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Sample records for anti-infective agents urinary

  1. Revealing indigenous Indonesian traditional medicine: anti-infective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Ari S; Keller, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Indonesia is rich in medicinal plants which the population has used traditionally from generation to generation for curing diseases. Our interest in the treatment of infectious diseases has lead to the investigation of traditional Indonesian treatments. In this review, we present a comprehensive review of ethnopharmacologically directed screening in Indonesian medicinal plants to search for new anti-viral, antimalarial, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents. Some potent drug leads have been isolated from Indonesian medicinal plants. Further research is still required for the lead development as well as the search for new bioactive compounds from the enormous medicinal plant resources.

  2. Chalcone scaffolds as anti-infective agents: structural and molecular target perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Asati, Vivek

    2015-08-28

    In recent years, widespread outbreak of numerous infectious diseases across the globe has created havoc among the population. Particularly, the inhabitants of tropical and sub-tropical regions are mainly affected by these pathogens. Several natural and (semi) synthetic chalcones deserve the credit of being potential anti-infective candidates that inhibit various parasitic, malarial, bacterial, viral, and fungal targets like cruzain-1/2, trypanopain-Tb, trans-sialidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fumarate reductase, falcipain-1/2, β-hematin, topoisomerase-II, plasmepsin-II, lactate dehydrogenase, protein kinases (Pfmrk and PfPK5), and sorbitol-induced hemolysis, DEN-1 NS3, H1N1, HIV (Integrase/Protease), protein tyrosine phosphatase A/B (Ptp-A/B), FtsZ, FAS-II, lactate/isocitrate dehydrogenase, NorA efflux pump, DNA gyrase, fatty acid synthase, chitin synthase, and β-(1,3)-glucan synthase. In this review, a comprehensive study (from Jan. 1982 to May 2015) of the structural features of anti-infective chalcones, their mechanism of actions (MOAs) and structure activity relationships (SARs) have been highlighted. With the knowledge of molecular targets, structural insights and SARs, this review may be helpful for (medicinal) chemists to design more potent, safe, selective and cost effective anti-infective agents.

  3. Chinese patent of anti-infective urinary catheter%抗感染尿管获中国专利现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊国兵; 王寓; 邱明星

    2015-01-01

    application. METHODS:Al related Chinese patent papers of anti-infective urinary catheters were retrieved by Google’s proprietary search platform (http://www.google.com/advanced_patent_search) until the deadline of March 26, 2014, with the search strategy of‘Return the patents with the fol owing proprietary name:urinary catheter’. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:According to the predefined search strategy, 949 potential y relevant patent papers were screened out for further identification, and 23 papers referred to anti-infective catheters that were obviously eligible were included. The analyses showed that:(1) The antibacterial coating agents of the majority of papers were antibacterial agents of nano-inorganic metal cations, only four papers used antibiotic coated. (2) The drug-eluting catheters were mainly composite-coated. (3) The drug release modes from coating were mainly extended-release but release mechanism was not clarified. (4) The preparation process was chemical bond or ionic bond in one paper, blending methods in one paper, repeated electroplating in one paper, electrospinning technology in one paper, and physical impregnation methods in 12 papers (52.17%). (5) The antimicrobial mode was ultrasonic-antibacterial method in two patent papers, sterile sleeve in one paper, hydrophilic coating in one paper, catheter made by blending polymer material and anti-infective agents in one paper, drug coated films made by coating with antimicrobial drug liquid and drying process in 20 papers (82.61%). In conclusion, there have been no translational and applied clinical researches about the anti-infective urinary catheter, and the relevant researches were only at the laboratory level. The research methods of Chinese patent for anti-infective urinary catheter were limited, and need to be further improved.

  4. PRENYLATED BENZOIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM PIPER SPECIES AS SOURCE OF ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Malami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of prenylated benzoic acids derivatives with interesting biological activities have been previously isolated and characterized from different species of piperaceae family. Several Piper species contained structurally similar compounds with diverse biological activities such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, insecticidal as well as anti-parasitic all of which produces compounds that can be classified as prenylated benzoic acid derivatives. Piper sp has proven to serve as a source of potential anti-infective agents by developing a biosynthetic route to the synthesis of prenylated benzoic acids derivative natural products as their chemical defense system. Despite the frequent isolation of these interesting compounds with strong biological activity, yet none have been taking into consideration for development into therapeutic agents.

  5. Screening for potential anti-infective agents towards Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Su Anne; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The established treatment for melioidosis is antibiotic therapy. However, a constant threat to this form of treatment is resistance development of the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, towards antibiotics. One option to circumvent this threat of antibiotic resistance is to search for new alternative anti-infectives which target the host innate immune system and/or bacterial virulence. In this study, 29 synthetic compounds were evaluated for their potential to increase the lifespan of an infected host. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was adopted as the infection model as its innate immune pathways are homologous to humans. Screens were performed in a liquid-based survival assay containing infected worms exposed to individual compounds and survival of untreated and compound-treated worms were compared. A primary screen identified nine synthetic compounds that extended the lifespan of B. pseudomallei-infected worms. Subsequently, a disc diffusion test was performed on these selected compounds to delineate compounds into those that enhanced the survival of worms via antimicrobial activity i.e. reducing the number of infecting bacteria, or into those that did not target pathogen viability. Out of the nine hits selected, two demonstrated antimicrobial effects on B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the findings from this study suggest that the other seven identified compounds are potential anti-infectives which could protect a host against B. pseudomallei infection without developing the risk of drug resistance.

  6. Bacteriophages as anti-infective agents: recent developments and regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Brendan F

    2012-05-01

    The biennial meeting on 'Exploiting Bacteriophages for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Medicine', held in London, UK, on 20 January 2012, and chaired by George Salmond (University of Cambridge, UK) hosted over 50 participants representing 13 countries. The highly multidisciplinary meeting covered a diverse range of topics, reflecting the current expansion of interest in this field, including the use of bacteriophages as the source of biochemical reagents for molecular biology, bacteriophages for the treatment of human and animal diseases, bacteriophage-based diagnostics and therapeutic delivery technologies and necessity for, and regulatory challenges associated with, robust clinical trials of phage-based therapeutics. This report focuses on a number of presentations from the meeting relating to cutting-edge research on bacteriophages as anti-infective agents.

  7. Using antimicrobial host defense peptides as anti-infective and immunomodulatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Thomas; Kristensen, Hans-Henrik

    2008-12-01

    Virtually all life forms express short antimicrobial cationic peptides as an important component of their innate immune defenses. They serve as endogenous antibiotics that are able to rapidly kill an unusually broad range of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Consequently, considerable efforts have been expended to exploit the therapeutic potential of these antimicrobial peptides. Within the last couple of years, it has become increasingly clear that many of these peptides, in addition to their direct antimicrobial activity, also have a wide range of functions in modulating both innate and adaptive immunity. For one class of antimicrobial peptides, such as the human defensins, their primary role may even be as immunomodulators. These properties potentially provide entirely new therapeutic approaches to anti-infective therapy.

  8. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Development of potent anti-infective agents from Silurana tropicalis: conformational analysis of the amphipathic, alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide XT-7 and its non-haemolytic analogue [G4K]XT-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghage, Anusha P; Conlon, J Michael; Hewage, Chandralal M

    2010-04-01

    Peptide XT-7 (GLLGP(5)LLKIA(10)AKVGS(15)NLL.NH(2)) is a cationic, leucine-rich peptide, first isolated from skin secretions of the frog, Silurana tropicalis (Pipidae). The peptide shows potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity but its therapeutic potential is limited by haemolytic activity (LC(50)=140 microM). The analogue [G4K]XT-7, however, retains potent antimicrobial activity but is non-haemolytic (LC(50)>500 microM). In order to elucidate the molecular basis for this difference in properties, the three dimensional structures of XT-7 and the analogue have been investigated by proton NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. In aqueous solution, both peptides lack secondary structure. In a 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE-d(3))-H(2)O mixed solvent system, XT-7 is characterised by a right handed alpha-helical conformation between residues Leu(3) and Leu(17) whereas [G4K]XT-7 adopts a more restricted alpha-helical conformation between residues Leu(6) and Leu(17). A similar conformation for XT-7 in 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micellular media was observed with a helical segment between Leu(3) and Leu(17). However, differences in side chain orientations restricting the hydrophilic residues to a smaller patch resulted in an increased hydrophobic surface relative to the conformation in TFE-H(2)O. Molecular modelling of the structures obtained in our study demonstrates the amphipathic character of the helical segments. It is proposed that the marked decrease in haemolytic activity produced by the substitution Gly(4)-->Lys in XT-7 arises from a decrease in both helicity and hydrophobicity. These studies may facilitate the development of potent but non-toxic anti-infective agents based upon the structure of XT-7.

  10. Research Advances of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors as Novel Anti-infective Agents%氨酰tRNA合成酶抑制剂作为新型抗感染药物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆; 孟青青; 周虎臣

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of bacterial resistance to known classes of antibiotics present a severe global challenge. As a consequence, the search for new chemical entities that address novel bacterial targets remains ongoing. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) catalyze the ligation of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs and they are essential for protein synthesis. Inhibition of aaRS leads to protein synthesis inhibition, which cause cell growth arrest. Consequently, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is a class of potential anti-infective target. AaRS inhibitors identified from natural products and their derivatives, substrate and reaction intermediate mimics, synthetic compounds and hits of virtual screening as novel antibacterial and antifungal agents are summarized in this article. The target characteristic, classification and catalytic mechanism of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are also introduced.%细菌耐药性的不断上升对现有阶段的抗生素类药物提出了一个严峻的挑战,同时也掀起了针对于新靶标的抗菌药物的研究.氨酰tRNA合成酶(aaRS)催化特定氨基酸连接到相应的tRNA分子上,在蛋白质的合成过程中起着必不可少的作用.氨酰tRNA合成酶的抑制会导致蛋白质合成的停止,扰乱细菌和真菌的生长,因此氨酰tRNA合成酶是一类潜在的抗感染靶标.本文分别综述了天然产物及其衍生的aaRS抑制剂,底物和反应中间体模拟物,通过合成和通过虚拟筛选得到的aaRS抑制剂作为新型抗细菌和抗真菌药物的研究进展,并对aaRS的靶标特点、分类和催化机制作一简要介绍.

  11. Marine peptides and their anti-infective activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-16

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present.

  12. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish from 2006 to the present.

  13. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

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    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tract infection confirmed by positive urine culture reports. Results: A total 3160 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. Out of which 956 (30.25% samples were found to have significant bacteriuria and remaining 2204 samples were found to have either non significant bacteriuria or very low bacterial count or sterile urine. In the present study, out of 223 isolated pathogens the most common isolate was Escherichia coli (25.89%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (2.94%, Proteus vulgaris (1.04% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.38 %. Age group most affected by Escherichia coli is 61-75 years (38.8%. Conclusions: Women are more susceptible to urinary tract infections, especially against Escherichia coli, resulting positive in 52.4% of cases; while Proteus vulgaris have a female percentage of 57.7%. This percentage increased slightly among women infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 58% and low in 61.5% infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  14. Anti-infective properties of bacteriocins: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Riadh; Fernandez, Benoit; Lacroix, Christophe; Fliss, Ismail

    2013-08-01

    Bacteriocin production is a widespread phenomenon among bacteria. Bacteriocins hold great promise for the treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and could be used in the future as alternatives to existing antibiotics. The anti-infective potential of bacteriocins for inhibiting pathogens has been shown in various food matrices including cheese, meat, and vegetables. However, their inhibition of pathogens in vivo remains unclear and needs more investigation, due mainly to difficulties associated with demonstrating their health benefits. Many bacteriocins produced by established or potential probiotic organisms have been evaluated as potential therapeutic agents and interesting findings have been documented in vitro as well as in a few in vivo studies. Some recent in vivo studies point to the efficacy of bacteriocin-based treatments of human and animal infections. While further investigation remains necessary before the possibilities for bacteriocins in clinical practice can be described more fully, this review provides an overview of their potential applications to human and veterinary health.

  15. Conformations and intermolecular interactions pattern in solid chloroxylenol and triclosan (API of anti-infective agents and drugs). A (35)Cl NQR, (1)H-(14)N NQDR, X-ray and DFT/QTAIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosińska, J N; Latosińska, M; Tomczak, M A; Seliger, J; Zagar, V; Maurin, J K

    2012-02-01

    Two antibacterial and antifungal agents, chloroxylenol (4-chloro-3,5-dimethyl-phenol) and triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2',4'-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol), were studied experimentally in solid state with an X-ray, (35)Cl-nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and (17)O-nuclear quadrupole double resonance (NQDR) spectroscopies and, theoretically, with the density functional theory/quantum theory of atoms in molecules (DFT/QTAIM). The crystallographic structure of triclosan, which crystallises in space group P31 with one molecule in the asymmetric unit [a = 12.64100(10), b = 12.64100(10), c = 6.71630(10) Å], was solved with an X-ray and refined to a final R-factor of 2.81% at room temperature. The NQR frequencies of (35)Cl and (17)O were detected with the help of the density functional theory (DFT) assigned to particular chlorine and oxygen sites in the molecules of both compounds. The NQR frequencies at (35)Cl sites in chloroxylenol and triclosan were found to be more differentiated than frequencies at the (17)O site. The former better describes the substituent withdrawing effects connected to π-electron delocalization within the benzene rings and the influence of temperature; whereas, those at the (17)O site provide more information on O-H bond and intermolecular interactions pattern. The conformation adopted by diphenyl ether of triclosan in solid state was found to be typical of diphenyl ethers, but the opposite to those adopted when it was bound to different inhibitors. According to an X-ray study, temperature had no effect on the conformation of the diphenyl ring of triclosan, which was the same at 90 K and at room temperature (RT). The scattering of NQR frequencies reproduced by the DFT under assumption of the X-ray data at 90 K and RT is found to be a good indicator of the quality of resolution of the crystallographic structure.

  16. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  17. Injectable biomaterials for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: their potential and pitfalls as urethral bulking agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2013-06-01

    Injectable urethral bulking agents composed of synthetic and biological biomaterials are minimally invasive treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The development of an ideal urethral bulking agent remains challenging because of clinical concerns over biocompatibility and durability. Herein, the mechanical and biological features of injectable urethral biomaterials are investigated, with particular emphasis on their future potential as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. A literature search for English language publications using the two online databases was performed. Keywords included "stress urinary incontinence", "urethral bulking agent" and "injectable biomaterial". A total of 98 articles were analysed, of which 45 were suitable for review based on clinical relevance and importance of content. Injectable biomaterials are associated with a lower cure rate and fewer postoperative complications than open surgery for SUI. They are frequently reserved as secondary treatment options for patients unwilling or medically unfit to undergo surgery. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen remains the most commonly injected biomaterial and has a cure rate of up to 53 %. Important clinical features of an injectable biomaterial are durability, biocompatibility and ease of administration, but achieving these requirements is challenging. In carefully selected patients, injectable biomaterials are feasible alternatives to open surgical procedures as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. In future, higher cure rates may be feasible as researchers investigate alternative biomaterials and more targeted injection techniques for treating SUI.

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and anti-infection application in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangyang; Li, Linlin; Liu, Huiyu; Tan, Longfei; Liu, Tianlong; Meng, Xianwei

    2015-01-21

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) have been widely studied as the bacteriostatic reagents. However, synthesis of small ZnO nanoparticles with good monodispersion and stability in aqueous solution is still a challenge. Anti-infection research of ZnONPs used as antibacterial agent in vivo is rare. In this paper, a novel, sustainable, and simple method to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles with good monodispersion in aqueous low-temperature conditions and with a small molecule agent is reported. Inhibition zone test and the minimum inhibitory concentration test were performed to examine the antibacterial activity of ZnONPs against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro. For further application in vivo, low cytotoxicity and low acute toxicity in mice of ZnO were demonstrated. Finally, 4 nm ZnONPs combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) gel was used as antibacterial agent in rodent elytritis model, and significant anti-infection effect was proven. In one word, the present research would shed new light on the designing of antibacterial materials like ZnO with promising application in disinfection.

  19. Latest treatment for lower urinary tract dysfunction: therapeutic agents and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that antimuscarinics might suppress bladder afferent activity by blocking muscarinic receptors in the urothelium, myofibroblasts and detrusor, thereby improving overactive bladder symptoms. β(3)-Adrenoceptors are predominantly expressed in the human bladder and mediate relaxation of detrusor muscle. β(3)-Adrenoceptor agonists increase bladder capacity and prolong micturition interval. It is assumed that β(3)-adrenoceptor agonists could exert an inhibitory effect on bladder afferent through β(3)-adrenoceptors in the urothelium and detrusor, which eventually improve the symptom of urgency. Mirabegron is a potent and selective β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist. A Japanese phase 3 study showed that mirabegron has excellent efficacy and safety for treating overactive bladder. α(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists (α(1)-blockers) have become a mainstay of male lower urinary tract symptoms treatment. The α(1)(A) subtype is known to mediate functional obstruction as a result of benign prostatic enlargement. Recent studies have suggested that α(1)(A)-adrenoceptors are additionally involved in the generation of storage symptoms. The α(1)(D) subtype is thought to play a role in the facilitation of voiding reflex; that is; storage symptoms. α(1)-Blockers often fail to alleviate overactive bladder symptoms. In this context, combination therapy with α(1)-blockers and antimuscarinics has been recommended. Treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitor for 1 year improves urinary symptoms and flow rate by reducing prostatic volume in men with benign prostatic enlargement. A pooled analysis showed that the long-term (2 or 4 years) treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitor reduced the rate of progression to acute urinary retention and surgery. Combination therapy with 5α-reductase inhibitor and α(1)-blocker was shown to provide a rapid improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms, and reduce the relative risk of acute urinary retention and benign prostatic hyperplasia

  20. Analysis of Urinary Metabolites of Nerve and Blister Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Warfare Agents GA Tabun , ethyl dimethylphosphoramidate GB Sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate GD Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate...and their metabolites Agent Metabolite GA, Tabun O P O N CN Ethyl Dimethylphosphoroamidate, EDMAP, GA Acid HO P O N CN GB, Sarin P O

  1. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli as agents of diverse non-urinary tract extraintestinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Russo, Thomas A

    2002-09-15

    Escherichia coli isolates from 3 consecutively encountered patients with serious, invasive, non-urinary tract extraintestinal infections (pneumonia, deep surgical wound infection, and vertebral osteomyelitis with associated epidural/psoas/iliacus abscesses) were characterized, using molecular methods, as to extended virulence genotype and phylogenetic background. All 3 isolates exhibited virulence genotypes and genomic profiles characteristic of specific familiar virulent clones of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), which traditionally have been regarded primarily as uropathogenic or as associated with meningitis. These included E. coli O1/O2:K1:H7, E. coli O18:K1:H7, and a recently described E. coli O11/O17/O77:K52:H18 clonal group (clonal group A). These findings demonstrate the extraintestinal pathogenic versatility of ExPEC clones, which supports the use of an inclusive designation for such strains and suggests the possibility of cross-syndrome protective interventions. They also provide novel evidence that multidrug-resistant epidemic clonal group A can cause extraintestinal infections other than uncomplicated urinary tract infections and can cause them in hosts other than young women.

  2. Emerging paradigms in anti-infective drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael P; Croft, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for new drugs to treat microbial infections is pressing. The great progress made in the middle part of the twentieth Century was followed by a period of relative inactivity as the medical needs relating to infectious disease in the wealthier nations receded. Growing realisation that anti-infectives are needed in many parts of the world, to treat neglected diseases as well as to combat the burgeoning risk of resistance to existing drugs, has galvanised a new wave of research into anti-microbial drugs. The transfer of knowledge from the Pharmaceutical industry relating to the importance of understanding how to target drugs successfully within the body, and improved understanding of how pathogens interact with their hosts, is driving a series of new paradigms in anti-infective drug design. Here we provide an overview of those processes as an introduction to a series of articles from experts in this area that emerged from a meeting entitled "Emerging Paradigms in Anti-Infective Drug Design" held in London on the 17th and 18th September 2012. The symposium was organised jointly by British Society for Parasitology (BSP) and the Biological & Medicinal Chemistry sector of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) and held at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. The symposium set out to cover all aspects of the identification of new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of neglected and tropical diseases. We aimed to bring together leading scientists from all the disciplines working in this field and cover the pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and drug delivery of potential new medicines. Sessions were held on: "Target diseases and targets for drugs", "Target based medicinal chemistry", "Bioavailability and chemistry", "Targeting intracellular microbes", "Alternative approaches and models", and "New anti-infectives - how do we get there?" This symposium was organised by Simon Croft (LSHTM) and Mike Barrett (University of Glasgow) for the BSP, and David

  3. Urinary tract infections in the era of newer immunosuppressant agents : A tertiary care center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the incidence and the risk factors predisposing to post transplantation urinary tract infection (UTI and the association with use of different immunosuppressive regimens. We performed a retrospective analysis of 152 recipients of renal transplantation over a period of two years. Seventy one (46.71% patients had culture positive UTI, Escherichia coli (45.1% being the commonest. Thirty four (22.39% patients had acute rejection and 14.4% of those had suffered UTI in the early post transplant period. Immunosuppression included induction with various anti-bodies and maintenance on antirejection medications. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was given as prophylaxis throughout the period. The UTI was treated according to microbiological sensitivity. 2.8% died due to urosepsis. In our retrospective analysis renal transplant recipients under the age of 45, female gender and diabetics suffered more UTI. Combination therapy with micro-emulsion form of cyclosporine A, prednisolone and azathioprine developed more UTI (P= 0.0418.

  4. Identification of potential anti-infectives against Staphylococcus aureus using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Cin; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The alarming increase of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a delay in antibiotics development point to the need for novel therapeutic approaches to combat infection. To discover novel anti-infective agents, we screened a number of synthetic compounds comprising mainly of chalcone derivatives to explore their potential in promoting the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans upon infection by S. aureus. Screening of seven chalcone derivatives using both agar- and liquid-based assays revealed three positive hits that significantly prolonged the survival of S. aureus-infected nematodes. All the hits did not interfere with bacterial growth in vitro, proposing that the three compounds identified most probably act through mechanisms distinct from conventional antibiotics that target bacterial replication.

  5. Rapid discrimination of the causal agents of urinary tract infection using ToF-SIMS with chemometric cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, John S.; Henderson, Alexander; Jarvis, Roger M.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.; Goodacre, Royston

    2006-07-01

    Advances in time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have enabled this technique to become a powerful tool for the analysis of biological samples. Such samples are often very complex and as a result full interpretation of the acquired data can be extremely difficult. To simplify the interpretation of these information rich data, the use of chemometric techniques is becoming widespread in the ToF-SIMS community. Here we discuss the application of principal components-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) to the separation and classification of a number of bacterial samples that are known to be major causal agents of urinary tract infection. A large data set has been generated using three biological replicates of each isolate and three machine replicates were acquired from each biological replicate. Ordination plots generated using the PC-DFA are presented demonstrating strain level discrimination of the bacteria. The results are discussed in terms of biological differences between certain species and with reference to FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and pyrolysis mass spectrometric studies of similar samples.

  6. New Anti-Infective Coatings of Medical Implants▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matl, F. D.; Obermeier, A.; Repmann, S.; Friess, W.; Stemberger, A.; Kuehn, K.-D.

    2008-01-01

    Implantable devices are highly susceptible to infection and are therefore a major risk in surgery. The present work presents a novel strategy to prevent the formation of a biofilm on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. PTFE grafts were coated with gentamicin and teicoplanin incorporated into different lipid-like carriers under aseptic conditions in a dipping process. Poly-d,l-lactic acid, tocopherol acetate, the diglyceride Softisan 649, and the triglyceride Dynasan 118 were used as drug carriers. The drug release kinetics, anti-infective characteristics, biocompatibility, and hemocompatibility of the coatings developed were studied. All coatings showed an initial drug burst, followed by a low continuous drug release over 96 h. The dimension of release kinetics depended on the carrier used. All coated prostheses reduced bacterial growth drastically over 24 h, even below pathologically relevant concentrations. Different cytotoxic levels could be observed, revealing tocopherol acetate as the most promising biocompatible carrier. A possible reason for the highly cytotoxic effect of Softisan 649 could be assessed by demonstrating incorporated lipids in the cell soma with Oil Red O staining. Tromboelastography studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and an amidolytic substrate assay could confirm the hemocompatibility of individual coatings. The development of the biodegradable drug delivery systems described here and in vitro studies of those systems highlight the most important requirements for effective as well as compatible anti-infective coatings of PTFE grafts. Through continuous local release, high drug levels can be produced at only the targeted area and physiological bacterial proliferation can be completely inhibited, while biocompatibility as well as hemocompatibility can be ensured. PMID:18362194

  7. New anti-infective coatings of medical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matl, F D; Obermeier, A; Repmann, S; Friess, W; Stemberger, A; Kuehn, K-D

    2008-06-01

    Implantable devices are highly susceptible to infection and are therefore a major risk in surgery. The present work presents a novel strategy to prevent the formation of a biofilm on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. PTFE grafts were coated with gentamicin and teicoplanin incorporated into different lipid-like carriers under aseptic conditions in a dipping process. Poly-d,l-lactic acid, tocopherol acetate, the diglyceride Softisan 649, and the triglyceride Dynasan 118 were used as drug carriers. The drug release kinetics, anti-infective characteristics, biocompatibility, and hemocompatibility of the coatings developed were studied. All coatings showed an initial drug burst, followed by a low continuous drug release over 96 h. The dimension of release kinetics depended on the carrier used. All coated prostheses reduced bacterial growth drastically over 24 h, even below pathologically relevant concentrations. Different cytotoxic levels could be observed, revealing tocopherol acetate as the most promising biocompatible carrier. A possible reason for the highly cytotoxic effect of Softisan 649 could be assessed by demonstrating incorporated lipids in the cell soma with Oil Red O staining. Tromboelastography studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and an amidolytic substrate assay could confirm the hemocompatibility of individual coatings. The development of the biodegradable drug delivery systems described here and in vitro studies of those systems highlight the most important requirements for effective as well as compatible anti-infective coatings of PTFE grafts. Through continuous local release, high drug levels can be produced at only the targeted area and physiological bacterial proliferation can be completely inhibited, while biocompatibility as well as hemocompatibility can be ensured.

  8. Avian cathelicidins: paradigms for the development of anti-infectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A; Molhoek, E M; Bikker, F J; Yu, P-L; Veldhuizen, E J A; Haagsman, H P

    2011-11-21

    The broad-spectrum defense system based on host defense peptides (HDPs) is evolutionary very old and many invertebrates rely on this system for protection from bacterial infections. However, in vertebrates the system remained important in spite of the superposition of a very sophisticated adaptive immune system. The cathelicidins comprise a major group of HDPs in mammals. About six years ago it was first described that cathelicidins are also present in birds. Here we review the properties and biological activities of the recently discovered avian cathelicidins and their potential to be used as a paradigm for the development of anti-infectives. Like the mammalian cathelicidins, avian cathelicidins exert direct antimicrobial activities but can also selectively boost host immune responses by regulation of cytokine production and recruitment of immune cells. In addition, it was found that chicken cathelicidins bind endotoxins and dampen the endotoxin-mediated inflammatory response. Molecular dissection has allowed identification of different structural elements involved in bacterial killing and immunomodulation. These studies have enabled the design of small HDP-based antibiotics with specific functions, i.e. having primarily immunomodulatory or antimicrobial activities. Since the immunomodulatory effects may, to a certain degree, be species-specific, we hypothesize that poultry-specific antibiotics can be developed based on avian cathelicidins.

  9. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  10. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  11. Besifloxacin: a novel anti-infective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Comstock

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L Comstock1, Paul M Karpecki2, Timothy W Morris3, Jin-Zhong Zhang41Global Medical Affairs, Pharmaceuticals, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 2Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Research and Development Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 4Global Preclinical Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is demographically unbiased in its prevalence and can be caused by a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Timely empiric treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-infective, such as a topical fluoroquinolone, is critical in preventing potentially irreversible ocular damage. However, the rise in ocular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance for patients with other ocular bacterial infections mandate the need for new agents targeted for ocular use. Besifloxacin, a novel broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, is approved for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. It has a uniquely balanced dual-targeting activity that inhibits both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and is associated with a lower incidence of resistance development. Besifloxacin is not marketed in other formulations, ensuring that its exposure is limited to bacterial populations in and around the eye. This specifically precludes any bacterial exposure to besifloxacin resulting from systemic use, which further reduces the likelihood of emergence of bacterial resistance. In vitro, besifloxacin has demonstrated equivalent or superior activity compared with other commonly used topical antibiotics. In clinical trials, besifloxacin has consistently demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin is considered safe and is well tolerated with no observed contraindications.Keywords: conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  12. Twelve-week, prospective, open-label, randomized trial on the effects of an anticholinergic agent or antidiuretic agent as add-on therapy to an alpha-blocker for lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin YS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yu Seob Shin,1 Li Tao Zhang,1 Chen Zhao,2 Young Gon Kim,1 Jong Kwan Park1 1Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, and Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University and Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center of Medical Device of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, South Korea; 2Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, and Shanghai Institute of Andrology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The effects of an anticholinergic or antidiuretic agent as add-on therapy to an ­alpha-blocker for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS according to a voiding diary in 3 days are unknown. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of an anticholinergic or antidiuretic agent as add-on therapy for nocturia in men previously treated with an alpha-blocker for LUTS.Subjects and methods: Patients were randomly subdivided into two groups. All patients had a 4-week washout. Group A had alpha-blocker for 4 weeks, then an alpha-blocker plus an anticholinergic agent for 4 weeks, and, finally, 4 weeks of an alpha-blocker plus an antidiuretic agent. Group B had an alpha-blocker for 4 weeks, then an alpha-blocker plus an antidiuretic agent for 4 weeks, and, finally, 4 weeks of an alpha-blocker plus an anticholinergic agent. In both groups, patients were subdivided into nocturnal polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity (NBC, or nocturia by both causes subgroups. A 3-day voiding diary, total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, IPSS sub-scores, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, uroflowmetry, and post-void residual urine volume, were assessed at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks.Results: A total of 405 patients completed the study. During treatment, the changes from baseline in total IPSS and IPSS sub-scores were significantly decreased at 4 weeks and were maintained for 12 weeks. In the nocturnal polyuria subgroup of Groups A and B

  13. 78 FR 48690 - Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... the public. Name of Committee: Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the... (involving internal organs), mucosal (involving areas such as inside the mouth and nose), and cutaneous... limited. If the number of registrants requesting to speak is greater than can be reasonably...

  14. Recent advances in design of potential quinoxaline anti-infectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampilek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial diazanaphthalenes are indispensable in the treatment of various infections. The quinoxaline scaffold possesses unique physicochemical properties and provides a possibility of a great number of targeted modifications. Quinoxaline-based compounds have a wide range of promising biological properties; therefore a special attention is paid to them for research and designing of new drugs. In fact, quinoxaline can be considered as a privileged structure. The scaffold can be easily and rapidly constructed, which emphasizes the significance of this favourable structure. The review is focused on recently reported potential antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal agents derived from the quinoxaline scaffold, their mechanism of action and structure-activity relationships. A brief classification of synthetic pathways of quinoxaline derivatives is provided too.

  15. Display technology on filamentous phage in the search for anti-infective biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Santiago Vispo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex. The phage display technology has been used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and peptides directed against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Today, this technology is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits the phage display technology to discover new drugs against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies. Methods: Basic and recent literature review was made, mainly focused on general aspects of phage display technology and the application in the search of new peptides or antibodies of pharmaceutical use to combat the infectious diseases transmitted by bacteria and virus. Results: Updated information on the selected topics is shown, with a guiding and practical approach aimed at researchers in the field of molecular biology to continue deepening the technology with special emphasis in the applications that have been developed in Cuba. Conclusions: Advances in methods of screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies show that phage display technology can significantly contribute in the fight against clinically important pathogens.

