agents. Alumina ceramic beads suspended in hyaluronic acid were injected into the proximal urethra of 15 female rats under an operating microscope. We assessed overall lower urinary tract function, bulking material intraurethral integrity and local host tissue response over time. Microphotographs were taken during injection and again 6 months postoperatively, before urethral harvest. Urinary flow rate and voiding frequency were assessed before and after injection. At 6 months, the urethra was removed and embedded in resin. Hard tissue sections were cut using a sawing microtome, and processed for histological analysis using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Microphotographs of the urethra showed complete volume retention of the bulking agent at 6 months. There was no significant difference between average urinary frequency and mean urinary flow rate at 1 and 3 months postinjection as compared with baseline. Scanning electron microscopy proved suitable for evaluation of microparticle size and integrity, as well as local tissue remodeling. Light microscopy and immunohistochemistry allowed for evaluation of an inflammatory host tissue reaction to the bulking agent. The microsurgical injection technique, in vivo physiology and novel hard tissue processing for histology, described in the present study, will allow for future comprehensive preclinical testing of urethral bulking therapy agents containing microparticles made of a hard material. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Single dose antibiotic therapy is not as effective as conventional regimens for management of acute urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, G; Odio, C M; Mohs, E; Guevara, J; McCracken, G H

    1988-05-01

    One hundred thirty-two children with acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in one dose, two doses daily for 3 days or two doses daily for 7 days. The patient characteristics, etiologic agents and frequency of roentgenologic abnormalities were similar for the three treatment groups. There was no significant difference in bacteriologic cure rates for the single dose regimen (93%) and multidose regimens (96%). The difference in rates of recurrent urinary tract infection between the single dose (20.5%) and 3-day (5.6%) and 7-day (8%) regimens was statistically significant (P = 0.033). A single dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is inadequate treatment for infants and children with acute urinary tract infection.

  4. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  5. Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Smertka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status.

  6. Biofabrication and biomaterials for urinary tract reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa M Elsawy,1–3 Achala de Mel1 1Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, NHS Trust, University College London (UCL, 2Division of Reconstructive Urology, University College London Hospitals (uclh, London, UK; 3Urology Department, School of Medicine, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Reconstructive urologists are constantly facing diverse and complex pathologies that require structural and functional restoration of urinary organs. There is always a demand for a biocompatible material to repair or substitute the urinary tract instead of using patient’s autologous tissues with its associated morbidity. Biomimetic approaches are tissue-engineering tactics aiming to tailor the material physical and biological properties to behave physiologically similar to the urinary system. This review highlights the different strategies to mimic urinary tissues including modifications in structure, surface chemistry, and cellular response of a range of biological and synthetic materials. The article also outlines the measures to minimize infectious complications, which might lead to graft failure. Relevant experimental and preclinical studies are discussed, as well as promising biomimetic approaches such as three-dimensional bioprinting. Keywords: reconstruction, biofunctionalization, tissue engineering, urinary tract

  7. [Urinary lithiasis in the child (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosalbez, R; Garat, J M; Piro, C; Martin, J A

    1980-01-01

    The authors report a series of 130 children suffering from urinary lithiasis (essentially between the age of 4 to 6 years) and particularly in boys (2.5 to 1). There were 108 cases of reno-ureteric lithiasis as against 23 vesico-urethral. In 69 cases, pyelocalyceal lithiasis predominated. Thirty per cent of the children had bilateral lithiasis, and 19% of all cases of lithiasis were staghorn calculi. Presenting symptoms : haematuria, diffuse abdominal pain, anuria (6 cases), complete urinary retention (5 cases). Study of these cases failed to indicate whether obstruction of the upper urinary tract (14%) or infection (27%) was the cause or the effect of the lithiasis. Particularly notable were 8 cases of cystinuria (6%), 1 of glycinuria, 1 of hyperoxaluria and 7 of hypercalciuria. At least in Spain, lithiasis in children would appear to be essentially idiopathic. However, 40% of these cases of lithiasis were secondary to obstruction of the excretory tract and/or urinary infection. All types of entero-uroplasty were lithogenic (6 cases). 32% of the children had a proteus infection. Treatment : 14 children were treated medically as against 125 surgically. 70% are free of any recurrence. 7% have a residual lithiasis. The rarity of recurrences and the quality of the results obtained indicate that complete surgical treatment represents the essential feature of the treatment of urinary lithiasis in children.

  8. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  9. Lower urinary tract development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomaliesc such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUVs). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease, and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, the bladder and the urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the postgenomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multi-detector CT urography: effect of oral hydration and contrast medium volume on renal parenchymal enhancement and urinary tract opacification - a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szolar, Dieter H.; Tillich, Manfred; Preidler, Klaus W. [Diagnostikum Graz-Suedwest, Graz (Austria)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the effect of oral hydration and contrast-medium volume on renal enhancement and urinary tract opacification in multi-detector CT urography. A total of 192 patients were assigned to different protocols with varying doses of contrast agent with and without oral hydration. The attenuation was measured in the renal parenchyma in the unenhanced, nephrographic and excretory phase, and in the urinary tract in excretory phase imaging, respectively. Opacification of the urinary tract was graded on volume rendered images. Oral hydration did not significantly alter renal parenchymal enhancement in both the nephrographic and the excretory phase (p > 0.001), but significantly decreased mean attenuation of the urinary tract in the excretory phase (p {<=} 0.001), and improved continuous opacification of all ureter segments (p < 0.01). Higher volumes of contrast medium improved renal parenchymal enhancement (p {<=} 0.001) and continuous opacification of the urinary tract (p {<=} 0.01). Oral hydration leads to lower attenuation values in the urinary tract but improves the continuous opacification of the tract. Increase in contrast medium volume leads to higher renal parenchymal enhancement as well as to an increased continuous opacification of the urinary tract. Decrease in contrast medium volume cannot be compensated for by oral hydration in terms of parenchymal enhancement. (orig.)

  11. Radiodiagnosis of anomalies, diseases and injuries of urinary bladder in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyul'ko, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Problems of radiodiagnosis of such urinary bladder diseases as ureter and urinary bladder anomalies, congenital fistulae, urinary bladder calcicosis, calculuses, foreign bodies and injuries of urinary bladder tuberculosis and tumors neurogenic disorder of urination in children are considered

  12. Update on the approach of urinary tract infection in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Eduardo Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in childhood. UTI may be the sentinel event for underlying renal abnormality. There are still many controversies regarding proper management of UTI. In this review article, the authors discuss recent recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, and imaging of UTI in childhood based on evidence, and when this is lacking, based on expert consensus. Data were obtained after a review of the literature and a search of Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Scielo. In the first year of life, UTIs are more common in boys (3.7%) than in girls (2%). Signs and symptoms of UTI are very nonspecific, especially in neonates and during childhood; in many cases, fever is the only symptom. Clinical history and physical examination may suggest UTI, but confirmation should be made by urine culture, which must be performed before any antimicrobial agent is given. During childhood, the proper collection of urine is essential to avoid false-positive results. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is important to prevent long-term renal scarring. Febrile infants with UTIs should undergo renal and bladder ultrasonography. Intravenous antibacterial agents are recommended for neonates and young infants. The authors also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathies as soon as possible and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Prophylaxis should be considered for cases of high susceptibility to UTI and high risk of renal damage. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanism of Urinary Calcium Regulation by Urinary Magnesium and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Olivier; Rubin, Adam; Huang, Chou-Long; Frawley, William H.; Pak, Charles Y.C.; Moe, Orson W.

    2008-01-01

    Urinary magnesium and pH are known to modulate urinary calcium excretion, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are unknown. In this study, the data from 17 clinical trials in which urinary magnesium and pH were pharmacologically manipulated were analyzed, and it was found that the change in urinary calcium excretion is directly proportional to the change in magnesium excretion and inversely proportional to the change in urine pH; a regression equation was generated to relate these variables (R2 = 0.58). For further exploration of these relationships, intravenous calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or vehicle was administered to rats. Magnesium infusion significantly increased urinary calcium excretion (normalized to urinary creatinine), but calcium infusion did not affect magnesium excretion. Parathyroidectomy did not prevent this magnesium-induced hypercalciuria. The effect of magnesium loading on calciuria was still observed after treatment with furosemide, which disrupts calcium and magnesium absorption in the thick ascending limb, suggesting that the effect may be mediated by the distal nephron. The calcium channel TRPV5, normally present in the distal tubule, was expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Calcium uptake by TRPV5 was directly inhibited by magnesium and low pH. In summary, these data are compatible with the hypothesis that urinary magnesium directly inhibits renal calcium absorption, which can be negated by high luminal pH, and that this regulation likely takes place in the distal tubule. PMID:18448585

  14. [Urinary retention caused by female urethral diverticulum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Nishida, Sachiyo; Maehana, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Shintarou; Muranaka, Takashi; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Yanase, Masahiro; Takatsuka, Keiji

    2007-11-01

    We report a 49-year-old female who had circumferential urethral diverticulum. She was admitted to our department for urinary retention. A cystic lesion surrounding the urethra had been detected by magnetic resonance imaging. We diagnosed the lesion as a urethral diverticulum after injecting dye to the cystic mass from vagina and confirming its discharge from the urethra at the pubic side by urethroscopy. Transvaginal resection of the diverticulum was peformed. In general, 4% of female urethral diverticula cause urinary retention. On the other hand, 1% of female bladder outlet obstruction is caused by urethral diverticula. It is neccessary for us to keep in mind urethral diverticulum when we evaluate female patients with urinary retention.

  15. CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhenzhou; Xiao Ye; Chen Xia; Zhong Yaping; Tao Jie; Jiao Qi; Dong Fengqun; Wang Xiaoying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

  16. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany......, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...

  17. Urinary nerve growth factor levels in overactive bladder syndrome and lower urinary tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Tzu; Chen, Chia-Yen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2010-12-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome based on self-reported symptoms of urgency and frequency with or without urge incontinence. Although urgency is the core symptom of OAB, patients might have difficulty to distinguish urgency from the urge to void. Urodynamic study is a useful diagnostic tool to discover detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with OAB; however, not all OAB patients have DO. Therefore, a more objective and non-invasive way to diagnose and assess OAB including DO is needed. Recent research has focused on urinary biomarkers in assessment of OAB. Urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) level increases in patients with OAB-wet, bladder outlet obstruction, mixed urinary incontinence and urodynamic DO. Urinary NGF levels are correlated with severity of OAB symptoms. In patients with OAB and DO who have been well treated with antimuscarinics or botulinum toxin injection, urinary NGF levels have been shown to decrease significantly in association with reduction of urgency severity. However, not all patients with OAB have an elevated urinary NGF level. It might also be increased in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, cerebrovascular accident and lower urinary tract diseases such as urinary tract stone, bacterial infection and urothelial tumor. It is possible to use urinary NGF levels as a bio-marker for diagnosis of OAB as well as for the assessment of therapeutic outcome in patients with OAB or DO. Here, we review the latest medical advances in this field. Copyright © 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Nigeria. Children with this disease have increased tendency to develop frequent and severe infections especially of the urinary tract, bones and lungs. The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has however not been reported in this part ...

