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Sample records for anti-human immunodeficiency virus

  1. Screening of Fungi from Chinese Medical Plants for Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to isolate anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural products, 97 ethanolic extracts of 90 fungi were tested for their inhibitory activity on HIV-1. Most of the extracts tested were relatively non-toxic to human lymphocytic MT-4 cells, but extracts of some fungi exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay with a selectivity index greater than 3. Most fungi were isolated from Dendrobium sp. and Taxus sp.

  2. Sophorolipids, Microbial Glycolipids with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sperm-Immobilizing Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Vishal; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Seyoum, Theodoros; Eaton, Kristin M.; Zalenskaya, Irina; Hagver, Rena; Azim, Abul; Gross, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS disease in women aged 15 to 49 years has identified the urgent need for a female-controlled, efficacious, and safe vaginal topical microbicide. To meet this challenge, sophorolipid (SL) produced by Candida bombicola and its structural analogs have been studied in this report for their spermicidal, anti-HIV, and cytotoxic activities. The sophorolipid diacetate ethyl ester derivative is the most potent spermicidal and virucidal ...

  3. Induction of Murine Mucosal CCR5-Reactive Antibodies as an Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barassi, C.; Soprana, E.; Pastori, C.; Longhi, R.; Buratti, E.; Lillo, F.; Marenzi, C.; Lazzarin, A.; Siccardi, A. G.; Lopalco, L.

    2005-01-01

    The genital mucosa is the main site of initial human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contact with its host. In spite of repeated sexual exposure, some individuals remain seronegative, and a small fraction of them produce immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA autoantibodies directed against CCR5, which is probably the cause of the CCR5-minus phenotype observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these subjects. These antibodies recognize the 89-to-102 extracellular loop of CCR5 in its native conformation. The aim of this study was to induce infection-preventing mucosal anti-CCR5 autoantibodies in individuals at high risk of HIV infection. Thus, we generated chimeric immunogens containing the relevant CCR5 peptide in the context of the capsid protein of Flock House virus, a presentation system in which it is possible to engineer conformationally constrained peptide in a highly immunogenic form. Administered in mice via the systemic or mucosal route, the immunogens elicited anti-CCR5 IgG and IgA (in sera and vaginal fluids). Analogous to exposed seronegative individuals, mice producing anti-CCR5 autoantibodies express significantly reduced levels of CCR5 on the surfaces of CD4+ cells from peripheral blood and vaginal washes. In vitro studies have shown that murine IgG and IgA (i) specifically bind human and mouse CD4+ lymphocytes and the CCR5-transfected U87 cell line, (ii) down-regulate CCR5 expression of CD4+ cells from both humans and untreated mice, (iii) inhibit Mip-1β chemotaxis of CD4+ CCR5+ lymphocytes, and (iv) neutralize HIV R5 strains. These data suggest that immune strategies aimed at generating anti-CCR5 antibodies at the level of the genital mucosa might be feasible and represent a strategy to induce mucosal HIV-protective immunity. PMID:15890924

  4. Biocompatibility of Solid-Dosage Forms of Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Microbicides with the Human Cervicovaginal Mucosa Modeled Ex Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Trifonova, Radiana T.; Pasicznyk, Jenna-Malia; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2006-01-01

    Topical anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbicides are being sought to reduce the spread of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) during sexual intercourse. The success of this strategy depends upon the selection of formulations compatible with the natural vaginal mucosal barrier. This study applied ex vivo-modeled human cervicovaginal epithelium to evaluate experimental solid-dosage forms of the anti-HIV-1 microbicide cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate (CAP) and over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal...

  5. Murine leukemia virus-based Tat-inducible long terminal repeat replacement vectors: a new system for anti-human immunodeficiency virus gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, P M; Kim, N; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1996-11-01

    We have constructed new murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors (TIN vectors) which, following integration, contain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 U3 and R sequences in place of the MLV U3 and R regions. This provides, for the first time, single transcriptional unit retroviral vectors under the control of Tat. TIN vectors have several advantages for anti-HIV gene therapy applications. PMID:8892960

  6. Murine leukemia virus-based Tat-inducible long terminal repeat replacement vectors: a new system for anti-human immunodeficiency virus gene therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, P M; Kim, N.; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1996-01-01

    We have constructed new murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors (TIN vectors) which, following integration, contain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 U3 and R sequences in place of the MLV U3 and R regions. This provides, for the first time, single transcriptional unit retroviral vectors under the control of Tat. TIN vectors have several advantages for anti-HIV gene therapy applications.