  16. PRENYLATED BENZOIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM PIPER SPECIES AS SOURCE OF ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A number of prenylated benzoic acids derivatives with interesting biological activities have been previously isolated and characterized from different species of piperaceae family. Several Piper species contained structurally similar compounds with diverse biological activities such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, insecticidal as well as anti-parasitic all of which produces compounds that can be classified as prenylated benzoic acid derivatives. Piper sp has proven to serve as a source of pot...

  17. Anti-infective potential of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau (bergamot) derivatives: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirmi, Santa; Bisignano, Carlo; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Navarra, Michele

    2016-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, mainly because of the increase of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Nature is the major source of anti-infective drugs and could represent a font of medicines that may help overcome antibiotic resistance. Recently, the potential antimicrobial effect of certain plant extracts has attracted attention within the scientific community as alternatives to synthetic drugs. Here, we present a systematic review on the anti-infective properties of bergamot derivatives that highlight the activity of bergamot essential oil against bacteria, mycetes and larvae, as well as the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of bergamot juice and the antimicrobial properties of extracts from bergamot peel. Findings presented herein could be used to develop novel and alternative preventive and therapeutic strategies aimed to overcome antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Novel anti-infective potential of salvianolic acid B against human serious pathogen Neisseria meningitidis

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Sanna; Toivanen, Marko; Liu, Chenghai; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis cause significant health problems especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Novel anti-infective candidates are needed. In modern anti-adhesion therapy initial attachment of bacteria to host cells is prevented. Our unique studies have revealed anti-adhesive candidates from natural products, namely milk and berries, against Neisseria meningitidis adhesion. In the present study against N. meningitidis adhesion, a novel binding inhibitor was found; salvia...

  19. Causes and consequences of anti-infective drug stock-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luans, C; Cardiet, I; Rogé, P; Baslé, B; Le Corre, P; Revest, M; Michelet, C; Tattevin, P

    2014-10-01

    Anti-infective drugs stock-outs are increasingly frequent, and this is unlikely to change. There are numerous causes for this, mostly related to parameters difficult to control: i) 60 to 80% of raw material or components are produced outside of Europe (compared to 20% 30 years ago), with subsequent loss of independence for their procurement; ii) the economic crisis drives the pharmaceutical companies to stop producing drugs of limited profitability (even among important drugs); iii) the enforcement of regulatory requirements and quality control procedures result in an increasing number of drugs being blocked during production. The therapeutic class most affected by drug stock-outs is that of anti-infective drugs, especially injectable ones, and many therapeutic dead ends have recently occurred. We provide an update on this issue, and suggest 2 major actions for improvement: i) to implement a group dedicated to anticipating drug stock-outs within the anti-infective committee in each health care center, with the objectives of organizing and coordinating the response whenever a drug stock-out is deemed at risk (i.e., contingency plans, substitution, communication to prescribers); ii) a national reflection lead by scientific societies, in collaboration with government agencies, upstream of the most problematic drug stock-outs, to elaborate and disseminate consensus guidelines for the management of these stock-outs.

  20. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Microbial Agents Causing Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infection in Surgical Ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashmin Afroz Binte Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections pose substantial risk to patients receiving care in hospitals. In Bangladesh, this problem is aggravated by inadequate infection control due to poor hygiene, resource and structural constraints and lack of awareness regarding nosocomial infections. Objective: We carried out this study to determine the prevalence of different microorganisms from urine in surgery ward and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern against various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka over a period of 12 months from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 urine specimens were collected from catheterized patients admitted in general surgery ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH and incubated in blood agar, MacConkey agar media and the isolates were identified by different biochemical tests – oxidase test and reaction in MIU (motility indole urease and Simmon’s citrate and TSI (triple sugar iron media. ESBL producers were detected by double-disk synergy test (DDST. Results: Bacteria were isolated from 35 specimens and Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (23, 65.71% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (17.14%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 (8.57%, Acinetobacter baumannii 2 (5.72% and Proteus vulgaris 1 (2.86% respectively. Among the isolates, 10 (28.57% ESBL producers were detected and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (8, 22.85% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (2.86% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (2.86%. The isolates were resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians who have limited therapeutic options. However, the high rate of nosocomial infections and multi-resistant pathogens necessitate urgent comprehensive interventions of infection control.

  1. Increased resistance to first-line agents among bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections in Latin America: time for local guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Andrade

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogens recovered from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI is an increasing problem in specific regions, limiting therapeutic options. As part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, a total of 611 isolates were collected in 2003 from patients with CA-UTI presenting at Latin American medical centers. Each strain was tested in a central laboratory using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI broth microdilution methods with appropriate controls. Escherichia coli was the leading pathogen (66%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (7%, Proteus mirabilis (6.4%, Enterococcus spp. (5.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.6%. Surprisingly high resistance rates were recorded for E. coli against first-line orally administered agents for CA-UTI, such as ampicillin (53.6%, TMP/SMX (40.4%, ciprofloxacin (21.6%, and gatifloxacin (17.1%. Decreased susceptibility rates to TMP/SMX and ciprofloxacin were also documented for Klebsiella spp. (79.1 and 81.4%, respectively, and P. mirabilis (71.8 and 84.6%, respectively. For Enterococcus spp., susceptibility rates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin were 88.2, 85.3, 55.9, and 97.1%, respectively. High-level resistance to gentamicin was detected in 24% of Enterococcus spp. Bacteria isolated from patients with CA-UTI in Latin America showed limited susceptibility to orally administered antimicrobials, especially for TMP/SMX and fluoroquinolones. Our results highlight the need for developing specific CA-UTI guidelines in geographic regions where elevated resistance to new and old compounds may influence prescribing decisions.

  2. [Uricosuric agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Iwao

    2008-04-01

    Urate lowering treatment is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, tophi, gouty arthropathy, radiographic changes of gout, multiple joint involvement, or associated uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uricosuric agents like benzbromarone and probenecid are very useful to treat hyperuricemia as well as allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). Uricosuric agents act the urate lowering effect through blocking the URAT1, an urate transporter, in brush border of renal proximal tubular cells. In order to avoid the nephrotoxicity and urolithiasis due to increasing of urinary urate excretion by using uricosuric agents, the proper urinary tract management (enough urine volume and correction of aciduria) should be performed.

  3. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  4. Tendency analysis on medication cost proportion of the anti-infective drugs from 2007 to 2010%2007-2010年抗感染药物金额占比趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志峰; 黄小萍; 朱瑜

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解实施细则(试行)制定以后,该院抗感染药物金额占比的变化情况.方法 收集整理(卫生部医院管理合作项目)2007-2010年抗感染药物购药品种数据,并进行统计分析.结果 2007-2010年抗感染药物金额逐年上升,金额占比逐年下降.结论 及相关文件制定以后该院抗感染药物金额占比有所下降,其金额占比受宏观调控影响,同及相关文件有依从性.%Objective To investigate the tendency on medication cost proportion of the anti -infective drugs after the implementation of the Guiding Principles of Clinical Application of Antibacterials . Methods Data of anti-infective drugs from the Report of Drug Purchase A -nalysis In Hospital from 2007 to 2010 were collected and analyzed. Results Although the medication cost spent on anti infective was increasing from 2007 to 2010,the medication cost proportion of the anti infective was decreasing. Conclusion Anti-infectious agents cost proportion for the prescriptions is affected by macro -economic control, which is in compliance with the Guiding Principles of Clinical Ap -plication of Antibacterials and relevant documents .

  5. The anti-infective activity of punicalagin against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Feng, Yuqing; Xu, Yunfeng; Wu, Qian; Han, Qi'an; Liang, Xiujun; Yang, Baowei; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    Punicalagin, a major bioactive component of pomegranate peel, has been proven to have antioxidant, antiviral, anti-apoptosis, and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-infective activity of punicalagin in a mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were initially challenged with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and then treated with punicalagin. Food and water consumption and body weight were recorded daily. On day 8 post infection, the mice were sacrificed to examine pathogen counts in tissues, hematological parameters, cytokine levels, and histological changes. Compared to mice only infected with S. typhimurium, punicalagin-treated mice had more food consumption and less weight loss. A higher survival rate and lower counts of viable S. typhimurium in feces, liver, spleen, and kidney were found in the punicalagin-treated mice. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ in serum and the spleen and TNF-α in serum, the spleen and the liver were reduced by punicalagin. Moreover, more neutrophils and higher neutrophil-to-mononuclear cell ratios in the punicalagin-treated mice were observed. Histological examination showed that punicalagin protected cells in the liver and spleen from hemorrhagic necrosis. It is concluded that punicalagin has a beneficial effect against S. typhimurium infection in mice. The anti-infective properties, together with other nutritionally beneficial effects, make punicalagin a promising supplement in human food or animal feeds to prevent disease associated with S. typhimurium.

  6. Bioprospecting Micromonospora from Kaziranga National Park of India and their anti-infective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Madhumita; Duarah, Aparajita; Talukdar, Shruti; Gohain, Manorama Bura; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Jha, Dhruva K; Bora, Tarun C

    2012-08-01

    Large number of strains was isolated from soils of Kaziranga National Park of North-East India using selective isolation procedure. They were assigned to the genus Micromonospora on the basis of their typical colonial and pigmentation features. The taxonomic identities of the isolates were confirmed on the basis of their molecular characters (16SrDNA). A total of one hundred Micromonospora strains were isolated during the present investigation. The diagnostic cell wall sugar and amino acids were determined from these Micromonospora strains. After preliminary screening most of the isolates exhibited excellent anti-infective activity against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureas, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Echerichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans. Among these isolates one strain designated as HK-10 showed promising activity against human pathogens S. aureas, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris and P. aeroginosa.

  7. Urinary catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incontinence. There is no tube placed inside the penis. Instead, a condom-like device is placed over the penis. A tube leads from this device to a ... too small Bladder spasms Constipation The wrong balloon size Urinary tract infections POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS Complications of catheter ...

  8. Clinical evidence supporting the use of an activated clinoptilolite suspension as an agent to increase urinary excretion of toxic heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Flowers

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available James L Flowers1, Stewart A Lonky2, Erik J Deitsch31Eno Research and Development, Inc., Hillsborough, NC, USA; 2University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Wellness Industries, LLC, Parkland, FL USAAbstract: Effective treatment of chronic illness resulting from the long-term buildup of heavy metals in the body, such as chelation therapy, presents numerous clinical challenges, including undesirable side effects and unpredictable efficacy. Use of a naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, to remove these toxic substances may offer an efficacious and safe alternative to the traditional approaches. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of activated clinoptilolite suspended in water (ACS to remove heavy metals from the body through urinary excretion without the undesirable removal of physiologically important electrolytes. The protocol utilized two treatment groups, each consisting of eleven healthy men aged 36 to 70 years. Volunteers were given a commercially available version of the study substance for seven days (Group 1 and 30 days (Group 2 and urine samples were collected at specified time points in the study. Changes in urinary concentration of the heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared to the baseline. Also, serum samples were obtained from five individuals in each group and serum electrolytes were measured prior to and after taking the product. Participants in both groups had increased concentrations of heavy metals in the urine with the peak excretion at around day 4. No clinically significant alterations in serum electrolyte levels were seen at either seven or 30 days on ACS. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the daily use of an activated clinoptilolite suspension represents a potentially safe and effective way to remove toxic heavy metals from the body through increased urinary excretion without removing clinically detrimental amounts of vital

  9. Fabrication of drug-loaded anti-infective guided tissue regeneration membrane with adjustable biodegradation property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; Shi, Rui; Niu, Yuzhao; Gong, Min; Coates, Phil; Crawford, Aileen; Chen, Dafu; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Liqun

    2015-11-01

    For guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane, synchronization of the membrane biodegradation rate and tissue regeneration rate is important. Besides, the major reason for GTR membrane failure in clinical application is infection which can be prevented by loading anti-bacterial drug. To realize the consistency in membrane degradation rate and tissue regeneration rate of the anti-infective membrane, we developed metronidazole-loaded electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-gelatin nanofiber membranes with different poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios (95:5, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50). Homogeneous nanofibers were successfully fabricated. The mechanical strength of the membranes increased with the poly(ɛ-caprolactone) content, while the hydrophilicity decreased. The controlled and sustained release of metronidazole from all the membranes prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. At all poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios, all the membranes presented good biocompatibility while the increase of gelatin content resulted in enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that all the membranes showed good biocompatibility without infection. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that the biodegradation rate of the membranes was accelerated with the increase of gelatin content. The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of the membranes can be adjusted by changing the PCL/gelatin ratio. The optimal membrane can be chosen based on the patient and tissue type to realize the synchronization of membrane degradation with tissue regeneration for the best treatment effect.

  10. Steroid-decorated antibiotic microparticles for inhaled anti-infective therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Zhao, Yanli; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Reginald B H

    2014-04-01

    Despite advances in vaccination and antimicrobial therapy, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the severity of CAP has been linked to the extent of inflammation in the body, adjunctive therapeutic measures aimed at modulating the immune response have therefore become increasingly attractive in recent years. In particular, for CAP patients with underlying medical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a steroid-antibiotic combination will no doubt be a useful and timely therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, no combined steroid-antibiotic dry powder formulation is available commercially or has been reported in the academic literature. The aim of this work was hence to develop a novel steroid-antibiotic dry powder inhaler formulation [ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) and beclomethasone dipropionate (BP)] for inhaled anti-infective therapy. The spray-dried powder was of respirable size (d50 of ∼2.3 μm), partially crystalline and had BP preferentially deposited on the particle surface. Favorably, when formulated as a binary mix, both CIP and BP showed much higher drug release and fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) over their singly delivered counterparts, and had robust activity against the respiratory tract infection-causing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia Species from the Brazilian Semiarid Region Traditionally Used as Antiseptic and Anti-Infective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana da Purificação Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs.

  12. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun, E-mail: weiywswzy@163.com [Anhui Agricultural University, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2016-01-15

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion–solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100–150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus (M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application.

  13. Quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: a highly effective antibacterial agent in vitro and anti-infection application in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Endong; Mou, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haiping; Wang, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing efficacy against infectious diseases. PLGA-based nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier have shown promising potential, owing to their sizes and related unique properties. This article aims to develop nanosized poly ( d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) PLGA nanoparticle formulation loaded with quercetin (QT). QT is an antioxidant and antibacterial compound isolated from Chinese traditional medicine with low skin permeability and extreme water insolubility. The quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PQTs) were synthesized by emulsion-solvent evaporation method and stabilized by coating with poly (vinyl alcohol). The characteristics of PQTs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The PQTs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 100-150 nm. We compared the antibacterial effects of PQTs against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Micrococcus tetragenus ( M. tetragenus).The PQTs produced stronger antibacterial activity to E. coli than that to M. tetragenus through disrupting bacterial cell wall integrity. The antibacterial ratio was increased with the increasing dosages and incubation time. Next, we tested the in vivo antibacterial activity in mice. No noticeable organ damage was captured from H&E-staining organ slices, suggesting the promise of using PQTs for in vivo applications. The results of this study demonstrated the interaction between bacteria and PLGA-based nanoparticles, providing encouragement for conducting further investigations on properties and antimicrobial activity of the PQTs in clinical application.

  14. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  15. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  16. Urinary Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Dimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted into the extracellular space or body fluids when a multivesicular body (MVB fuses with the cell membrane. Interest in exosomes intensified after their description in antigen-presenting cells and the observation that they can significantly moderate immune responses in vivo. In the past few years, several groups have reported on the secretion of exosomes by almost all cell types in an organism. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic molecules, exosomes harbor unique subsets of proteins, reflecting their cellular source. Major research efforts were put into their surprisingly various biological functions and in translating knowledge into clinical practice. Urine provides an exciting noninvasive alternative to blood or tissue samples as a potential source of disease biomarkers. Urinary exosomes (UE became the subject of serious studies just a few years ago. A recent large-scale proteomics-based study of normal UE revealed a myriad of proteins, including disease-related gene products. Thus, UE have valuable potential as a source of biomarkers for early detection of various types of diseases, monitoring the disease evolution and/or response to therapy. As a relatively new field of research, it still faces many challenges, but UE have already shown some straightforward potential.

  17. Effect of Winemaking on the Composition of Red Wine as a Source of Polyphenols for Anti-Infective Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral infections and related bone (osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, periprosthetic joint infections and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, fifteen red wine samples derived from grapes native to the Oltrepò Pavese region (Italy, obtained from the winemaking processes of “Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese” red wine, were analyzed alongside three samples obtained from marc pressing. Total polyphenol and monomeric anthocyanin contents were determined and metabolite profiling was conducted by means of a chromatographic analysis. Antibacterial activity of wine samples was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, responsible for dental caries, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes, two oral bacterial pathogens. Results highlighted the winemaking stages in which samples exhibit the highest content of polyphenols and the greatest antibacterial activity. Considering the global need for new weapons against bacterial infections and alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as well as the favorable bioactivities of polyphenols, results point to red wine as a source of antibacterial substances for developing new anti-infective biomaterials and coatings for biomedical devices.

  18. Anti-infective properties of the melanin-glucan complex obtained from medicinal tinder bracket mushroom, Fomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr. (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Olga F; Gorovoj, Leontiy F; Beketova, Galina V; Savichuk, Hatalia O; Rytik, Petr G; Kucherov, Igor I; Prilutskay, Alla B; Prilutsky, Alexandr I

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to comparatively study the efficiency of traditionally used anti-infective drugs and biopolymer complexes originated from the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius (L.:Fr.) Fr.: 1) water-soluble melanin-glucan complex (MGC; -80% melanins and -20% beta-glucans) and 2) insoluble chitin-glucan-melanin complex (ChGMC; -70% chitin, -20% beta-glucans, and -10% melanins). Infectious materials (Helicobacter pylori, Candida albicans, and Herpes vulgaris I and HIV-1(zmb) were used in pure cultures of in vitro and in vivo models on experimental animals. Comparison studies of fungal biopolymers and effective modern antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral drugs were used in in vitro models. The comparative clinical efficiency of ChGMC and of etiotropic pharmaceuticals in models of H. pylori, C. albicans, and H. vulgaris I infection contamination were studied. Using in vitro models, it was established that MGC completely depresses growth of C. albicans. MGC had an antimicrobial effect on H. pylori identical to erythromycin in all concentrations, and had a stronger action on this bacterium than other tested antibiotics. Tested MGC possesses simultaneously weak toxicity and high anti-HIV-1 activity in comparison with zidovudine (Retrovir). The obtained results show that CLUDDT therapy in Wistar rats with the application of ChGMC is, on average, 1.35-1.43 times as effective as a traditional one. Considering the absence of MGC and ChGMC toxic properties on blood cells even in very high concentrations, these complexes may be used as a source of biopolymers for the creation of essentially new agents for wide application in infectious pathology.

  19. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate.

  20. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  1. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  2. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women.

  3. New drug treatments for urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Urinary incontinence remains a common and distressing condition affecting many women and is known to have a significant effect on quality of life (QoL). Whilst conservative and behavioural therapy are important in the management of women with both stress incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB) ultimately many may benefit from pharmacological therapy. Antimuscarinic drugs are the commonly used agents in the treatment of OAB although often compliance and persistence are affected by adverse effects. Consequently many newer agents remain under investigation. In addition duloxetine has recently been introduced for the management of women with stress incontinence and may offer an alternative to surgery in selected cases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and new developments in the management of women with urinary incontinence as well as reviewing the role of oestrogen therapy in relation to lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  4. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescri

  5. Antimicrobial and host-defense peptides as new anti-infective therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robert E W; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2006-12-01

    Short cationic amphiphilic peptides with antimicrobial and/or immunomodulatory activities are present in virtually every life form, as an important component of (innate) immune defenses. These host-defense peptides provide a template for two separate classes of antimicrobial drugs. Direct-acting antimicrobial host-defense peptides can be rapid-acting and potent, and possess an unusually broad spectrum of activity; consequently, they have prospects as new antibiotics, although clinical trials to date have shown efficacy only as topical agents. But for these compounds to fulfill their therapeutic promise and overcome clinical setbacks, further work is needed to understand their mechanisms of action and reduce the potential for unwanted toxicity, to make them more resistant to protease degradation and improve serum half-life, as well as to devise means of manufacturing them on a large scale in a consistent and cost-effective manner. In contrast, the role of cationic host-defense peptides in modulating the innate immune response and boosting infection-resolving immunity while dampening potentially harmful pro-inflammatory (septic) responses gives these peptides the potential to become an entirely new therapeutic approach against bacterial infections.

  6. Multifunctional Electrospun Nanofibers Incorporated with an Anti-infection Drug and Immobilized with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shufei

    Electrospinning has been used to fabricate ultrafine fibers with sizes ranging from nano to micrometers. Nanofibers electrospun from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers have been extensively investigated for their potential applications in wound healing and tissue regeneration. These nanofiber materials can be modified to incorporate bioactive molecules, such as antibacterial agents that provide infection control, or functional proteins which promote cell proliferation and tissue reconstruction. Despite the numerous studies on the development and design of nanofibers for biomedical applications, there has been little research on multifunctional nanofibers that are incorporated with both antibacterial drug(s) and bioactive proteins. The objective of the current study is, therefore, to develop nanofibers that are functionalized by several bioactive molecules. In this study, electrospinning was utilized to fabricate nanofibers from biodegradable polymers PLLA (Poly-L-lactide) and the copolymer PLLA-PEG (Polyethylene glycol)-NH2.A water soluble antibiotic drug, Tetracycline Hydrochloride (TCH), was incorporated into the electrospun nanofibers via emulsion electrospinning. The TCH-loaded nanofibers were surface modified to produce functional groups that can be further conjugated with a model protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA).Drug releasing profiles of the medicated nanofibers were monitored and their antimicrobial properties were evaluated. Proteins (BSAs) immobilized on the fiber surface were verified by ATR-FTIR. The number of immobilized BSAs was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results of the study suggested that this multifunctional nanofibrous material could be a promising material for wound dressing or scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  7. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions. Common clinical conditions, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), a common form of urinary incontinence (UI), may be usefully reconsidered to determine the role of the FUM. Knowledge of FUM characteristics may help advance prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and other common lower urinary disorders in women. The FUM appears related to UTI and UUI in adult women. The specific role of the FUM remains to be clarified and requires significant additional work in describing FUM variability and resilience in health. Unique aspects of the FUM prompt re-evaluation of existing nomenclature to more appropriately define health and disease; the concept of dysbiosis may be useful for understanding the interaction of the FUM with other aspects of lower urinary tract physiology, including urothelial signaling. Clinicians, through their clinical laboratories, can adopt enhanced urine culture techniques that more fully describe the living microbes within the FUM. This additional information may provide clinicians and their patients an opportunity to impact clinical care without antibiotic use, if the FUM can be appropriately modified to improve treatment precision for UTI and UUI. PMID:28217699

  8. Urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  9. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

  10. Drug loaded homogeneous electrospun PCL/gelatin hybrid nanofiber structures for anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; He, Min; Liu, Hao; Niu, Yuzhao; Crawford, Aileen; Coates, Phil D; Chen, Dafu; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-01

    Infection is the major reason for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membrane failure in clinical application. In this work, we developed GTR/GBR membranes with localized drug delivery function to prevent infection by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gelatin blended with metronidazole (MNA). Acetic acid (HAc) was introduced to improve the miscibility of PCL and gelatin to fabricate homogeneous hybrid nanofiber membranes. The effects of the addition of HAc and the MNA content (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.% of polymer) on the properties of the membranes were investigated. The membranes showed good mechanical properties, appropriate biodegradation rate and barrier function. The controlled and sustained release of MNA from the membranes significantly prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. Cells could adhere to and proliferate on the membranes without cytotoxicity until the MNA content reached 30%. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that MNA-loaded membranes evoked a less severe inflammatory response depending on the dose of MNA than bare membranes. The biodegradation time of the membranes was appropriate for tissue regeneration. These results indicated the potential for using MNA-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes as anti-infective GTR/GBR membranes to optimize clinical application of GTR/GBR strategies.

  11. Preparation of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite and coating on polymers for anti-infection biomaterial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were prepared by chemical reduction method, for anti-infection biomaterial application. There is a growing interest in attempts in using biomolecular as the templates to grow inorganic nanocomposites in controlled morphology and structure. By optimizing the experiment conditions, we successfully fabricated high yield of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite with full coverage of high-density polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating. More importantly, ZnO/Ag nanocomposites were shown to significantly inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in solution. It was further shown that ZnO/Ag nanocomposites induced thiol depletion that caused death of S. aureus. The coatings were fully characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Most importantly, compared to uncoated metals, the coatings on PVC promoted healthy antibacterial activity. Importantly, compared to ZnO-Ag -uncoated PVC, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated was approximately triplet more effective in preventing bacteria attachment. The result of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are chemically stable in the temperature range from 50 to 900 °C. This result, for the first time, demonstrates the potential of using ZnO/Ag nanocomposites as a coating material for numerous anti-bacterial applications.

  12. Are counterfeit or substandard anti-infective products the cause of treatment failure in Papua New Guinea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anita; Strauch, Stefanie; Lauwo, Jackson; Jähnke, Richard W O; Dressman, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    Counterfeit and substandard products present a big challenge to any national plan or policy devised to improve public health. Poor quality drug products are especially a problem in lower income countries where product information and drug regulation enforcement are scant or absent. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of amodiaquine and amoxicillin formulations sold in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to detect the presence of counterfeit or substandard drugs in circulation, if any. Fourteen samples, collected from five registered pharmacies in Port Moresby, PNG, were subjected to visual inspection, quality control tests, and verification of product authenticity. The quality control tests included weight variation, content uniformity, thin layer chromatography, and dissolution. None of the products complied with all of the evaluation criteria. Two products, one of which was purportedly distributed by a company which proved to be nonexistent, contained no detectable amodiaquine. The present study confirms that counterfeit and substandard amodiaquine and amoxicillin products are finding their way into the distribution chain in Port Moresby, PNG. This quality problem with anti-infective products is of great concern, as it not only exposes patients to poor quality products but also fosters the development of resistant bacterial strains.

  13. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  14. 糖尿病合并尿路感染120临床治疗分析%Analysis of 120 Clinical Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳雷

    2013-01-01

      目的探索糖尿病合并尿路感染患者的有效治疗方法。方法回归性分析120例糖尿病合并尿路感染患者的临床资料,比较采用二甲双胍联合比格列酮控制血糖及抗感染治疗其他方法控制血糖及抗感染治疗对糖尿病尿路感染的治疗效果。结果120例患者中43例采用二甲双胍联合比格列酮及抗感染治疗,治愈40例,好转2例,无效1例,治愈率93%,好转率5%,有效率98%。77例采用其他方法控制血糖及抗感染治疗,治愈54,好转19例,无效4例,治愈率70%,好转率25%,有效率95%。结论采用二甲双胍联合比格列酮及抗感染治疗,更有助于糖尿病尿路感染的治疗。%Objective To explore the effective treatment of diabetic patients with urinary tract infection. Methods Regression analysis of 120 cases of diabetic patients with urinary tract infections in patients with clinical data, was used to compare than pioglitazone, metformin combined with other methods to control blood sugar and anti-infection treatment to control blood sugar and anti-infection treatment of diabetes urinary tract infection treatment effect. Results 43 cases of 120 patients with pioglitazone, metformin combined ratio and anti-infection treatment, 40 cases were cured, improved in 2 cases and 1 case, the cure rate was 93%, the improvement rate of 5%, 98%efficiency. 95%of the 77 cases of other methods to control blood sugar and anti-infection treatment, cure 54, improved in 19 cases, 4 cases, 70%cure rate, improvement rate was 25%efficient. Conclusion Pioglitazone, metformin combined ratio and anti-infection treatment, but also contribute to the treatment of diabetes urinary tract infection.

  15. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  16. Infezioni delle vie urinarie: appropriatezza in antibioticoterapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Carnelutti, Alessia

    2014-12-01

    Adequacy of antimicrobial therapy in urinary tract infections (UTI)Urinary tract infections are one of the most common reasons for antimicrobial prescriptions, however urine cultures are often unavailable and the choice of antibiotics is therefore empiric. The ideal antimicrobial agent must have specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and an adequate spectrum of activity in order to obtain the potential eradication of the pathogen from the site of infection, minimizing the risk of recurrences and ensuring the best safety profile. There are several factors to be considered in the therapy choice: the type of infection, the increasing presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria showing resistance to most antibiotics and the problem of the bacterial internalization, that is a frequent cause of treatment failure and early recurrences. Prulifloxacin is a recent oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic approved in several European countries for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections and shows some interesting advantages in comparison with other antibiotics.

  17. Extract of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630) displays anti-infective properties by enhanced phagocytosis and differential modulation of host-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Andreas; Frank, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    EPs 7630 is an aqueous-ethanolic extract of the roots of PELARGONIUM SIDOIDES that displays well-documented benefits in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). IN VITRO and animal investigations have revealed various anti-infective properties of EPs 7630. The present review sums up recently published IN VITRO investigations that have shown positive effects on the activity of human peripheral blood phagocytes (PBP) and differential modulation of the interactions between group A streptococci and the host's epithelial barrier.

  18. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Roy; Sahana Yasmin; Subhadeep Ghosh; Somesankar Bhattacharya; Debdulal Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance re...

  19. Analysis of use of anti-infectives in the hospital pharmacy%某住院药房抗感染药物使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀敏; 范胜军

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the use of anti-infectives in our hospital pharmacy and to provide basis for rational clinical use of anti-infectives. Methods The analysis was conducted using the methods of defined daily use and order of consumption sum based on the raw data retrieved from Hospital Drug Inventory Management System. Results Anti-infectives using proportion after November droped. The use of varieties followed by the biggest amount of injection cefminox sodium,piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection,cefazolin sodium needles. Medication is the highest frequency of piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium needles,cefminox needle,needle penicillin sodium. Conclusion Use of anti-infectives'situation wholely became stable. β-lactams,Quinolones was our clinical anti-infection treatment leading medicine. The individual frequency of use high variety took the amount rise,and it explained that still waited for the standard in antibiotics use.%目的 分析住院药房抗感染药物的使用情况,为临床合理应用抗感染药提供参考.方法 根据"药局库存管理程序"的原始数据资料,按金额、限定日剂量进行排序、分析.结果 抗感染药物使用比例从11月份后有所下降,使用金额最大的品种依次是注射用头孢米诺钠、注射用哌拉西林钠舒巴坦钠、头孢唑啉钠针,用药频率最高的是哌拉西林钠舒巴坦钠针、头孢米诺钠针、青霉素钠针.结论 抗感染用药情况整体趋稳,β-内酰胺类、喹诺酮类是临床抗感染治疗的主导药物,个别使用频率较高的品种占用金额上升,说明在抗菌药物的使用上仍有待规范.

  20. Population-based cohort study of anti-infective medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-08-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescriptions (1999 to 2009) were identified (T1D cohort) and compared with an age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1 up to 4) diabetes-free reference group. The prevalence and average number of anti-infective use was studied from (up to) 8 years before until a maximum of 4 years after the onset of T1D. A total of 925 patients with T1D and 3,591 children and adolescents in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 [standard deviation, 4.5] years) were included. The overall prevalence of anti-infective use (62.6 compared to 52.6%, P < 0.001) and average number of prescriptions (2.71 compared to 1.42 per child, P < 0.001) in the T1D cohort were significantly higher than those in the reference cohort after the onset of diabetes. This pattern was consistent across sex and age categories and already observed in the year before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Patients in the T1D cohort received more antibacterials (49.8 compared to 40%, P < 0.001), antimycotics (4.0 compared to 1.3%, P < 0.001), antivirals (2.5 compared to 0.4%, P < 0.001), and second-line antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Our findings that elevated anti-infective use in the T1D cohort exists in the period before the onset of type 1 diabetes and the consumption of more second-line anti-infective compounds in this time period warrant further research.