  19. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions What's in this article? What ...

  20. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, you ... make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you ...

  1. Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth Print Email Ultrasound examinations are often done as ... What causes urinary tract abnormalities to occur before birth? In about one of 500 births, some abnormality ...

  2. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorph, S.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  3. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI......Research in multi-agent systems has resulted in agent programming languages and logics that are used as a foundation for engineering multi-agent systems. Research includes reusable agent programming platforms for engineering agent systems with environments, agent behavior, communication protocols...... paradigm, and work that combines agent-based simulation platforms with agent programming platforms. This paper analyzes and evaluates benefits of using agent programming languages and logics for agent-based simulation. In particular, the paper considers the use of agent programming languages and logics...

  4. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  5. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  6. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  7. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Haraway, Allen McNeil

    2011-06-17

    To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses. A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used. Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive). There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.

  8. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Haraway, Allen McNeil

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses. Materials and methods A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used. Results Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive). Conclusion There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency. PMID:24198643

  9. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  10. Urinary tract infection pathogenesis: host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2014-03-01

    Clinically, host factors in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) may be considered as modifiable (eg, behaviors associated with increased risk of UTI, anatomic and functional problems of the urinary tract) and thus potentially amenable to a change in patient behavior or treatment approach, or as intrinsic and nonmodifiable host factors that neither the patient nor the clinician can influence (eg, gender and genetic influences associated with UTI). Although considering nonmodifiable host factors may be discouraging to patients and clinicians at present, some genetic associations have the potential for future predictive value and may interface with future treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Urinary lithiasis treatment by laparoscopy. Combined techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Inmaculada; Brime Menendez, Ricardo; Celada Luis, Guillermo; Acosta Reveles, Marco Antonio; Albers Acosta, Eduardo Mariano; Mejía Celemin, Pilar; San José Manso, Luis Alberto; Casado Varela, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the treatment of urinary lithiasis has changed dramatically. With the advent of extracorporeal lithotripsy and the advances on ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, the need to turn to open and laparoscopic/robotic surgery has diminished. The objective of this article is to review the different indications for open and/or laparoscopic treatment of urinary lithiasis, to achieve its complete elimination with the less invasive possible means and trying to minimize the number of secondary procedures as well as complications.

  12. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre; Avni, Fred E.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  13. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  14. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  16. Does the Urinary Microbiome Play a Role in Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Its Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Lisa; Asquith, Mark; Davin, Sean; Stauffer, Patrick; Fair, Damien; Gregory, W Thomas; Rosenbaum, James T; McWeeney, Shannon K; Nardos, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). The goal of this prospective pilot study was to determine how the urinary microbiome is different between women with and without UUI. We also sought to identify if characteristics of the urinary microbiome are associated with UUI severity. We collected urine from clinically well-characterized women with UUI (n = 10) and normal bladder function (n = 10) using a transurethral catheter to avoid bacterial contamination from external tissue. To characterize the resident microbial community, we amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene by PCR and performed sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were processed using the workflow package QIIME. We identified bacteria that had differential relative abundance between UUI and controls using DESeq2 to fit generalized linear models based on the negative binomial distribution. We also identified relationships between the diversity of the urinary microbiome and severity of UUI symptoms with Pearson's correlation coefficient. We successfully extracted and sequenced bacterial DNA from 95% of the urine samples and identified that there is a polymicrobial community in the female bladder in both healthy controls and women with UUI. We found the relative abundance of 14 bacteria significantly differed between control and UUI samples. Furthermore, we established that an increase in UUI symptom severity is associated with a decrease in microbial diversity in women with UUI. Our study provides further

  17. Does the urinary microbiome play a role in urgency urinary incontinence and its severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Karstens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI. The goal of this prospective pilot study was to determine how the urinary microbiome is different between women with and without UUI. We also sought to identify if characteristics of the urinary microbiome are associated with UUI severity.Methods: We collected urine from clinically well-characterized women with UUI (n=10 and normal bladder function (n=10 using a transurethral catheter to avoid bacterial contamination from external tissue. To characterize the resident microbial community, we amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene by PCR and performed sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were processed using the workflow package QIIME. We identified bacteria that had differential relative abundance between UUI and controls using DESeq2 to fit generalized linear models based on the negative binomial distribution. We also identified relationships between the diversity of the urinary microbiome and severity of UUI symptoms with Pearson’s correlation coefficient.Results: We successfully extracted and sequenced bacterial DNA from 95% of the urine samples and identified that there is a polymicrobial community in the female bladder in both healthy controls and women with UUI. We found the relative abundance of 14 bacteria significantly differed between control and UUI samples. Furthermore, we established that an increase in UUI symptom severity is associated with a decrease in microbial diversity in women

  18. Urinary Bladder Problems in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jesudasan, Ajantha

    2012-01-01

    Ajantha Jesudasan, Mohammed A. Rana Parkinson’s Clinic of Eastern Toronto, Toronto, Canada Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is reported to range from 38% to 71%.1 Common symptoms include nocturia, urinary urgency, incomplete bladder emptying and urinary retention. These symptoms may also be caused by urinary tract infection, prostatic hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus or medications used for other medical conditions.

  19. Changes in urinary catecholamines in response to noise exposure in workers at Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex, Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Khanjani, Narges; Barkhordari, Abolfazl; Rahimi Moghadam, Somayeh; Mozaffari, Abbas; Gozashti, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-11-01

    Noise is one of the most harmful agents in the workplace. In addition to the adverse effects of noise on the auditory system, as a stressor it may cause increased blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, anxiety, and impaired secretion of hormones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in urinary catecholamines in workers exposed to industrial noise. This is an experimental study of the workers at the smelter section of Sarcheshmeh Copper Industries done on two separate days. During the first day, urine samples from 20 workers who did not use any hearing protection device, were collected during an 8-h work shift and on the second day the same was done but they were asked to use earplugs. Also 20 people were selected as a control group from people who were not exposed to noise at work. Urinary catecholamine levels were measured with ELISA kits. The mean urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in the workers (without earplugs) was respectively 8.69 and 35.56 μg/8h on the first day and on the second day (with earplugs) dropped to 6.45 and 30.95 μg/8h. Noise reduction by earplugs led to almost significant reductions in urinary epinephrine (p = 0.05) and significant reductions in norepinephrine (p = 0.02). The results showed that with noise reduction the urinary excretion of stress hormones, especially norepinephrine significantly decreases and workers are probably less prone to stress-related disorders.

  20. OnabotulinumtoxinA in urinary incontinence: Prospective Study of a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, A; Fernández-Mederos, A; García-Hernández, J Á

    2017-09-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a single intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (OnaBTA) for treating urge urinary incontinence (UUI) in women. We performed a prospective case-series study of consecutive patients with refractory UUI treated with an intravesical injection of OnaBTA. The patients were administered 100 units of OnaBTA injected into the bladder wall following 4 weeks of flushing with anticholinergic agents or beta 3 agonists. The urodynamic and clinical endpoints were evaluated before and 6 months after the injection of OnaBTA. The primary study endpoint was the number of episodes of urinary leakage. A total of 204 of the 210 selected patients conducted a valid visit 6 months after the therapeutic application. At 6 months of treatment with OnaBTA, 110 (53.9%) patients remained continent and were considered a success. However, 57 (27.9%) patients experienced one episode of urinary leakage per day, and 37 (18.2%) had 2 or more. In terms of the urodynamic parameters, we observed the following changes: increase in maximum bladder capacity (P<.0001) and reduced maximum pressure of the detrusor (P<.0001). In terms of the safety profile, 8 (3.9%) patients had self-limiting haematuria during the procedure, which resolved spontaneously, and 9 (4.4%) patients had acute urinary retention that required intermittent catheterisation. This study supports the use of OnabotulinumtoxinA in patients with urge urinary incontinence that does not respond to medical treatment. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary tract infection among fistula patients admitted at Hamlin fistula hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereje, Matifan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinesh; Asrat, Daneil; Ayenachew, Fekade

    2017-02-16

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causes a serious health problem and affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with obstetric fistula usually suffer from incontinence of urine and stool, which can predispose them to frequent infections of the urinary tract. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents, drug resistance pattern of the isolates and associated risk factor for urinary tract infection among fistula patients in Addis Ababa fistula hospital, Ethiopia. Across sectional study was conducted from February to May 2015 at Hamlin Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics and other UTI related risk factors were collected from study participants using structured questionnaires. The mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient agar and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by using disc diffusion method and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Out of 210 fistula patients investigated 169(80.5%) of the patient were younger than 25 years. Significant bacteriuria was observed in 122/210(58.1%) and 68(55.7%) of the isolates were from symptomatic cases. E.coli 65(53.7%) were the most common bacterial pathogen isolated followed by Proteus spp. 31(25.4%). Statistical Significant difference was observed with history of previous UTI (P = 0.031) and history of catheterization (P = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria isolates showed high level of resistance (>50%) to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while all gram positive bacteria isolated were showed low level of resistance (20-40%) to most of antibiotic tested. The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection among fistula patient is 58.1%. This study showed that the predominant pathogen of UTI were E.coli followed by Proteus spp. It also showed that amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was a drug of choice for urinary tract

  2. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity is not detected by urinary cell-cycle arrest biomarkers in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Zeki; Cebeci, Egemen; Helvaci, Serife Aysen; Toprak, Ilkim Deniz; Kutlu, Yasin; Sakin, Abdullah; Tukek, Tufan

    2017-06-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent with potential nephrotoxicity. Delayed increase in serum creatinine after cisplatin administration shows that serum creatinine may not be a sufficient marker for early detection of nephrotoxicity. Urinary insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) which are cell-cycle arrest biomarkers have been proposed recently for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI). Herein, we evaluated urinary TIMP-2/IGFBP7 levels before and after cisplatin administration to patients with lung cancer and their role was examined in the early diagnosis of AKI. Patients with glomerular filtration rate above 60 mL/min who had cisplatin treatment were enrolled. Urinary TIMP-2/IGFBP7 and serum creatinine levels were measured before and at 24th hour after cisplatin administration. Serum creatinine level was also measured at 48th hour after treatment. Cisplatin-associated AKI was detected in 13 patients (28%) among the 45 patients enrolled. There was no difference between creatinine, IGFBP7 and (IGFBP7 × TIMP-2)/1000 levels before and after treatment; urinary TIMP-2 level at 24th hour was significantly higher than the level before the treatment (p = 0.02). (IGFBP7 × TIMP-2)/1000 values were not different between patients with or without AKI. The area under the curve of (IGFBP7 × TIMP-2)/1000 at 24th hour of the treatment was 0.46 (CI 0.26-0.67). Although urinary IGFBP7 and TIMP-2 levels are used as biomarkers for early detection of AKI for patients in intensive care units and after surgery, they seem not to be useful for early detection of AKI due to cisplatin.