  7. Induction of Broad and Potent Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques by Priming with a DNA Vaccine and Boosting with Protein-Adsorbed Polylactide Coglycolide Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Gillis; Schaefer, Mary; Greer, Catherine; Calderon-Cacia, Maria; Coit, Doris; Kazzaz, Jina; Medina-Selby, Angelica; Selby, Mark; Singh, Manmohan; Ugozzoli, Mildred; zur Megede, Jan; Barnett, Susan W.; O'Hagan, Derek; Donnelly, John; Ulmer, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Several vaccine technologies were evaluated for their abilities to induce anti-human immunodeficiency virus Gag immune responses in rhesus macaques. While no vaccine alone was able to induce broad and strong immune responses, these were achieved by priming with Gag DNA and boosting with Gag protein adsorbed to polylactide coglycolide microparticles. This regimen elicited strong antibodies, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes and thus holds promise as an effective vaccination scheme.

  8. A Quantitative Measurement of Antiviral Activity of Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Drugs against Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Dose-Response Curve Slope Strongly Influences Class-Specific Inhibitory Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Kai; Zink, M. Christine; Clements, Janice E; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques is so far the best animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) studies, but suppressing viral replication in infected animals remains challenging. Using a novel single-round infectivity assay, we quantitated the antiviral activities of antiretroviral drugs against SIV. Our results emphasize the importance of the dose-response curve slope in determining the inhibitory potential of antiretroviral drugs and provide useful...

  9. Induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neutralizing antibodies in rabbits immunized with recombinant HIV--hepatitis B surface antigen particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, M L; M. Mancini; Sobczak, E.; Favier, V.; Guetard, D; Bahraoui, E M; Tiollais, P

    1988-01-01

    Fragments of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope coding region have been fused with the hepatitis B virus envelope middle protein. In this system, HIV antigenic determinants are exposed at the surface of a highly antigenic structure, the hepatitis B surface antigen particle. Immunization of rabbits with these particles elicited antibodies directed against both parts of the hybrid protein. One of the rabbit antisera not only exhibited a neutralizing effect on the original HIV1 isol...

  10. Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Microbicide Cellulose Acetate 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylate in a Human In Vitro Model of Vaginal Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Fichorova, R. N.; Zhou, F.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China); Ratnam, V.; Atanassova, V.; Jiang, S; Strick, N; Neurath, A R

    2005-01-01

    The sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is facilitated by inflammation and related epithelial barrier perturbation. Microbicides for vaginal applications are currently being developed to reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmission. However, little is known about their interference with epithelial immune function. In recent clinical trials, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a virucide with a long history of intravaginal use as a contraceptive, failed to protect against HIV-1 possibly...

  11. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  13. Bicyclams, selective antagonists of the human chemokine receptor CXCR4, potently inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Clercq, E. de; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Balzarini, J.; Bridger, G.J.; Henson, G.; Schols, D.

    1999-01-01

    Bicyclams are low-molecular-weight anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents that have been shown to act as potent and selective CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that bicyclams are potent inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication when evalua

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  15. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  16. Antiretroviral Spermicide WHI-07 Prevents Vaginal and Rectal Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats

    OpenAIRE

    D'Cruz, Osmond J.; Waurzyniak, Barbara; Uckun, Fatih M.

    2004-01-01

    WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3′-azidothymidine-5′-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxy alaninyl phosphate] is a novel dual-function aryl phosphate derivative of zidovudine with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and spermicidal activities. WHI-07 was active against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). This study evaluated whether topical application of WHI-07 as a single agent and in combination with an organometallic vanadium complex, vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC), via a non...

  17. Viral hepatitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena P. PAVAN; Francisco Hideo Aoki; Dinaida Teresa Monteiro; Neiva Sellan L. Gonçales; Cecília Amélia F. Escanhoela; Fernando L. Gonçales Júnior

    2003-01-01

    From 1992 to 1995 we studied 232 (69% male, 87% Caucasian) anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) positive Brazilian patients, through a questionnaire; HIV had been acquired sexually by 50%, from blood by 32%, sexually and/or from blood by 16.4% and by an unknown route by 1.7%. Intravenous drug use was reported by 29%; it was the most important risk factor for HIV transmission. The alanine aminotransferase quotient (qALT) was >1 for 40% of the patients, 93.6% had anti-hepatitis A virus ...

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  19. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills. PMID:1450349

  20. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Münk; Jörg Zielonka

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating...

  1. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Hosie, Margaret J.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the ...

  2. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...