  1. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The synthetic midurethral slings were introduced in the 1990s and were rapidly replaced the Burch colposuspension as the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence. It has been reported that the retropubic midurethral tape has an objective and subjective cure rate of 85% at 5...... years of follow-up, but the rate of reoperation after retropubic midurethral tape at the long-term follow-up is less well described. The existing literature specifies an overall lifetime rate of reoperation of about 8-9% after an initial operation for urinary incontinence. There are, however......, conflicting statements about the risk of reoperation after specific surgical procedures for urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the cumulative incidence of reoperation within a 5 year period after different types of surgical procedures for urinary incontinence based...

  2. Urinary incontinence - collagen implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007373.htm Urinary incontinence - injectable implant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to ...

  3. Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Malic, Sladjana; Rachael P. C. Jordan; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oi...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  5. Urinary p75ECD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepheard, Stephanie R.; Wuu, Joanne; Cardoso, Michell; Wiklendt, Luke; Dinning, Phil G.; Chataway, Tim; Schultz, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain (p75ECD) levels as disease progression and prognostic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The population in this study comprised 45 healthy controls and 54 people with ALS, 31 of whom were sampled longitudinally. Urinary p75ECD was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay and validation included intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation, effect of circadian rhythm, and stability over time at room temperature, 4°C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Longitudinal changes in urinary p75ECD were examined by mixed model analysis, and the prognostic value of baseline p75ECD was explored by survival analysis. Results: Confirming our previous findings, p75ECD was higher in patients with ALS (5.6 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine) compared to controls (3.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg creatinine, p analysis, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p = 0.0035), rate of disease progression from onset to baseline (HR 4.4, p survival. Conclusions: The assay for urinary p75ECD is analytically robust and shows promise as an ALS biomarker with prognostic, disease progression, and potential pharmacodynamic application. Baseline urinary p75ECD provides prognostic information and is currently the only biological fluid–based biomarker of disease progression. PMID:28228570

  6. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  7. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  8. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  9. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  10. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  13. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  14. [Complications of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Fekak, H; Rabii, R; el Moussasoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Urinary stones is a frequent disease whose renal complications can engage both functional and vital prognosis. We report 769 complicated cases observed 10 years. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and ultrasonography. 607 cases were mechanical complications, 582 hydronephrosis, 25 anuria, 262 were infectious complications, 82 chronic pyelonephritis, 60 pyonephrosis, 10 perinephric abscess. Treatment included adapted antibiotic therapy, ureteral catheter in case of anuria ; surgical extraction of the stone nephrectomy was performed in 100 patients. Results were generally good. 9 patients had endstage chronic renal failure. The high frequency of urinary stone complications is due to the fact that most patients consult late. The diagnosis must obviously be made.

  15. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  16. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  17. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  18. Chemogenomics driven discovery of endogenous polyketide anti-infective compounds from endosymbiotic Emericella variecolor CLB38 and their RNA secondary structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashavantha Rao, H. C.; Rakshith, Devaraju; Harini, Ballagere Puttaraju; Gurudatt, Doddahosuru Mahadevappa; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2017-01-01

    In the postgenomic era, a new strategy for chemical dereplication of polyketide anti-infective drugs requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. An endosymbiotic fungal strain CLB38 was isolated from the root tissue of Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae) which was collected from the Western Ghats of India. The isolate CLB38 was then identified as Emericella variecolor by its characteristic stellate ascospores culture morphology and molecular analysis of ITS nuclear rDNA and intervening 5.8S rRNA gene sequence. ITS2 RNA secondary structure modeling clearly distinguished fungal endosymbiont E. variecolor CLB38 with other lifestyles in the same monophyletic clade. Ethyl acetate fraction of CLB38 explored a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogens. Biosynthetic PKS type-I gene and chromatographic approach afford two polyketide antimicrobial compounds which identified as evariquinone and isoindolones derivative emerimidine A. MIC of purified compounds against test microorganisms ranged between 3.12 μg/ml and 12.5 μg/ml. This research highlights the utility of E. variecolor CLB38 as an anticipate source for anti-infective polyketide metabolites evariquinone and emerimidine A to combat multidrug resistant microorganisms. Here we demonstrates a chemogenomics strategy via the feasibility of PKS type-I gene and chromatographic approach as a proficient method for the rapid prediction and discovery of new polyketides compounds from fungal endosymbionts. PMID:28245269

  19. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    10.1 Kidney function2004116 Measurement of urinary neutral endopeptid-ase and its significance in diagnosing renal tubular injury. ZHANG Zhi (张智), et al. Div Nephrol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Nephrol 2003; 19(6) :392-396.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  1. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli induces serum amyloid a in mice following urinary tract and systemic inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Erman

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid A (SAA is an acute phase protein involved in the homeostasis of inflammatory responses and appears to be a vital host defense component with protective anti-infective properties. SAA expression remains poorly defined in many tissues, including the urinary tract which often faces bacterial challenge. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are usually caused by strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC and frequently occur among otherwise healthy individuals, many of whom experience bouts of recurrent and relapsing infections despite the use of antibiotics. To date, whether SAA is present in the infected urothelium and whether or not the induction of SAA can protect the host against UPEC is unclear. Here we show, using mouse models coupled with immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative RT-PCR, that delivery of UPEC either directly into the urinary tract via catheterization or systemically via intraperitoneal injection triggers the expression of SAA. As measured by ELISA, serum levels of SAA1/2 were also transiently elevated in response to UTI, but circulating SAA3 levels were only up-regulated substantially following intraperitoneal inoculation of UPEC. In in vitro assays, physiological relevant levels of SAA1/2 did not affect the growth or viability of UPEC, but were able to block biofilm formation by the uropathogens. We suggest that SAA functions as a critical host defense against UTIs, preventing the formation of biofilms both upon and within the urothelium and possibly providing clinicians with a sensitive serological marker for UTI.

  2. Analysis on enterococcus resistance for antibiotics in urinary tract infection%肠球菌所致泌尿系统感染的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锋; 姜凯; 邢志广; 吕壮伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肠球菌在泌尿系统感染中的耐药情况,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 对2009年1月~2011年12月门诊和住院患者的1 329份尿液标本常规进行病原菌培养与鉴定,药敏试验采用K-B纸片扩散法.结果 肠球菌占泌尿系感染的10.2%,以屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌为主,屎肠球菌(35.3%)所占比例高于粪肠球菌(27.2%).两种肠球菌对万古霉素、替考拉宁、氨苄西林、氯霉素的耐药率均较低,其中粪肠球菌还对青霉素G、呋哺妥因的耐药率较低,分别为21.6%、27.0%.结论 肠球菌属对抗生素呈多重耐药,且不同种的肠球菌耐药性差异较大,临床应根据药敏试验结果,合理选择抗菌药物.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the drug resistance of enterococci in urinary tract infection, to provide the bases for clinical anti-infective therapy. METHODS The pathogenic bacteria in urine specimens of 1 329 outpatients and inpatients between in January, 2009 and in December, 2011 were cultured and identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility test that KB disk diffusion method was used. RESULTS Enterococcus in urinary tract infection accounted for 10.2%, of which were main entero-coccus faecium and enterococcus faecalis.The proportion of enterococcus faecium (33.3%) was higher than those of enterococcus faecalis (27.2%). Two kinds of enterococcus were with low resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin, chloram-phenicol, one of which enterococcus faecalis was with low resistance to penicillin G (21.6%), nitrofurantoin (27.0%). CONCLUSION Enterococcus is with multiple antibiotic resistance, and drug resistance of different species of enterococci are quite different.The clinical medication should have a rational choice in antimicrobial agents based on susceptibility testing.

  3. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  4. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  5. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  6. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  7. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  8. Evaluation of new anti-infective drugs for the treatment of cholera. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, M L; DuPont, H L; Cooperstock, M; Fekety, R; Murray, D M

    1992-11-01

    Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae. It is characterized by watery diarrhea that may lead to massive fluid loss, which in turn may result in hypotension, shock, and death within hours. Key to the treatment of cholera is fluid replacement. Anti-infective therapy decreases the severity and duration of diarrhea and the duration of shedding of V. cholerae. Enrolled patients should have diarrhea that is moderate to severe and a culture that ultimately yields V. cholerae. A prospective, randomized, active-controlled clinical trial is preferred. Studies should be double-blinded or evaluator-blinded. The rapidity with which the organism is eliminated from stool may be assessed. Both clinical and microbiological outcome should be determined. Assessment of microbiological eradication is paramount, since fluid replacement may suffice for treatment of signs and symptoms.

  9. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  10. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  11. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  12. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity. PMID:26999391

  13. Urinary incontinence: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K L; Steidle, C P; Letizia, T M

    1995-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a widely prevalent problem that affects people of all ages and levels of physical health, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Contributing to the problem are that many practitioners remain uneducated about this condition, individuals are often too ashamed or embarrassed to seek professional help, and there are significant variations in diagnostic and treatment practices. Five types of UI are stress, urge, overflow, functional and manufactured incontinence. Stress, urge and overflow are caused by factors within the urinary tract and will be concentrated on in this article. To diagnose UI a three-part assessment should be conducted, including the patient history, physical examination, and urinalysis. A behavioral program should be designed which incorporates identification and education for both patient and clinician. Treatment options include pelvic floor exercises (Kegel), vaginal cones, bladder training (retraining), habit training (timed voiding), electrostimulation and biofeedback, clean intermittent catheterization, indwelling catheters, medications, collagen injections, surgery, and absorption products. Most patients can be helped dramatically or cured with the appropriate treatment.

  14. Triazole: A Promising Antitubercular Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Siddappa A; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with comparatively high mortality worldwide. The statistics shows that around three million people throughout the world die annually from tuberculosis and there are around eight million new cases each year, of which developing countries showed major share. Therefore, the discovery and development of effective antituberculosis drugs with novel mechanism of action have become an insistent task for infectious diseases research programs. The literature reveals that, heterocyclic moieties have drawn attention of the chemists, pharmacologists, microbiologists, and other researchers owing to its indomitable biological potential as anti-infective agents. Among heterocyclic compounds, triazole (1,2,3-triazole/1,2,4-triazole) nucleus is one of the most important and well-known heterocycles, which is a common and integral feature of a variety of natural products and medicinal agents. Triazole core is considered as a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry and is widely used as 'parental' compounds to synthesize molecules with medical benefits, especially with infection-related activities. In the present review, we have collated published reports on this versatile core to provide an insight so that its complete therapeutic potential can be utilized for the treatment of tuberculosis. This review also explores triazole as a potential targeted core moiety against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole-based antituberculosis drugs.

  15. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Dennis J; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Li, Birong; Vanderbrink, Brian A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2012-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  16. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Horvath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  17. Managing therapeutic competition in patients with heart failure, lower urinary tract symptoms and incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Johnell, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    Up to 50% of heart failure patients suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence has been associated with worse functional status in patients with heart failure, occurring three times more frequently in patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV symptoms compared with those with milder disease. The association between heart failure and urinary symptoms may be directly attributable to worsening heart failure pathophysiology; however, medications used to treat heart failure may also indirectly provoke or exacerbate urinary symptoms. This type of drug-disease interaction, in which the treatment for heart failure precipitates incontinence, and removal of medications to relieve incontinence worsens heart failure, can be termed therapeutic competition. The mechanisms by which heart failure medication such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers aggravate lower urinary tract symptoms are discussed. Initiation of a prescribing cascade, whereby antimuscarinic agents or β3-agonists are added to treat symptoms of urinary urgency and incontinence, is best avoided. Recommendations and practical tips are provided that outline more judicious management of heart failure patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Compelling strategies to improve urinary outcomes include titrating diuretics, switching ACE inhibitors, treating lower urinary tract infections, appropriate fluid management, daily weighing, and uptake of pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  18. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  19. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  20. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  1. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  2. An open multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, Gunnar; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence....

  3. [Effect of disturbing factors on the specificity of exfoliative urinary cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Y; vom Dorp, F; Schenck, M; Rossi, R; Witschier, J; Rübben, H

    2007-09-01

    In the clarification of hematuria and subsequent treatment, a high specificity is expected from urinary cytology when no tumor is present, because false positive results lead to unnecessary diagnostic measures. The aim of this study was to investigate different disturbing factors to determine the specificity of urinary cytology and whether the specificity can be increased by cytometry. Out of 150 patients with no malignant disease, 125 were affected by the following disturbing factors: urinary infection, urolithiasis, transurethral electroresection, utilisation of hypo-osmolar flushing solution or administration of contrast agents. In 5 patients who were diagnosed with urinary infection or urolithiasis, the urine was falsely cytologically determined to be tumor positive, an error which was corrected by cytometric analysis. Therefore, cytometric analysis should be carried out in patients in whom a tumor has been cytologically diagnosed in order to increase the specificity of urinary cytology.

  4. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  5. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Bien; Olga Sokolova; Przemyslaw Bozko

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggere...

  6. A case of urinary tract infection caused by Raoultella planticola after a urodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu, Murat; Ruhi, Caglar; Gokce, Ali M; Kara, Melih; Aksaray, Sebahat

    Here we report the case of a patient who developed urinary tract infection after a urodynamic study. The causative agent was Raoultella planticola, a rare opportunistic pathogen that usually invades immunocompromised patients. While a urinary tract infection with R. planticola has been previously described, this is the first report in which an R. planticola infection developed after a urodynamic study. We postulate that the mechanism of infection was direct invasion of the urinary tract from contaminated urodynamic study equipment. Here, we discuss the role played by isotonic solutions in facilitating bacterial reproduction.

  7. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your cat’s urinary tract with bacteria, fungi, parasites or possibly even viruses can cause signs of ... of their urine prevents infection. Diseases such as kidney disease and diabetes are more common in cats ...

  8. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khameneh Zakieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%, Klebsiella (5.48%, Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available.

  12. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria. We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, encrusted cystitis

  13. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  14. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Jeremy S; Doern, Christopher D; Godbout, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. Data regarding the impact of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation on UTI treatment outcomes is lacking.

  16. Anti-infective treatment for the HIV-infected patient during perioperative period%围手术期HIV感染者的抗感染治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保池; 张磊; 李垒; 司炎辉; 宋言峥; 赵中辛

    2012-01-01

      Objective:To investigate anti-infective treatments in HIV-infected surgical patients during the perioperative period. Methods 〓 A retrospective study of sepsis and surgical site infections (SSIs) was conducted in 266 HIV-infected patients from January 2009 to December 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on CD4 cells counts in the preoperative period: group A (<200 cell/μl), group B (200-349 cell/μl) and group C (≥350 cell/μl). Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) was started in group B. Preoperative antibiotic medication SMZ and fluconazole against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and other fungal infection was started in group A. No special treatment in group C. Results〓There were only 6 patients dead at 30 days after surgery, with the death rate of 2.3%. Sepsis appeared in 110 patients (41.3%). Patients in group A were more likely to get sepsis than patients in the other two groups (P <0.01). Conclusion〓Complete evalua- tion of surgical risk and suitable perioperative anti-infective treatment may lead to better outcome for HIV-infected surgical patients.%  〓〓[]〓目的〓探讨 HIV 感染者围手术期合理的抗感染治疗.方法〓回顾性分析上海市公共卫生临床中心外科2009年1月至2011年12月救治的266例 HIV 感染患者围手术期临床资料,根据患者术前 CD4 T 淋巴细胞水平分 A 组<200 cell/μl,B 组200~349 cell/μl 和 C 组≥350 cell/μl 三组,对 B 组给予抗 HIV 病毒治疗,对 A 组给予抗 HIV 病毒、磺胺甲唑(SMZ)和氟康唑预防肺孢子虫和真菌感染,对已经合并结核、真菌等机会性感染者给予相应的抗感染治疗.对 C组无特殊处理.结果〓经适当的抗感染治疗,266例患者手术后30 d 内死亡6例,病死率2.3%.110例发生脓毒症,脓毒症发生率41.3%.A 组脓毒症发病率明显高于 B 组和 C 组(P <0.01).结论〓精细的手术与合理的围手术

  17. 抗感染中心静脉导管临床应用的研究%Effect of clinical application of anti-infective central venous catheter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明英; 申建维; 刘显畅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨抗感染中心静脉导管在减少导管相关性感染和细菌定植中的作用,以降低导管相关感染率。方法选取2011年5月-2013年5月于IC U行深静脉置管患者64例,随机分为观察组和对照组,各32例,对照组采用普通中心静脉导管,观察组采用黄嘧啶银和氯己定抗感染中心静脉导管,观察比较两组患者导管留置、导管拔除、导管相关性感染和细菌定植。结果留置导管时间观察组为(14.5±2.6)d,对照组为(8.3±3.7)d,观察组留置导管时间长于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.563,P<0.05),观察组无局部感染,对照组局部感染6例感染率18.75%,观察组局部感染、导管细菌定植例数明显少于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组细菌定植和感染延时显著优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001)。结论抗感染中心静脉导管在减少导管相关性感染和细菌定植中具有重要的积极作用,但导管留置时间>两周,抗感染中心静脉导管的细菌定植和导管相关性感染明显增加,通过缩短导管留置时间是减少导管相关性感染的重要手段。%OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of use of anti-infective central venous catheter on reduction of incidence of catheter-related infections or bacterial colonization so as to reduce the incidence of catheter-related infections .METHODS Totally 64 patients who underwent the deep venous catheterization in the ICU from May 2011 to May 2013 were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group ,with 32 cases in each group ,the control group was treated with conventional central venous catheter ,while the observation group was given yellow-Ag and chlorhexidine anti-infective central venous catheter ; the intubation ,extubation , catheter-associated infections , and bacterial

  18. La incontinencia urinaria Urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Robles

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa.Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are difficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary

  19. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  20. Herbal medicines for urinary stone treatment. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Monti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical evidence on the efficacy of phytotherapy in the treatment of calculi in the urinary tract. Methods: To be eligible, full-length articles should include the results of randomized controlled trials enrolling patients affected by urolithiasis, reporting any comparison between an experimental herbal agent versus placebo or any active comparator, aimed at preventing the formation or facilitating the dissolution of calculi in any portion of the urinary tract. Fifteen databases were searched for relevant references. The primary outcomes investigated were (i the reduction of stone size and/or number and (ii the urinary excretion rates of calcium, urate, or oxalate. The secondary outcome of the review was the adverse effects (AE of treatment. Risk of bias (ROB and quality of the evidence were assessed according to Cochrane and GRADE guidelines. We performed a randomeffect meta-analysis. Results: 541 articles were retrieved and 16 studies were finally confirmed as eligible. Multiple Cochrane ROB tool items were rated as having high risk of bias in each analyzed trial report. Pooled analysis of continuous data could be performed for three different comparisons: (i phytotherapy versus citrate as single agent (ii phytotherapy versus placebo, (iii preparation of Didymocarpus pedicellata (DP -combined with other herbal agents- versus placebo. Results showed that citrate is superior to phytotherapy in significantly decreasing both the size of urinary stones (mean difference: phytotherapy, 0.42 mm higher; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.6; Z = 4.42, P < 0.0001; I2 = 30% and the urinary excretion rate of urate (mean difference: 42.32 mg/24h higher, 95% CI: 19.44 to 65.19; Z = 3.63, P = 0.0003; I2 = 96%, assessed after 3 months on-therapy. No significant differences in the excretion rates of urinary calcium or oxalate were found. The DP preparation was superior to placebo in inducing total clearance (risk ratio: 6.19, 95% CI: 2.60 to 14.74; Z

  1. [Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Aki

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes are 40-100-nm membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular space by various types of cell in many biological fluids, including serum, saliva, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and urine. Exosomes, which contain several key proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs, were considered as an alternative secretion pathway. In addition, recent findings suggest that the exosome itself is a functional biomolecule involved in intracellular communication; thus, its components can be transferred to recipient cells by fusion, changing the function of the target cell. Recently, urinary exosomes have attracted much attention because some of their proteins have been identified as biomarkers related to certain physiological events and disease-related metabolism of the kidney. This review provides an overview of urinary exosomes, including methods of isolation and associated problems, and focuses on urinary exosomes as protein biomarker sources involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  2. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  3. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  4. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  5. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  6. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  7. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  8. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.;

    2009-01-01

    , are considered in this article. Summary: There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content...... are difficult to perform for large number of persons, single spot urinary samples are preferable to the 24-hour urinary collections in population studies. The iodine concentration in urine depends on the intake of both iodine and fluid. This, and the fact that there is a considerable variability in the daily...... iodine intake, makes the iodine measurement in spot urine samples unreliable for evaluating individuals for iodine deficiency, though they can be used to screen for exposure to large amounts of iodine from sources such as amiodarone and certain radiographic contrast agents. In populations of at least 500...

  9. Clinical Observation on Electroacupuncture Against Urinary Incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文洁; 胡昌东; 王洁茹; 洪珏

    2009-01-01

    @@ Urinary incontinence is a common problem, usually classified as stress incontinence or urge incontinence[1]. With the development of medical science, people have got more and more profound knowledge towards urinary incontinence. We treated urinary incontinence with electroacupuncture since 2006, and now reported it as follows.

  10. Best practices in urinary catheter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Rebecca; Kazer, Meredith Wallace

    2010-06-01

    Urinary catheterization is a common healthcare intervention used to manage urinary dysfunction that poses serious associated risks and complications. This article discusses methods of urinary catheterization and their indications, catheter-associated complications, and assessment and management strategies that home healthcare practitioners can employ to ensure best patient outcomes and minimize complications.

  11. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac

  12. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of urinary isolates in Imphal (Manipur), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengkokpam, Chitra; Ingudam, Dayanand; Yengkokpam, Ibotomba Singh; Jha, Bijay Kumar

    2007-09-01

    The present study was conducted to detect aerobic causative agents of urinary tract infection (UTI) and their antibiogram pattern. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, India. A total of 1,109 clean catched midstream urine samples were collected, out of which 459 (40.4%) samples grew potential pathogens causing UTI. Escherichia coli were the predominant 334 (72.8%) bacterial pathogen followed by Klebsiella species 66 (14.4%), non lactose fermenters 19 (4.1%), Pseudomonas species 16 (3.5%) and others. Most of the strains of E. coli were resistance to Ciprofloxacin whereas sensitive to Aminoglycoside. Most of the urinary isolates showed high degree of resistance to Tetracycline, Norfloxacin and Cotrimoxazole. Gentamycin was the drug of choice for most of the strains.

  14. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who rep...

  15. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  16. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  17. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  18. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  19. Artificial urinary sphincters for male stress urinary incontinence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordon BH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Billy H Cordon,1 Nirmish Singla,1 Ajay K Singla2 1Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 2Department of Urology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, USA Abstract: The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS, which has evolved over many years, has become a safe and reliable treatment for stress urinary incontinence and is currently the gold standard. After 4 decades of existence, there is substantial experience with the AUS. Today AUS is most commonly placed for postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. Only a small proportion of urologists routinely place AUS. In a survey in 2005, only 4% of urologists were considered high-volume AUS implanters, performing >20 per year. Globally, ~11,500 AUSs are placed annually. Over 400 articles have been published regarding the outcomes of AUS, with a wide variance in success rates ranging from 61% to 100%. Generally speaking, the AUS has good long-term outcomes, with social continence rates of ~79% and high patient satisfaction usually between 80% and 90%. Despite good outcomes, a substantial proportion of patients, generally ~25%, will require revision surgery, with the rate of revision increasing with time. Complications requiring revision include infection, urethral atrophy, erosion, and mechanical failure. Most infections are gram-positive skin flora. Urethral atrophy and erosion lie on a spectrum resulting from the same problem, constant urethral compression. However, these two complications are managed differently. Mechanical failure is usually a late complication occurring on average later than infection, atrophy, or erosions. Various techniques may be used during revisions, including cuff relocation, downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement, or tandem cuff placement. Patient satisfaction does not appear to be affected by the need for revision as long as continence is restored. Additionally, AUS following prior sling surgery has comparable

  20. Curriculum integration of urinary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WANG; Li WANG; Wen-xie XU

    2015-01-01

    As the organ-system oriented integration of medical education has been carried out in many domestic medical schools for years,an urgent need of discussions on various problems of integrated medical education emerges.This paper reviews the urinary integrated educational work in Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine(SJTU-MS)and introduces the contents of the integrated curriculum of urinary system.We focus on whether we should apply the single cycle integration mode or dual cycle mode,and compare the vocational medical education and elite medical education,and demonstrate the importance of inter-system integration and the ideal integrated textbooks.Multifarious teaching methods and other issues are also mentioned.The future development of integrated medical education is prospected positively.

  1. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  2. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  3. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Evan B.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  5. 尿路感染大肠埃希菌耐药和基因型的流行病学分析%Epidemiology of drug resistance and genotype of Eschreichia coli in urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志刚; 高宇; 陈秋媛; 姜笑笑; 李雪梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is to investigate the resistance and genotypes of Escherichia coli ( E.coli) from urinary tract in-fections, and provide the theoretical support for the anti-infective treatment.Methods 56 cases of E.coli form urinary tract in-fections were selected .The minimal inhibitory concentration of E .coli was detected using the agar double dilution method .Ex-tended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were detected by double-disk synergy method.The ESBLs genes were detected by PCR amplification.The genotypes of E.coli were determined using multilocus sequence typing .Results A total of 56 strains of E.coli were more sensitive to carbapenems and amikacin , whereas they were highly resistant to the other antimicrobial agents . The resistance rate of ST405 typed strains to penicillin was significantly higher than that of other typed strains (P<0.05). The ESBL-producing E.coli strains accounted for 51.8%.PCR amplification showed that the positive rates of CTX -M and OXA genes were 48.2% and 19.6%, and no other resistance genes were detected .MLST results showed that 56 isolated strains had 21 gene types.The ST405 was the most common genotype accounting for 30.4% (17), followed by the ST301. Conclusion E.coli isolates from urinary tract infections posses high resistance to most antibiotics .ST405is the most common genotype .%目的:探讨尿路感染大肠埃希菌的耐药性及基因型,为抗感染治疗提供理论依据。方法收集56株尿路感染大肠埃希菌,采用多位点序列分型方法对细菌进行基因分型,采用琼脂平板倍比稀释法检测细菌的最低抑菌浓度,双纸片协同法检测超广谱β-内酰胺酶,采用PCR扩增ESBLs基因。结果56株大肠埃希菌共分为21个基因型,其中ST405基因型最多占30.4%(17株),其次为ST301基因型。56株大肠埃希菌除对碳青霉烯类、阿米卡星敏感性较高外,对其他抗菌药物均具有较高的耐药性。 ST405型菌株对青霉素

  6. [Update on current care guidelines: urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorela, Maarit; Kouri, Timo; Laato, Matti; Lipponen, Pertti; Sammalkorpi, Kari; Uhari, Matti; Uusitalo, Leena; Vuento, Risto

    2011-01-01

    This guideline is focused on the diagnostics and treatment of acute, recurrent and relapsing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Sexually transmitted diseases are not addressed, but must be considered in differential diagnostics. The resistance prevalence of the causative microbes and the ecological adverse effects of antimicrobial agents were considered important factors in selecting optimal therapeutic choices for the guideline. Diagnosis and management of cystitis in otherwise healthy women aged 18-65 years can be based on structured telephone interviews. Primary antimicrobiotic drugs are nitrofurantoin, pivmesillinam and trimetoprim for three days.

  7. [Urinary tract infections. Therapeutic failures and course monitoring (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, M A

    1979-10-19

    The proportion of reinfections and relapses in urinary tract infections amounts to about 35-70%. Hydrokinetic conditions (e.g. size of bladder, frequency of micturition, rate of multiplication of the pathogens, adhesiveness of bacteria) not seldom lead to a discrepancy between the in vivo response of the pathogen to the chemotherapeutic agent and the corresponding MIC determined in vitro. Ten causes for the therapeutic failure are discussed in greater detail. Monitoring the course in good time with due regard to the risks is essential. A scheme for microbiological monitoring investigations before beginning therapy, during treatment and after discontinuing the medicament, as well as for long term therapy is suggested.

  8. Current Treatment Strategies for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Zor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections among all age groups. Three UTI episodes with positive culture results in a one year period are called recurrent UTIs. Recurrent UTIs are common health problems threatening physical and mental health of the individuals in all age groups. Unconscious antibiotic usages lead multi-antibiotic resistant agents. In a multidisciplinary manner the patient must be evaluated if he/she has a genetic, physiological or anatomical disorder. Several current approaches such herbal products and vaccines are increasingly used to avoid antibiotic overuse [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 161-168

  9. Evaluation of a new lateral flow test for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila urinary antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Uldum, Søren A; Sørensen, Jesper F; Skovsted, Ian C; Otte, Sanne; Elverdal, Pernille L

    2015-09-01

    Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of the etiologic agent is important in order to choose the correct antibiotic treatment. In this study we evaluated the first commercial combined test for the agents of pneumococcal pneumonia and Legionnaires' disease based on urinary antigen detection, the ImmuView® Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila Urinary Antigen Test. In this evaluation, the new test had a significantly higher sensitivity than the BinaxNOW® lateral flow tests and the Binax® EIA test. This identifies the ImmuView® S. pneumoniae and L. pneumophila Urinary Antigen Test as a fast and sensitive point of care test for identification of the infectious agent in a major group of patients with pneumonia.

  10. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  11. Urinary pH and renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Costa-Bauzá, A; Gomila, I; Ramis, M; García-Raja, A; Prieto, R M

    2012-02-01

    Formation of calcium oxalate crystals, either as monohydrate or dihydrate, is apparently unrelated to urinary pH because the solubilities of these salts are practically unaltered at physiologic urinary pH values. However, a urinary pH 6.0 may induce uric acid or calcium phosphate crystals formation, respectively, which under appropriate conditions may induce the development of the calcium oxalate calculi. We assessed the relationship between the urinary pH and the formation of different types of calculi. A retrospective study in 1,478 patients was done. We determined the composition, macrostructure, and microstructure of the calculi and the urinary pH, 50.9% of calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached calculi were present in patients with urinary pH 6.0, respectively. Infectious calculi were found primarily in patients with urinary pH >6.0 (50.7%). Only calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated with urinary pH between 5.5 and 6.0 (43.1%). Urine of pH 6.0 has an increased capacity to develop calcium phosphate crystals, which can act as a heterogeneous nuclei of calcium oxalate crystals. Oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated to pH between 5.5 and 6.0 because the injured papilla acts as a heterogeneous nucleant. Consequently, measurement of urinary pH may be used to evaluate the lithogen risk of given urine.