  3. Taiwanese Continence Society clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hann-Chorng Kuo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the current evidence and expert opinions on diagnosis and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD in Taiwan. The main problems of NLUTD are failure to store, failure to empty, and combined failure to store and empty. The priority of management of NLUTD should follow the order of: (1 preservation of renal function; (2 freedom from urinary tract infection (UTI; (3 efficient bladder emptying; and (4 freedom from indwelling catheter, and patients' expectation of management should be respected. Management of the urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI or multiple sclerosis (MS must be based on urodynamic findings, rather than inferences from the neurologic evaluation. Selecting high risk patients is important to prevent renal function impairment in patients with chronic NLUTD. Patients with NLUTD should be regularly followed up for their lower urinary tract dysfunction by urodynamic study and any urological complication should be adequately treated. Avoiding a chronic indwelling catheter can reduce the incidence of developing a low compliant bladder. Antimuscarinic agents with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC may reduce urological complications and improve quality of life (QoL in patients with NLUTD. Intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A provides an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity (DO or low compliant bladder and can replace the need for bladder augmentation. When surgical intervention is necessary, we should consider the least invasive type of surgery and reversible procedure first and avoid any unnecessary surgery of the lower urinary tract. Keeping the bladder and urethra in a good condition without interference of the neuromuscular continuity provides patients with NLUTD a chance for future new technologies. It is most important to never give up on improving the QoL in patients with NLUTD.

  4. Local Delivery of Antiproliferative Agents via Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stent is a medical device for serving as an internal scaffold to maintain or increase the lumen of a body conduit. Stent placement has become a primary treatment option in coronary artery disease for more than the last two decades. The stenting is also currently used for relieving the symptoms of narrowed lumen of nonvascular organs, such as esophagus, trachea and bronchi, small and large intestines, biliary, and urinary tract. Local delivery of active pharmaceutical agents via the stents can not only enhance healing of certain diseases, but it can also help decrease the potential risk of the stenting procedure to the surrounding tissue. In this review, we focus on reviewing a variety of drug-impregnated stents and local drug delivery systems using the stents.

  5. Comparison of men with acute versus chronic urinary retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of men with acute versus chronic urinary retention: aetiology, clinical features and complications. SPJ Van Vuuren, CF Heyns, AD Zarrabi. Abstract. Background: The objectives were to investigate the aetiology and clinical features of urinary retention and to analyse differences between acute urinary retention ...

  6. How Family Physicians Manage Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Woolnough, K. V.; Domovitch, E.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians vary in their approaches to urinary tract infections in females. We studied 198 women with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Computer analysis failed to identify any clusters of symptoms, signs or significant historical data which would predict significant bacteriuria with acceptable accuracy. Routine culturing of all symptomatic women is not recommended. Risk factors causing complications of urinary tract infection are reviewed.

  7. Urinary tract infections in women with urogynaecological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and

  8. Mitrofanoff Urinary Diversion: A Report of Three Cases | Mugalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence or irreparable urethral stricturing can be improved by diversion with construction of catheterizable urinary stomas. We report our experience with three patients who required urinary diversion and underwent the Mitrafanoff procedure. The cases involved an eight year old ...

  9. Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Ayten

    2017-07-04

    To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. A questionnaire was conducted with a total of 750 pregnant women about their urinary incontinence complaints between April and December 2013. The prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy was 300 in 750 (40%). Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence during pregnancy. 41.7% of nulliparous women, 38% of primipara women, and 20.3% of multipara women experienced urinary incontinence. Among women reporting UI, 29.3% experienced leakage a few times a day and the amount of leakage was generally (59.7%) moderate. Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, gestational age, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, mode of delivery at last childbirth, previous urinary tract infection, body mass index during pregnancy. But on multivariable analysis, the risk factors for urinary incontinence during pregnancy were previous urinary tract infection (OR = 3.8, 95%CI 1.5-9.3), constipation (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7-5.6) and gestational age (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9). As a result of this study, urinary incontinence is a common condition during pregnancy. Results would help the design of more intensive training programs to prevent incontinence during pregnancy by increasing the awareness about urinary incontinence of healthcare staff engaging in the care of pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Urinary incontinence in pregnant women and their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaöz, Semra; Talas, Melek S; Atabekoğlu, Cem S

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the related risk factors as well as to assess its influence on the quality of life. Although urinary incontinence is common during pregnancy and can have a substantial impact on quality of life, women rarely seek help for this symptom. This study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive survey. A total of 393 pregnant women participated in the study between March and June 2007. The data was collected using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and Wagner's quality of life scale. Potential risk factors were investigated through logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27% (106/393). Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, urinary incontinence in mother and sister, previous urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. According to the results of our study, urinary incontinence is common in women during pregnancy. The quality of life of pregnant women was found to be either unaffected or affected very little by urinary incontinence. This study reveals that the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy is very high. The findings will help increase the awareness of health care workers involved in the care of pregnant women about urinary incontinence and aid the design of more intensive education programmes directed towards the prevention of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several notable human pathogens cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern ...

  12. Pattern of presentation and management of benign upper urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper urinary tract obstruction is a common cause of severe symptoms, recurrent urinary tract infection and deterioration or complete loss of renal function when intervention is not timely. Objective: To document the pattern of presentation and the management options for the benign upper urinary tract ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  14. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern among symptomatic pregnant women in Abuja.

  15. Urinary Stone Disease in Kano, North Western Nigeria | Aji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary stone disease is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract after urinary tract infection and pathologic conditions of the prostate. Although the ... Patients and Method: A 5 year retrospective study of patients treated for urolithiasis was conducted in a Teaching Hospital in North-western Nigeria.

  16. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  17. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  18. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and

  19. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  20. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  1. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women receiving ante-natal care in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeinde, Bankole H; Omoregie, Richard; Oladeinde, Oladapo B

    2015-01-01

    A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Clean-catch urine was collected from 220 pregnant women attending a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Urine samples were processed, and microbial isolates identified using standard bacteriological procedures. A cross-sectional study design was used. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0%, significantly affected by parity and gestational age (Pinfection was recorded among 13(10.7%) pregnant women, and was unaffected by maternal age, parity, gravidity, gestational age, and educational status. Irrespective of trimester Escherichia coli was the most prevalent etiologic agent of urinary tract infection, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. The flouroquinolones were the most effective antibacterial agents, while Sulphamethoxazole-trimetoprim, Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, and Nitrofurantoin had poor activity against uropathogens isolated. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0% and significantly affected by gestational age and parity. The most prevalent etiologic agent observed was Escherichia coli. With the exception of the flouroquinolones, aminoglycoside, and Amoxicillin-cluvanate, the activity of other antibiotics used on uropathogens were poor. Health education of the traditional birth attendant and her clients by relevant intervention agencies is strongly advocated.

  2. Injection devices for bulking agents in uro-gynaecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Cerruto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence (SUI affects a large proportion of middle-aged and elderly women. When all conservative means are ineffective, a surgical treatment including retropubic suspension, pubovaginal and tension-free slings, is contemplated. Intra-urethral injections with bulking agents have been used as an alternative to the mentioned surgical procedures with alternate results. Many urethral bulking agents are available, such as bovine glutaraldehyde cross linked (GAX collagen, polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon, polydimethyl-sillxane elastomer (silicone, carbon coated zirconium beads, hyaluronic acid/dextranomer, and autologous tissues such as fat and cartilage. These substances may be injected in a retrograde or antegrade fashion in the periurethral tissue and whether one route of injection is better than another is not well documented in the literature. We briefly describe the main injection techniques and devices of the most common bulking agents used in the treatment of female SUI.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  4. Urinary tract infection among apparently healthy commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with age playing a prominent factor. Therefore, as road safety campaigns are encouraged for transport workers, concerted efforts must also be made to enlighten them on the need to avoid risky sexual behaviours including drug and alcohol abuse. Keywords: Urinary Tract Infections, Asymptomatic UTI, Personal hygiene, ...

  5. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  6. ANALYSIS OF URINARY CALCULI IN MAURITIUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    during the period 1995 -1998. Stone analysis was done at the University of Mauritius laboratories using wet spot chemical tests, spectrophotoscopic and analytical techniques. Infrared spectra of all urinary calculi were recorded as KBr pellets using a. MATTSON 1000 series Single Beam FT/IR spectrophotometer. Metal ions ...

  7. 22 RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    22. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION BACTERIAL ISOLATES. TO SELECTED QUINOLONES. *A.R.M Momoh, *M.AC. Odike, * S. Olowo, **A.A. Momoh, **P.O. Okolo. Department of *Pathological Sciences, College of Medicine, A.A.U/IRRUA Specialist. Teaching Hospital, IRRUA, Edo State, ...

  8. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  9. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  10. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge.

  11. [Urinary lithiasis in renal transplant recipient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchereau, J; Thuret, R; Kleinclauss, F; Timsit, M-O

    2016-11-01

    To report epidemiology and characteristics of urinary lithiasis and its management in kidney allograft at the time of organ procurement or after kidney transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords (MESH): urinary lithiasis, stone, kidney transplantation. Publications obtained were selected based on methodology, language, date of publication (last 10 years) and relevance. Prospective and retrospective studies, in English or French, review articles; meta-analysis and guidelines were selected and analyzed. This search found 58 articles. After reading, 37 were included in the text based on their relevance. Frequency of urinary lithiasis in renal transplant recipient is similar to those observed in the general population. Generally, urinary lithiasis of the graft is asymptomatic because of renal denervation after organ procurement and transplantation. Nevertheless, this situation may be at high risk due to the immunosuppressed state of the recipient with a unique functioning kidney. Most of the time, the diagnosis is incidental during routine post-transplantation follow-up. Management of urolithiasis in renal transplant recipient is similar to that performed in general population. Due to its potential severity in transplanted immunosuppressed patients with a sole kidney, urolithiasis requires expert urological management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between urinary Vascular Endothelial Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined association of uVEGFs, pIGFs concentrations with fasting glucose level, glycemic control index (HbA1c %), urinary measured renal parameters i.e. creatinine, creatinine clearance and albuminuria as well as lipogram parameters in 75 type 2 diabetic patients and 25 healthy controls. Study subjects were ...