  12. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  13. TERMINALIA CHEBULA: A TREATMENT AGAINST PATHOGENIC PROTEUS VULGARIS STRAINS ASSOCIATED WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq. A. L; Reyaz. A. L

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia chebula was used to find out the new sort of treatment for the urinary tract infections caused by Proteus vulgaris. The causative agent was identified as Proteus vulgaris by staining and biochemical methods. It is responsible to cause urinary tract infection and most of strains show the resistance against the broad spectrum antibiotics: Ceftazidime (30μg), Ofloxacin (50μg), Norfloxacin (30μg), Tetracycline (30μg), Ampicillin (30μg), Chloramphenicol (25μg) and Gentamycin (20μg). The...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the urinary bladder: cancer staging and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, E.A. [McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Jhaveri, K.S.; O' Malley, M.E.; Haider, M.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Univ. Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: Kartik.Jhaveri@uhn.on.ca; Jewett, M.A.; Rendon, R.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Urology Univ. Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique for imaging bladder tumours. It offers distinct benefits over other imaging modalities owing to its superior contrast, spatial resolution, multiplanar capabilities, and the availability of a nonnephrotoxic contrast agent. The main indication for MRI of the urinary bladder is local staging of bladder cancers. MRI may also be used to evaluate undiagnosed bladder lesions. In some cases MRI may play an important role in early detection and characterizing of certain bladder lesions. This article provides an overview of MRI's role in bladder imaging with emphasis on local tumour staging. MRI features of various urinary bladder lesions are described. (author)

  15. The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are caused by different types of microbial agents such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Candida albicans. The presence of strong physical barriers may prevent the breach of pathogens into the urinary tract. However, sometimes the pathogenic microorganisms may pass through the barriers and stimulate the innate and adaptive responses. Among a variety of innate immune responses, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are one of the most unique and interesting molecules regarding UTIs. Thus, the authors have focused their attention on the role of TLRs in urinary tract defense against pathogenic microbial agents such as UPEC and C.albicans through this literature review. Material and methods Several papers regarding UTIs and TLRs including original and review articles were searched by PubMed and Google Scholar. They were studied and the most important aspects in association with the role of TLRs in UTIs were extracted. Additionally, this paper was prepared using the experience of the authors. Results The TLRs 2, 4 and 5 are the most functional molecules that contribute to urinary tract defense system and UTIs. It is incredible that TLRs are able to detect and recognize different parts of microbial components relating to the same pathogen. Besides, the flexibility of the TLR molecules may lead to identification of different types of microorganisms with different signaling pathways. Conclusions Our knowledge associated with TLRs and their activities against microbial causative agents of UTIs may help us to prevent, control and treat UTIs at a higher quality level. PMID:28127459

  16. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  17. Vasoactive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatmen...

  18. [Leiomyoma of the urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the urinary tract are benign and uncommon forms of tumor. In the present study, two cases have been described of leiomyomas situated in the bladder. Following this description, the pathological characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these lesions have been examined. The clinical symptomatology depends on the tumor site, and this type of lesion is more frequently found in women.. Treatment mainly consists of endoscopic resection, but may involve cystectomy. The prognosis for patients with this type of tumor is invariably favorable.

  19. 临床药师在1例ICU重症患者抗感染药物治疗中的作用%Role of Clinical Pharmacists in Anti-infective Drug Therapy for a Severe Patient in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 王婧; 陆瑶华; 李颖川; 周明; 郭澄

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of clinical pharmacists in the determining of drug therapy for ICU severe patients. METHODS: One case of intestinal obstruction patient with septic shock was analyzed descriptively in terms of disease course, drug therapy and outcome. The empirical anti-infective therapeutic strategies for the sepsis induced by the abdominal infection with unsatisfactory anti-infection and undetected pathogen were analyzed. Pharmaceutical care mainly concerned about the change of the routine blood test, biochemical function and other laboratory index, especially the specific inflammatory markers. RESULTS: In the course of therapy, clinical pharmacists identified the intraperitoneal drug-resistant E. coli infection was the main problem and selected a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic for the treatment. De-escalation therapy was performed after controlling severe infection, and then the individual anti-infective program was formulated in the course of antibiotic therapy to promote disease condition. CONCLUSION: Clinical pharmacists should participate in the health care team, and help clinicians to adjust drug treatment programs. This attempt may enhance the effect of drug therapy.%目的:探讨临床药师在ICU重症患者药物治疗方案确定中的作用.方法:描述性分析1例肠梗阻术后休克患者的病程发展、药物治疗情况及转归,分析腹腔感染引起脓毒症、感染控制不佳、病原体不明确时的经验治疗策略.药学监护重点关注血常规、生化功能等实验室指标趋势,特别是特异性炎性指标.结果:临床药师针对多部位的耐药菌感染,明确腹腔大肠埃希菌感染为需解决的主要矛盾,选用耐酶广谱的碳青霉烯类及时控制感染后降阶梯治疗,制订个体化抗感染方案,使得病情好转.结论:临床药师参与医疗团队,协助医师调整药物治疗方案,有利于提升患者的药物治疗效果.

  20. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  1. [Inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shigetake

    2003-05-01

    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  2. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  3. Undertreatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning-van Beest, F.J.A.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Herings, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the urinary incontinence guidelines that are issued by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, treatment guidelines are related to the type of incontinence. It is unknown whether treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice complies with these guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To de

  4. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  5. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  6. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  7. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  8. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    , the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

  9. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  10. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin...... regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation....

  11. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented.

  12. STUDY OF URINARY CALCIUM AND URINARY CREATININE LEVELS AND URINARY CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO IN GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertension (BP>140/90mmHg or pregnancy induced hypertension usually precedes pre - eclampsia (BP>140/90mmHg associated with proteniuria. Many tests to predict pre - eclampsia are coming up on the horizon. Hypocalciuria is one such test to predict pre - eclampsia which may be present before other clinical signs and symptoms. AIM: To determine urinary calcium, urinary creatinine and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in pregnancy induced hypertension and in normal pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 subjects with gestational age between 24 - 38 weeks and divided into two groups’ viz. control group and study group . The control group included 50 subjects who were normal pregnant women and study group included 50 subjects who were gestational hypertensive patients. Urinary calcium was estimated by Ortho - Cresolphthalein Complexone (CPC method, urinary creatinine was estimated by Jaffe’s method in all the subjects. RESULTS: The estimated mean levels (Mean±SD of urinary calcium, creatinine in control group were 263.0±80.3, 0.95±0.16 respectively and in patients with gestational hypertension they were 86.2±19.5, 1.21±0. 37 respectively. The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and the urinary creatinine were significantly increased (p <0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compar ed to healthy controls. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in control group were 0.28±0.08 and in gestational hypertensive patients were 0.07±0.03.The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a regular evaluation of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio after 20wks of gestation may be an effective screen ing method for

  13. Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.

  14. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tepel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r =  -0.33; P<0.001. Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66. Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

  15. 骨科抗菌药物不合理应用分析%Analysis on the irrational use of anti-infective drugs in the department of osteology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余巍; 张树荣; 左国营

    2011-01-01

    目的 促进临床合理应用抗菌药物.方法 通过我院骨科附属医院抗感染药物治疗的病例,从药物选用、用法用量、药物相互作用、配伍禁忌等方面对常见医嘱抗菌药物不合理用药进行探讨,指出用药不当的原因和可能的后果,以期帮助临床防范抗菌药物不合理用药的发生.结果 临床常见医嘱抗菌药物的使用存在很多不合理之处.结论 抗菌药物使用应全面考虑、综合分析,临床药师在抗菌药物的合理使用上可起到积极作用.%Objective To provide theory bases for further interference aiming at clinical using drugs rationally. Methods in order to find out and evaluate the main manifestations of clinical inconsequence use of anti - infective drugs , the records of typical irrational uae of anti - infective drugs from drug selection , usage and dosage , drug interactions, compatibility taboos were collected and analyzed in the department of osteology of our hospital. Results There are many shortcomings in the use of antimicrobial drugs in clinical. Conclusions The irrational utilization of antibiotics remains to be improved. Clinical pharmacists can play a positive role in the rational use of antimicrobial drugs.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  17. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  18. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension......This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long......-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy...

  19. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samawi, Abdullah Saleh; Aulaqi, Saleh Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification. Methods This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Results Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78%) were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2%) were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1%) were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3), small cell carcinoma (n=1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1). The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%), papilloma 7 (3%), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%), and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%), with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group. Conclusion This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age. PMID:24044060

  20. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  1. Obesity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David James; Strain, Matthew; Gomelsky, Alex; Rothschild, Jennifer; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in the obese female patient and draw conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of this condition in this unique patient population. Obesity results in increased intra-abdominal pressure and this leads to weakening of the pelvic floor innervation and musculature. Weight loss through lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery improves stress urinary incontinence. Success of stress urinary incontinence surgery in obese women is similar to nonobese patients. Obese women should not be excluded from potentially curative surgery based on their body mass index (BMI) alone.

  2. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  4. Radioprotective Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    claimed to be effective are gallic acid derivatives, eg, sodium gallate 12053-21-61 (295-297) and propyl gallate 1121-79-91 (298). p...inhibition of a-adrenergic receptors can be achieved through the use of the antiradiation agents 2-(5-aminopentylamino)ethanephos- phorothioic acid ...tissue was ap- preciated immediately as a potential medical set, and they were put to use en- thusiastically. Early workers did notice an erythematous

  5. Pathogen characteristics of different types of lower urinary tract infections and their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in Chinese multiple centers%国内不同类型下尿路感染患者尿路病原菌构成及药敏分析的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔庐东; 陈山; 杨勇; 张凯; 郑波; 果宏峰; 杨波; 牛远杰; 王毅

    2015-01-01

    感染的经验性治疗.%Objective To assess the pathogen characteristics of different types of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics in Chinese multiple center.Methods Multicenter study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2011 in 12 Chinese hospitals.Middle stream urine samples were collected from 350 afebrile patients,including 198 cases with acute uncomplicated cystitis,82 cases with recurrent lower UTI and 70 cases with complicated antibiotic needed lower UTI.In those patients with positive urine culture,minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of some antimicrobial agents were measured using broth microdilution after collecting the pathogen.ESBLs production was confirmed by a double-disk synergy test.Results 198 urine samples were culture-positive and 175 isolates were included in the final analysis.Among the organisms cultured,116 (66.3%) were gram-negative bacterium and 59 (33.7%) were gram-positive bacterium.To the acute uncomplicated cystitis,recurrent UTI and complicated UTI,the detection rates of E.coli were 53.1%,50.0% and 40.5%,respectively.The rates of ESBL-producing E.coli were 49.0%,57.1% and 60.0%,respectively.The rate of Enterococcus faecalis were 8.3%,4.8% and 13.5%,respectively.Uropathogen's sensitivity rate of acute uncomplicated cystitis,recurrent lower UTI and complicated lower UTI to levofloxacin were 53.1%,47.6% and 32.4%,respectively,The sensitivity rate of those groups to cephalosporin were 55.2%,38.1% and 43.2%,respectively,The sensitivity rate of those groups to nitrofurantoin were 87.5%,81.0% and 75.7%,respectively.The sensitivity rate of those groups to fosfomycin trometamol were 93.8%,85.7% and 91.9%,respectively.Conclusion To the different types of lower UTIs,the distributions of uropathogens were complicated in China.The detection rate of ESBL-producing E.coli and Enterococcus faecalis are really high especially in the complicated lower UTIs

  6. The relative importance of Staphylococcus saprophyticus as a urinary tract pathogen: distribution of bacteria among urinary samples analysed during 1 year at a major Swedish laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andreas; Giske, Christian G; Ternhag, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To determine the distribution of urinary tract pathogens with focus on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and analyse the seasonality, antibiotic susceptibility, and gender and age distributions in a large Swedish cohort. S. saprophyticus is considered an important causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, and some earlier studies have reported up to approximately 40% of UTIs in this patient group being caused by S. saprophyticus. We hypothesized that this may be true only in very specific outpatient settings. During the year 2010, 113,720 urine samples were sent for culture to the Karolinska University Hospital, from both clinics in the hospital and from primary care units. Patient age, gender and month of sampling were analysed for S. saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. Species data were obtained for 42,633 (37%) of the urine samples. The most common pathogens were E. coli (57.0%), Enterococcus faecalis (6.5%), K. pneumoniae (5.9%), group B streptococci (5.7%), P. mirabilis (3.0%) and S. saprophyticus (1.8%). The majority of subjects with S. saprophyticus were women 15-29 years of age (63.8%). In this age group, S. saprophyticus constituted 12.5% of all urinary tract pathogens. S. saprophyticus is a common urinary tract pathogen in young women, but its relative importance is low compared with E. coli even in this patient group. For women in other ages and for men, growth of S. saprophyticus is a quite uncommon finding.

  7. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V

    2000-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.

  8. Simple microbiological method for the identification of antimicrobial agents prescribed in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, M R; Langdale, P

    1985-01-01

    A simple microbiological method to identify antimicrobial agents in urine is described. Of 1,514 consecutive urine specimens received from general practitioners, 302 (19.94%) contained antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial agent was identified confidently in 284 of these. Surprisingly, 83 (5.48%) urine specimens contained an antimicrobial substance not usually used in the treatment of urinary tract infection.

  9. Trends in cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Jørgensen, Simon Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of cancers of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with particular focus on elderly patients over age 70 years. Design Cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary...

  10. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  11. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... suspension Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  12. Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R L; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1985-01-01

    This investigation indicates that there are important associations between urinary stone disease and a person's primary liquid intake. Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming) an important (p less than 0.01) positive association was found between urinary stone disease and soda (carbonated beverage) consumption within both geographical regions. It was also found that negative associations exist between urinary stone disease and both beer consumption and coffee consumption in the Rockies and that no important associations exist between urinary stone disease and any of milk, water, or tea, when these beverages represent a person's primary liquid intake. Moreover, soda can be viewed almost synonymously as sugared cola, since few subjects had diet sodas or sugared non-cola soda as primary fluid. No cause/effect relationships are implied in this paper.

  13. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  14. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy : studies in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women is increased and predisposes them to acute pyelonephritis together with poor pregnancy outcomes. Increased frequency of micturition, nocturia and lower abdominal discomfort are common non-specific complaints during pregnancy, which render clinical diagnosis of UTI inaccurate. To prevent undesirable effects on the growing fetus, antimicrobial agents used in management of UTI during pregnancy should be carefully selected...

  15. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.

  16. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  17. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  18. [Imaging in urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P; Lagard, D; Leroy, C; Dracon, M; Biserte, J; Lemaître, L

    2004-02-01

    Uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract is frequent and usually resolves rapidly with treatment and imaging is unnecessary. Progression to complex infection often occurs in patients with predisposing factors. Imaging assists in evaluating the extent of disease, plays a role in directing therapy and guides interventional procedures if necessary. This pictorial essay reviews the role of imaging and intervention in infections of the urinary tract.

  19. New Anti-Infective Material in Wound Repair: Nano Silver%新型抗感染创面修复材料:纳米银

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇飞; 张文俊; 章建林

    2012-01-01

    Silver is applied in the treatment of burn, wound and bacterial infection by the form of metal silver, silver nitrate, sulfadiazine silver and so on. With the discovery and application of antibiotics, the application of silver compound decreased significantly. In recent years, nanoscale metal silver become a potential antibacterial agent, because nano technology can adjust the metal size to nanoscale and change the chemical, physical and optical properties of metal greatly. Due to the occurrence of antibiotic resistance, the application of nano silver is becoming more and more important. The mechanism and application of nano silver were reviewed.%银以金属银、硝酸银、磺胺嘧啶银等多种形式应用于烧伤及多种细菌感染的治疗.随着抗生素的发现与应用,这些银复合物的应用显著下降.近年来,纳米技术因可调节金属尺寸至纳米级,使金属的化学、物理与光学性质有了极大的改变,纳米级的金属银成为一种潜在的抗菌剂.由于抗生素耐药性的发生,纳米银的应用具有广阔前景.

  20. Organic Anion Transporter 5 (Oat5) Urinary Excretion Is a Specific Biomarker of Kidney Injury: Evaluation of Urinary Excretion of Exosomal Oat5 after N-Acetylcysteine Prevention of Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulacio, Romina Paula; Anzai, Naohiko; Ouchi, Motoshi; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2015-08-17

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Its main side-effect is nephrotoxicity. It was reported that the organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) urinary excretion is elevated, implying renal perturbation, when no modifications of traditional markers of renal damage are still observed in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). It was also demonstrated that Oat5 is excreted in urine by the exosomal pathway. This study was designated to demonstrate the specific response of the urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 to kidney injury independently of other cisplatin toxic effects, in order to strengthen Oat5 urinary levels as a specific biomarker of AKI. To accomplish that aim, we evaluated if urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 returns to its basal levels when cisplatin renal damage is prevented by the coadministration of the renoprotective compound N-acetylcysteine. Four days after cisplatin administration, AKI was induced in cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats (Cis group), as it was corroborated by increased urea and creatinine plasma levels. Tubular damage was also observed. In cotreated animals (Cis + NAC group), plasma urea and creatinine concentrations tended to return to their basal values, and tubular damage was improved. Urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was notably increased in the Cis group, but when renal injury was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine coadministration, that increase was undetected. So, in this work we observed that urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was only increased if renal insult is produced, demonstrating its specificity as a renal injury biomarker.

  1. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  2. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  3. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-12-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

  4. 485例抗感染药物的不良反应报告分析%485 Cases of Anti-infectives Adverse Reaction Reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小燕

    2012-01-01

      Objective To analyze drug adverse reaction (ADR) induced by anti-infective agents. Methods Drug adverse reaction induced by anti-infective agents occurred in our hospital last three years were analyzed. Results In the 485 reports on drug adverse reaction, the ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.8. The drug adverse reaction occurred in female was slight higher than that of male. In the anti-infective agents inducing drug adverse reaction, cephalosporins ranked a top position, the second was macrolides, and then was 3-quinolones, with the 37.53, 21.65 and 21.23 percent respectively. The ARD was mainly by intravenous administration. Conclusion The anti-infective agents must be reasonable used to prevent and reduce the drug adverse reaction.%  目的探讨分析抗感染药物所致药物不良反应(ADR).方法 对我院三年中485例抗感染药物引起的不良反应进行分类统计与分析.结果 在485例不良反应报告中:男女性别之比为1∶1.8,女性略高于男性;引起不良反应的抗感染药物以头孢菌素类居首位,占37.53%;第二为大环内酯类,占21.65%;第三为喹诺酮类占21.23%.ADR主要以静脉给药为主.结论 必须加强抗感染药物合理应用,预防并减少不良反应的发生.

  5. Importance of Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections: New Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms play an important role in urinary tract infections (UTIs, being responsible for persistence infections causing relapses and acute prostatitis. Bacterial forming biofilm are difficult to eradicate due to the antimicrobial resistant phenotype that this structure confers being combined therapy recommended for the treatment of biofilm-associated infections. However, the presence of persistent cells showing reduced metabolism that leads to higher levels of antimicrobial resistance makes the search for new therapeutic tools necessary. Here, a review of these new therapeutic approaches is provided including catheters coated with hydrogels or antibiotics, nanoparticles, iontophoresis, biofilm enzyme inhibitors, liposomes, bacterial interference, bacteriophages, quorum sensing inhibitors, low-energy surface acoustic waves, and antiadhesion agents. In conclusion, new antimicrobial drugs that inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation are needed.

  6. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

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    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  7. Outcomes of Aminopenicillin Therapy for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcal Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kelli A.; Perri, Mary Beth; Dumkow, Lisa E.; Samuel, Linoj P.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Davis, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant urinary tract infections are often challenging to treat. This retrospective cohort study compared outcomes between patients treated for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection with an aminopenicillin and those treated with a non-β-lactam antibiotic. Inpatients treated with an enterococcus-active agent for their first symptomatic vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013 were considered for inclusion. Patients with colonization, on hospice, or receiving comfort care only were excluded. The primary endpoint of clinical cure was defined as resolution of clinical symptoms, or symptom improvement to the extent that no additional antibacterial drug therapy was necessary, and lack of microbiologic persistence. Secondary endpoints of 30-day readmission or retreatment and 30-day all-cause mortality were also compared. A total of 316 urinary isolates were screened, and 61 patients with symptomatic urinary tract infection were included. Twenty (35%) of the 57 isolates tested were ampicillin susceptible. Thirty-one patients received an aminopenicillin, and 30 received a non-β-lactam. Rates of clinical cure for aminopenicillin versus non-β-lactam treatment were 26/31 (83.9%) and 22/30 (73.3%) (P = 0.315), respectively. Rates of 30-day readmission (6/31, or 19.4%, versus 9/30, or 30%, respectively; P = 0.334), 30-day retreatment (4/31, or 12.9%, versus 4/30, 13.3%, respectively; P = 0.960), and 30-day all-cause mortality (2/31, or 6.5%, versus 1/30, or 3.3%, respectively; P = 0.573) were also not significantly different between groups. Aminopenicillins may be a viable option for treating vancomycin-resistant urinary tract infection regardless of the organism's ampicillin susceptibility. Prospective validation with larger cohorts of patients should be considered. PMID:26369973

  8. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  9. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had inco...

  10. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

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    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  11. [Urinary urgency and reflex incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madersbacher, H

    1991-07-01

    Urge and reflex incontinence are caused by detrusor dysfunction:urgency may be due to hyperactivity or hypersensitivity of the bladder. Neurogenic hyperactivity of the detrusor is called detrusor hyperreflexia: the neurogenic uninhibited bladder is caused by incomplete, and the so-called reflex bladder by complete, suprasacral lesions. The pathophysiology of symptomatic and idiopathic detrusor hyperactivity and the therapeutic armentarium are described. Bladder drill together with biofeedback and pharmacotherapy with spasmolytic drugs - several potent spasmolytic drugs with different modes of action are available - are the basis of treatment for hyperactivity and hypersensitivity of the detrusor. An alternative is electrostimulation: stimulation of the afferents of the pudendal nerve, via the pelvic floor (anal, vaginal), percutaneously (dorsal nerve of the penis, clitoric nerve) or by the implantation of electrodes results in inhibition of the detrusor. Most (80-90%) patients can be treated successfully by conservative means. Operative measurements comprise bladder denervation and bladder augmentation. The results of bladder denervation by transtrigonal phenolization of the pelvic plexus are highly controversial. In patients with uncontrollable hyperactivity of the detrusor, augmentation of the bladder (e.g. clam ileocystoplasty) is the method of choice, while for those with uncontrollable hypersensitivity of the detrusor, cystectomy followed by bladder substitution should be performed as a last resort. Treatment for urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia must be selected bearing in mind that bladder emptying is inadequate, in most cases because of dyssynergia between detrusor and external sphincter. Therapy is basically aimed at transforming hyperreflexia of the detrusor into hyporeflexia, primarily by potent spasmolytic drugs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Anti-infective activities of Pelargonium sidoides (EPS® 7630): effects of induced NO production on Leishmania major in infected macrophages and antiviral effects as assessed in a fibroblast-virus protection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thäle, Carsten; Kiderlen, Albrecht Ferdinand; Kolodziej, Herbert

    2011-05-01

    EPs® 7630 is an aqueous-ethanolic extract of the roots of Pelargonium sidoides, employed in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. Its anti-infective activity is supposed to be associated with the activation of the nonspecific immune system. Using Leishmania major GFP-infected murine BMMΦ, the NO production of EPs® 7630-activated macrophages was correlated with the reduction of the GFP signal measured at single cell levels using flow cytometry. The anti-infectious effect of EPs® 7630 (3-10 µg/mL) on its own (NO production: 4-13 µM; signal reduction: 25-73 %) was less prominent than that in combination with IFN- γ (100 U/mL) (NO production: 20-27 µM; signal reduction: 35-78 %). Furthermore, supernatants of EPs® 7630-stimulated BMMΦ (10 µg/mL) significantly reduced the cytopathic effect of EMCV on L929 fibroblasts (antiviral activity 80 U/mL) when compared with an IFN- γ standard (100 U/mL). Direct addition of EPs® 7630 to L929 did not mediate cytoprotective effects. The antiviral components induced in BMMΦ by EPs® 7630 remain to be identified. Detection of any IFNs by ELISA was unsuccessful, which may be due to their very low concentrations in cell supernatants. The current data provide convincing support for the induction of anti-infectious responses by EPs® 7630.

  13. 临床药师参与肾移植术后肺炎患者抗感染治疗分析%Clinical Pharmacists Involved in Anti-infection Treatment of Pneumonia After Renal Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌霞; 连玉菲; 王路

    2016-01-01

    Infection is common in patients after renal transplantation complications, if not treated early, even cause death.So, proper anti-infective treatment is particularly important.Based on 1 case of pneumonia after renal transplantation in patients with pharmaceutical care, explore the clinical practice of personalized medicine.Clinical pharmacist intervention by the patient's medication to make the pa-tient medication more safe, effective and reasonable.%感染是肾移植术后患者的常见并发症,若治疗不及时或不彻底,感染甚至会造成患者死亡。因此给予恰当的抗感染治疗尤为重要。本文通过对1例肺炎合并肾移植术后患者的药学监护,探讨临床个体化用药实践。临床药师通过对患者的用药干预,提升用药安全、有效和合理,体现了临床药师在参与药物治疗中的积极作用。

  14. Research status of defensins and cathelicidins/LL-37 in pulmonary anti-infection immune defense%防御素和cathelicidins/LL-37在肺部抗感染防御中的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书真; 李昌崇; 林立

    2014-01-01

    抗菌肽是宿主防御系统的重要组成部分.在人气道上皮中主要表达2种阳离子小分子抗菌肽,即防御素和cathelicidins/LL-37,它们通过直接杀菌、调节天然或适应性免疫、损伤修复等生物学活性对抗肺部常见病原体的侵袭.本文就防御素和cathelicidins/LL-37的来源及结构特征、表达调节、在肺部抗感染免疫防御中的作用进行综述.%Antimicrobial protein/peptides (AMPs) are an important part of the defense system.Defensins and cathelicidins/LL-37 are the two main small cationic AMPs which are present in airway epithelial cells.AMPs play a critical role in resisting pathongens of invading lung through direct antimicrobial activity,modulating innate or adaptive immunity,and wound repair.The orign and architectural feature,expression regulation and research progress in pulmonary anti-infection immune defense of defensins and cathelicidins/LL-37 are reviewed here.

  15. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

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    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  16. Stented ureterovesical anastomosis in renal transplantation: does it influence the rate of urinary tract infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathe Z

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine use of double-J stents on the incidence of urinary tract infection after renal transplantation. Methods We conducted a retrospective-comparative single-centre study in 310 consecutive adult deceased donor kidney recipients transplanted from 2002 to 2006. Patients were divided in two groups, with or without urinary stent implantation. To evaluate the predictive factors for UTI, donor and recipients pre- and post-transplantation data were analysed. Early urological complications and renal function within 12 months of transplantation were included as well. Results A total of 157 patients were enrolled to a stent (ST and 153 patients to a no-stent (NST group. The rate of urinary tract infection at three months was similar between the two groups (43.3% ST vs. 40.1% NST, p = 0.65. Of the identified pathogens Enterococcus and Escherichia coli were the most common species. In multivariate analysis neither age nor immunosuppressive agents, BMI or diabetes seemed to have influence on the rate of UTI. When compared to males, females had a significantly higher risk for UTI (54.0% vs. 33.5%. Conclusion Prophylactic stenting of the ureterovesical anastomosis does not increase the risk of urinary tract infection in the early postoperative period.

  17. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

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    Justyna Bien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs.

  18. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  19. Mathematical modelling of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Antonio Soriano; Fernandez, Daniel Ruiz; Gil, David; Garcia Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Perez, Francisco Macia

    2013-03-01

    The lower urinary tract is one of the most complex biological systems of the human body as it involved hydrodynamic properties of urine and muscle. Moreover, its complexity is increased to be managed by voluntary and involuntary neural systems. In this paper, a mathematical model of the lower urinary tract it is proposed as a preliminary study to better understand its functioning. Furthermore, another goal of that mathematical model proposal is to provide a basis for developing artificial control systems. Lower urinary tract is comprised of two interacting systems: the mechanical system and the neural regulator. The latter has the function of controlling the mechanical system to perform the voiding process. The results of the tests reproduce experimental data with high degree of accuracy. Also, these results indicate that simulations not only with healthy patients but also of patients with dysfunctions with neurological etiology present urodynamic curves very similar to those obtained in clinical studies.

  20. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel;

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany......, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...

  1. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  2. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Phair, J.P.; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H.B.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  4. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  5. Staying Trim, Strong May Cut Risk of Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequency over time, but not with changes in urgency urinary incontinence frequency over time," said the study's lead ... pressure (i.e., coughing, laughing, sneezing)," she explained. "Urgency urinary incontinence is involuntary leakage of urine accompanied or ...

  6. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...... of different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p

  7. Actinomycosis of urinary bladder - a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Lal Gupta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is considered the most misdiagnosed dis-ease usually involving the cervico fascial region, thorax, abdomen and occasionally also the pelvis, usually in case of the females using intra-uterine devices. The involve-ment of the urinary tract is rare and primary actinomyco-sis of urinary bladder is still rarer. The disease is usually diagnosed by demonstration of the discharged sulphur granules. In our case this was not the usual presentation and the patient was first diagnosed as having appendicu-lar mass and then bladder malignancy. The excised mass demonstrated features suggestive of actinomycosis.

  8. Fungal infections of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D; Vazquez, J A

    1999-12-01

    Funguria, fungal urinary tract infections, are most commonly caused by Candida species but may also be caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. Candiduria presents as an increasingly common nosocomial infection, which may involve all anatomic levels of the urinary tract, resulting in a spectrum of disease varying from asymptomatic candiduria to clinical sepsis. Although several successful systemic or local therapeutic options exist for the eradication of candiduria, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of candiduria has lagged. This has resulted in confusion among practitioners as to when antifungal therapy is indicated. Treatment guidelines have recently been formulated and are described herein.

  9. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment.

  10. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  11. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  12. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  13. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2016-04-21

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population.

  14. Management of daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aniruddh V; Craig, Jonathan C; Smith, Grahame H H; Caldwell, Patrina H Y

    2012-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly urgency, frequency and incontinence are common in school-aged children but are often overlooked. They may cause considerable physical, social and psychological difficulties to children and their families, and usually are manifestations of underlying non-neurogenic voiding disorders. The differential diagnoses include overactive bladder syndrome, dysfunctional voiding and vaginal reflux as well as less common conditions like giggle incontinence, voiding postponement, pollakiuria and diabetes insipidus. In this paper, we discuss an evidence-based approach to the management of conditions causing daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children from a general paediatrician's perspective.

  15. Secondary or Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Associated With Urinary Tract Anomaly and Urinary Infection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Krishnappa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is a rare presentation, but may be due to aldosterone deficiency or end organ resistance to its action. There are few cases associating this condition with urinary tract infections or anatomic abnormalities that predispose to infection. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA due to its often atypical presentation. We describe ten month-old infant who presented with this condition and was found to have urinary tract infection complicating unilateral urinary tract anomaly, which may have strong association with renal tubular resistance to aldosterone.

  16. Management of benign prostatic hypertrophy-related urinary retention: current trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    The failure of prostate-directed treatment modalities to help all men or all symptoms has questioned the longstanding assumption that the prostate is at the root of all male urinary symptoms, and a correlation between urinary bladder function and prostate pathology has been recognized. Now, it is widely recognized that bladder dysfunction plays a role in some, if not most, of the benign prostatic hyperplasia-related symptoms and signs, and recent studies have suggested that pharmacotherapies that target the bladder, such as antimuscarinics, may improve storage urinary symptoms. Indeed, the current mainstays of overactive bladder syndrome pharmacotherapy are antimuscarinic agents with mixed actions, including musculotropic (calcium antagonistic) activity. Moreover, the combination therapy with alpha blocker and antimuscarinic agents is now suggested when bladder outlet obstruction related to benign prostatic hyperplasia coexists with overactive bladder symptoms. Combinational treatment, targeting to both decrease resistance to urine outflow through the prostatic urethra and increase bladder smooth muscle, may improve the bladder outlet surgery success rate, and perhaps it might reinforce the need to offer an additional trial without catheter in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who are likely to suffer from detrusor hypocontractivity. Currently, no clinical trial supporting the use of parasympathomimetic drugs in those with poor voiding and longstanding symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia exists in the literature; however, experimental studies present promising results.

  17. Application of biotinylated and 32P probes for detection of P-fimbriae in urinary E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusková, E; Ciznár, I

    1993-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the common causative agent of urinary tract infections. Twenty-six strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from children with pyelonephritis, symptomatic urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Biotinylated and 32P-DNA probes were prepared for detection of P-fimbriae in the isolates. Of the 13 strains isolated from patients with pyelonephritis 11 were positive for the presence of the P gene by both probes. Strains isolated from cases of symptomatic urinary tract infections revealed the presence of P gene only in three samples of the total of nine isolated. None of the isolated E. coli strains from asymptomatic bacteriuria was found positive for the presence of the P gene. The biotinylated probe was simple and easily applicable in standard laboratory conditions and therefore the authors recommend it for use in diagnostic laboratories.

  18. Chateter-associated Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Piljic, Dilista; Porobic-Jahic, Humera; Piljic, Dragan; Ahmetagic, Sead; Jahic, Rahima

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hospital-acquired Urinary tract infections make 35% of all the hospital-acquired infections, and about 80% of them are related to the catheterization of the urinary bladder Purpose: To determine clinical characteristics and dominant etiologic factors of Urinary Tract Infections associated with urinary catheter (C-UTIs). Methods: Determined clinical characteristics of C-UTIs were prospectively analyzed on 38 hospitalized patients in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases at the Unive...

  19. [A rare cause of urinary obstruction: urogenital tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Debbagh, A; Bennani, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2003-04-01

    The authors reported a rare cause of urogenital tuberculosis complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure in 44 years old man with solitary anatomic kidney. The authors insisted of using the upper urinary tract opacification by percutaneous nephrostomy for diagnosis, the urogenital tuberculosis with this exploration, we can suspected the tuberculosis by abnormalities of the radiologic imagine, and confirmed the koch bacilli urinary into urinary tract. The upper chance of positives of finding koch bacilli in higher than urinary bladder.

  20. Urinary Bladder Problems in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jesudasan, Ajantha

    2012-01-01

    Ajantha Jesudasan, Mohammed A. Rana Parkinson’s Clinic of Eastern Toronto, Toronto, Canada Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is reported to range from 38% to 71%.1 Common symptoms include nocturia, urinary urgency, incomplete bladder emptying and urinary retention. These symptoms may also be caused by urinary tract infection, prostatic hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus or medications used for other medical conditions.

  1. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mungli Prakash; Nagaraj M Phani; Kavya R; Supriya M

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary pepti...

  2. Biological safety evaluation of the modified urinary catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczuk, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.kowalczuk@umlub.pl [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Przekora, Agata; Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro safety of the novel tosufloxacin (TOS)-treated catheters with the prolonged antimicrobial activity. The test samples of silicone latex catheter were prepared by the immobilization of TOS on chitosan (CHIT)-coated catheter by means of covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions. Each step of the modification process of catheter surface was observed using ATR–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of the modified and unmodified catheters was assessed by direct and indirect tests in accordance with ISO standards using green monkey kidney (GMK) cell line. The MTT, lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), WST-8, Sulforhodamine B (SRB) test results and microscopic observation clearly indicated that unmodified silicone latex catheters decrease cell metabolic activity, act as a cytotoxic agent causing cell lysis and induce cell death through necrotic or apoptotic process. We suggest that chitosan coat with TOS immobilized limits leaching of harmful agents from silicone latex material, which significantly enhances survivability of GMK cells and therefore is quite a good protection against the cytotoxic effect of this material. - Highlights: • Characterization of the novel antimicrobial urinary catheters • Monitoring of the catheter modification by FTIR analysis • Confirmation of high cytotoxicity of latex-based catheter used in urological practice • Chitosan-coated and tosufloxacin-treated catheter is less toxic than the untreated one. • The proposed surface modification protects cells against latex-induced death.

  3. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  4. Urinary incontinence after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, E.J.M.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Kluivers, K.B.; Milani, A.L.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: This study focused on the changes in urinary incontinence (UI) rates pre- and postoperatively and identified risk factors which predict the presence of symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) or stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without conc

  5. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  6. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  7. Sepsis Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli: Comparison of Severity of Sepsis, Delay of Anti-Infective Therapy and ESBL Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Christian; Gürntke, Stephan; Steinmetz, Ivo; Kohler, Christian; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Gastmeier, Petra; Schwab, Frank; Kola, Axel; Deja, Maria; Leistner, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are associated with increased mortality. Outcome differences due to various species of ESBL-E or ESBL genotypes are not well investigated. We conducted a cohort study to assess risk factors for mortality in cases of ESBL-E bacteremia (K. pneumoniae or E. coli) and the risk factors for sepsis with organ failure. All consecutive patients of our institution from 2008 to 2011 with bacteremia due to ESBL-E were included. Basic epidemiological data, underlying comorbidities, origin of bacteremia, severity of sepsis and delay of appropriate anti-infective treatment were collected. Isolates were PCR-screened for the presence of ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases. Cox proportional hazard regression on mortality and multivariable logistic regression on risk factors for sepsis with organ failure was conducted. 219 cases were included in the analysis: 73.1% due to E. coli, 26.9% due to K. pneumoniae. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (ESBL-E. coli, 23.8% vs. ESBL-K. pneumoniae 27.1%, p = 0.724). However, the risk of sepsis with organ failure was associated in cases of K. pneumoniae bacteremia (OR 4.5, pESBL-E bacteremia due to K. pneumoniae compared to E. coli. As K. pneumoniae cases showed a more serious clinical presentation as E. coli cases and were associated with different risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies should be adjusted accordingly.

  8. Sepsis Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli: Comparison of Severity of Sepsis, Delay of Anti-Infective Therapy and ESBL Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Ivo; Kohler, Christian; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Gastmeier, Petra; Schwab, Frank; Kola, Axel; Deja, Maria; Leistner, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are associated with increased mortality. Outcome differences due to various species of ESBL-E or ESBL genotypes are not well investigated. We conducted a cohort study to assess risk factors for mortality in cases of ESBL-E bacteremia (K. pneumoniae or E. coli) and the risk factors for sepsis with organ failure. All consecutive patients of our institution from 2008 to 2011 with bacteremia due to ESBL-E were included. Basic epidemiological data, underlying comorbidities, origin of bacteremia, severity of sepsis and delay of appropriate anti-infective treatment were collected. Isolates were PCR-screened for the presence of ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases. Cox proportional hazard regression on mortality and multivariable logistic regression on risk factors for sepsis with organ failure was conducted. 219 cases were included in the analysis: 73.1% due to E. coli, 26.9% due to K. pneumoniae. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (ESBL-E. coli, 23.8% vs. ESBL-K. pneumoniae 27.1%, p = 0.724). However, the risk of sepsis with organ failure was associated in cases of K. pneumoniae bacteremia (OR 4.5, p<0.001) and patients with liver disease (OR 3.4, p = 0.004) or renal disease (OR 6.8, p<0.001). We found significant differences in clinical presentation of ESBL-E bacteremia due to K. pneumoniae compared to E. coli. As K. pneumoniae cases showed a more serious clinical presentation as E. coli cases and were associated with different risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:27442425

  9. PDCA循环理论用于抗感染临床药师工作模式实践%PDCA Cycle Theory in the Role of Anti-Infective Clinical Pharmacists Working Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 王娜; 张伟东; 杨文明; 贾俐萍; 马金秋; 董建红; 左明芳; 祖香雨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of the plan,do,check and action(PDCA) theory in the establishment of the anti-infective clinical pharmacists work mode. Methods With the PDCA quality cycle management theory as the guidance,the clinical pharmacists work systems and work processes were established for standardizing the clinical pharmacists' works. Results The working systems and workflow formulated by the PDCA mode could effectively enhance the work level and work quality of clinical pharmacists. Conclusion The PDCA cycle theory plays an active role for constructing clinical pharmacists work mode and significantly increases the work level of hospital clinical pharmacists.%目的:探讨戴明环(PDCA)循环理论在建立抗感染临床药师工作模式中的作用。方法以PDCA质量循环管理理论为指导,建立临床药师工作制度和工作流程,使临床药师工作标准化。结果通过PDCA模式制订的工作制度和工作流程能有效提升临床药师的工作水平和工作质量。结论 PDCA循环理论对构建临床药师工作模式起到了积极作用,明显提高了医院临床药师的工作水平。

  10. [Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis with urinary tract involvement, secondary to gynecologic infection caused by intrauterine device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García, M D; Rodríguez Alonso, A; Núñez López, A; Ojea Calvo, A; Alonso Rodrigo, A; Rodríguez Iglesias, B; Barros Rodríguez, M; Benavente Delgado, J; González-Carreró Fojón, J; Nogueira March, J L

    2000-02-01

    Abdomino-pelvic actinomycosis is a condition caused by Actinomyces israelii, a Gram-positive opportunistic bacteria that triggers and develops the infection only in previously injured tissues, and then slowly progresses and spreads until it extrinsically affects the urinary tract. Use of an intrauterine device is a known risk factor to suffer from this disease. Relative risk in IUD users is two- to four-fold higher compared to IUD non-users. Risk increased with prolonged IUD use. Treatment is by removal of the causative agent, surgical resection of necrotic tissues and administration of intravenous Penicillin G, 4 million units every 4 hours for 30 days, followed by Amoxicillin 500 mg every 8 hours for 12 months. This paper contributes two cases of abdomino-pelvic actinomycosis with urinary tract involvement in IUD users. Standard treatment was employed with good evolution.

  11. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  12. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  13. Urinary excretion of Iopamidol following intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrè, D; Zingales, M F; Trevisan, C

    1983-01-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro "300". The compound was neither metabolized nor altered in its optical configuration and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  14. Indwelling urinary catheterisation: what is best practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Ann

    Indwelling urinary catheterisation is a common procedure that is governed by best practice guidelines such as those provided by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), epic3 and the Royal College of Nursing. This article will look how these guidelines influence practice and also look at new innovations in catheter care.

  15. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...

  16. The colon shuffle : A modified urinary diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R. P.; Mertens, L. S.; Meinhardt, W.; Verwaal, V. J.; Dik, P.; Horenblas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the results of a urinary diversion in patients who already have a colostomy or simultaneously require a (rectum) colon resection. The diversion is created from the distal part of the transected colon with a simultaneously created new colostomy contra-laterally (if necessary). This proc

  17. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  18. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Urinary Organic Sulfides 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLE; CAOWEN-JUN

    2000-01-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(TTCA),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers.At the sme time,the total amout of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test(IAT).Nine of the volunteers had smoking higtories(5 to 10 cigarettes per day,as the smoking group),and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month,as the control group).Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis)and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette.Results showed that smoking a single cigaretter could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups,while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level.No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found,The influence of cigarette on uinary organic sulfides was temporary.The results suggest that cigaretter smoking might be a confounding factor in biomontoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers.

  20. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, Christopher D; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review.

  1. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  2. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for

  3. Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

    2014-04-01

    The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E. coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E. coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E. coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E. coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E. coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E. coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment

  4. Community acquired urinary tract infection: etiology and bacterial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed. UTI account for a large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption and have large socio-economic impacts. Since the majority of the treatments begins or is done completely empirically, the knowledge of the organisms, their epidemiological characteristics and their antibacterial susceptibility that may vary with time is mandatory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility of the community acquired UTI diagnosed in our institution and to provide a national data. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the results of urine cultures of 402 patients that had community acquired urinary tract infection in the year of 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this study was 45.34 ± 23.56 (SD years. There were 242 (60.2% females and 160 (39.8% males. The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli (58%. Klebsiella sp. (8.4% and Enterococcus sp.(7.9% were reported as the next most common organisms. Of all bacteria isolated from community acquired UTI, only 37% were sensitive to ampicillin, 51% to cefalothin and 52% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The highest levels of susceptibility were to imipenem (96%, ceftriaxone (90%, amikacin (90%, gentamicin (88%, levofloxacin (86%, ciprofloxacin (73%, nitrofurantoin (77% and norfloxacin (75%. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative agents are the most common cause of UTI. Fluoroquinolones remains the choice among the orally administered antibiotics, followed by nitrofurantoin, second and third generation cephalosporins. For severe disease that require parenteral antibiotics the choice should be aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or imipenem, which were the most effective.

  5. Urinary β-HCG in Benign and Malignant Urinary Tract Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-B. Halim

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectable leve ls of HCG have been reported in conditions other th an normal pregnancy, including threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, carcinomas of the stomach, liver, pancreas and breast as well as multiple myeloma and melanoma. The present study was conducted to estimate urinary β-HCG in bladder cancer and benign urinary tract disorders. 163 individuals were included, 68 with bladder cancer (60 males and 8 females, 64 with benign urinary tract diseases (55 males and 9 females and 31 normal healthy controls (26 males and 5 females. Urinary β-HCG was estimated by the ELISA technique using the reagents supplied by DRG International Inc., Germany. Results of th e study revealed an overexpression of β-HCG in mali gnant and benign urinary tract diseases. 60.3% of the cancer patients and 29.7% of patients with benign diseases showed urinary β-HCG values above the upper limit of the control group (2mIU/ml .

  6. Dynamics of Urinary Calprotectin after Renal Ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ebbing

    Full Text Available Urinary calprotectin has been identified as a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury. To date, however, the time-dependent changes of this parameter during acute kidney injury remain elusive. The aim of the present work was to define the time-course of urinary calprotectin secretion after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in comparison to neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, thereby monitoring the extent of tubular damage in nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours.The study population consisted of 42 patients. Thirty-two patients underwent either open or endoscopic nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. During the surgery, the renal arterial pedicle was clamped with a median ischaemic time of 13 minutes (interquartile range, 4.5-20.3 minutes in 26 patients. Ten retro-peritoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy patients and 6 nephron sparing surgery patients in whom the renal artery was not clamped served as controls. Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations were repeatedly measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed according to renal function parameters.Urinary concentrations of calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin increased significantly after ischaemia/reperfusion injury, whereas concentrations remained unchanged after nephron sparing surgery without ischaemia/reperfusion injury and after kidney donation. Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased 2 and 8 hours, respectively, post-ischaemia. Both proteins reached maximal concentrations after 48 hours, followed by a subsequent persistent decrease. Maximal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and calprotectin concentrations were 9-fold and 69-fold higher than their respective baseline values. The glomerular filtration rate was only transiently impaired at the first post-operative day after ischaemia/reperfusion injury (p = 0

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  8. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs.

  9. NEW ASPECTS OF ANTI-INFECTION IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kisseleva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Four types of adaptive immune response which are regulated by different T-cell populations, namely Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regs have been described. At the first time classification is based on the difference in transcription factors but not due to diversity of cytokines produced. Each population of T-lymphocytes possesses a set of unique transcription factors and directions of cell signaling. Each type of immune responses plays a key role in the protection against certain types of pathogens. The Th1-response is important against intracellular bacteria and fungi, the Th17 — against extracellular, the Th2 — against yeasts and protozoa. T-regulatory cells control all types of immune responses. Diversity of immune response mechanisms occurs due to involvement of different effector cells. The Th1-type of response is connected with macrophage activation, Th2-cells cooperate with B-lymphocytes as well as attract eosinophils and mast cells. Th17 lymphocytes stimulate neutrophils and epithelial cells. T-cell differentiation is directed by the cytokines produced by innate immune cells. Phagocytes recognize molecular patterns at the surface of pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors (PRR, become activated and synthesize cytokines. Pathogen plays important role in this process while instructing dendritic cells. Pathogen dials a special code from a number of phagocyte surface receptors, which is named as «combinatory» recognition. Phagocytes possess several different types of activation and synthesize different cytokines that direct T-lymphocytes to a certain type of differentiation.

  10. Effects of morphine in the isolated mouse urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, C G; Tamayo, L; Contreras, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute morphine increased the responses to acetylcholine of the isolated mouse urinary bladder. A chronic morphine treatment did not change the responses of the urinary bladder to acetylcholine or ATP. The acute administration of morphine did not modify the contractile response to ATP in the urinary bladders from untreated or chronically morphine treated mice. Methadone and ketocyclazocine decreased the responses to the electrical stimulation of the urinary bladder. These depressant effects were not modified by naloxone. The results suggest the nonexistence of opiate receptors in the mouse urinary bladder and the lack of direct effects of morphine on the neuroeffector junction.

  11. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276 µg/m(3).

  12. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  13. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  14. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  15. Effective Factors on Urinary Incontinence in Natural Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence are common urogenital problems affecting 7 - 10% of menopausal women. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to quantify effective factors on urinary incontinence in a cohort of menopausal women. Patients and Methods A sample of 150 menopausal women (natural menopause for at least 12 months were recruited from 13 healthcare centers in Ilam, Iran. Data regarding diagnosis, medical history and clinical symptoms were collected using a structured questionnaire and screening patient medical records. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between urinary incontinence and other variables. Results Multiple atrophic urogenital changes were identified including vaginal dryness (42%, decreased libido (41.3%, dyspareunia (16%, vaginal itching (11.3% and vaginal discharge and burning (10.7%. The prevalence of urinary frequency, stress urinary incontinence, nocturia and urge urinary incontinence were 33.3%, 28.7%, 22.7% and 17.3%, respectively. A multivariate logistic model found that urinary infection (OR 5.6; 95% CI: 2.6 - 11.58, cystocele (OR 1.73; 95% CI: 1.29 - 2.33 and rectocele (OR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20 - 1.80 were potential risk factors for incontinence. A significant association was observed between marital status and vaginal atrophy, body mass index and urinary incontinence and parity type and urinary incontinence (P < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Multiple associations existed between atrophic urogenital changes and urinary incontinence. The most significant interaction was between urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence in menopausal women, with urinary tract infections increasing the risk of incontinence by 5.6 fold. We recommend health professionals to focus on early screening of these issues and implement educational programs for women as part of standard practice.

  16. Analysis of risk factors with influence on urinary tract infection in urinary surgery patients%影响泌尿外科患者尿路感染的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛东方

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨引起泌尿外科患者尿路感染的危险因素,以采取预防措施降低留置尿管患者尿路感染发生率。方法26例合并尿路感染者为研究组,同期无尿路感染的26例泌尿外科患者为对照组,使用单因素和多因素Logistic回归法分析可能引起尿路感染的因素。结果240例患者中,共有26例患者合并尿路感染,发生率为10.83%;单因素分析结果显示有9个影响因素;多因素logistic回归分析显示,其中的独立危险因素有年龄大、合并其他疾病、有创诊治措施、预防使用抗菌药物。结论泌尿外科住院患者尿道感染率高,影响因素多,需采取相应的措施进行积极预防。%Objective To investigate risk factors of urinary tract infection in urinary surgery patients, in order to take prevention measures for reducing incidence of urinary tract infection in patients with indwelling catheter.Methods There were 26 urinary tract infection patients as research group, and another 26 patients without urinary tract infection in the same period as control group. Single and multivariate Logistic regression methods were applied for analyzing possible factors of urinary tract infection.Results Among the 240 patients, there were 26 cases with combined urinary tract infection, and the occurrence rate was 10.83%. Single Logistic regression results showed 9 influencing factors, and multivariate Logistic regression showed that independent risk factors included old age, combined other disease, invasive treatment measures, and preventive administration of antibacterial agents.Conclusion Urinary surgery patients have high incidence of urinary tract infection with multiple influencing factors. Thus, corresponding measures are necessary for positive prevention.

  17. Newer antibacterial agents and their potential role in cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, M D; Elborn, J S

    2010-09-01

    Pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis (CF) are frequent events and account for a substantial proportion of the burden of morbidity and mortality in this disease. Antibacterial therapies to treat pulmonary exacerbations are instituted empirically and are individualized based on both patient factors (severity of exacerbation, frequency of exacerbation, recent courses of anti-infectives) and pathogen factors (previously isolated pathogens and in vitro predicted susceptibilities). However, the epidemiology of pathogens infecting CF airways is changing, with increased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative non-fermenters such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Accordingly, a great need for new and novel agents for the management of acute exacerbations in CF exists. While several antibiotics have recently been approved or are close to approval for clinical use, frequently their emphasis has been for Gram-positive, and specifically MRSA-related, disease. Despite this, these agents may have a role in CF-related exacerbations. This article reviews the spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics and clinical and theoretical evidence for the use of newer agents including tigecycline, doripenem and ceftobiprole in the management of CF pulmonary exacerbations. Appropriate use of these agents in CF will require detailed CF-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data.

  18. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in a Cameroonian City

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Nyah-tuku Nzalie; Hortense Kamga Gonsu; Sinata Koulla-Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are usually treated empirically. Geographical variations in etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns are common. Knowledge of antibiotic resistance trends is important for improving evidence-based recommendations for empirical treatment of UTIs. Our aim was to determine the major bacterial etiologies of CAUTIs and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a cosmopolitan area of Cameroon for comparison with pres...

  19. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uju M.E. Dibua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s of urinary tract infections (UTIs in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch' method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2% from females and 12 (19.4% from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08% were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%. All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

  20. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany......, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...... spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis....

  1. Renal transplantation using external continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S

    1994-02-01

    A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.

  2. [Conservative treatment of female urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Jacques; Denys, Pierre; Amarenco, Gérard

    2011-09-01

    Female urinary incontinence can be improved by nonsurgical pharmacologic as well as non-pharmacologic treatments. Hygiene and dietary rules apply to all forms of incontinence. If overweight, weight loss improves stress urinary incontinence. There are levels of evidence to show that pelvic floor muscle training and behavioral therapy improve incontinence. Duloxetine is better than placebo for improvement of quality of life and for the impression of an improvement, but its place is still not determined in the algorithm of conservative treatments. The effects of vaginal electrostimulation and oestrogen are inconsistent or inhomogeneous. In case of urgency incontinence, anticholinergics remain the first line treatment and the place of stimulation of posterieur tibial nerve is still to be defined.

  3. Urinary tract infections in adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, A; Ludwig, E

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract (UTI) is a major disease burden for many patients with diabetes. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is several-fold more common among women and acute plyelonephritis is five to ten times more common in both sexes. The complications of pyelonephritis are also more common in patients with diabetes. These complications include acute papillary necrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis, and bacteremia with metastatic localization to other sites. The management of urinary infection in patients with diabetes is essentially the same as patients without diabetes. Most infections should be managed as uncomplicated except when they occur in a milieu with obstruction or other factors that merit a diagnosis of complicated UTI. Strategies to prevent these infections and reduce morbidity should be a priority for research.

  4. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for urinary vanillylmandelic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, F; Bernard, H; Valleix, A; Créminon, C; Grassi, J; Olichon, D; Deverre, J R; Pradelles, P

    1997-08-29

    An enzyme immunoassay for urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) using polyclonal antiserum and VMA-acetylcholinesterase conjugate as enzymatic tracer is described. Two different strategies for immunogen preparation were developed and enantioselectivity was demonstrated. Selected EIA allowed direct measurement of urinary VMA using D(-)-VMA as standard with good sensitivity (MDC = 0.1 mumol/l) and precision (CV less than 7% in 0.2-2.25 mumol/l range). Cross-reactivity with homovanillic acid (HVA) was 0.8% and less than 0.4% with other structurally related catecholamine metabolites. Intra- and inter-assay repeatability were less than 10% and recovery was 97.3% +/- 3%. Good correlation was obtained for EIA and HPLC analysis with normal and pathologic human urine samples (EIA = 0.895 HPLC-7.085, r2 = 0.98, n = 47).

  5. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    used as natural anti-infection to treat of many infection diseases, especially in vaginal infection.

  6. 临床药师参与重症肺炎患者抗感染治疗的药学实践%Pharmaceutical Practice for the Severe Pneumonia Patient with Anti-infection Treatment by Clinical Pharmacists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀群; 许明睿; 陆翠林; 唐云峡

    2016-01-01

    To probe into the role of clinical pharmacists in the treatment of patient with severe pneumonia. METHODS:The clinical pharmacists participated in to the ward round and consultation of one patient with severe pneumonia;combined with patient's clinical symptoms and drug susceptibility test result, the clinical pharmacists presented concrete suggestions about the formulation and adjustment of anti-infection treatment scheme:imipenem and cilastatin sodium combined with linezolid, and piperacillin sodium and tazobactam sodium combined with voriconazole. Meanwhile, the clinical pharmacists emphatically monitored the blood routine, liver and kidney function, and pulmonary lesions absorption of the patient.RESULTS: The therapeutic scheme provided by clinical pharmacists obtained a good therapeutic effect.The patient's pulmonary infected symptoms ( cough, expectoration, shortness of breath and hypoxemia, etc.) were controlled.The fungal infection was also gradually improved and discharged. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pharmacists based on clinical, focus on the patient, assist clinicians to optimize therapeutic scheme and implement pharmaceutical care for patient, which can make the patient get the best therapeutic services.%目的:探讨临床药师在重症肺炎患者救治过程中的作用。方法:临床药师参与1例重症肺炎患者的查房、会诊,结合患者的临床症状和药物敏感性试验结果,对抗感染方案的制订和调整提出具体意见,先后使用亚安培南西司他丁钠联合利奈唑胺、哌拉西林钠他唑巴坦钠联合伏立康唑抗感染治疗,同时重点监测患者的血常规、肝肾功能、肺部病灶吸收情况。结果:临床药师提供的用药方案取得了良好的治疗效果,患者咳嗽、咳痰、气促、低氧血症等肺部感染症状得到了控制,相继出现的真菌感染也逐步好转。结论:临床药师立足临床,以患者为中心,协助医师优化治疗方案,

  7. The Assessment of Urinary Metabolites in Children with Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Nain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the association between urinary tract infection (UTI and urinary metabolites. Material and Method: Eighty children aged below 14 years old who were following for recurrent UTI were enrolled into the study. Urinary calcium (Uca, oxalate (Uox, citrate (Ucit and cysteine (Ucis levels were studied in 24 hours urine samples. Hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia were identified according to the reference values. The positivity of sodium nitroprussid test was accepted as cystinuria. The results were compared between patients and control groups involving thirty children. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of renal scarring (RS on radionuclide scan. The similar comparisons were made between the subgroups. Results: There was no significant difference between the ratios of hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria in patient and control groups (p> 0.05. Uox/Ucr levels were significantly increased in patients compared to controls (p= 0.001 whereas Uca/Ucr and Ucit/Ucr levels were similar among study groups (p= 0. 082 and p= 0.466. There was no significant difference between RS (- and RS ( groups for hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria (p> 0.05. Discussion: The increase in urinary excretion of oxalate might be a risk factor for UTI. There was no evidence regarding that urinary metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria have affected the development of RS in the setting of UTI.

  8. Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radio...

  9. [risk Factors For Urinary Incontinence In Women].

    OpenAIRE

    Higa,Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; dos Reis, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct a review of the main papers published between 1983 and 2003 on the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in women. Thirty-eight publications in English and Portuguese were analyzed using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases as well as through research in libraries. There is evidence that the main risk factors are age, pelvic floor trauma, hereditary factors, race, menopausal status, obesity, chronic diseases, use of some sympathomimetics and parasym...

  10. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Daw Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  11. Laparoscopic surgery for intestinal and urinary endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, D B; Sharpe, D R

    1995-12-01

    Intestinal and urinary tract involvement by endometriosis may be symptomatic, particularly when invasive disease is present. Even in expert hands, complete excision of all invasive disease cannot be accomplished laparoscopically in every case. The practitioner must balance enthusiasm for the advantages of a laparoscopic approach with limitations of time and skill. Laparoscopy should be abandoned in a particular case if a better job can be performed by laparotomy. Hysterectomy with castration may not relieve symptoms due to invasive disease.

  12. Urinary tract infection in renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI), especially recurrent UTI, is a common problem, occurring in >75% of kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. UTI degrades the health-related quality of life and can impair graft function, potentially reducing graft and patient survival. As urologists are often involved in treating UTI after KTX, previous reports were searched to elucidate underlying causes, risk factors and treatment options, as well as recommendations for prophylaxis of UTI after KTX. M...

  13. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  14. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  15. Urinary tract endometriosis: Review of 19 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: One should have a high index of suspicion with irritative voiding symptoms with or without hematuria, with negative urine culture, in all premenopausal women to diagnose urinary tract endometriosis. Partial cystectomy is a better alternative to transurethral resection followed by GnRh analogue in vesical endometriosis. Approach to the ureter must be individualised depending upon the severity of disease and dilatation of the upper tract to maximise the preservation of renal function.

  16. Treatment Duration of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    van der Starre, Willize E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Nieuwkoop, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Although febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in adults, data on optimal treatment duration are limited. Randomized controlled trials specifically addressing the elderly and patients with comorbidities have not been performed. This review highlights current available evidence. Premenopausal, non-pregnant women without comorbidities can be treated with a 5–7 day regimen of fluoroquinolones in countries with low levels of fluoroquinolone resistance, or, if proven suscep...

  17. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  18. PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

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    Jagadeeshwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PNET of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. Only 12 cases are reported till now in the world. Primitive Neuro Ectodermal Tumor (PNET is a malignant small round blue cell tumor exhibiting a variable degree of neural differentiation, which arises outside the brain, spinal cord and sympathetic nervous system. (1,2 PNET is a very aggressive tumor with rapid local infiltration combined with widespread metastasis.

  19. COMMON ORGANISMS AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF E COLI IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION, IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

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    Shanavas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI includes a spectrum of Asymptomatic Bacteruria (ABU, Cystitis, Prostitis and Pyelonephritis. Except in ABU, UTI is represented by symptomatic disease that warrants antimicrobial therapy. 1 Many of the studies have shown increasing antibiotic resistance to these agents. This study consists of a retrospective observational study of culture and sensitivity of 150 urinary samples, collected from patients who presented with symptoms of UTI, in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Northern Kerala, irrespective of their age and sex for a period of six months from June 2015 to November 2015. These results are then analyzed to find common organisms causing UTI in different age groups in either sex and their respective antibiotic resistance are noted. Out of 150 urinary samples 69.34% were sterile, while 30.66% were culture positive. Among the culture positive patients sex distribution was almost equal, with a slight female predominance, having a contribution of 54.35% females and 45.65% males. The most common organism was found to be E.coli, which contributed more than 50 per cent of total culture positivity (54.35%. Others include Staphylococci, Klebsiella Pnuemoniae, Proteus species, Pseudomonas, Enterococci, Candida Albicans etc. Collateral damage is an ecological adverse effect that resist the use of a highly efficacious drug to be considered as first line agent. Our study shows that drugs causing minimal collateral damages like Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin can be used as first line agent for treatment of UTI.

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

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    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  1. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis

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    Carmen R. Amaro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic investigation in patients with urinary lithiasis is very important for preventing recurrence of disease. The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as potential risk factors for this pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 182 patients older than 12 years. We included patients with history and/or imaging tests confirming at least 2 stones, with creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min and negative urine culture. The protocol consisted in the collection of 2, 24-hour urine samples, for dosing Ca, P, uric acid, Na, K, Mg, Ox and Ci, glycemia and serum levels of Ca, P, Uric acid, Na, K, Cl, Mg, U and Cr, urinary pH and urinary acidification test. RESULTS: 158 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 151 (95.5% presented metabolic changes, with 94 (62.2% presenting isolated metabolic change and 57 (37.8% had mixed changes. The main disorders detected were hypercalciuria (74%, hypocitraturia (37.3%, hyperoxaluria (24.1%, hypomagnesuria (21%, hyperuricosuria (20.2%, primary hyperparathyroidism (1.8% secondary hyperparathyroidism (0.6% and renal tubular acidosis (0.6. CONCLUSION: Metabolic change was diagnosed in 95.5% of patients. These results warrant the metabolic study and follow-up in patients with recurrent lithiasis in order to decrease the recurrence rate through specific treatments, modification in alimentary and behavioral habits.