  13. Medical Prescription Pitfalls of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical Prescription Pitfalls of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Government Healthcare Facilities in Zambia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how ...

  14. Medical Prescription Pitfalls of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this evaluation was to identify pitfalls in medical prescriptions of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in government healthcare facilities in Zambia. Design: This was a cross sectional and government healthcare facilities were conveniently sampled. Main outcome measures: Rate of compliance to ...

  15. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as a significant growth of bacteria in the urine, together with fever, lethargy, dysuria, pain, anorexia, vomiting and possible kidney scarring.1,2,3. UTIs are usually caused by gram-negative aerobic bacilli; approximately 80% are caused by Escherichia coli.2,4 Other causative ...

  16. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest bacterial infection occurring in renal transplant recipients, and it is associated with significant morbidity. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of all UTI episodes diagnosed in renal transplant patients who attended regularly for follow up in the ...

  17. A Comprehensive Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comprehensive Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Kano State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  18. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  19. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of schistosomiasis especially among school children in our environment. The inclusion of health education package aimed at changing behavior of school children from adverse water contact practices was recommended. Keywords: prevalence, urinary schistosomiasis, secondary school students. The Tropical Journal of ...

  20. Assessment and management of urinary incontinence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... and feeling dirty with low self-esteem (38%). Most elderly will not spontaneously ... Currently, UI is incorporated into a group of symptoms called lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are .... Decreased detrusor contractility. • Decreased ability of the detrusor to sustain tension during bladder emptying.

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Urinary Bacteria Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections in the paediatric age group at The Nairobi Hospital. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Nairobi Hospital records department. Results: A total of 31 organisms were isolated consisting of Escherichia ...

  2. Constipation and reversible urinary tract abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dohil, R; Roberts, E; Jones, K V; Jenkins, H R

    1994-01-01

    Urinary tract anomalies were prospectively investigated with ultrasound in 29 children with functional constipation. These children were compared before and after treatment with 451 age matched healthy controls without constipation. The bladder residue and upper renal tract dilatation after micturition were significantly increased in the group with constipation and improved after treatment.

  3. [Relevance of urinary protein/creatinine ratio and urinary abnormal casts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Mitsuru; Tabe, Yoko; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Miyake, Kazunori; Horii, Takashi; Miida, Takashi; Osaka, Akimichi

    2009-11-01

    The quantification of 24 hrs urinary protein excretion is valuable for diagnosing and monitoring renal disease. However, because of its practical difficulties, the spot urinary protein/creatinine (P/C) ratio has been utilized. We aimed to evaluate the analytical performance of P/C ratio by comparing with the qualitative urinary protein values and the microscopic urine sediment analysis. We obtained 5,538 urinary samples from the outpatients of Juntendo University Hospital. Testing for urinary P/C ratio was performed by Atlas Pro12 (cut-off 150 mg/g x Cr), urinary protein (proteinuria) was detected quantitatively by full-automated system ATLAS XL (cut-off 30 mg/dL). Microscopic exams were conducted following to the JCCLS reference method. The P/C ratio demonstrated higher sensitivity but lower specificity for urinary abnormal casts detected by microscopic exams compared to proteinuria (sensitivity; P/C 87%, proteinuria 77%. specificity; P/C 74%, proteinuria 93%). From the comparative study with microscopic exams, both P/C and proteinuria performed high positive rate (> 80%) for the granular cast type and mixture cast type. For the cellular cast type, however, the positive rate of P/C was 56% and that of proteinuria was only 36%. The overall abnormal casts by microscopic exams showed better correlation with the positive P/C ratio than proteinuria. This study emphasizes that a spot urine P/C ratio is useful in screening for the further microscopic exams. P/C ratio can be a convincing index of urinary protein excretion when attenuation urine is doubted.

  4. Evaluation of urinary and faecal continent stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemers, T; Schimke, C; Ardelean, M; Ludwikowski, B

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the outcome and complications of urinary and faecal continent catheterizable stomas. Retrospective record review of all patients operated on in our institution within the last 6 years. Fifty-five children received 63 stomas. The mean age at operation was 9.2 years and the mean follow-up period was 2.8 years. The diagnoses were: neurogenic bladder (n=22), bladder or cloacal exstrophy (n=20), anorectal malformation (n=6), persistent cloaca (n=3), Hirschsprung's disease (n=2), posterior urethral valves (n=1) and prune belly syndrome (n=1). There were 35 urinary stomas and 28 faecal stomas. Eight patients received both stomas. Both the appendix and a transverse tubularized intestinal segment (Yang-Monti technique) were used; in some cases a caecal flap was created. In three patients the appendix was divided and used to construct two stomas. The implantation of urinary stomas was into the native bladder in 24 patients and into the intestinal segment of an augmented bladder in 11 cases. The location of the stoma was umbilical in 20 cases, right lower quadrant of the abdomen in 35, neo-umbilicus in five and left lower quadrant in three. When an extra-umbilical location was chosen skin flaps were used. Excellent cosmetic and functional results were achieved in 53 (84.2%) of the 63 stomas, which are continent and easy to catheterize. Two had acceptable results with minor problems. There were eight re-operations (12.6% of stomas, 14.5% of patients). The reasons for the re-operations were difficult catheterization in two, incontinence in three, and mucosal prolapse in three patients in whom skin flaps were not used. Of the eight re-operations, seven were in urinary stomas and one in a faecal stoma. Urinary incontinence was attributed to shortening of the intravesical tunnel. No difference in results was observed between the different techniques used, with the exception that cutaneous anastomosis without skin flaps had to be revised because of prolapse, and two out

  5. Association of Urinary Tract Infection in Married Women Presenting with Urinary Incontinence in a Hospital based Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayakumar; Eswara, Shilpalakshmiprasad; Yesudhason, Bineshlal

    2016-03-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is increasingly recognized as a significant health problem, which remains a hygienic as well as social problem. Women have higher risk of developing incontinence in their lifetime compared with men. Urinary tract infection can increase the incidence of incontinence. Present study was undertaken to assess the association of UTI in married women who presented with UI. The present study was aimed to identify the patients (married women) with complaints of UI and determining its association with UTI; and to identify the causative organism for the UTI along with its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. This is a cross-sectional, non-randomized study of 107 married women with UI, who attended outpatient department in our hospital. Mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected from these patients with positive history of incontinence. Screening of urine for significant bacteriuria and culture to identify the etiological agents were performed followed by evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Overall 25.2% of patients with incontinence had a positive urine culture. History of UTI was elicited in around 38.3% of patients, among which 15% had positive urine culture and 10.3% of the patients who did not have a history had positive culture. Escherichia coli was the commonest causative organism (66.6) causing UTI, followed by Enterococcus spp. (22.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.4%) and Proteus mirabilis (3.7%). The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for Escherichia coli showed high sensitivity to Nitrofurantoin (94.4%) and high resistance to Ampicillin (94.4%). Our study revealed one in every four incontinent patients had UTI and almost half of them suffered from previous episodes of UTI. Thus appropriate correction of the existing UTI can help in the treatment of UI.

  6. Urinary YKL-40 as a Candidate Biomarker for Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Hee; Chung, Mi Hae; Bin, Joong Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Juyoung; Suh, Jin Soon

    2018-01-01

    Given that YKL-40 is a known marker of inflammation, we sought to determine its association with urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children. In total, 44 children aged 0 to 24 months with febrile UTI and 35 age- and sex-matched controls with fever from other causes were enrolled in the study. ELISA was performed to determine the level of YKL-40 in urine collected from each child. The ratio of urinary YKL-40 to creatinine (Cr) was higher in the children with a UTI than in the controls (P40/Cr ratio, 0.86 for pyuria, and 0.71 for positive nitrite on urinalysis. We applied a cut-off value of 125.23 pg/mg to urinary YKL-40/Cr for detecting UTI. Eight of nine children in the control group with pyuria had urinary YKL-40/Cr levels lower than 125.23 pg/mg, and the one child in the UTI group without pyuria or positive nitrite had a urinary YKL-40/Cr level greater than 125.23 pg/mg. Determining the levels of urinary YKL-40/Cr may help identify true cases of UTI in febrile young children, especially when they have pyuria but not nitrite, or have neither pyuria nor nitrite in the urine. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  7. Urinary β-HCG in Benign and Malignant Urinary Tract Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-B. Halim

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectable leve ls of HCG have been reported in conditions other th an normal pregnancy, including threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, carcinomas of the stomach, liver, pancreas and breast as well as multiple myeloma and melanoma. The present study was conducted to estimate urinary β-HCG in bladder cancer and benign urinary tract disorders. 163 individuals were included, 68 with bladder cancer (60 males and 8 females, 64 with benign urinary tract diseases (55 males and 9 females and 31 normal healthy controls (26 males and 5 females. Urinary β-HCG was estimated by the ELISA technique using the reagents supplied by DRG International Inc., Germany. Results of th e study revealed an overexpression of β-HCG in mali gnant and benign urinary tract diseases. 60.3% of the cancer patients and 29.7% of patients with benign diseases showed urinary β-HCG values above the upper limit of the control group (2mIU/ml .

  8. Urethral injection therapy for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchin, Vivienne; Page, Tobias; Keegan, Phil E; Atiemo, Kofi Om; Cody, June D; McClinton, Samuel; Aluko, Patricia

    2017-07-25

    Urinary incontinence imposes a significant health and economic burden to society. Periurethral or transurethral injection of bulking agents is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used as one the surgical treatments of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in adult women. To assess the effects of periurethral or transurethral injection therapy on the cure or improvement of urinary incontinence in women. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 8 November 2010) and the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of treatment for urinary incontinence in which at least one management arm involved periurethral or transurethral injection therapy. Two review authors independently assessed methodological quality of each study using explicit criteria. Data extraction was undertaken independently and clarification concerning possible unreported data sought directly from the investigators. Excluding duplicate reports, we identified 14 trials (excluding one that was subsequently withdrawn from publication and not included in this analysis) including 2004 women that met the inclusion criteria. The limited data available were not suitable for meta-analysis because they all came from separate trials. Trials were small and generally of moderate quality.One trial of 45 women that compared injection therapy with conservative treatment showed early benefit for the injectable therapy with respect to continence grade (risk ratio (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.94) and quality of life (mean difference (MD) 0.54, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.92). Another trial, comparing Injection of autologous fat with placebo, terminated early because of safety concerns. Two trials that compared injection with surgical management found significantly better objective cure in the surgical group (RR 4.77, 95% CI 1.96 to 11.64; and RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.79), although the latter trial data did not reach

  9. [Urogenital atrophy and recurrent urinary tract infection in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, J; Capilna, M; Schmidt, M H

    1997-08-13

    Postmenopausal lower urinary tract atrophy and its relations to recurrent urinary infections in elderly women are studied. Clinical aspects, functional and histological aspects and hypothetic mechanisms of atrophy are reported, epidemiologic data, mechanisms of urinary infections and of estrogen effects are reviewed and reports on the results of local or systemic use of drugs from the literature are presented. Local administration of estrogen seems to be efficient on the urinary tract. Local treatment is less dangerous and cheaper than systemic treatment. Hormonal treatment is one of the preventive measures against recurrent urinary infections in elderly women.