  2. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  3. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic based dosing of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections

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    Ana Sabo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is often used in treatment of complicated urinary tract infections in areas with high rates of resistance to first line agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ciprofloxacin in standard dosing regimens in treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Plasma concentration curves were simulated and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and post-antibiotic effect were determined. Ciprofloxacin MIC ranged from 0.0156 for Gram-negative and to 0.125-0.5 µg/mL for Gram-positive bacteria. Both dosing regimens were suitable for eradication of Gram-negative bacteria, with slight supremacy of 750 mg/12 hours over 500 mg/12 hours dosing regimen. Even though all strains were fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, pharmaco-kinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters did not meet target thresholds for pathogens with MIC over 0.1-0.2 µg/mL regardless of the administered dose. Ciprofloxacin remains an excellent choice for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, but in infection caused by Gram-positive strains, deeper analysis is necessary in order to achieve optimal results.

  4. Prevalence of Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections in Patients before and after of Kidney Transplantation

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    Esmaeili, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Urinary tract infections and bacteremia are the major problems in renal transplant patients, which are mostly due to immunesuppressive regimens, surgery, and exposure to the germs in hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial agents in the blood and urine samples of kidney transplant candidates. Material and Methods: In this one-year-long study, thirty-three renal transplant candidates were assessed for urine and blood cultures. One urine and blood samples from each patient before transplantation and three samples after transplantation were collected. The Samples, using standard microbiological methods, were investigated and infectious organisms identified. Results: In 133 urine samples, Escherichia coli (20.5%, Enterobacter spp. (5.3%, Klebsiella spp. (3 % and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.5% were isolated. In the blood samples, Enterobacter spp. (9.1%, Escherichia coli (6.8%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (3.8% and Klebsiella spp. (0.8% were isolated. Conclusion: The results indicate that urinary tract infection was high in patients with transplanted kidney, and E. coli is the most common cause of this infection. Keywords: Kidney Transplantation; Bacterial infections; Urinary Tract and Blood Infections; Escherichia Coli

  5. Host-specific induction of Escherichia coli fitness genes during human urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Hazen, Tracy H; Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Smith, Sara N; Ernst, Robert D; Rasko, David A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-12-23

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant etiological agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI), manifested by inflammation of the urinary bladder, in humans and is a major global public health concern. Molecular pathogenesis of UPEC has been primarily examined using murine models of UTI. Translational research to develop novel therapeutics against this major pathogen, which is becoming increasingly antibiotic resistant, requires a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in pathogenesis during human UTIs. Total RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and comparative transcriptional analysis of UTI samples to the UPEC isolates cultured in human urine and laboratory medium were used to identify novel fitness genes that were specifically expressed during human infection. Evidence for UPEC genes involved in ion transport, including copper efflux, nickel and potassium import systems, as key fitness factors in uropathogenesis were generated using an experimental model of UTI. Translational application of this study was investigated by targeting Cus, a bacterial copper efflux system. Copper supplementation in drinking water reduces E. coli colonization in the urinary bladder of mice. Additionally, our results suggest that anaerobic processes in UPEC are involved in promoting fitness during UTI in humans. In summary, RNA-seq was used to establish the transcriptional signature in UPEC during naturally occurring, community acquired UTI in women and multiple novel fitness genes used by UPEC during human infection were identified. The repertoire of UPEC genes involved in UTI presented here will facilitate further translational studies to develop innovative strategies against UTI caused by UPEC.

  6. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron AP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne P Cameron, Allen McNeil HarawayDepartment of Urology, Division of Neurourology and Pelvic Floor Reconstruction, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses.Materials and methods: A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used.Results: Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive.Conclusion: There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, conservative and surgical treatment

  7. LP-925219 maximizes urinary glucose excretion in mice by inhibiting both renal SGLT1 and SGLT2

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, David R.; Smith, Melinda G; Doree, Deon D; Harris, Angela L; Xiong, Wendy W; Mseeh, Faika; Wilson, Alan; Gopinathan, Suma; Diaz, Damaris; Goodwin, Nicole C.; Harrison, Bryce; Strobel, Eric; Rawlins, David B.; Carson, Ken; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control by inhibiting SGLT2-mediated renal glucose reabsorption. Currently available agents increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE) to 50% of filtered glucose when SGLT2 is completely inhibited. This led us to test whether LP-925219, a small molecule dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor, increases UGE to maximal values in wild-type (WT) mice. We first tested LP-925219 inhibition of gluc...

  8. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  9. Lower Levels of Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Might Predict Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in urinary nerve growth factor (uNGF) levels after acute urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the role of uNGF in predicting UTI recurrence in women. Methods: Women with uncomplicated, symptomatic UTIs were enrolled. Cephalexin 500 mg (every 6 hours) was administered for 7–14 days to treat acute UTIs. Subsequently, the patients were randomized to receive either sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 800 mg/160 mg daily at bedtime, or celecoxib 200 mg daily fo...

  10. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  11. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  12. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  13. Update on duloxetine for the management of stress urinary incontinence

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    Maya Basu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Maya Basu, Jonathan RA DuckettDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, Kent, UKAbstract: Duloxetine is a relatively balanced serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, which is the first drug with widely proven efficacy to have been licensed for the medical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Despite favorable results from randomized controlled trials, surgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for SUI. In this review we explore the pharmacology of duloxetine in the nervous system and lower urinary tract, and the evidence for its use in the management of women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: duloxetine, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder

  14. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  15. Neurological aspects of urinary incontinence in the elderly

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    Vladimir Anatolyevich Parfenov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the prevalence, pathogenesis, and treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly. There is a high rate of urinary incontinence among the patients who have experienced stroke or suffer from dementia or other neurological diseases. The ideas on the pathogenesis and manifestations of overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence are outlined. Currently available drugs (anticholinergics, antidepressants, botulinum toxin preparations, methods for behavioral therapy and physiotherapy, and skin care in urinary incontinence are discussed. The current treatment options can improve quality of life in the elderly and their milieu.

  16. [Urinary stress incontinence: rehabilitation treatment of the pelvic floor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, S; Toniazzi, P

    1995-11-01

    The authors inspected 112 patients with diagnostic urogynecologic and urodynamic criteria. They suffered from urinary stress incontinence. Forty patients effected rehabilitative therapy of the pelvic floor with visits twice weekly with a method which included: pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback and functional electrostimulation. The patients were divided into two groups in accordance with the kind of urinary stress incontinence: in the first group there were patients with genuine urinary stress incontinence, in the second group patients with mixed urinary stress incontinence. The results at the end of treatment reported a proportion of success of 66% in the first group and of 54% in the second group.

  17. Postoperative Morganella morganii endophthalmitis associated with subclinical urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaktsidis, Gina; Agarwal, Smita A; Maloof, Anthony J; Chandra, Jay; Mitchell, Paul

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of Morganella morganii acute endophthalmitis following clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery in which a coincident asymptomatic chronic urinary tract infection was detected postoperatively. Morganella morganii is a gram-negative bacillus that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and is part of the normal fecal flora. It is an opportunistic pathogen usually encountered in postoperative and nosocomial settings, causing urinary tract and wound infections. Chronic urinary tract infection may be a risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. A dipstick urinalysis before elective cataract surgery in elderly patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections may be considered.

  18. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones.

  19. Effect of urinary pH on the progression of urinary bladder tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van

    1999-01-01

    Systemic alkalosis has been postulated to enhance tumorigenesis, whereas systemic acidosis has been implicated to exert a favourable influence on tumour control and regression. In the present study the urinary pH was influenced by feeding acid-forming or base-forming diets, and the effect of alkalin

  20. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  1. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  2. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  3. Clinical Management of an Increasing Threat: Outpatient Urinary Tract Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily; Lyman, Alessandra; Gupta, Kalpana; Mahoney, Monica V; Snyder, Graham M; Hirsch, Elizabeth B

    2016-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most commonly treated bacterial infections. Over the past decade, antimicrobial resistance has become an increasingly common factor in the management of outpatient UTIs. As treatment options for multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogens are limited, clinicians need to be aware of specific clinical and epidemiological risk factors for these infections. Based on available literature, the activity of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin remain high for most cases of MDR Escherichia coli UTIs. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole retains clinical efficacy, but resistance rates are increasing internationally. Beta-lactam agents have the highest rates of resistance and lowest rates of clinical success. Fluoroquinolones have high resistance rates among MDR uropathogens and are being strongly discouraged as first-line agents for UTIs. In addition to accounting for local resistance rates, consideration of patient risk factors for resistance and pharmacological principles will help guide optimal empiric treatment of outpatient UTIs.

  4. Dietary isoflavone intake, urinary isoflavone level, and their relationship with metabolic syndrome diagnostic components in korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that natural agents such as isoflavones, resveratrol, and anthocyanin have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome-related disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary isoflavone intake, urinary isoflavone level, and their relationship with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Korean postmenopausal women. The subjects included 46 MetS and 60 controls. The MetS risk score was determined by adding the number of risk factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) and levels of triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and glucose. Dietary isoflavone intake was not significantly different between the MetS and control groups; however, the urinary daidzein level was significantly higher in the MetS subjects compared to that of the controls. Subjects with high TG had higher urinary daidzein and isoflavone (daidzein + genistein) levels than those without such abnormalities. But, the MetS risk score showed no significant correlation with urinary daidzein, genistein, and isoflavone excretions.

  5. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Decision Aids > Urinary Incontinence > What is UI? Taking Control: Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in ... 0 Page 2 What is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on the video above ...

  6. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  7. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Keon Seok; Choo, Myung Soo [Ulsan Univ. Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angles of the controls were 125.3 deg ({+-}10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg ({+-}7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were 135.3 deg ({+-}11.3) and 139.6 deg({+-}10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg ({+-}4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg ({+-}4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm({+-}5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm({+-}7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm({+-}3.9) and 12.6 mm({+-}4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm ({+-}1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm ({+-}2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg ({+-}2.8) : 132.3 deg ({+-}12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg({+-}3.8) : 136.0 deg({+-}6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg({+-}5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence.

  8. Urinary biomarkers at early ADPKD disease stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petzold

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course.ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1, and Uromodulin (UMOD were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16 was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results.In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2 the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found.UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our results is not yet conceivable

  9. Clinical evaluation of genito-urinary fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Companywala Rashida

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical evaluation of 50 cases of genito-urinary fistula from January 1969 to March 1917 is presented. In 84% of the cases the aetiological factor was obstetric injury while in 12% it followed hysterectomy. Sixty per cent of the patients had come within one year of the development of symptoms. Eighty per cent of the cases were operated upon by vaginal route while 14% were operated upon by abdominal route and 6% by pereineo-abdominal route. The operative management is discussed. The success rate was 72%. The literature on this subject is reviewed.

  10. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  11. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  12. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  13. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  14. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  15. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated......, and 73%, 97%, and 73% for Ualb/Ucreat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that measurement of the albumin/creatinine concentration ratio is a specific and quite sensitive alternative to measurement of the urinary albumin excretion rate in timed collections, when screening for microalbuminuria....

  16. Female urinary stress incontinence treated with Teflon injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Røhl, H

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six women with urinary stress incontinence underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades (good, moderate, and poor). Good or moderate results were obtained in 50%. No major immediate complications or long-term side-effects were...... for urinary incontinence should this prove necessary....

  17. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of…

  18. Urinary renin and angiotensinogen in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lu, Xifeng; Rossing, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Urinary levels of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) components may reflect renal RAAS activity and/or the renal efficacy of RAAS inhibition. Our aim was to determine whether urinary angiotensinogen and renin are circulating RAAS-independent markers during RAAS blockade....

  19. Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, E; Guy, N; Cribb, A

    1999-04-01

    A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine.

  20. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John;

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects.......Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  1. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Urinary Tract Infection Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention Español: Infección de las vías urinarias Overview Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in ...

  2. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, you ... make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you ...

  3. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bagi, P; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    Even though the mortality due to urinary tract complications has decreased dramatically during the last decades in individuals with spinal cord lesions (SCL), urinary tract infections (UTI) still cause significant morbidity in this population. Complicated UTI are caused by a much wider variety...

  4. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary tra

  5. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  6. Dilatation and curettage of urinary bladder: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight-year-old female while undergoing a medical termination of pregnancy (MTP encounter complete urethral loss and massive bladder curettage. After resuscitation, she developed continuous urinary leakage followed by progressive decline in urine output. Case is highlighted here because of the massive vesico-urethral trauma because of MTP, leading to permanent urinary diversion.

  7. Towards patient centered care in female stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrie, J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focussed on the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. It comprises the results of the PORTRET study (Physiotherapy OR Tvt Effectiveness Trial). Currently, pelvic floor muscle training is advised as initial treatment for all women with stress urinary incontinence. We question

  8. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  9. Determinants of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in South Korean children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.H.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Lenters, V.C.; Cho, S.H.; Strickland, P.; Kang, D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the dominant sources of the urinary pyrene metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), in South Korean children. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 102 non-smoking children (aged 10-14). Urinary 1-OHPG was assayed by synchronous fluor

  10. ProACT for stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Lampe, M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stress urinary incontinence is a bothersome complication of radical prostatectomy. Surgical treatment consists of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS), the male sling and bulk injections. This study presents the results of the first series of implantations of ProACT in the Netherland

  11. Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter and Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Cho, Hyun Sun; Jeong, Myeong Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Carcinosarcoma is biphasic neoplasm with distinct carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcoma arising from the urinary system is extremely rare and only 14 such cases of the ureteral carcinosarcoma have been reported in the medical literature. We experienced a case of surgically proven carcinosarcoma of the ureter and urinary bladder and we report here on the computed tomography findings of this rare neoplasm

  12. Local Delivery of Antiproliferative Agents via Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stent is a medical device for serving as an internal scaffold to maintain or increase the lumen of a body conduit. Stent placement has become a primary treatment option in coronary artery disease for more than the last two decades. The stenting is also currently used for relieving the symptoms of narrowed lumen of nonvascular organs, such as esophagus, trachea and bronchi, small and large intestines, biliary, and urinary tract. Local delivery of active pharmaceutical agents via the stents can not only enhance healing of certain diseases, but it can also help decrease the potential risk of the stenting procedure to the surrounding tissue. In this review, we focus on reviewing a variety of drug-impregnated stents and local drug delivery systems using the stents.

  13. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  14. Urinary proteomics to support diagnosis of stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Dawson

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69, compared to controls (n = 33, and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were sequenced by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We developed two biomarker-based classifiers, employing 14 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.004 or 35 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.01. When tested on a blinded test set of 47 independent samples, the classification factor was significantly different between groups; for the 35 biomarker model, median value of the classifier was 0.49 (-0.30 to 1.25 in cases compared to -1.04 (IQR -1.86 to -0.09 in controls, p<0.001. The 35 biomarker classifier gave sensitivity of 56%, specificity was 93% and the AUC on ROC analysis was 0.86. This study supports the potential for urinary proteomic biomarker models to assist with the diagnosis of acute stroke in those with mild symptoms. We now plan to refine further and explore the clinical utility of such a test in large prospective clinical trials.

  15. Relationship between urinary podocytes and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Zhao, Xudong; Meng, Li

    2012-01-01

    Podocyte loss is an important component of disease progression in glomerular diseases. To some extent, the loss of podocytes can predict the degree of damage and the advancement of renal disease. Detecting the loss of podocytes in the urine could be a valuable, noninvasive method for obtaining information about the activity of the disease or the disease type, allowing the early diagnosis of glomerular diseases. One of the most robust markers that has been successfully used for urinary podocyte diagnostics is podocalyxin (PDX). PDX is a sialoprotein that is expressed on podocytes and on a variety of nonrenal cells as well as on glomerular endothelial and parietal epithelial cells. Therefore, podocyte loss can be detected by the amount of PDX in the urine. The relationship between urinary podocytes and renal diseases is supported by the detection of podocytes in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The use of technology for detecting podocytes in the urine would have broad implications for the evaluation of disease activity, the degree of dedifferentiation, and the possibility of regeneration.

  16. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  17. Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis. PMID:23795272

  18. Water hardness and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1982-08-01

    On the macrogeographic scale, a strong negative association exists in the United States between water hardness and urinary stone disease. This investigation studies the association on the microgeographical scale, where it is possible to control for confounding environmental factors. The study was conducted on 2,295 patients from 2 regions: the Carolinas which had soft water and high stone incidence, and the Rockies which had hard water and low stone incidence. Home tap water samples from urinary stone patient hospitalizations were compared with that of controls, concurrent inguinal hernia patient hospitalization. After adjusting for environmental factors, no significant difference (p = 0.59) between the 2 groups was obtained in tap water calcium, magnesium, and sodium concentrations. An incidental but potentially important finding was that those consuming water from a private well had an estimated relative risk of 1.5 (p less than 0.01) compared to those using public water. While no cause-effect relationship is suggested, stone-formers might consider avoiding private well water. On the other hand, water hardness should be a minor concern with respect to stone formation.

  19. [Kidney and urinary tract diseases in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulser, T; John, H; Zimmermann, R

    1999-10-01

    Management of urologic disorders in pregnant patients often increases the anxiety of all involved. Based on a thorough understanding of the physiologic changes seen in various organ systems the urologist has to assume the responsibility for the well-being of the mother and the fetus. Apart from the urinary tract infection, which occurs as frequent as in non-pregnant patients but has a significantly higher risk of acute bacterial pyelonephritis, it is mainly the pregnancy-associated symptomatic hydronephrosis and the urolithiasis which are complicating approximately 1 of every 1000-1500 pregnancies. Urinary tract infections should be treated in any case by antibiotics according to a antibiogram. High risk patients with history of vesicoureteral reflux or recurrent pyelonephritis should be treated prophylactically. Following parturition these patients should be investigated urologically to exclude structural abnormalities of the genitourinary system. In case of symptomatic hydronephrosis and calculous disease the first approach should be a watchful conservatism with symptomatic relief. If the symptoms persist insertion of a double-J-stent or in case of live-threatening situations (e.g. urosepsis) when urgent decompression and rapid evacuation is mandatory a percutaneous nephrostomy can be brought in place under sonographic monitoring completely thereby avoiding any radiation exposure.

  20. Urinary tract infection following ritual Jewish circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M; Barr, J; Bistritzer, T; Aladjem, M

    1996-11-01

    Circumcision seems to reduce the overall incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI), although a few studies have suggested that ritual circumcision may be a predisposing factor for UTI within the first 2 weeks following the procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible causal relationship between ritual circumcision and UTI. The study comprised 82 infants with UTI, 55 females and 27 males under the age of 1 year. All males were circumcised on the eighth day of life. The median age of infection was 0.75 and 7.0 months for males and females, respectively. Fifty-two percent (14/27) of UTI episodes were diagnosed within the 2 weeks following circumcision. A significantly lower incidence in Escherichia coli-induced UTI was observed in males compared to females, 67% and 93%, respectively. Similarly, the incidence of E. coli-induced UTI was also significantly lower in males presenting within 2 weeks following circumcision (57%) compared to infants presenting prior or more than 2 weeks following the procedure (92%). Positive blood cultures of an identical microorganism were observed in 6/27 males compared to 2/55 females. The incidence of urinary tract malformations and their severity were similar in both sexes. We conclude that the high incidence of UTI following a ritual Jewish circumcision, as well as the relatively high preponderance of bacteria other than E. coli, may suggest a causal relationship between circumcision and UTI.

  1. Virtual endoscopy of the urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George C. Kagadis; Dimitrios Siablis; Evangelos N. Liatsikos; Theodore Petsas; George C. Nikiforidis

    2006-01-01

    Technological breakthroughs have advanced the temporal and spatial resolutions of diagnostic imaging, and 3 dimensional (3-D) reconstruction techniques have been introduced into everyday clinical practice. Virtual endoscopy (VE)is a non-invasive technique that amplifies the perception of cross-sectional images in the 3-D space, providing precise spatial relationships of pathological regions and their surrounding structures. A variety of computer algorithms can be used to generate 3-D images, taking advantage of the information inherent in either spiral computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). VE images enable endoluminal navigation through hollow organs, thus simulating conventional endoscopy. Several clinical studies have validated the diagnostic utility of virtual cystoscopy, which has high sensitivity and specificity rates in the detection of bladder tumor. Published experience in the virtual exploration of the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra is encouraging but still scarce. VE is a safe, non-invasive method that could be applied in the long-term follow-up of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, urinary bladder tumors and ureteral and/or urethral strictures. Its principal limitations are the inability to provide biopsy tissue specimens for histopathologic examination and the associated ionizing radiation hazards (unless MRI is used). However, in the case of endoluminal stenosis or obstruction, VE permits virtual endoluminal navigation both cephalad and caudal to the stenotic segment. To conclude, VE provides a less invasive method of evaluating the urinary tract, especially for clinicians who are less familiar with cross-sectional imaging than radiologists.

  2. [Recurrent urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito S, Juan Pablo

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (R-UTI) are common among women even though they generally have a normal urinary tract. Women with R-UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens due to a greater propensity for them to adhere to their epithelial cells. Risk factors include frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide use, first UTI at an early age and maternal history of UTI. Prevention of recurrences can be done with low-dose continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis or with post-coital antimicrobial prophylaxis, a method that may be more efficient and acceptable. Estrogen replacement therapy using a vaginal administration in postmenopausal women is also effective in preventing R-UTI. The vaginal vaccine only diminishes percentage of women with Escherichia coli UTI. The oral vaccine reduces R-UTI with inferior results than antimicrobial prophylaxis; Cranberry intake shows some evidence in favor, although further trials are needed. Finally R-UTI can also be effectively managed with self-start antimicrobial therapy.

  3. Urinary tract infections in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T

    2001-08-01

    The elderly population is now increasing in the world. A higher incidence of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI) is observed in elderly patients, in both long-term care facilities and at home. The management of elderly patients with UTI is increasing in clinical significance. Almost all of UTI in the elderly is complicated UTI. Control of the underlying diseases in the urinary tract is quite important in the management of UTIs in elderly patients. For pyelonephritis, switch therapy using aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporines, or penicillins are selections of choice. The recommended duration of treatment for patients with pyelonephritis is 14 days. Seven to 10 days of treatment using fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is recommended for the treatment of elderly patients with symptomatic cystitis. Although asymptomatic bacteriuria is quite common in the elderly population, antibiotic treatment has no benefit for such patients. Intravaginal estrogen replacement is one of choice for the prevention of recurrent UTIs in postmenopausal women.

  4. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  5. ILEOCYSTOPLASTY IN INVASIVE URINARY BLADDER CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of surgical treatment of patients with the intestinal urinary bladder, to characterize its early and late postoperative complications, and to develop their correction tactics.  Subjects and methods. The results of treatment in 198 patients who had undergone ileocystoplasty were analyzed.  Results. The developed diagnostic approach and the determined examination periods could reduce the number of late postoperative complications of ileocystoplasty: acute and chronic pyelonephritis from 19.4 to 7.6%, urolithiasis from 17.2 to 1.9%, bladder dysfunction from 25.8 to 7.6%, and metabolic acidosis from 4.3 to 1.9%, and prevent the development of ureterovesical anastomosis stricture.  Conclusion. Radical cystectomy with the ileoplasty using an isolated segment of the ileum in patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma has been the operation of choice no longer; it has become an essential surgical adjunct. This method permits overall 5-year survival to be achieved in 69.7% of patients.  

  6. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture.

  7. Randomized comparative study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachalios, G N

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were compared with those of co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections. A total of 104 patients (mean age, 52 years) with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. Characteristics and infecting organisms were equivalent in both groups of patients. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria pathogen in both groups. Both drugs resulted in clinical improvement in 100% of the patients; bacteriological cure after the termination of therapy was 95% with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 83% with co-trimoxazole (P less than 0.001). Side effects were not severe enough to necessitate discontinuation of the antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is effective and safe therapy for acute urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria. PMID:3911880

  8. Urinary incontinence nursing diagnoses in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Alteniza Leandro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying the prevalence of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI, Urge urinary incontinence (UUI, Functional urinary incontinence (FUI, Overflow urinary incontinence (OUI and Reflex urinary incontinence (RUI nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics in stroke patients. METHOD A cross-sectional study with 156 patients treated in a neurological clinic. Data were collected through interviews and forwarded to nurses for diagnostic inference. RESULTS 92.3% of the patients had at least one of the studied diagnoses; OUI showed the highest prevalence (72.4%, followed by FUI (53.2%, RUI (50.0%, UUI (41.0% and SUI (37.8%. Overdistended bladder and reports of inability to reach the toilet in time to avoid urine loss were the most prevalent defining characteristics. A statistically significant association of the defining characteristics with the studied diagnosis was verified. CONCLUSION The five incontinence diagnoses were identified in the evaluated patients, with different prevalence.

  9. Urinary density measurement and analysis methods in neonatal unit care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess urine collection methods through cotton in contact with genitalia and urinary collector to measure urinary density in newborns. This is a quantitative intervention study carried out in a neonatal unit of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in 2010. The sample consisted of 61 newborns randomly chosen to compose the study group. Most neonates were full term (31/50.8% males (33/54%. Data on urinary density measurement through the methods of cotton and collector presented statistically significant differences (p<0.05. The analysis of interquartile ranges between subgroups resulted in statistical differences between urinary collector/reagent strip (1005 and cotton/reagent strip (1010, however there was no difference between urinary collector/ refractometer (1008 and cotton/ refractometer. Therefore, further research should be conducted with larger sampling using methods investigated in this study and whenever possible, comparing urine density values to laboratory tests.

  10. Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Yacoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection are common complications after kidney transplantation. In this population, if urinary tract infection occurred in the first six months post procedure, it carries a grave impact on both graft and patient survival. Renal transplant recipients with urinary tract infection are often clinically asymptomatic as a consequence of immunosuppression. Urinary tract infection, however, may progress to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and the full blown picture of urosepsis. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched. The purpose of this review is to discuss the screening and treatment of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients and to evaluate the guidelines on the basis of a review of published evidence.

  11. Labial fusion causing urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection in a postmenopausal female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirim, Ayhan; Hasirci, Eray

    2011-01-01

    A 73-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted with recurrent urinary tract infection and a history of incontinence. General physical examination was normal. Complete labial fusion was noticed on genital examination. Surgical intervention was performed. This therapy alleviated incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection.

  12. Role of urinary cathelicidin LL-37 and human β-defensin 1 in uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs...

  13. Correlation between bactericidal activity of fosfomycin trometamol in an in vitro model of the urinary bladder and susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinasi, C; Albini, E; Marca, G

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to define an interpretative guideline for disk diffusion susceptibility testing with fosfomycin trometamol, a new antimicrobial agent which has been developed for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Two potencies of fosfomycin disk were used: 50 and 200 micrograms, prepared in the presence and absence of glucose-6-phosphate. To verify the reliability of the results obtained in susceptibility testing, we have also evaluated the bactericidal activity of fosfomycin trometamol versus sensitive and resistant strains in an 'in vitro' model simulating the hydrokinetic aspects involved in the treatment of bacterial cystitis. The data obtained evidenced the role of glucose-6-phosphate in antimicrobial susceptibility tests as well as the importance of the urinary antibiotic concentrations to define sensitive and resistant bacteria. On the basis of our results, we recommend that a 200-microgram disk of fosfomycin containing 50 micrograms of glucose-6-phosphate should be used in antimicrobial susceptibility testing with fosfomycin trometamol.

  14. Plasmid mediated multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from community acquired infection of urinary tract in Aligarh Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad U Khan; Saeedut Zafar Ali; Mohammed S Zaman

    2008-01-01

    This study was to investigate the current trends of multiple drug resistance in bacteria against antibiotics for the proper empirical treatmen.Clinical isolates were collected from community-acquired infection of urinary tract patients in Aligarh India from March 1999 to August 1999.Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed,using the disc diffusion method followed by plasmid isolation by the method of Kado and Liu.Transfer experiments were performed by the method of Lederberg and Cohen.Clinical study revealed that this infection was more common in young women.Various strains of E.coli isolated during the course of study were found to show multiple antibiotic resistance which was further characterized as plasmid-borne drug resistance.This study shows that E.coli may be one of the important causative agents of urinary tract infection (UTI )in young women.

  15. Urinary physiologic and chemical metabolic effects on the urothelial cytotoxicity and potential DNA adducts of o-phenylphenol in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Christenson, W R; Bartels, M J; Arnold, L L; St John, M K; Cano, M; Garland, E M; Lake, S G; Wahle, B S; McNett, D A; Cohen, S M

    1998-06-01

    ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP), a fungicide and antibacterial agent with food residues, is carcinogenic to rat bladder. The present studies provide information on changes in urinary composition and urinary metabolites, urothelial cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia, and DNA adducts in male F344 rats fed OPP. An initial experiment evaluated dietary doses of 0, 1,000, 4,000, and 12,500 ppm OPP fed for 13 weeks. There was no evidence of urinary calculi, microcrystalluria, or calcium phosphate-containing precipitate, but urothelial cytotoxicity and hyperplasia occurred at the highest dose only. In a second experiment, rats were fed dietary OPP levels of 0, 800, 4,000, 8,000, and 12,500 ppm. Urinary pH was > 7 in all groups. Urinary volume was increased at the 2 highest doses with consequent decreases in osmolality, creatinine, and other solutes. Total urinary OPP metabolite excretions were increased, mostly excreted as conjugates of OPP and of phenylhydroquinone. Free OPP or free metabolites accounted for less than 2% excreted in the urine without a dose response. Urothelial toxicity and hyperplasia occurred only at doses of 8,000 and 12,500 ppm. OPP-DNA adducts were not detected in the urothelium at any dose. In summary, OPP produces cytotoxicity and proliferation of the urothelium at dietary doses > or = 8,000 ppm without formation of urinary solids. The paucity of unconjugated metabolites and the lack of OPP-DNA adducts suggests that OPP is acting as a bladder carcinogen in male rats by inducing cytotoxicity and hyperplasia without it or its metabolites directly binding to DNA.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES OF URINARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ismail Ghaleb

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Khalid Ghaleb a,* , Magdy Afifib, Mohamad El-Gohary c aDepartment of Medical Laboratories, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, King Khalid University, Bisha 551, Saudia Arabia bDepartment of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt • The corresponding author e-mail: kh_ghaleb4@hotmail.com Current Tel: 00966595388496 Saudia,  00201119338055 Egypt The place of the study worked : Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt, e-mail: afifi_magdy@ymail.com  Tel: 00201006554961 Abstract Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelson (ZN smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA test.  Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both  ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence  rate of 2.6%.  The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while  sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis.   Keywords: List of abbreviations:Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB-Base pair (bp-DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA  -Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

  17. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  18. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  19. Novel antiseptic urinary catheters for prevention of urinary tract infections: correlation of in vivo and in vitro test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Ray; Reitzel, Ruth; Borne, Agatha; Jiang, Ying; Tinkey, Peggy; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Raad, Issam

    2009-12-01

    Urinary catheters are widely used for hospitalized patients and are often associated with high rates of urinary tract infection. We evaluated in vitro the antiadherence activity of a novel antiseptic Gendine-coated urinary catheter against several multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were compared to silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters. Bacterial biofilm formation was assessed by quantitative culture and scanning electron microscopy. These data were further correlated to an in vivo rabbit model. We challenged 31 rabbits daily for 4 days by inoculating the urethral meatus with 1.0 x 10(9) CFU streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli per day. In vitro, Gendine-coated urinary catheters reduced the CFU of all organisms tested for biofilm adherence compared with uncoated and silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.004). Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that a thick biofilm overlaid the control catheter and the silver hydrogel-coated catheters but not the Gendine-coated urinary catheter. Similar results were found with the rabbit model. Bacteriuria was present in 60% of rabbits with uncoated catheters and 71% of those with silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.01) but not in those with Gendine-coated urinary catheters. No rabbits with Gendine-coated urinary catheters had invasive bladder infections. Histopathologic assessment revealed no differences in toxicity or staining. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were more efficacious in preventing catheter-associated colonization and urinary tract infections than were silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters.

  20. Acute urinary retention in a 23-year-old woman with mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobe Hideyuki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients with clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion present with relatively mild central nervous system disturbances. Although the exact etiology of the condition remains poorly understood, it is thought to be associated with infective agents. We present a case of a patient with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion, who had the unusual feature of acute urinary retention. Case presentation A 23-year-old Japanese woman developed mild confusion, gait ataxia, and urinary retention seven days after onset of fever and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated T2 prolongation in the splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral cerebral white matter. These magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities disappeared two weeks later, and all of the symptoms resolved completely within four weeks. Except for the presence of acute urinary retention (due to underactive detrusor without hyper-reflexia, the clinical and radiologic features of our patient were consistent with those of previously reported patients with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of acute urinary retention recognized in a patient with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion can be associated with impaired bladder function and indicate that acute urinary retention in this benign disorder should be treated immediately to avoid bladder injury.

  1. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  2. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  3. The risk factors of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants with normal urinary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Seung Joo

    2009-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) frequently recurs and increases the risk of renal scarring even in infants with normal urinary tracts. Our study was aimed to find preventive measures for recurrent UTI in these infants. One-hundred ninety infants, who were diagnosed with their first febrile UTI and were proven to have normal urinary systems, were enrolled. We investigated the incidence of recurrent UTI during the following year and the following risk factors: gender, young age, phimosis, vaginal reflux, and acute pyelonephritis (APN) diagnosed by 99m-technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA)(+) scintigraphy. The incidence of recurrent UTI was 21.1%. The difference in recurrence rate according to gender was not significant. The recurrence rate in infants less than 6 months of age was 25.8%, which was significantly higher than the 7.7% in older infants (P = 0.045). In male infants with persistent non-retractile prepuces, recurrent UTI developed in 34.0%, which was significantly higher than the 17.6% in male infants with retractile prepuces (P = 0.022). The presence of APN in male infants increased the likelihood of recurrent UTI when analyzed by multivariate logistic regression [odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-13.0, P = 0.003]. The presence of vaginal reflux and APN in female infants gave no significant difference to the incidence of recurrent UTI. In infants with normal urinary systems, age less than 6 months, non-retractile prepuces and APN in male infants, were the most important risk factors for recurrent UTIs. It is suggested that non-retractile prepuces should be adequately treated to become retractile in young male infants with APN.

  4. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaidov, N; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and asymptomatic bacteriuria are frequent in elderly patients. Distinguishing UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, might be a challenge for physicians due to the presence of confounding factors, such as an overactive bladder, prostate enlargement, and an indwelling bladder catheter. The absence of standards in the definition and treatment of UTI in the elderly frequently leads to overtreatment. Consequently, antibiotic selection pressure increases and as a result multidrug-resistant organisms might arise. On the other hand, insufficient treatment can result in prolonged and complicated courses of infections or increased morbidity. This review covers the definition, prevalence, diagnosis and management of UTI in older adults.

  5. Correlates of urinary incontinence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Lone; Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    for the nulliparous and the primiparous, respectively. The present data suggest pregnancy UI not to be provoked by the mere onset of pregnancy, but by increasing hormonal concentrations or local tissue changes caused by hormones, whereas there was no support for a theory based on increasing pressure on the bladder......In a population sample, the period prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy was found to be 19.9% and 24.1% among 352 nulliparous and 290 primiparous women, respectively. The first UI episode ever was experienced by 16.7% and 7.0% during the two last trimesters of the first...... and second pregnancies, respectively. None of the pregnancy-specific risk factors, such as emesis and birthweight, was significantly associated with UI during pregnancy. Previous UI was a significant risk factor for period prevalent UI during pregnancy, explaining 34% and 83% of pregnancy UI...

  6. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  7. [Leukoplakia of the upper urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armora Mani, J; Muñoz Segui, J; Pérez Céspedes, M; Aguiló Lucia, F; Torrecilla Ortiz, C; Serrallach Mila, N

    1992-01-01

    Leukoplakia is a morphological term that attempts to define keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium. It is uncommon in the upper urinary tract (less than 100 cases have been reported) and has been attributed to infection or mechanical injury to the epithelium and/or genetic factors. We present a case of leukoplakia in a male patient with renal tuberculosis that had been in remission for the past 15 years. Eight years earlier he had intermittently passed keratin laminas (pathognomonic of leukoplakia) during the course of various episodes of nephritic colic. After discarding a reactivation of tuberculosis and malignancy of the metaplastic lesion, we continued conservative treatment with radiologic and cytologic control evaluations.

  8. Ethiology of urinary tract infections in male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on data from 4317 positive urine cultures collected at S. Orsola, Fondazione Poliambulanza Hospital of Brescia (Italy from 2007 to 2009.The patient group was heterogeneous and included in- and outpatients of both gender, ranging in age from 1 to 99 years. E. coli was the most frequently pathogen isolated in all the urine cultures independently from age or sex. Our findings differ from those of a similar study made in the U.S.A., where Enterococcus (Group D Streptococcus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in the urine cultures of the male subjects. These results suggest to maintain an identical empirical therapy in male and female because the most frequently isolated bacteria responsible of urinary tract infections are Gram negative.

  9. Six methods for determining urinary protein compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, B A; Penberthy, L A; Fraser, C G

    1983-03-01

    Inter-laboratory surveys have shown that "routine methods" of urinary protein determination are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, we compared six frequently used methods for determination of protein in urine with respect to linearity, within-batch and between-batch precision, comparative bias, and practicability. We assayed dilutions of human and bovine albumin and serum, and fresh and lyophilized human urine. We find that the AACC Selected Method has poor practicability and poor precision under routine conditions, but good linearity. The sulfosalicylic acid/biuret technique is also impracticable, requires a large sample, and is not linear at low concentrations of urine protein. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue technique has a narrow range of linearity and poor precision. The sulfosalicylic acid/sodium sulfate turbidimetric method is not precise and cannot be standardized with bovine materials. The Ponceau-S technique has good performance characteristics and practicability, and we recommend it for routine laboratory use.

  10. A supravital cytodiagnostic stain for urinary sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternheimer, R

    1975-02-24

    A mixture of aqueous solutions of National fast blue, a copper-phthalocyanine dye, and pyronin B, a red xanthene dye, when added to fresh urinary sediment, supravitally stains benign or malignant cells and the various types of casts and their inclusions. The stain facilitates identification of the formed elements and particularly aids in the differentiation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from lymphocytes, histiocytes, plasma cells, and renal tubular cells. A variable staining of casts and their inclusions has been observed. Tumor cells may be recognized by nuclear abnormalities or, in case of hyperchromatic tendency, by a very rapid and early uptake of dye preceding that of the surrounding cells. The staining method is rapid and simple enough for routine urinalysis and screening procedures.

  11. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones′ risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A Alyami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  12. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  13. [Neurogenic urinary incontinence. Value of surgical management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzenberger, J

    2008-06-01

    Damage to the CNS, the cauda equina, and the pelvic nerval structures causes neurogenic bladder dysfunction with neurogenic urinary incontinence (NUI). The definitive diagnosis of NUI is made with urodynamic examination methods. The most frequent cause of NUI is neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The treatment concept must take into account the physical and emotional restrictions. The treatment of NUI due to NDO is a domain of conservative therapy, i.e., mostly antimuscarinics and intermittent catheterization (IC). In about 30%, there is a good chance for therapy failures. An advancement in therapy is the injection of BTX-A into the detrusor. The missing drug approval is a disadvantage.Operative treatments are considered if conservative and minimally invasive therapies are unsuccessful. Sacral deafferentation (SDAF) and sacral anterior root stimulator implantation (SARSI) are available as organ-preserving techniques only for paraplegics with NDO and reflex urinary incontinence and neuromodulation for the other forms of NDO provided that a successful percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) test has previously taken place. Augmentation cystoplasty is indicated if SDAF and neuromodulation cannot be used and the bladder wall is damaged irreversibly by fibrosis. Kidney function of at least 25% and acceptance of IC are prerequisites. Myectomy (autoaugmentation) has an indication similar to augmentation cystoplasty but there must not be any fibrosis. Bladder neck insufficiency (BNI) caused by paralysis or iatrogenically can be treated by the implantation of an alloplastic sphincter high at the bladder neck. A stable reservoir function is required. If not all methods are possible, the ileum conduit or the suprapubic bladder fistula can be the last resort.

  14. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required.

  15. Significance of urinary proteome pattern in renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhail, Sufi M

    2014-01-01

    Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enabling early diagnosis of graft dysfunction and proper manipulation of immunosuppressive strategy that could impact graft prognosis. The methodology of the urinary proteome is nonetheless not more complex than that of other sophisticated assays of conventional urinary protein analysis. Moreover, the need for a centralized database is also felt by the researchers as more and more studies have been presenting their results from different corners and as systems of organizing these newly emerging data being developed at international and national levels. In this context concept of urinary proteomics in renal allograft recipients would be of significant importance in clinical transplantation.

  16. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  17. Agents of urinary tract infections in children and their antibiotic susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Yilmaz

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Over the years, the resistance to ampicillin and TMP + SMX has increased. By unnecessary, improper and irregular drug use, the development of antimicrobial resistance for different antibiotics can be expected. Choosing appropriate antibiotic with taking into consideration of offers that were in common guidelines with the regional antibiotic resistance, development of resistance to different antibiotics can be prevented. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(1.000: 17-21

  18. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  19. Selecting appropriate absorbent products to treat urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Drew

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant negative effect on a person's life, especially if left unmanaged and untreated. Continence assessment, often carried out by community nurses, is an important element in the management of a person's urinary incontinence, and so is the selection of appropriate absorbent incontinence pads. This article reviews: the causes and effects of urinary incontinence; how to derive the most appropriate information from a continence assessment; strategies for selecting incontinence pads for a person, on the basis of the results of the continence assessment; and some of the problems and risks associated with the use of incontinence pads.

  20. Koilocytes in urinary cytology in a patient with kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Eugenia; Drut, Ricardo

    2008-05-01

    We are reporting the case of a 17-year-old girl with kidney transplant under immunosuppressive treatment. Evidences of transplant malfunction led to urinary cytology to rule out BKV infection. The smears showed the presence of koilocytes. Gynecologic examination revealed numerous condylomatous lesions in the vulva, vagina, and cervix. PAP smears showed cells with moderate to severe koilocytic dysplasia. PCR performed on material retrieved from both the smears showed HPV18 DNA sequences. Koilocytes have rarely been documented in urinary cytologic examination. Since post-transplant immunosuppressed patients are prone to develop florid and extensive HPV infections, urinary cytology may prove useful for routine search of cells with this virus cytopathic effect.

  1. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  2. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  3. Pharmacologically prospective antibiotic agents and their sources: a marine microbial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-11-01

    Marine microbes have been a storehouse of bioactive metabolites with tremendous potential as drug candidates. Marine microorganism derived secondary metabolites (chemical compounds/peptides) are considered to be a burning area of research since recent past. Many of such compounds have been proven to be anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-algal, anti-HIV, anti-helminthic, anti-protozoan, anti-tumor and anti-allergic agents. Marine bacteria and fungi have been reported to be the producers of such compounds owing to their defense mechanisms and metabolic by products. Although the number of natural products isolated from these classes of marine microbial flora is large, a limited number of such compounds reach the clinical trial and even less number of them get approved as a drug. Here we discuss the recent studies on the isolation, characterization and the pharmacological significances of anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-infective agents of marine microbial origin. Further, the clinical status of such compounds has also been discussed in comparison with those derived from their terrestrial counterparts.

  4. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moréh Zsuzsanna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI. Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  5. Association of Urinary Urgency and Delay Time of Micturition in Women With Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Kgi; Huh, Jung Sik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Accurately measuring urinary urgency is important for diagnosing overactive bladder (OAB) and quantifying improvements in treatment outcome. Various methods have been recommended for evaluating urinary urgency, but these methods assess individual perceptions and preferences. To overcome the subjectivity in measuring urinary urgency, we evaluated the relationship between uroflowmetric parameters and urinary urgency in women with OAB. Methods Consecutive female patients with lower urina...

  6. Urinary proteomic profiling in severe obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea with CPAP treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Seetho

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The urinary proteome is compared in OSA with CPAP and without OSA in severe obesity. The effects of CPAP on OSA may lead to changes in the urinary peptides but further research work is needed to investigate the potential role for urinary proteomics in characterising urinary peptide profiles in OSA.

  7. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Ueda

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal function. Furthermore, urinary potassium excretion was mainly affected by urinary sodium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with CKD, whereas the presence of diabetes mellitus and use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors were not associated with urinary potassium excretion in this study.

  8. Infection risk with nitrofurazone-impregnated urinary catheters in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Tvede, Michael; Looms, Dagnia;

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. It is predominantly associated with indwelling urinary catheters.......Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. It is predominantly associated with indwelling urinary catheters....

  9. Cross-resistance between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other common antibiotics among urinary isolates of escherichia coli - an in-vitro retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Navaneeth

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available 472 non-repetitive urinary isolates of E.coli (349 resistant and 123 sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfametho.xazole from patients with culture documented UTI were isolated between January 1998-December 1999. Data on antibiograrn of these isolates were fed into WHONET computer program. The relationship between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T-S resistance and resistance to other common antimicrobials among E. coli was statistically analyzed by comparing T-S resistant with T-S sensitive isolates against other antimicrobial agents. T-S resistant E.coli were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin, augmentin, cejazolin and norfloxacin (P0.05. T-S resistance among urinary isolates of E.coli may be a risk fatctor that would likely be associated with resistance to other antimicrobial agents used to treat UTI.

  10. Biosynthetic mechanism for sunscreens of the biocontrol agent Lysobacter enzymogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Lysobacter are ubiquitous environmental bacteria emerging as novel biocontrol agents and new sources of anti-infectives. So far, very little effort has been invested in the study of the biology of these Gram-negative gliding bacteria. Many Lysobacter species are characterized by their yellow-orange appearance. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified a stand-alone polyketide synthase (PKS gene cluster required for the pigment production in L. enzymogenes OH11. The yellow pigments were abolished in the "white" mutants generated by target-specific deletions of ketosynthase (KS, acyl carrier protein, or ketoreductase. Spectroscopic data suggested that the pigments belong to xanthomonadin-like aryl polyenes. Polyene-type polyketides are known to be biosynthesized by modular PKS (Type I, not by stand-alone PKS (Type II which always contain the heterodimer KS-CLF (chain-length factor as the key catalytic component. Remarkably, this aryl polyene PKS complex only contains the KS (ORF17, but not the CLF. Instead, a hypothetical protein (ORF16 is located immediately next to ORF17. ORF16-17 homologs are widespread in numerous uncharacterized microbial genomes, in which an ORF17 homolog is always accompanied by an ORF16 homolog. The deletion of ORF16 eliminated pigment production, and homology modeling suggested that ORF16 shares a structural similarity to the N-terminal half of CLF. A point-mutation of glutamine (Q166A that is the conserved active site of known CLF abolished pigment production. The "white" mutants are significantly more sensitive to UV/visible light radiation or H2O2 treatment than the wild type. These results unveil the first example of Type II PKS-synthesized polyene pigments and show that the metabolites serve as Lysobacter "sunscreens" that are important for the survival of these ubiquitous environmental organisms.

  11. Coping with stress and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Adamczuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI involves uncontrolled leakage of urine through the urethra as a result of damage to its sphincter muscle and a disturbed function of the urogenital diaphragm within the pelvis minor. The symptoms of UI radically impair psychological, somatic, and social functioning. The aim of each disease stress coping process is to reduce the impact of harmful agents as well as the acquisition of necessary preventive measures in order to combat the disorder. Aim of the study was to assess the relationship between coping styles used when dealing with stress associated with disease and the quality of life. Material and methods: The study was carried out at an outpatients’ clinic located in the Lublin Province (eastern Poland, covering 150 women with diagnosed stress urinary incontinence, aged between 32 and 79. The following methods were used: (a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker to assess coping styles, (b CASP-19 scale (Higgins, Hyde, Wiggins, Blade to measure the overall quality of life, and (c Urinary Incontinence Life Quality Scale (Szymona-Pałkowska, Kraczkowski. Results : The preferred style in the studied group of women was Task-Oriented Coping. This style is associated with a low score on the Independence from Symptoms scale and low Control, being simultaneously correlated with Autonomy and Self-Realisation. Emotion-Oriented Coping is associated with low psychological, physical and social well-being, as well as with little independence from the disease symptoms, little pleasure and self-realisation, but it gives a sense of internal control. Avoidance-Oriented Coping does not significantly correlate with any of the Overall Quality of Life dimensions. Conclusions : Women suffering from UI tend to try to solve their problem by means of cognitive transformation. In their situation, clinging to the problem turns out to be a depressing factor and entails a lower quality of their life.

  12. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  13. Enterococcal urinary tract infections: eight years experience at a regional hospital in Trinidad, West Indies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of significant enterococcal isolates from urine and determine what factors are associated with the increased prevalence, with particular reference to antibiotic susceptibilities. Methods Retrospective analysis over an 8-year period of hospital laboratory records of urinary isolates of enterococci was done. Species were identified via colony morphology, growth in 6.5% sodium chloride and their ability to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile salts. Susceptibility testing via the disc diffusion technique with 9 commonly used antibiotics was also done as defined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results From 39?881 urine specimens, 9116 (22.9%) were culture positive. Of this 9116, 1001 (11.0%) were enterococci, the 4th most common urinary isolate. E. coli was the most common (36.2%). Most enterococci were from pediatric patients (28.4%) and the urology unit (24.5%). All enterococci were fully sensitive to ampicillin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Sensitivity to gentamicin decreased significantly from 79% in 1990 to 58% in 1997 (P<0.005). Sensitivity to the cephalosporins and nitrofuratoin were relatively stable, but sensitivity to nalidixic acid varied. No resistance to vancomycin was detected during the study, and no cases of bacteremia complicated bacteriuria were seen. Conclusion Isolation of enterococci was relatively stable during the 8-year period, and all isolates were fully sensitive to the older β-lactams, ampicillin, cefaclor and augmentin, but displayed varying degrees of multi-resistance to other commonly used urinary agents such as nalidixic acid and co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Because of the emergence of multi-resistant enterococci in many countries, and the high cost of drugs in our society, it is imperative that vigilance be maintained in monitoring enterococcal infections in hospitals.

  14. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  15. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moergestel, Leo van; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to ti

  16. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  17. Urinary incontinence in the prediction of falls in hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Analyzing the effect of urinary incontinence as a predictor of the incidence of falls among hospitalized elderly. Method Concurrent cohort study where 221 elderly inpatients were followed from the date of admission until discharge, death or fall. The Kaplan-Meier methods, the incidence density and the Cox regression model were used for the survival analysis and the assessment of the association between the exposure variable and the other variables. Results Urinary incontinence was a strong predictor of falls in the surveyed elderly, and was associated with shorter time until the occurrence of event. Urinary incontinence, concomitant with gait and balance dysfunction and use of antipsychotics was associated with falls. Conclusion Measures to prevent the risk of falls specific to hospitalized elderly patients who have urinary incontinence are necessary.

  18. Urinary incontinence in the prediction of falls in hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    Full Text Available Objective Analyzing the effect of urinary incontinence as a predictor of the incidence of falls among hospitalized elderly. Method Concurrent cohort study where 221 elderly inpatients were followed from the date of admission until discharge, death or fall. The Kaplan-Meier methods, the incidence density and the Cox regression model were used for the survival analysis and the assessment of the association between the exposure variable and the other variables. Results Urinary incontinence was a strong predictor of falls in the surveyed elderly, and was associated with shorter time until the occurrence of event. Urinary incontinence, concomitant with gait and balance dysfunction and use of antipsychotics was associated with falls. Conclusion Measures to prevent the risk of falls specific to hospitalized elderly patients who have urinary incontinence are necessary.

  19. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  20. Screening with urinary dipsticks for reducing morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary dipsticks are sometimes used for screening asymptomatic people, and for case-finding among inpatients or outpatients who do not have genitourinary symptoms. Abnormalities identified on screening sometimes lead to additional investigations, which may identify serious disease, s...

  1. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gestation. In rare cases, doctors may consider neonatal surgery (performing surgery on an unborn baby) if ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Urination Pain Kidney Diseases in Childhood Urinary Tract Infections When ...

  2. Botox Beats Implant for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Botox Beats Implant for Urinary Incontinence in Women But both have side effects that may affect ... 2016 TUESDAY, Oct. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For women with bladder incontinence who haven't been helped ...

  3. [Fistulas of the lower urinary tract in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegatti, Luca; Scarpa, Maria-Grazia; Goruppi, Ilaria; Olenik, Damiana; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2015-01-01

    A lower urinary tract fistula consist in an abnormal connection between bladder, urethra and adjacent abdominal organs or skin. There are several types of urinary fistulas in paediatric age and they may be congenital or acquired. Etiology may be due to embriological defects, infectious processes, malignant tumours, pelvic irradiation as well as complications following surgical procedures, especially postsurgical repair of hypospadia or epispadia. Clinical presentation depends on the type of fistula and diagnosis is based on signs, symptoms and radiological or endoscopic examinations. We performed PubMed research using terms such as lower urinary fistulae, urology and paediatrics and we consulted medical texts. We reviewed selected articles and used the relevant ones to perform our study concentrating on classification, diagnosis and treatment of different types of fistulas. Paediatric lower urinary fistulas are an uncommon pathology, but the knowledge of their etiology and classification is important to recognise them and lead the physician to an appropriate treatment, which is surgical in most cases.

  4. A Laboratory-Based Study for First Documented Case of Urinary Myiasis Caused by Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Wakid, Majed H.

    2008-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Sevoflurane: a new inhalational anesthetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, R F; Regan, B M; Napoli, M D; Stern, I J

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory screening of a series of halogenated methyl isopropyl ethers revealed sevoflurane (fluoromethyl-1,1,1,3,3,3,-hexafluroro-2-propyl ether) as a potent nonexplosive inhalational anesthetic agent. Sevoflurance, a pleasant-smelling liquid, boils at 58.5 degrees C at 760 torr and has a vapor pressure of 200 torr at 25 degrees C. It is nonflammable in air and has lower flammability limits of 11 vols percent in O2 and 10 vols percent in N2O. Sevoflurane exhibits limited chemical reactivity in vitro; it is subject to slight but measurable hydrolysis, and reacts with soda lime to form traces of related ethers. It provides rapid anesthetic induction and recovery consistent with its low distribution coefficients (blood:gas, 0.6; corn oil:gas, 41.6; olive oil:gas, 53.4). In dogs, anesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane did not produce spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and did not sensitize the heart to epinephrine. Electroencephalographic patterns were similar to those observed during anesthesia with halothane. In rats, small increases in the urinary excretion of inorganic fluoride ion occurred during the first 24 hours after anesthesia. Subacute studies in dogs and rats, using closed-circle absorption with soda lime, revealed no toxicologically significant changes in animals anesthetized frequently for 2 weeks. Sevoflurane appears to be a unique volatile anesthetic agent worthy of further study.

  6. An Unusual Case Of Urinary Bladder Arteriovenous Malformation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gnanappiragasam, D

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male presented with haematuria and urinary frequency. Computed Tomography (CT) urogram revealed gross thickening of the left bladder wall. Histology showed large vessels cuffed by eosinophonilic material suggestive of urinary bladder arteriovenous malformation (AVM). No further intervention was carried out as symptoms resolve after the resection. Follow up rigid cystoscopy and CT at 3 months showed resolution of all visible pathology and no evidence of recurrence.

  7. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Narter; Fehmi Narter; Kemal Sarıca

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur wit...

  8. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pedraza Avilés, A; Ortíz-Zaragoza, M C; Inzunza-Montiel, A E; Ponce-Rosas, E R

    1996-01-01

    A modified scheme is proposed for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic women based on detection of hippurate hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and lipase, and fermentation of arabinose, galactose and xylose. Thirty biotypes were found among 73 strains. The distribution of biotypes was similar in both populations but the biotypes 1H, 5G and 7G were found more frequently in women without symptoms of urinary tract infection.

  9. Salmonella-related urinary tract infection in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Scott Anthony

    2014-09-05

    An elderly female patient with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection from Salmonella newport is presented. Radiological and laboratory studies were performed because of her systemic and exposure risk factors as well as prior urinary tract abnormalities. While this patient was successfully treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, complications and recurrence are common and deserve close follow-up with repeat urine cultures at a minimum. Further laboratory and radiological testing should be guided by patient gender, risk factors and recurrence.

  10. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  11. PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN PREGNANT W OMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz,; Siddesh; Sirwar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequen tly seen medical complications in pregnancy. UTI in pregnancy is an important concern, as it possesses risk of complications such as acute and chronic pyelonephritis, toxaemia, anaemi a, hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation and increased perinatal mortality. The detection of bacteriuria allows an approach to be made for the prevention of chronic urinary dis ease in ...

  12. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Roomi, L G; Sutton, A M; Cockburn, F; McAllister, T A

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid in the treatment of 32 children with urinary tract infection were studied. Twenty one (80%) of 26 children with proved urinary tract infection showed a favourable clinical and bacteriological response. Fifteen of these children had amoxycillin resistant organisms and were treated successfully. In 20 children the serum and urine concentrations of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid were measured after the first oral dose. PMID:6712275

  13. [Neonatal pneumothorax and urinary tract malformation. 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrolle, J P; Brioude, R; Guerin, J; de Montis, G

    1976-10-01

    Three newborn male infants are reported who presented with a tension pneumothorax in the first few hours of life. Early in one case and after intervals of one month and eight months in the others attention was drawn to the urinary tract. Radiological investigations revealed morphological abnormalities of the kidneys and the urinary tract itself. The pathogenesis is discussed and an intravenous pyelogram is recommended before the development of clinical features. In this way early diagnosis might allow treatment prior to renal involvement.

  14. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Rao A Venket; Logan Alan C; Berardi John M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH...

  15. An update on the management of urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly encountered in general medical practice. The majority of patients have uncomplicated infections affecting the lower urinary tract, which respond readily to a short course of oral antibiotics. Life-threatening complications or long-term morbidity can occur, especially in patients with underlying medical predispositions or urological abnormalities. Further investigations are warranted in patients with severe or recurrent UTI, or when UTI occurs in 'low ...

  16. Urinary stone disease in Kano, North Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary stone disease is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract after urinary tract infection and pathologic conditions of the prostate. Although the disease is commoner in the developed countries, the incidence is also increasing in the developing countries. In this study, we sought to determine the pattern and treatment given for patients with urinary stones in our institution. Patients and Method: A 5 year retrospective study of patients treated for urolithiasis was conducted in a Teaching Hospital in North-western Nigeria. The age, sex, clinical presentations, investigations and treatment offered to the patients were reviewed. Results: A total of seventy six patients were treated for urinary stones during the study period. 58(76.3% were males and 18(23.7% females. Majority of patients 39(51.3% presented with loin pain as the main presenting symptom. The diagnosis of stones was by plain abdominal Xray(KUB in 68 patients and abdominal ultrasound scan in 46 cases. Urine culture was positive in 27 patients with E. coli as the predominant organism. All had normal serum calcium, phosphate and uric acid. 56(73.7% patients had stones in the upper urinary tract and 20 (26.3% in the lower urinary tract. Thirty four (44.7% patients were found to have predisposing factors. Most of the patients 50(65.7% were treated by open surgery and 26(34.2% by endoscopic removal/lithotripsy. Conclusion: Urinary stone disease is common in this environment. Majority of the stones are radio-opaque on plain xrays. Significant number of patients had a predisposing factor and majority of the stones were found in the upper tract. Most of the patients were treated by open surgery while a significant number were treated with endoscopic removal/lithotripsy.

  17. Local Immune Response to Upper Urinary Tract Infections in Children▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kantele, Anu; Palkola, Nina; Arvilommi, Heikki; Honkinen, Olli; Jahnukainen, Timo; Mertsola, Jussi; Kantele, Jussi M.

    2008-01-01

    Vaccines are needed against urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children, as episodes of pyelonephritis (PN) may cause renal scarring. Local immune mechanisms are regarded to confer protection, yet they have been poorly characterized for children. This study explores the local immune response in children by looking for newly activated pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC), expected to appear transiently in the circulation as a response to UTI. Urinary tract-originating ASC specific ...

  18. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  19. [Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation beyond nephrolithiasis. Relationship with tubulointerstitial damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Angerosa, Margarita; Stella, Inés; Ferder, León; Inserra, Felipe

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the urinary ion activity product (IAP) of calcium oxalate (CaOx), as an index of urinary CaOx supersaturation (SS), is higher in renal stone formers than in normal subjects. Besides, the relation between CaOx SS and lithogenesis, crystal CaOx exposition can produce tubular cell as well as renal interstitial lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CaOx SS and tubulointerstitial (TI) damage in an animal model of hyperoxaluria. During four weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats received: G1 (n = 8) control regular water, and G2 (n = 8) 1% ethylene glycol (ETG) (precursor for oxalates) in drinking water. In order to evaluate urinary CaOx SS, IAP assessed by Tisselius formula was performed. At the end of the study, renal lesions were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Animals from G2 (ETG) presented higher (p intersticial fibrosis; e) interstitial alpha-smooth muscle actin; f) collagen type III; g) TI TGF beta 1 compared with G1 (control). Rats from G2 (ETG) presented a high correlation between urinary CaOx SS and most of the TI damage parameters evaluated, in especial with interstitial fibrosis. Both, inflammatory infiltrates and urinary CaOx SS were the most significant variables related to interstitial fibrosis. Finally, since hyperoxaluric animals showed higher urinary CaOx SS associated with higher renal TI damage, the results from this study suggest the presence of a tight link between urinary CaOx SS and renal TI damage. Considering these findings we think that urinary CaOx SS control rises in importance beyond nephrolithiasis.