  10. Diagnosis and management of fungal urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Carol A

    2014-03-01

    When the terms funguria or fungal urinary tract infection are used, most physicians are referring to candiduria and urinary tract infections due to Candida species. Other fungi, including yeasts and molds can involve the kidney during the course of disseminated infection, but rarely cause symptoms referable to the urinary tract. Candida species appear to be unique in their ability to both colonize and cause invasive disease in the urinary tract. This overview focuses only on candiduria and Candida urinary tract infection because they are common and many times present perplexing management issues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in a Cameroonian City

    OpenAIRE

    Nzalie, Rolf Nyah-tuku; Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are usually treated empirically. Geographical variations in etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns are common. Knowledge of antibiotic resistance trends is important for improving evidence-based recommendations for empirical treatment of UTIs. Our aim was to determine the major bacterial etiologies of CAUTIs and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a cosmopolitan area of Cameroon for comparison with pres...

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN SOWS OF COMMERCIAL FARMS IN SINOP-MT

    OpenAIRE

    L. F. B. Venancio; K. R. Ducatti; M. O. Lima; T. B. Vieira

    2017-01-01

    Urinary infections (UI) in nuts are highly prevalent in modern intensive farming systems and cause significant economic losses, especially for reproductive failure and shortening the life of the array. The most frequently isolated agent is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). Variables such as environmental contamination pressure, management, nutrition, physiological and anatomical facilities and conditions of the animal itself are directly linked to illness. The objective of this work w...

  13. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Empathic Agent Technology (EAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, L.; van den Broek, Egon; Richards, D.; Sklar, E.; Wilensky, U.

    2005-01-01

    A new view on empathic agents is introduced, named: Empathic Agent Technology (EAT). It incorporates a speech analysis, which provides an indication for the amount of tension present in people. It is founded on an indirect physiological measure for the amount of experienced stress, defined as the

  15. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniël Telgen; John-Jules Meyer; Glenn Meerstra; Franc Pape; Ing. Erik Puik; Leo van Moergestel; Niels van Nieuwenburg; Wouter Langerak

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to

  16. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  17. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  18. Preoperative urinary tract obstruction in scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Kotani, Toshiaki; Mori, Kazuetsu; Kawamura, Ken; Ohtake, Akira

    2017-01-01

    While the association between scoliosis and cardiac and respiratory function impairments has been well characterized in clinical practice and research, the potential effect of scoliosis on urinary tract structure and renal function has received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the preoperative clinical characteristics of urinary tract structure and renal function in pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis, using a combination of blood tests, urinalysis, and imaging. Preoperative measures of urinary tract structure and renal function were obtained for 16 patients, 13-17 years old, scheduled for corrective surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. Preoperative assessment included blood test and urinalysis, combined with structural imaging on ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance urography (MRU), and radioisotope tracing (RI), using technetium-99 m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG3). Differences in blood and urine tests between patients with and without urinary tract obstruction (UTO) were evaluated for significance using Mann-Whitney U test. For all 16 patients, blood tests and MRU were within normal limits. Dilatation of the renal pelvis was identified on US in eight patients (50.0%). UTO was identified on RI in six patients (37.5%). UTO was associated with elevated β2-microglobulin concentration. Urinary β2-microglobulin concentration >0.7 μg/mg Cr differentiated patients with UTO from those without UTO, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 70%. β2-Microglobulin concentration may be a useful marker to screen for asymptomatic UTO in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  20. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  2. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uju M.E. Dibua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s of urinary tract infections (UTIs in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch' method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2% from females and 12 (19.4% from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08% were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%. All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

  3. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    major fraction of an absorbed dose of a CW agent is likely to be eliminated as urinary metabolites, a much lesser amount being excreted in the faeces ...and methods for the analysis of metabolites in urine or blood. Examples are provided of detection in cases of human exposure. The review focuses...skin. Urinary excretion of 35S had a half-life of - 1.4 days. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were excreted in faeces , typically 5-15% of the dose

  4. Urinary excretion of copper and zinc among cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, I A; Shouman, A E

    1997-01-01

    The urinary levels of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were measured among 11 adult male non-smokers and 38 adult male cigarette smokers to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the urinary excretion of Zn and Cu in relation to urinary Cd level. The results indicated that among non-smokers, the urinary levels of Cd, Zn, and Cu were: 1.17-5.24 (3.73 +/- 1.23) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 66.73-156.13 (109.28 +/- 30.27) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 83.17-195.65 (126.72 +/- 41.46) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively. The cigarette smokers were classified into two groups according to the level of urinary Cd. The first group contains 13 cases with urinary Cd levels within the normal range of non-smokers, and the urinary levels of both Zn and Cu were observed to be also within the normal range of non-smokers (2.14-4.98 (3.85 +/- 0.97) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 69.40-150.59 (97.61 +/- 21.39) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 85.33-137.42 (96.11 +/- 13.60) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively]. The second group contains 25 cases with elevated urinary Cd levels (5.44-40.37 (14.08 +/- 9.69 microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine]. The latter group was further subdivided into two subgroups according to the urinary levels of Zn and Cu. The first subgroup contains 15 cases with urinary levels of both Zn and Cu within the normal range of non-smokers [5.44-13.58 (7.74 +/- 2.11) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 69.54-133.46 (96.95 +/- 22.91) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 93.06-191.90 (133.7 +/- 32.80) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively]. The second subgroup contains 10 cases with elevated urinary levels of Zn and/or Cu [13.81-40.37 (23.57 +/- 8.74) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 141.53-511.11 (284.76 +/- 132.45) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 193.06-705.48 (388.49 +/- 158.66) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively). In the latter subgroup it was noted that only one case showed elevated levels of urinary Cd and Zn

  5. In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Characterization of Peptoids as Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzewski, Ann M; Jenssen, Håvard; Fjell, Christopher D; Waldbrook, Matt; Chongsiriwatana, Nathaniel P; Yuen, Eddie; Hancock, Robert E W; Barron, Annelise E

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a global threat that has spurred the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their mimetics as novel anti-infective agents. While the bioavailability of AMPs is often reduced due to protease activity, the non-natural structure of AMP mimetics renders them robust to proteolytic degradation, thus offering a distinct advantage for their clinical application. We explore the therapeutic potential of N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, as AMP mimics using a multi-faceted approach that includes in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques. We report a new QSAR model that we developed based on 27 diverse peptoid sequences, which accurately correlates antimicrobial peptoid structure with antimicrobial activity. We have identified a number of peptoids that have potent, broad-spectrum in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. Lastly, using a murine model of invasive S. aureus infection, we demonstrate that one of the best candidate peptoids at 4 mg/kg significantly reduces with a two-log order the bacterial counts compared with saline-treated controls. Taken together, our results demonstrate the promising therapeutic potential of peptoids as antimicrobial agents.

  6. COMMON ORGANISMS AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF E COLI IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION, IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanavas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI includes a spectrum of Asymptomatic Bacteruria (ABU, Cystitis, Prostitis and Pyelonephritis. Except in ABU, UTI is represented by symptomatic disease that warrants antimicrobial therapy. 1 Many of the studies have shown increasing antibiotic resistance to these agents. This study consists of a retrospective observational study of culture and sensitivity of 150 urinary samples, collected from patients who presented with symptoms of UTI, in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Northern Kerala, irrespective of their age and sex for a period of six months from June 2015 to November 2015. These results are then analyzed to find common organisms causing UTI in different age groups in either sex and their respective antibiotic resistance are noted. Out of 150 urinary samples 69.34% were sterile, while 30.66% were culture positive. Among the culture positive patients sex distribution was almost equal, with a slight female predominance, having a contribution of 54.35% females and 45.65% males. The most common organism was found to be E.coli, which contributed more than 50 per cent of total culture positivity (54.35%. Others include Staphylococci, Klebsiella Pnuemoniae, Proteus species, Pseudomonas, Enterococci, Candida Albicans etc. Collateral damage is an ecological adverse effect that resist the use of a highly efficacious drug to be considered as first line agent. Our study shows that drugs causing minimal collateral damages like Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin can be used as first line agent for treatment of UTI.

  7. Are lower urinary tract symptoms in children associated with urinary symptoms in their mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Ariane S; Fraga, Luis Gustavo A; Salomão, Bruno A; Oliveira, Júlia B; Seixas, Camila L; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Netto, José Murillo B; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2017-06-01

    The association between parents who suffered daytime incontinence as children and children who are incontinence has been reported. However, the association of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in children and urinary symptoms in mothers has not been studied. To test the hypothesis that the children of mothers with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are more likely to have urinary symptoms. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in two cities in Brazil. Children/adolescents of 5-17 years of age and their mothers were interviewed. Children with neurological problems, previously detected urinary tract abnormalities or who refused to sign the informed consent or assent form were excluded. The DVSS questionnaire was used to evaluate the presence of LUTS in the children and the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire was used to evaluate their mothers. Constipation in the children was investigated using the ROME III criteria. A total of 827 mother-child pairs were included, with 414 of the children (50.06%) being male. Mean age was 9.1 ± 2.9 years for the children and 35.9 ± 6.5 years for the mothers. Urinary symptoms (occurring at least once or twice a week) were present in 315 children (38.1%), incontinence in 114 (13.8%) and urinary urgency in 141 (17%). Of the mothers, 378 (45.7%) had at least one LUTS, with 103 (12.5%) having incontinence and 153 (18.5%) urgency. According to the DVSS, the overall prevalence of LUT dysfunction was 9.1%. The children's DVSS scores were significantly associated with the mothers' ICIQ-OAB scores (p urinary symptoms were 2.5 times more likely to have a child with LUT dysfunction (95%CI: 1.52-4.17; p incontinence and urinary urgency were also more likely to have incontinence and urgency. Mothers with typical symptoms of overactive bladder are more likely to have a child with LUT dysfunction. This correlation is also positive for the isolated symptoms of urinary urgency and incontinence. Independent predictive factors of the

  8. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  9. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, Suzanne E; Beerepoot, Mariëlle A J; Prins, Jan M

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common, especially in women. Low-dose daily or postcoital antimicrobial prophylaxis is effective for prevention of recurrent UTIs and women can self-diagnose and self-treat a new UTI with antibiotics. The increasing resistance rates of Escherichia coli to antimicrobial agents has, however, stimulated interest in nonantibiotic methods for the prevention of UTIs. This article reviews the literature on efficacy of different forms of nonantibiotic prophylaxis. Future studies with lactobacilli strains (oral and vaginal) and the oral immunostimulant OM-89 are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The combined determination of serum and urinary α1-MG and urinary albumin for the clinical appraisal of kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chunyong; Wang Chunlan; Ma Yuantao

    1996-01-01

    The combined determination of serum and urinary α 1 -MG and urinary albumin (Alb) can be used as the sensitive indices of the early diagnosis of kidney function. The serum and urinary α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG and urinary Alb values for 221 cases with different kidney diseases and 57 normal subjects are measured by radioimmunoassay. The results show that the values of serum and urinary α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG and urinary Alb of patients are significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (P 1 -MG is 82.4% and 84.2% respectively, serum and urinary β 2 -MG is 79.6% and 73.3% respectively, and urinary Alb is 91.4%. It is suggested that the positive rates of serum and urinary α 1 -MG and urinary Alb is higher than that of serum and urinary β 2 -MG. So the determination of α 1 -MG and Alb should be used in the early diagnosis and recovery observation of different kidney diseases

  11. Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Carys; Keyes, Mira; Liu, Mitchell; Moravan, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS ≤5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG ≥2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base

  12. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  13. Host-specific induction of Escherichia coli fitness genes during human urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Hazen, Tracy H; Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Smith, Sara N; Ernst, Robert D; Rasko, David A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-12-23

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant etiological agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI), manifested by inflammation of the urinary bladder, in humans and is a major global public health concern. Molecular pathogenesis of UPEC has been primarily examined using murine models of UTI. Translational research to develop novel therapeutics against this major pathogen, which is becoming increasingly antibiotic resistant, requires a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in pathogenesis during human UTIs. Total RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and comparative transcriptional analysis of UTI samples to the UPEC isolates cultured in human urine and laboratory medium were used to identify novel fitness genes that were specifically expressed during human infection. Evidence for UPEC genes involved in ion transport, including copper efflux, nickel and potassium import systems, as key fitness factors in uropathogenesis were generated using an experimental model of UTI. Translational application of this study was investigated by targeting Cus, a bacterial copper efflux system. Copper supplementation in drinking water reduces E. coli colonization in the urinary bladder of mice. Additionally, our results suggest that anaerobic processes in UPEC are involved in promoting fitness during UTI in humans. In summary, RNA-seq was used to establish the transcriptional signature in UPEC during naturally occurring, community acquired UTI in women and multiple novel fitness genes used by UPEC during human infection were identified. The repertoire of UPEC genes involved in UTI presented here will facilitate further translational studies to develop innovative strategies against UTI caused by UPEC.

  14. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron AP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne P Cameron, Allen McNeil HarawayDepartment of Urology, Division of Neurourology and Pelvic Floor Reconstruction, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses.Materials and methods: A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used.Results: Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive.Conclusion: There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, conservative and surgical treatment

  15. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Sumera; Ahmad Anjum, Aftab; Ijaz, Tayyaba; Asad Ali, Muhammad; Ur Rehman Khan, Muti; Nawaz, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    The study was conducted to isolate and determine the antibiotic resistance in E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital, Lahore. Urine samples (n=500) were collected from patients with signs and symptoms of Urinary tract infections. Bacteria were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical profile. Antibiotic resistance pattern of E. coli against different antibiotic was determined by Kirby-Baur method. Bacterial etiological agent was isolated from 402 samples with highest prevalence of E. coli (321, 80%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9.4%), Proteus species (5.4%) and Pseudomonas species (5.2%). The E. coli were highly resistant to penicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%) and cefotaxime (89.7%), followed by intermediate level of resistance to ceftazidime (73.8%), cephradine (73.8%), tetracycline (69.4%), doxycycline (66.6%), augmentin (62.6%), gentamycin (59.8%), cefuroxime (58.2%), ciprofloxacin (54.2%), cefaclor (50%), aztreonam (44.8%), ceftriaxone (43.3%), imipenem (43.3%), and low level of resistance to streptomycin (30%), kanamycin (19.9%), tazocin (14%), amikacin (12.7%) and lowest to norfloxacin (11.2%). Out of 321 E. coli isolates, 261 (81%) were declared as multiple drug resistant and 5 (1.5%) were extensive drug resistant. It is concluded that most of the urinary tract infections in human are caused by multiple drug resistant E. coli.

  16. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants against multidrug resistant urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.A.; Adnan, M.; Rahman, H.; Allah, A.; Hashem, A.

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens have become a serious global health concern. Main etiological agents for UTI are Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, medicinal plants have found great popularity in medical treatment for different kinds of infections including urinary tract infections. The study has been planned to evaluate the efficacy of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and crude extracts of medicinal plants i.e. Syzygium aromaticum, Glycerrhiza glabra,Laurus nobilis and Brassica rapa against MDR urinary tract pathogens through agar well diffusion method. To investigate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBCs), dilution method was used. Quantitative evaluations of phytochemicals indicated the presence of alkaloids in higher concentrations. Results obtained for the antibacterial activities, the crude extracts of the four plants showed significantly higher inhibition zones as compared to other phytochemicals. The MIC values obtained for different extracts varying from 7.5-15 mg/ml. Comparig the activities of the extracts of the the four medicinal plants it was found that Syzygium aromaticum was the most potent plant against the tested bacterial pathogens indicating its strong candidateship for the drug development. (author)

  17. Synthesis of 125 I - Salicyl Hydroxamic Acid for Urinary Bladder Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.T.; Abou EL Zahab, M.; Hamed, M.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid is a salicylate derivative. Radiolabeling of Salicyl hydroxamic acid ( SHA ) with iodine-125 may have considerable interest for imaging of urinary bladder. This study is aimed to optimize the radiolabeling yield of Salicyl hydroxamic with radio iodine (125-123) using chloramine - T (CAT) as an oxidizing agent with respect to factors that affect the reaction conditions such as SHA amount, CAT amount, reaction time and ph of the reaction mixture. In - vitro stability of the radiolabeled complex was checked and it was found to be stable for up to 24 h. 125 I-SHA was injected via intravenous administration routes into normal male Sprague – Dawley rats. Bio - distribution studies have revealed that 125 I-SHA was excreted in urine with extent that it could give a clear image for urinary bladder especially if the bladder it tightly closed. The amount of 125 I - Salicyl hydroxamic excreted was increased in case of giving potassium bicarbonate to rat before injection of 125 I-SHA. The result of biodistribution study of 125 I - SHA in experimental animal suggest ed the possibility of using 123 I-SHA to image the urinary bladder

  18. Recent advances in recurrent urinary tract infection from pathogenesis and biomarkers to prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fong Jhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI might be one of the most common problems in urological clinics. Recent research has revealed novel evidence about recurrent UTI and it should be considered a different disease from the first infection. The pathogenesis of recurrent UTI might include two mechanisms, bacterial factors and deficiencies in host defense. Bacterial survival in the urinary bladder after antibiotic treatment and progression to form intracellular bacterial communities might be the most important bacterial factors. In host defense deficiency, a defect in pathogen recognition and urothelial barrier function impairment play the most important roles. Immunodeficiency and urogenital tract anatomical abnormalities have been considered the essential risk factors for recurrent UTI. In healthy women, voiding dysfunction and behavioral factors also increase the risk of recurrent UTI. Sexual intercourse and estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women might have the strongest association with recurrent UTI. Traditional lifestyle factors such as fluid intake and diet are not considered independent risk factors now. Serum and urine biomarkers to predict recurrent UTI from the first infection have also attracted a wide attention recently. Current clinical evidence suggests that serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor and urinary nerve growth factor have potential predictive value for recurrent UTI. Clinical trials have proven the efficacy of the oral immunoactive agent OM-89 for the prevention of UTI. Vaccines for recurrent UTI are recommended by the latest guidelines and are available on the market.

  19. Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Jafari, Afshar

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers. In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g/kg/day) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in one week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of one-repetition maximum for whole-body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P0.05). These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.

  20. Experimental colonization of the canine urinary tract with the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary F; Totsika, Makrina; Schembri, Mark A; Mills, Paul C; Seton, Erica J; Trott, Darren J

    2011-01-10

    Establishment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) with Escherichia coli 83972 is a viable prophylactic alternative to antibiotic therapy for the prevention of recurrent bacterial urinary tract infection in humans. Approximately 2 × 10(8) viable E. coli 83972 cells were introduced into the bladder of six healthy female dogs via a sterile urinary catheter. The presence of pyuria, depression, stranguria, pollakiuria and haematuria was documented for 6 weeks and urinalysis and aerobic bacterial cultures were performed every 24-72 h. Pyuria was present in all dogs on day 1 post-inoculation and 4/6 dogs (67%) had a positive urine culture on this day. Duration of colonization ranged from 0 to 10 days (median 4 days). Four dogs were re-inoculated on day 20. Duration of colonization following the second inoculation ranged from 1 to 3 days. No dog suffered pyrexia or appeared systemically unwell but all dogs initially exhibited mild pollakiuria and a small number displayed gross haematuria and/or stranguria. By day 3 of each trial all clinical signs had resolved. Persistent bacteriuria was not achieved in any dog but two dogs were colonized for 10 days following a single inoculation. Further research is required to determine whether establishment of ABU in dogs with recurrent urinary tract infection is a viable alternative to repeated doses of antimicrobial agents. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. α-adrenergic blockers for the treatment of lower-urinary-tract symptoms and dysfunction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Katie; Hilas, Olga

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of α-adrenergic blockers in the treatment of female lower-urinary-tract symptoms and dysfunction. Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2014), and MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014) to identify clinical trials evaluating the effects of α-adrenergic blockers in the treatment of women with lower-urinary-tract dysfunction. Bibliographies from relevant research articles were also reviewed for inclusion. All original research articles available in the English language were identified from the data sources. Primary literature evaluating outcomes related to urinary dysfunction and associated symptoms in women were included in this review. Articles describing the use of α-adrenergic blockers in other medical conditions or in men were excluded. A total of 15 clinical studies were identified and evaluated. Many studies showed an improvement in female lower-urinary-tract symptoms and dysfunction using α-adrenergic blockers. Most studies also reported adverse drug events of α-adrenergic blockers such as dizziness and hypotension. However, limitations of the studies conducted to date include small sample sizes, inconsistent study designs, and short duration of therapy. The role of α-adrenergic blockers in the treatment of urinary dysfunction and associated symptoms in women remains unclear. The majority of evidence suggests that these agents may have a place in therapy for female lower-urinary-tract symptoms and/or bladder outlet obstruction; however, data are conflicting. Clinicians should be aware of the potential clinical benefits but also recognize the potential adverse drug effects of α-adrenergic blockers.