  20. [Biodegradable catheters and urinary stents. When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, F; Morcillo, E; López de Alda, A; Pastor, T; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2016-10-01

    One of the main wishes in the field of urinary catheters and stents is to arm them with biodegradable characteristics because we consider a failure of these devices the need for retrieval, the forgotten catheter syndrome as well as the adverse effects permanent devices cause after fulfilling their aim. The efforts focused in new designs, coatings and biomaterials aim to increase the biocompatibility of theses internal devices. Lately, there have been correct advances to answer the main challenges regarding biodegradable ureteral devices. Thus, modulation of the rate of degradation has been achieved thanks to new biomaterials and the use of copolymers that enable to choose the time of permanence as it is programmed with conventional double J catheters. Biocompatibility has improved with the use of new polymers that adapt better to the urine. Finally, one of the main problems is elimination of degraded fragments and experimentally it has be demonstrated that new designs elicit controlled degradation, from distal to proximal; using stranding and combination of copolymers degradation may be caused by dilution, reducing fragmentation to the last stages of life of the prosthesis. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that biodegradable catheters potentially may cause less urinary tract infection, less encrustation and predictably they will diminish catheter morbidity, since their degradation process reduces adverse effects. Regarding the development of biodegradable urethral stents, it is necessary to find biomaterials that enable maintaining their biomechanical properties in the long term, keeping open the urethral lumen both in patients with BPH and urethral stenosis. Modulation of the time of degradation of the prosthesis has been achieved, but the appearance of urothelial hyperplasia is still a constant in the initial phases after implantation. The development of drug eluting stents, anti-proliferative or anti-inflammatory, as well as biodegradable stents biocoated is a

  1. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered

  2. Pharmaceutical Care for Elderly Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Anti-infection and Immunoregulation Therapy by Clinical Pharmacists%临床药师参与慢性阻塞性肺疾病老年患者抗感染及免疫调节治疗的药学监护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志清; 屠文莲; 曹玮

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the anti-infection and immunoregulation therapy participated by the clinical pharmacists in respiration medicine .METHODS: By introducing the adjustments of anti-infection and immunoregulation therapy scheme for one elderly patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute attack participated by the clinical pharmacists , the clinical characteristics of antibiotics were fully considered , the clinicians were suggested to select the related treatment drugs and increase the immunomodulator .RESULTS:Combined with the characteristics of the elderly patient , the clinical pharmacists cooperated with the clinicians from the aspect of anti-infection and immunoregulation therapy on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute attack , so as to provide rational medication scheme for the patient .After treatment , the patient showed good infection control , and the acute attacking symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were improved .CONCLUSIONS: The participation of clinical pharmacists in the clinical practice of anti-infection can took advantage in the perspective of pharmacy , optimize the treatment scheme , reduce the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute attack and improve the life quality of patients .%目的:为临床药师在呼吸内科参与抗感染及免疫调节治疗提供参考。方法:介绍临床药师参与1例老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性发作患者抗感染及免疫调节治疗方案的调整,充分考虑抗菌药物的临床特点,建议医师选用相关治疗药物,增加免疫调节剂的过程。结果:临床药师结合老年患者的特点,从慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性发作抗感染及免疫调节方面积极配合医师,为患者提供了合理的用药方案。经治疗后,患者的感染控制良好,慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性发作症状得以缓解。结论:临床药师参与抗感染临床实践,可从药学的角

  3. Managing Urinary Incontinence in Patients with Dementia: Pharmacological Treatment Options and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Susie; Morris, Vikky; Gibson, William; Wagg, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent in late life and are strongly associated with dementia and frailty. Incontinence is extremely common among those living in long-term care and is most commonly due to urgency incontinence. Although national and international guidelines for continence care exist, they often fail to consider the complex comorbidity found in patients with dementia and are often not followed; continence practices in long-term care may promote rather than prevent incontinence. The majority of those with dementia living in the community can be managed successfully with standard treatments, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological; the expectations and aims of treatment of both the patient and their caregivers should be considered. A dementia diagnosis does not preclude management of incontinence, but treatment options may be more limited in those with advanced dementia who are unable to retain information and modify behaviors. High-quality data to guide the choice of pharmacological agent in those with dementia are lacking. Oxybutynin has been shown to have significant adverse cognitive effects, but data to support the use of trospium, solifenacin, darifenacin, and fesoterodine are limited. No data are available for mirabegron. Neither age, frailty, nor dementia should be considered a barrier to pharmacological management, but consideration should be given to the total anticholinergic load. Evidence to guide the treatment of incontinence in this vulnerable patient group is scarce, and available guidelines adapted for each individual's situation should be applied.

  4. Effects of imidazolines on neurogenic contraction in isolated urinary bladder detrusor strips from rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Mei; Ren, Lei-Ming; Tian, He-Lin; Lu, Hai-Gang; Zhao, Ding

    2012-02-01

    Moxonidine and clonidine, which are imidazoline compounds, are sympathetic modulators used as centrally acting antihypertensive drugs. Moxonidine, clonidine, and agmatine produce extensive effects in mammalian tissues via imidazoline recognition sites (or receptors) or α(2)-adrenoceptors. To investigate the effects of imidazolines on the function of the urinary bladder, we tested the effects of moxonidine, clonidine, and agmatine on the neurogenic contraction induced by electric field stimulation, and on the post-synaptic receptors in isolated urinary bladder detrusor strips from rabbit. Both moxonidine at 1.0-10.0 µmol/L and clonidine at 0.1-10.0 µmol/L inhibited electric-field-stimulation-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner, but not agmatine (10.0-1000.0 µmol/L). Both moxonidine and clonidine failed to affect carbachol or adenosine-triphosphate-induced contractions; however, 1000.0 µmol/L agmatine significantly increased these contractions. Our study indicates that (i) moxonidine and clonidine produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of the neurogenic contractile responses to electric field stimulation in isolated detrusor strips from male New Zealand rabbits; (ii) post-synaptic muscarinic receptor and purinergic receptor stimulation are not involved in the responses of moxinidine and clonidine in this study; (iii) the inhibitory effects of these agents are probably not mediated by presynaptic imidazoline receptors.

  5. Antimicrobial activities against biofilm formed by Proteus mirabilis isolates from wound and urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wasfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial species are capable of living as biofilm and/or planktonic forms. There is increasing evidence for the role of bacterial biofilm in various wound and urinary tract infections (UTIs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the bacteria, isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs and wound infections, to form biofilm and correlate the role of biofilm with their antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods: All the isolated bacteria were screened for their ability to form biofilm using the microtitre plate method. Results: Wound isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter sp. had more biofilm forming capacity than the UTI isolates. Proteus mirabilis isolates were among the strongest biofilm forming bacteria and were chosen for antimicrobial study. In sub-MIC concentrations of antimicrobial agents used, ciprofloxacin was found to be the most effective in decreasing biofilm formation. On the other hand, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were effective in partial removal of preformed biofilm biomass. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin was more effective in killing bacterial cells especially at high antimicrobial concentrations that could be reached in urine levels and can be used in impregenating catheters.

  6. Contamination of chlorhexidine cream used to prevent ascending urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salveson, A.; Bergan, T.

    1981-06-01

    Chlorhexidine-containing cream is often used as an antimicrobial barrier to ascending urinary tract infection in patients with indwelling urethral catheters. The cream is dispensed in small tubes for personal use but repeated use of a tube still entails a potential infection hazard. The extent of cream contamination was analysed by emulsifying it in 1% peptone broth with 1% Tween-80 added as a wetting agent, and culturing quantitatively for bacteria and fungi by membrane filtration. Twenty-three per cent of cream samples and 35% of swabs taken from outside the tube beneath the screw cap demonstrated microbial contamination. Isolates included potential pathogens such as enterococci, staphylococci, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, opportunists like Moraxella spp. and diphtheroids, and contaminants such as Bacillus spp., micrococci, and a mould of the genus Cladosporium. Contamination of cream with a particular bacterial strain was found to precede urinary tract infection with the same microbe. We recommend that chlorhexidine cream for this use be dispensed in single dose units to ensure sterility.

  7. Isoenzyme profile of glutathione transferases in transitional cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Marija; Simic, Tatjana; Dragicevic, Dejan; Mimic-Oka, Jasmina; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Savic-Radojevic, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Upregulated glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) plays an important role in the resistance to apoptosis in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (UB) and represents a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents. Our aim was to perform a systematic investigation of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme profile (GSTM, GSTP1, and GSTT1) in the upper urinary tract (UUT) TCC and compare it with the GST isoenzyme pattern of the UB TCC and normal urothelium. We examined GST activity spectrophotometrically by using substrates for the overall GST activity, GSTP1, and GSTT1 in the cytosolic fraction. GSTP1 and GSTM expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results obtained have shown that the overall GST activity was significantly higher in UUT TCC in comparison with urothelium (P0.05). We conclude that 3 major cytosolic GST classes, GSTM, GSTP1, and GSTT1, are expressed in the UUT TCC. The isoenzyme profile of GST in the UUT TCC is similar to that observed in the UB TCC; it shows essentially the same alteration of the GST phenotype in the course of cancerization. The association of GSTT1 and GSTP1 upregulation with the malignant phenotype of the UUT TCC might result in resistances to both chemotherapy and apoptosis.

  8. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae from community-acquired recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W H; Kao, C Y; Yang, D C; Tseng, C C; Wu, A B; Teng, C H; Wang, M C; Wu, J J

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) and whether it is attributable to reinfection with a new strain or relapse with the primary infecting strain is of considerable importance. Because previous studies regarding community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae RUTI are inconclusive, we undertook this study to evaluate the characteristics of the host and the bacterial agent K. pneumoniae in RUTI. A prospective study was designed, using consecutive patients diagnosed with community-acquired K. pneumoniae-related UTI from January 2007 to December 2009. Of the total 468 consecutive episodes, we found 7 patients with RUTI. All the patients with RUTI were elderly (median, 74 years), with diabetes (100 %, 7 out of 7). Clinical K. pneumoniae isolates derived from the same patients with RUTI revealed identical genomic fingerprints, indicating that K. pneumoniae UTI relapsed despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. The antimicrobial resistance, growth curve and biofilm formation of the recurrent isolates did not change. K. pneumoniae strains causing RUTI had more adhesion and invasiveness than the colonization strains (p recurrent strains with the community-acquired UTI strains, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significant (100 % vs 53.7 %, p = 0.03) in the RUTI group. Our data suggest that K. pneumoniae strains might be able to persist within the urinary tract despite appropriate antibiotic treatment, and the greater adhesion and invasiveness in the recurrent strains may play an important role in recurrent infections.

  9. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Willette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary catheterization induce stress and pain for the patient, injury to the urethra, potential urethral stricture requiring surgical reconstruction, and problematic subsequent catheterization. Improper insertion of catheters also can significantly increase healthcare costs due to added days of hospitalization, increased interventions, and increased complexity of follow-up evaluations. Improved techniques for catheter placement are essential for all healthcare personnel involved in the management of the patient with acute urinary retention, including attending emergency physicians who often are the first physicians to encounter such patients. Best practice methods for blind catheter placement are summarized in this review. In addition, for progressive clinical practice, an algorithm for the management of difficult urinary catheterizations that incorporates technology enabling direct visualization of the urethra during catheter insertion is presented. This algorithm will aid healthcare personnel in decision making and has the potential to improve quality of care of patients.

  10. Development of the lower urinary tract and its functional disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal development of lower urinary tract function control evolves from involuntary bladder empting (incontinence during infancy to daytime urinary continence, and finally a successful day and night continence that is generally achieved by the 5th to 7th year of age. This gradual process primarily depends on the progressive maturation of the neural control of the lower urinary tract, but it is also influenced by behavioral training that evolves through social support. Functional voiding disorders (bladder dysfunction are common problems during childhood. They are present in 5-15 % of general pediatric population, and in one-fifth of school-age children or in over one-third of patients of the pediatric urologist or nephrologist. More than half of children with bladder dysfunction have vesicoureteral reflux, and more than two-thirds have recurrent urinary tract infections. There is also a frequent association of bladder dysfunction with constipation and encopresis (dysfunctional elimination syndrome. Bladder dysfunction may cause a permanent damage to the upper urinary tract and kidneys. In addition, urinary incontinence, as the most common manifestation of bladder dysfunction can be the cause of major stress in schoolage children and have a negative effect on the child’s feeling of self-esteem. Thus, a timely detection and treatment of this group of disorders in children is highly significant.

  11. Urinary nucleosides as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fang Zheng; Jun Yang; Xin-Jie Zhao; Bo Feng; Hong-Wei Kong; Ying-Jie Chen; Shen Lv; Min-Hua Zheng; Guo-Wang Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fourteen urinary nucleosides, primary degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated to know the potential as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer.METHODS: The concentrations of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides from 52 patients with colorectal cancer, 10patients with intestinal villous adenoma and 60 healthy adults were determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method.RESULTS: The mean levels of 12 kinds of urinary nucleosides (except uridine and guanosine) in the patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with intestinal villous adenoma or the healthy adults. Using the levels of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides as the data vectors for principal component analysis, 71% (37/52) patients with colorectal cancer were correctly classified from healthy adults, in which the identification rate was much higher than that of CEA method (29%).Only 10% (1/10) of patients with intestinal villous adenoma were indistinguishable from patients with colorectal cancer. The levels of m1G, Pseu and m1A were positively related with tumor size and Duke's stages of colorectal cancer. When monitoring the changes in urinary nucleoside concentrations of patients with colorectal cancer associated with surgery, it was found that the overall correlations with clinical assessment were 84% (27/32)and 91% (10/11) in response group and progressive group, respectively.CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that urinary nucleosides determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method may be useful as biological markers for colorectal cancer.

  12. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

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    Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans.

  13. Urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern among diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, R

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a major health problem of today's world. Urinary tract infection is its common complication. A descriptive, cross sectional study was designed to know the prevalence of culture positive Urinary Tract Infection in diabetic patients, to know their common clinical features and to find out the proportion of asymptomatic bacteriuria, to know the causative organisms and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity. Mid stream urine sample was collected using full aseptic precaution. Among 100 patients included, 53 were female and 47 were male. In total, 21% of them had culture positive Urinary Tract Infection. Urinary Tract Infection was more in female (P = 0.047). Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found more common in female as compared to male. Common clinical features in symptomatic were burning micturation (90%), frequency of micturation (80%), suprapubic pain (60%), urgency (70%), loin pain (30%), and fever and vomiting (20%). Urinary Tract Infection was common among those who had prolong duration of diabetes (P = 0.039) and among those receiving insulin as compared to those under oral medications (P = 0.08). Escherichia-coli was most common organism followed by klebsiella, proteus and pseudomonas. Most of the urinary isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and ceftriaxone, where as resistance was high for ampicillin.

  14. Group d salmonella urinary tract infection in an immunocompetent male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Asad; Poudel, Dilli; Fareedy, Shoaib Bilal; Salman, Ahmed; Qureshi, Anam; Jehangir, Qasim; Alweis, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  15. URINARY DYSFUNCTION AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR RECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bray BERALDO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe impact on quality of life attributed to treatment for rectal cancer remains high. Deterioration of the urinary function is a relevant complication within that context.ObjectiveTo detect the presence of urinary dysfunction and its risk factors among individuals underwent surgical treatment for rectal cancer.MethodsThe present prospective study analyzed 42 patients from both genders underwent surgical treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma with curative intent. The version of the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS questionnaire validated for the Portuguese language was applied at two time-points: immediately before and 6 months after surgery. Risk factors for urinary dysfunction were analysed by means of logistic regression and Student’s t-test.ResultsEight (19% participants exhibited moderate-to-severe urinary dysfunction 6 months after surgery; the average IPSS increased from 1.43 at baseline to 4.62 six months after surgery (P<0.001. None of the variables assessed as potential risk factors exhibited statistical significance, i.e., age, gender, distance from tumour to anal margin, neoadjuvant therapy, adjuvant therapy, type of surgery, surgical approach (laparoscopy or laparotomy, and duration of surgery.ConclusionThis study identified an incidence of 19% of moderate to severe urinary dysfuction after 6 months surveillance. No risk factor for urinary dysfunction was identified in this population.

  16. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  17. Group D Salmonella Urinary Tract Infection in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  18. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Narter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur with inherited metabolic changes such as hypercalciuria, primary hyperoxaluria or cystinuria. Stone formation can be effected by iatrogenic causes such as hyperalimentation (parenteral nutrition, diuretic therapy (furosemide, acetazolamide that is especially in the bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The stone formation may occur due to anatomic or functional obstructions and infections of urinary system. Most of the urinary stones in the neonatal period are diagnosed as a nephrocalcinosis. However there aren’t any exact differences between nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Some authors suggested nephrocalcinosis is the initial step of urinary stone formation. On the other hand, the others purposed that both of them are different pathologies. In this review, we tried to summarized differences and similarities, in the context of urinary stones and the nephrocalcinosis in the neonates.

  19. The dissolution of urinary mucus after cystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, G; Mundy, A R

    1989-04-01

    Three agents have been tested for mucolytic activity to prevent or treat difficulties in bladder emptying following augmentation and substitution cystoplasty, particularly in patients emptying by intermittent self-catheterisation. Carbocysteine produced precipitation of mucus, which was found not to be helpful. N-acetylcysteine and urea both dissolved mucus, but urea proved to be more effective.

  20. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  1. S-C复合制剂在临床的应用和研究%Application and Study of the S-C Compound Agent in Burned Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严根荣; 陈国华

    2003-01-01

    173 patients with burn injury were admitted to Shanghai Power Hosptial from 2001 to 2002.These patients include 116 malesand 57 females with a mean age of 33 years. Ther bum injury involved 15% ± 2.3% per cent of TBSA(Total Body Surface Area). With fullthickness burn of 5.5 % ± 1.2% per cent of TBSA.These patients with burn injury were charged medicine by the S. C compound agent,57 casesof burned patients were changed medicine by silver sulfadiazin as a control. S. C compound agent is consisted of cerium nitrate,silver salt andsome additive agent etc. It is possessed of good anti - infection curative effects. Therefore many bacteriums that include Staphylococcus aureus,pseudomonas, aeruginosa, E. coli, E. cloacae, proteus, and some C. albicans etc have been killed by S. C compound agent in vitro, anantimicrobial susceptibility testing in vitro that includes a disk agar diffusion test and a dilution test namely minimal inhibitory concentration, MIChas approved it. Therefore, the wound healing time of partial thickness bum in an experimmt group was significant in statistics ( P < 0.05) ascompared with a control; group. No side - effects, no allergic reactions occurred in all course of applyning S. C compound agent for burned patients.

  2. The Effect of Pelvic Muscle Exercises on Urinary Incontinency and Self-Esteem of Elderly Females With Stress Urinary Incontinency, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Talebizadeh, Malihe; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. Material and Method: In this interventional study, 50 old females age...

  3. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  4. Urinary microRNA-29 correlates with urinary albumin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟美容

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of urinary microRNA-29(miR-29)as biomarker for diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods Sixty-one patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into 2groups:diabetes with normoalbuminuria[n=25,(58.88±11.75)years old]and diabetes with albuminuria[n=36,(62.19±13.11)years old].There were no significant differences in age and gender between groups.The

  5. Changes in aetiological determinants of urinary fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prosper E. Gharoro; Chukwunwendu A. Okonkwo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Objective: To investigate the localization and aetiological factors associated with urinary fistulae at the University Teaching Hospital in Benin-City, Nigeria. Methods: Records on 96 patients treated by the authors at the gynaecological ward of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 2006 were analyzed. Information extracted and analyzed included data on socio-biological, demographic, and obstetric event of the antecedent pregnancy. Results: The average age of patients with vesico-vaginal fistula(VVF) was 34 years with a mean parity of 3. The various mean values for patients' height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 1.58m, 58.29kg and 24.13 respectively. The majority (92.7%) of fistulas are obstetric in origin. While 5.21% were due to total abdominal hysterectomy and 2.08% due to post irradiation for advanced gynecological malignancy. 53(55.21%) patients had obstetric operative interventions (Forceps or vacuum extraction, and or caesarean section). Caesarean section contributed 23.96% to the total figure. Juxta-cervical fistula was the most frequent, next mid vagina and followed by vesico-uterine (32. 98%, 24.4% and 19.15% respectively).Conclusion: Obstetric surgical intervention by care providers is a major cause of VVF formation with particular reference to Caesarean section. Vesico-uterine fistulas are on the increase.

  6. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  7. Urinary Tract Effects of HPSE2 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Helen M.; Roberts, Neil A.; Hilton, Emma N.; McKenzie, Edward A.; Daly, Sarah B.; Hadfield, Kristen D.; Rahal, Jeffery S.; Gardiner, Natalie J.; Tanley, Simon W.; Lewis, Malcolm A.; Sites, Emily; Angle, Brad; Alves, Cláudia; Lourenço, Teresa; Rodrigues, Márcia; Calado, Angelina; Amado, Marta; Guerreiro, Nancy; Serras, Inês; Beetz, Christian; Varga, Rita-Eva; Silay, Mesrur Selcuk; Darlow, John M.; Dobson, Mark G.; Barton, David E.; Hunziker, Manuela; Puri, Prem; Feather, Sally A.; Goodship, Judith A.; Goodship, Timothy H.J.; Lambert, Heather J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Saggar, Anand; Kinali, Maria; Lorenz, Christian; Moeller, Kristina; Schaefer, Franz; Bayazit, Aysun K.; Weber, Stefanie; Newman, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is an autosomal recessive congenital disease featuring grimacing and incomplete bladder emptying. Mutations of HPSE2, encoding heparanase 2, a heparanase 1 inhibitor, occur in UFS, but knowledge about the HPSE2 mutation spectrum is limited. Here, seven UFS kindreds with HPSE2 mutations are presented, including one with deleted asparagine 254, suggesting a role for this amino acid, which is conserved in vertebrate orthologs. HPSE2 mutations were absent in 23 non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder probands and, of 439 families with nonsyndromic vesicoureteric reflux, only one carried a putative pathogenic HPSE2 variant. Homozygous Hpse2 mutant mouse bladders contained urine more often than did wild-type organs, phenocopying human UFS. Pelvic ganglia neural cell bodies contained heparanase 1, heparanase 2, and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains-2 (LRIG2), which is mutated in certain UFS families. In conclusion, heparanase 2 is an autonomic neural protein implicated in bladder emptying, but HPSE2 variants are uncommon in urinary diseases resembling UFS. PMID:25145936

  8. Pediatric urinary tract infections: current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeily, A E

    2001-06-01

    Few topics in pediatric urology engender such vigorous debate as the who, when, how, and why related to the investigation of pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs). Further controversy stems from management of the underlying pathology. This article first discusses the patient characteristics that are important in the evaluation of pediatric patients with UTIs, and the indications for screening tests (such as voiding cystourethrograms, ultrasound, dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, and intravenous pyelography). Following this, the author reviews what is known about three controversial aspects about the management of these patients. First, although the role of the prepuce in pediatric UTI is well established, the role of routine circumcision is not. Second, the natural history and etiology of antenatally detected vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has provoked us to view the concept of "primary reflux" in a new light. Third, although the way to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux is generally agreed upon, the utility of our surgical management in view of long-term follow-up is less clear.

  9. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction......Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  10. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Escherichia coli Strains to Fluoroquinolones, in Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA Nakhjavani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed all over the world. Meanwhile most episode of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (up to 85% and frequently fluoroquinolones are preferred as initial agents for empiric therapy of UTIs. Widespread use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in an increasing incidence of resistance these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from UTI patients against common fluoroquinolones. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk agar diffusion (DAD and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration methods as described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Results: One hundred sixty four clinical isolates of E. coli were collected by urine cultures from patients with UTI. The extent of resistant to nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, by disk diffusion method was 49.3%, 44.5%, 41.4% and 40.2%, respectively. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by MIC method was 4.9%. Conclusion: This study represents high level resistant of E. coli isolates from UTI patients. It is because of inappropriate and incorrect administration of antimicrobial agents in blind cases. This problem remarks significance of performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing before empiric antibiotic therapy. To overcome this problem use of unnecessary antibiotics therapy should be limited.

  12. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Jacklyn; Sundaram, Palaniappan; Aydin, Hakan; Kuo, Tricia; Ng, Lay Guat

    2015-12-01

    Ketamine is a short-acting anaesthetic agent that has gained popularity as a 'club drug' due to its hallucinogenic effects. Substance abuse should be considered in young adult patients who present with severe debilitating symptoms such as lower urinary tract symptoms, even though the use of controlled substances is rare in Singapore. Although the natural history of disease varies from person to person, a relationship between symptom severity and frequency/dosage of abuse has been established. It is important to be aware of this condition and have a high degree of clinical suspicion to enable early diagnosis and immediate initiation of multidisciplinary and holistic treatment. A delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible pathological changes and increased morbidity among ketamine abusers.

  13. The Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Strains Isolated from Patients with Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghadiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nosocomial infections is becoming difficult due to the increasing trend of antibiotics resistance. Current knowledge on antibiotic resistance pattern is essential for appropriate therapy. We aimed to evaluate antibiotic resistance profiles in nosocomial bloodstream and urinary tract pathogens. A total of 129 blood stream and 300 urinary tract positive samples were obtained from patients referring to Besat hospital over a two-year period (2009 and 2010. Antibiotic sensitivity was ascertained using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique according to CLSI guidelines. Patient's data such as gender and age were recorded. The ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria in BSIs was 1.6 : 1. The most prevalent BSI pathogen was Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS. The highest resistance rate of CoNS was against penicillin (91.1% followed by ampicillin (75.6%, and the lowest rate was against vancomycin (4.4%. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs. Ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria was 3.2 : 1. The highest resistance rate of E. coli isolates was against nalidixic acid (57.7%. The present study showed that CoNS and E. coli are the most common causative agents of nosocomial BSIs and UTIs, and control of infection needs to be addressed in both antibiotic prescription and general hygiene.

  14. [Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid versus amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzasconi, R; Rodoni, P; Monotti, R; Marone, C; Mombelli, G

    1995-08-19

    We compared the fixed combination amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid with that of amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of severe urinary tract infections. The study included 87 hospitalized patients (51 women and 36 men, mean age 58 +/- 22 years) with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (n = 48) or with complicated urinary tract infections (n = 39). 80 patients (92%) had fever and 31 patients (36%) positive blood cultures. 45 patients were randomly assigned to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and 42 to amoxicillin plus gentamicin. Overall, 18 patients (21%) were infected with organisms resistant in vitro to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, whereas no pathogen was isolated with resistance to amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin group. Although the in-vitro resistance did not result in a lower clinical efficacy of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid compared to amoxicillin plus gentamicin in our relatively small sample of patients, the data indicate that the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid is inadequate to cover the spectrum of causative agents in hospitalized patients with pyelonephritis or complicated urinary tract infections. Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid should therefore not be used in the initial empirical treatment of these infections.

  15. Urinary incontinence: hospital-based prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Nojomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in women aged 30 to 70 years, who were attending to a gynecologic hospital.
    • METHODS: During 2006, married women (aged 30-70 years attending to a teaching gynecological hospital were assessed during their visits for any gynecologic diseases. We used a questionnaire with interview for collecting data. The potential risk factors were measured; i.e., the demographics, menopausal status, urinary symptoms (frequency, nocturia and urgency, urinary incontinence, (urgency, stress and mixed, body mass index, medical history (type of delivery, parity, gravidity, chronic illnesses, medication use, pelvic surgery and seeking medical care for their problem.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 46.5 (± 8.4 years. The mean parity was 5.1 ± 1.5. 27% of the participants reported urinary incontinence. Out of 111 women with urinary incontinence, 77 (18.7%, CI: 14.7-22.7%, 17 (4.1%, CI: 2.2-5.8% and 17 (4.1%, CI: 2.2-5.8% were classified as having stress, urge and mixed urinary incontinence, respectively. The overall prevalence of urinary incontinence was 18.9% (34 subjects in women aged 30-44 years, 30.9% (46 subjects in those aged 45-54 years and 37.8% (31 subjects in those aged 55 years and older. Out of 117 menopause women, 39 (33.3% were incontinent. On average, women reported 4.4 (± 1.06 diurnal and 0.55 (± 0.66 nocturnal voidings in 24 hours. Diurnal and nocturnal frequencies were different between continent and incontinent women. The high parity, excessive birth weight, pelvic trauma, constipation, chronic illnesses (specially diabetes and gynecologic and other pelvic surgeries were known as risk factors for urinary incontinence.
    • CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant association between urinary incontinence and high parity, excessive birth weight, pelvic

    • Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

      1998-01-01

      Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

    • Agent Standards Project

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

    • Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in a rural community of Odisha, India

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Muktikesh Dash

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. Empiric treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI is determined by antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in a population of specific geographical location. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CA-UTI in rural Odisha, India, and the effect of gender and age on its prevalence as well as etiologic agents and the resistance profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 1670 adult patients. The urine samples were processed and microbial isolates were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates by Kirby Bauer′s disc diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of UTI was significantly higher in females compared with males (females 45.2%, males 18.4%, OR = 2.041, 95% CI = 1.64-2.52, P ≤ 0.0001. Young females within the age group of 18-37 years and elderly males (≥68 years showed high prevalence of UTI. Escherichia coli (68.8% was the most prevalent isolate followed by Enterococcus spp. (9.7%. Amikacin and nitrofurantoin were the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 5.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study revealed E. coli as the pre-dominant bacterial pathogen. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for uncomplicated CA-UTIs. In the Indian setting, routine urine cultures may be advisable, since treatment failure is likely to occur with commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is necessary for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines.

    • Occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in critical care units

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chanda R Vyawahare

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI is the most common nosocomial infection. The etiological agents of which may be varied. Advancing age, debilitation, diabetes mellitus, duration of catheterization are the risk factors. Complications include prostatitis, epididymitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis and septicemia in high-risk patients, adding to hospitalization and morbidity. With this background the present study was undertaken Objectives: (1 To identify microbial pathogens associated with urinary tract infection (UTI in catheterized patients from Intensive Care Units (ICU (2 to determine the susceptibility pattern of these isolates to antimicrobial agents (3 to determine the effect of days of catheterization and UTI. Materials and Methods: Consecutive urine samples of 345 catheterized patients admitted in ICUs were included in the study. They were processed by standard microbiological procedures. Isolated organisms were speciated, and antibiotic susceptibility performed as per standard guidelines. Results: From the 345 urine samples of catheterized patients, 205 showed no growth and were found to be sterile. Bacterial growth was seen in 69 patients and fungal growth in 50 patients. Among the bacterial isolates, Escherichia coli were isolated in 39, followed by Klebsiella spp. 14. The other isolates included Pseudomonas spp., Group D streptococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In the fungal isolates, Candida glabrata was the most common isolate. High resistance was seen among Klebsiella isolates (nalidixic acid-86% and cefotaxime-86%. Conclusion: Development of CAUTI is common in critically ill patients. Emphasis should be placed on good catheter management and reducing the duration of catheterization rather than prophylaxis in order to reduce the incidence of catheter-related UTI. Culture and susceptibility testing play a vital role in the management if UTI occurs.

    • Clinical and laboratory characteristics of acute community-acquired urinary tract infections in adult hospitalised patients.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Piljic, Dilista; Piljic, Dragan; Ahmetagic, Sead; Ljuca, Farid; Porobic Jahic, Humera

      2010-02-01

      Urinary tract infections (UTI) cause a great number of morbidity and mortality. These infections are serious complications in pregnancy, patients with diabetes, polycystic kidneys disease, sickle cell anaemia, kidney transplant and in patients with functional or structural anomalies of the urinary tract. The aim of this investigation was to determine a dominant causative agents of UTI and some of the clinical and laboratory characteristics of acute community-acquired UTI in adult hospitalised patients. We studied 200 adult patients with acute community-acquired UTI hospitalised in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases Tuzla from January 2006 to December 2007. The patients were divided into two groups: a group of patients with E. coli UTI (147) and a group of patients with non-E. coli UTI (53). In these two groups, the symptoms and signs of illness, blood test and urine analysis results were analysed. Our results have shown that the patients with E. coli UTI frequently had fever higher than 38,5 degrees C (p<0,0001), chills (p=0,0349), headache (p=0,0499), cloudy urine (p<0,0001), proteinuria (p=0,0011) and positive nitrite-test (p=0,0002). The patients with non-E. coli UTI frequently had fever lower than 38,5 degrees C (p<0,0001) and urine specific gravity <1015 (p=0,0012). There was no significant difference in blood test results between patients with E. coli and non-E. coli UTI. These clinical and laboratory findings can lead us to early etiological diagnosis of these UTI before urine culture detection of causative agents, which takes several days. Early etiological diagnosis of the E. coli and non-E. coli UTI is necessary for an urgent administration of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. This is very important in prevention of irreversible kidney damage, prolonged treatment, complications, as well as recidives and chronicity of the illness.