  2. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  3. Health care agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not want these treatments. Order sterilization or abortion. Choosing Your Health Care Agent Choose a person ... working well. A health care proxy is a legal paper that you fill out. You can get ...

  4. Robust Agent-Based Systems Incorporating Teams of Communicating Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Philip

    2004-01-01

    ... (AgentTalk). The A3 architecture supports human participation as agents, dynamic formation of agent teams, reorganization of teams based on network loads, and offers libraries for legacy code to be able...

  5. The human urinary microbiome and how it relates to urogynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Jenifer; Koch, Marianne; Umek, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies applying molecular techniques have demonstrated the presence of a urinary microbiota not detected by standard microbiological techniques. These have been found in the urine of healthy individuals and in those suffering from clinical symptoms. The present article reviews the findings of these studies to date, describing the molecular techniques, and specifically outlining any differences in microbiomes in relation to urogynecological disease. Further, the role of commensal bacteria in the lower urinary tract is considered. An extensive literature search was conducted to identify articles on the microbiome of the female urinary tract in health and disease. We searched the electronic meta-databases Ovid MEDLINE® 1946-2015 and Embase 1974-2015. The keywords "microbiome, microbiota, bacterial colonization, microbiology, commensal bacteria, and bacteriuria" were searched in combination with "lower urinary tract symptoms, urogenital symptoms, urinary tract infection, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence." A total of 426 papers were retrieved; 33 were included in this paper. The microbiome of the female lower urinary tract shows variance between individuals and between age groups. There are significant differences between the microbiota in the lower urinary tract of individuals with urological symptoms and those without, relating to type and proportion of commensal Lactobacillus spp. There is only weak evidence to suggest that Lactobacillus might be applied as a therapeutic measure. It is still unclear what role microbiota plays in female urinary tract health. The discovery of bacteria in the urine of healthy individuals may have implications for future therapies for lower urinary tract symptoms.

  6. [Urinary incontinence in patients with acute ictus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñer Soler, R; Vega Iñigo, R; García Garrido, L; García Gutiérrez, T; Mascort Toral, Z; Segura Martín, T; Dávalos Errando, A

    2000-02-01

    This project won the "Ausonia" Incontinence First Prize among those projects submitted during 1999. This article analyzes the prevalence of urinary incontinence among patients diagnosed as suffering acute ictus after 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. The authors also investigate those factors associated with acute ictus incontinence, how incontinence influences a patient's evolution, and how incontinence affects the environment where recuperation occurs, at home or in an institution, while the patient is recovering. The results confirm that acute urinary incontinence is a forecasting factor, independent of the poor middle and long range functional prognosis, and that the potential prognosis is superior than the seriousness of the neurological deficit at the moment a patient enters a hospital.

  7. Value of cystography in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, M W; Whitelaw, R

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-one children with a bacteriologically proven urinary tract infection had both an intravenous urogram (IVU) and a micturating cystogram. The IVU was normal in 35. Only 6 of these children showed reflux in the cystogram, affecting 7 of the 70 ureters at risk. Since reflux on its own does not cause renal damage, which occurs only with super-added infection, detection of reflux is not important providing the urine is kept sterile. We suggest that cystography be deferred providing the IVU is normal until recurrent infections occur while under hospital care, and, with this policy this unpleasant and sometimes hazardous investigation could be avoided in many children with a single urinary tract infection. PMID:1008600

  8. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  9. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Emily L; Subak, Leslee L

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Methods A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence) than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence. Conclusion Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PMID:24198645

  11. Could Urinary Tract Infection Cause Female Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Motaghed, Zahra; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common type of urinary incontinence (UI), is usually defined as leakage of urine during movement or activity which puts pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting. It is reported in most countries that 15% to 40% of women struggle with SUI and its severe implications for daily life, including social interactions, sexuality, and psychological wellbeing. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between urinary tract infection and the severity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This research was a cross-sectional study conducted in a public urology clinic in Tehran. The study population was all females with complaints of SUI who visited the clinic during 2014. We compared Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) in two groups of patients, with and without history of urinary tract infection (UTI). According to the findings of our study, the mean VLPP was 83.10 cm H2O in the group with UTI history, and 81.29 cm H2O in those without history of UTI. The difference in VLPP between the two groups was not significant (P < 0.05), even after controlling for confounding variables including age, body mass index, history of hysterectomy and number of deliveries. Our study did not confirm a significant relationship between UTI and severity of SUI as measured by VLPP. A decisive opinion would require extensive future studies by prospective methods.

  12. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  13. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  14. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A urinary schistosomiasis survey undertaken in the Port St. Johns district of ... through Transkei.l,2 Inadequate explanation to villagers of the purpose of ..... VISSel'" PS. A simple and rapid technique 101 quantitiatiYe estimation of helminth eg;s in human and animal excreta With special refenn:e to sctUst05OfT1a se. Tram R ...

  15. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Filho, J.S. de.

    1983-01-01

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  16. Urinary tract infections in the geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Yesim; Aykin, Nevil; Korkmaz, Pinar; Gulduren, Hakki Mustafa; Caglan, Figen Cevik

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the second most common infection in geriatric population. This study investigated clinical findings, diagnostic approaches, complicating factors, prognosis, causative microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibility in geriatric patients diagnosed with UTI. A total of 140 hospitalised patients with UTIs were evaluated within three years between January 2011-January 2015 at the Eskisehir Yunus Emre State Hospital. UTI diagnosed when there were systemic and urinary signs and symptoms and a positive dipstick test and urine culture result, leukocyte and CRP like serum parameters. Among the studied patients, 41.4% had urological diseases, 20.7% had diabetes mellitus and 19.2% had neurological diseases. The most common symptoms and signs were fever, dysuria nausea/vomiting, general condition impairment, pyuria, haematuria. The laboratory values for CRP, ESR and leukocyte count were 84 mg/dL, 56 mm/s and 11.9 (10^3μL), with mean values being determined. Among patients having a urinary catheter (17.1%), 27.9% had a history of UTI, while 29.3% had been hospitalised. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most commonly identified microorganisms. The mean duration for hospitalisation was 7.6 days, while a 5% mortality rate was observed over the course of the disease. Because of the potential for serious complications and mortality, elderly patients with urinary tract infection, should receive immediate empirical treatment based on anamnesis, clinical evaluation and urinalysis and should be re-examined using results from cultures and antibiograms upon follow-up.

  17. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  18. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    STAPLETON, ANN E.

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result fr...

  19. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia da Silva Leroy; Adélia Lúcio; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine...

  20. [Urinary incontinence 6 months after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández, Regina; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación; Tomás Aznar, Concepción

    2013-08-17

    Urinary incontinence initiated before and right after delivery and persisting 3 months after delivery tends to become chronic. We intended to estimate the persistence of urinary incontinence 6 months postpartum and to analyse the different factors associated with it. Follow-up study 6 months after delivery of women presenting urinary incontinence symptoms in gestation or in the first 2 months of postpartum. The dependent variable was the persistence and the independent variables were grouped in obstetric and non-obstetric. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated with their confidence interval at 95% (IC 95%) in the bivariate analysis. The variables that showed an important risk of persistence of incontinence were used to perform a multivariate model of logistic regression. The persistence of incontinence 6 months after delivery was 21.4% (CI 95% 16-26.7). The risk of persistence increased with the Kristeller maneuver (OR 7.89, CI 95% 3.04-20.49), not weight recovery (OR 3.64, CI 95% 1.10-12.02), not practising pelvic floor muscle exercises in postpartum (OR 9.36, CI 95% 2.71-32.33), appearance of incontinence after delivery (OR 6.66, CI 95% 2.37-18.68) and the weight of the newborn>3.5 kg (OR 6.76, CI 95% 2.54-18.03), all of them explaining 58% of the variability of persistence. 21.4% of women with urinary incontinence caused by pregnancy/delivery will continue to have it 6 months postpartum. An important part of this persistence is associated with some factors easy to modify. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J Koudy; Dean, Ashley; Badlani, Gopal; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2016-12-01

    We summarize the current state of knowledge regarding cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence and introduce new approaches of using regenerative pharmacology as an adjunct or replacement for cell therapy. We reviewed the literature by searching PubMed®, Ovid and Biological Abstracts. The period searched was 1975 to December 2015. The inclusion terms separately or in combination were stress urinary incontinence, cell therapy, chemokine, vascularization, innervation, secretome and/or animal models. Epublished articles were not included. We did not exclude articles based on impact factor. Cell therapy is currently proposed to restore functional muscle cells and aid in closure of the sphincter in women with sphincter associated incontinence. Clinical trials have included small numbers of patients and results have varied depending on the patient cohorts and the cells used. Results of preclinical studies have also varied but show a more favorable outcome. This difference was most likely explained by the fact that animal modeling is not directly translatable to the human condition. However, preclinical studies have identified an exciting new approach to regeneration of the urinary sphincter using the components of cells (secretomes) or chemokines that home reparative cells to sites of injury. Cell therapy will continue to be explored. However, a regenerative pharmacological approach to the treatment of stress urinary incontinence holds the promise of bypassing the lengthy and expensive process of cell isolation and also increasing the availability of treatment in many clinical settings. This approach requires careful preclinical modeling and attention to its health benefit-to-risk ratio. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Agent amplified communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  3. Antifungal activity of a β-peptide in synthetic urine media: Toward materials-based approaches to reducing catheter-associated urinary tract fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Namrata; Lee, Myung-Ryul; Rodríguez López, Angélica de L; Palecek, Sean P; Lynn, David M

    2016-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection, with more than 30 million catheters placed annually in the US and a 10-30% incidence of infection. Candida albicans forms fungal biofilms on the surfaces of urinary catheters and is the leading cause of fungal urinary tract infections. As a step toward new strategies that could prevent or reduce the occurrence of C. albicans-based CAUTI, we investigated the ability of antifungal β-peptide-based mimetics of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to kill C. albicans and prevent biofilm formation in synthetic urine. Many α-peptide-based AMPs exhibit antifungal activities, but are unstable in high ionic strength media and are easily degraded by proteases-features that limit their use in urinary catheter applications. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides designed to mimic the amphiphilic helical structures of AMPs retain 100% of their structural stability and exhibit antifungal and anti-biofilm activity against C. albicans in a synthetic medium that mimics the composition of urine. We demonstrate further that these agents can be loaded into and released from polymer-based multilayer coatings applied to polyurethane, polyethylene, and silicone tubing commonly used as urinary catheters. Our results reveal catheters coated with β-peptide-loaded multilayers to kill planktonic fungal cells for up to 21days of intermittent challenges with C. albicans and prevent biofilm formation on catheter walls for at least 48h. These new materials and approaches could lead to advances that reduce the occurrence of fungal CAUTI. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. The human pathogen Candida albicans is the leading cause of fungal urinary tract infections, and forms difficult to remove 'biofilms' on the surfaces of urinary catheters. We investigated synthetic β-peptide mimics of natural antimicrobial peptides as an

  4. Urinary neprilysin in the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenda, Sahra; Mechtler, Karl; Wagner, Ludwig

    2017-05-25

    Critically ill patients in intensive care face hazardous conditions. Among these, acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently seen as a result of sepsis. Early diagnosis of kidney injury is of the utmost importance in the guidance of interventions or avoidance of treatment-induced kidney injury. On these grounds, we searched for markers that could indicate proximal tubular cell injury. Urine samples of 90 patients admitted to the intensive or intermediate care unit were collected over 2 to 5 days. The biomarker neprilysin (NEP) was investigated in urine using several methods such as dot blot, ELISA and immunofluorescence of urinary casts. Fifty-five healthy donors acted as controls. NEP was highly significantly elevated in the urine of patients who suffered AKI according to the KDIGO criteria in comparison to healthy controls. It was also found to be elevated in ICU patients without overt signs of AKI according to serum creatinine changes, however they were suffering from potential nephrotoxic insults. According to our findings, urinary NEP is indicative of epithelial cell alterations at the proximal tubule. This was elaborated in ICU patients when ghost fragments and NEP + microvesicles were observed in urinary sediment cytopreparations. Furthermore, NEP + immunofluorescence of healthy kidney tissue showed staining at the proximal tubules. NEP, a potential marker for proximal tubular epithelia, can be measured in urine. This does not originate from leakage of elevated serum levels, but indicates proximal tubular cell alterations such as brush border severing, which can heal in most cases.

  5. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide; Ito, Shouko

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was employed in an effort to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Twenty-three surgically removed calculi were scanned in a water bath (in vitro study). Forteen of them in the body were scanned (in vivo study). The calculi consisted of four types: mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate, mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid. The in vitro study showed that the mean and maximum CT values of uric acid stones were significantly lower than those of the other three types of stones. This indicated that stones with less than 450 HU are composed of uric acid. In an in vivo study, CT did not help to differentiate the three types of urinary calculi, except for uric acid stones. Regarding the mean CT values, there was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. An experiment with commercially available drugs showed that CT values of urinary calculi were not dependent upon the composition, but dependent upon the density of the calculi. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Children's concepts of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equit, Monika; Sambach, Heike; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    To assess children's body concepts about anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract, children drew pictures responding to the question 'Where do you believe urine comes from?' A total of 152 children in three groups were examined. 81 children were out-patients. Of these, 36 children were being seen for the first time and 45 children had previously undergone bladder and bowel group training. They were compared to 71 continent controls. Children were given a body silhouette, in which they drew their view of the urinary tract. Half of the children (52.6%) drew a bladder and other organs; nearly 43% drew a tube or other anatomically incorrect pictures. Significant differences were found for group and age. Children who had undergone the group training more often drew a bladder and other organs (80%). Correct pictures and pictures of bladder and other organs were more common from children aged 11-16 years. Children have subjective concepts of the urinary tract which do not follow actual anatomy and physiology. For medical interventions as well as any training programmes, it is essential to understand these concepts and provide instructions in a child-centred and developmentally adequate way. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary tract infections in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phé, Véronique; Pakzad, Mahreen; Curtis, Carmel; Porter, Bernadette; Haslam, Collette; Chataway, Jeremy; Panicker, Jalesh N

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly reported by people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and significantly impact quality of life. To provide an overview of the problem of UTIs in PwMS and offer a practical approach for the diagnosis and management. A review of the literature through a Pubmed search up to October 2015 was performed using the following keywords: multiple sclerosis, neurogenic bladder, urinary tract infections, relapse, dipsticks, culture, recurrent and prevention. Noteworthy topics include the definition of a confirmed symptomatic UTI as a positive urine culture defined by >10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL or >10(4) CFU/mL if a urethral catheter urine sample is taken, or any count of bacteria in a suprapubic bladder puncture specimen, both in addition to symptoms including fever, pain, changes in lower urinary tract symptoms or neurological status. Urinalysis is useful to exclude a UTI; however, on its own is insufficient to confirm a UTI, for which urine culture is required. Experts advise asymptomatic UTIs should not be treated except in the context of an acute relapse. From international guidelines, there is no validated strategy to prevent recurrent UTIs in PwMS. This review provides an overview of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of UTIs in the setting of multiple sclerosis (MS). © The Author(s), 2016.

  8. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Siddiqui, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  10. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  11. New markers of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Nowicki, Michal

    2017-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic. The accurate diagnosis and early treatment are crucial due to risk of septicaemia and long-term consequences. Currently the diagnosis of urinary tract infection is based on the presence of clinical symptoms in combination with the results of nitrite strip test indicating the presence of bacteria in urine and semi-quantitative measurement of white blood cells count in urine. Although urine culture is the gold standard in UTI diagnostics it is both time-consuming and costly. Searching for novel biomarkers of UTI has attracted much attention in recent years. The article reviews several promising serum and urine biomarkers of UTI such as leukocyte esterase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukins, elastase alpha (1)-proteinase inhibitor, lactofferin, secretory immunoglobulin A, heparin-binding protein, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, α-1 microglobulin (α1Mg) and tetrazolium nitroblue test (TNB). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. No. 250-Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Annette; Larochelle, Annick

    2017-10-01

    To provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. This update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Human Urinary Proteome Fingerprint Database UPdb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Husi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of human urine as a diagnostic tool has many advantages, such as ease of sample acquisition and noninvasiveness. However, the discovery of novel biomarkers, as well as biomarker patterns, in urine is hindered mainly by a lack of comparable datasets. To fill this gap, we assembled a new urinary fingerprint database. Here, we report the establishment of a human urinary proteomic fingerprint database using urine from 200 individuals analysed by SELDI-TOF (surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MS on several chip surfaces (SEND, HP50, NP20, Q10, CM10, and IMAC30. The database currently lists 2490 unique peaks/ion species from 1172 nonredundant SELDI analyses in the mass range of 1500 to 150000. All unprocessed mass spectrometric scans are available as “.xml” data files. Additionally, 1384 peaks were included from external studies using CE (capillary electrophoresis-MS, MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation, and CE-MALDI hybrids. We propose to use this platform as a global resource to share and exchange primary data derived from MS analyses in urinary research.

  14. [COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN THE ELDERLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, I; Ćosić, V

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections involving lower (cystitis, prostatitis) or upper (pyelonephritis, renal abscess, perinephric abscess) urinary tract. Differentiation of complicated and uncomplicated UTI is usually based on the presence of structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities, which can increase the risk of treatment failure and development of serious complications. Factors that increase the risk are foreign bodies, stones, obstruction, neurogenic bladder, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Complicated UTI includes a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of treatment failure, as well as of serious complications such as bacteremia and sepsis, perinephric abscess, renal impairment and emphysematous pyelonephritis. To avoid the potentially devastating outcomes, appropriate diagnostic procedures, antibiotic and surgical treatment, and appropriate follow-up are required. The incidence of complicated UTI will grow in the future due to general aging of the population, increasing incidence of diabetes, and ever growing number of immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. It is of key importance to recognize complicated UTI on time, and treat it wisely and aggressively to reduce duration of the disease and the risk of antibiotic resistance.

  15. [Disseminated BCG infection in patients with urinary bladder carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Milos; Milosević, Branko; Lavadinović, Lidija; Janjić, Aleksandar; Brmbolić, Branko

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guërin--a live, attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis has been used in immunotherapy of patients with superficial urinary bladder carcinoma. Some patients develop complications after intravesical instillation of BCG: high temperature followed by hematuria or granulomatous prostatits, epidydimoorchitis, urethral obstruction, and less than 1% have a systemic disease followed by dissemination of bacteria into other organs. A 50-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. One month after the operation BCG intravesical installations were administered for three weeks. After the fourth installation, our patient developed high fever, fatigue, vomiting, dark urine, light stools, and jaundice. On admission he was jaundiced with a high fever, enlarged liver and spleen and laboratory findings which included high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, pancytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, especially alkaline phosphatase and aminotranspherases. The bone-marrow biopsy showed granulomatous inflamation suggesting mycobacterial spread in the bone marrow, liver and spleen and sepsis. The patient was initially treated with antituberculous therapy, but his state did not improve until corticosteroids were added to the antituberculous treatment regimen. Although dissemination of BCG is a rare complication of intravesical BCG treatment of the bladder carcinoma, it may result in prolonged fever and granulomatous inflamation of the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow and BCG sepsis. Antituberclous agents in combination with corticosteroids comprise the treatment of choice for disseminated BCG infection.

  16. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), 99m TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and 99m TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  17. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  18. Voiding Urosonography with Second-Generation Ultrasound Contrast Agent for Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux: First Local Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafina Kuzmanovska

    2017-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography using intravesical second generation ultrasound contrast agent could be recommend  as a valid alternative diagnostic modality for detecting vesicoureteral reflux and evaluation of the distal urinary tract in children, based on its radiation-free, highly efficacious, reliable, and safe characteristics.

  19. Reduced time for urinary alkalinization before high-dose methotrexate with preadmission oral bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Campbell, Alan D; Yost, Kathleen J; Brinker, Brett T; Arradaza, Nicole V; Frobish, Daniel; Wehr, Alison M; O'Rourke, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Hydration and urinary alkalinization are essential for reducing renal dysfunction with high dose methotrexate (HDMTX). This report presents an analysis of institutional methods used to achieve adequate urinary alkalinization and output for patients receiving single agent HDMTX. Renal and metabolic parameters of tolerance were examined. Medical records of adult patients receiving HDMTX during the calendar years of 2008-2009 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the time to achieve urine pH > 7. Number of hospital days, bicarbonate dose, ordered hydration rate, urine output, and urine pH were assessed. A survival analysis model was run for time to urine pH > 7 using preadmission oral bicarbonate as a predictor variable and including a frailty term. Observational statistics were performed for other parameters. The analysis included 79 encounters for ten patients. Urine pH > 7 was achieved more rapidly in patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (P = 0.012). The number of patients receiving HDMTX on the same day as admission was greater for those receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (47%) in comparison to those who did not (2%), and they spent less time in the hospital. A standard regimen for hydration and urinary alkalinization based on this project is reported. The nature and frequency of adverse events were as expected for this treatment. At our institution, the time to achieve urinary alkalinization was reduced for patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate which facilitated chemotherapy infusion on the same day as admission and decreased the number of calendar days that patients stayed in the hospital.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and