  3. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.

  4. Viral hepatitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena P. Pavan

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1995 we studied 232 (69% male, 87% Caucasian anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV positive Brazilian patients, through a questionnaire; HIV had been acquired sexually by 50%, from blood by 32%, sexually and/or from blood by 16.4% and by an unknown route by 1.7%. Intravenous drug use was reported by 29%; it was the most important risk factor for HIV transmission. The alanine aminotransferase quotient (qALT was >1 for 40% of the patients, 93.6% had anti-hepatitis A virus antibody, 5.3% presented hepatitis B surface antigen, 44% were anti-hepatitis B core antigen positive and 53.8% were anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV positive. The anti-HCV test showed a significant association with qALT>1. Patients for whom the probable HIV transmission route was blood had a 10.8 times greater risk of being anti-HCV positive than patients infected by other routes. Among 30 patients submitted to liver biopsy, 18 presented chronic hepatitis.

  5. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  6. A literature review on cardiovascular risk in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: implications for clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansueto Gomes Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been growing concern about an increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, which could be associated with side effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is likely that the metabolic disorders related to anti-human immunodeficiency virus treatment will eventually translate into a increased cardiovascular risk in patients submitted to such regimens. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than human immunodeficiency virus infected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, or the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a computer-based search in representative databases, and also performed manual tracking of citations in selected articles. RESULT: The available evidence suggests an excess risk of cardiovascular events in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons compared to non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and morphological signs of cardiovascular diseases. Some evidence suggested that human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens are at increased risk of dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction, particularly if the highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen contains a protease inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Physicians must weigh the cardiovascular risk against potential benefits when prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Careful cardiac screening is warranted for patients who are being evaluated for, or who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens, particularly for those with known underlying cardiovascular risk

  7. Endemic mycosis complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarosi, G. A.; DAvies, S F

    1996-01-01

    Persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus are prone to the development of many fungal diseases. Normal hosts with intact immunity usually recover from infection by these less-invasive fungi. In persons with compromised T-cell-mediated immunity, however, widespread dissemination from a pulmonary focus occurs. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the three major North American mycoses, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and c...

  8. In Vitro Comparison of Topical Microbicides for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; James, V. Nicole; Ramos, Artur, 1966-; Sullivan, Sharon T.; Siddig, Aladin; Bush, Timothy J.; Grohskopf, Lisa A.; Paxton, Lynn; Subbarao, Shambavi; Hart, Clyde E.

    2004-01-01

    A standardized protocol was used to compare cellular toxicities and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activities of candidate microbicides formulated for human use. The microbicides evaluated were cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), Carraguard, K-Y plus nonoxynol-9 (KY-N9), PRO 2000 (0.5 and 4%), SPL7013 (5%), UC781 (0.1 and 1%), and Vena Gel, along with their accompanying placebos. Products were evaluated for toxicity on cervical and colorectal epithelial cell lines, peripheral...

  9. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... (78 FR 21613), FDA published a document that announced the disease ] areas for meetings in fiscal... Federal Register document for public comment that was published on September 24, 2012 (77 FR 58849), and a... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused...

  10. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... of May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29755). In that notice, FDA requested public comment regarding patients... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29755), FDA announced the notice of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused...

  11. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  12. Lipid management in human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerson, Merle

    2015-05-01

    The development and use of antiretroviral medications to treat patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically changed the course of this disease from one that was fatal to a chronic and more manageable condition. Recommendations and guidelines for the general population are presented in this review with suggestions as to how they may be applied to this patient population. Issues for which there is little or no information available are noted to highlight the many gaps in our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia for patients living with HIV.

  13. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endoth...

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, S Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2015-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection.

  16. Feline immunodeficiency virus: Studies on pathogenesis and vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractFeline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is classified as a member of the genus Lentivirus (subfamily Lentivirinae) of the Retroviridae family on basis of its morphology, biochemical characteristics, genomic organization, Mg'+ dependent reverse transcriptase, and nucleotide sequence homology

  17. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  18. Construction and characterization of chimeric BHIV (BIV/HIV-1) viruses carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yi-Xin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xin-Lei; Qiao, Wen-Tao; Chen, Qi-Min; Zeng, Yi; Geng, Yun-Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of the replacement of the gag gene between human immunodeficiency virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus, to achieve chimeric virions, and thereby gain a new kind of AIDS vaccine based on BHIV chimeric viruses.

  19. Immunoassay for detection of antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsyula, M G; Yee, J A; Suleman, M A; Marx, P A; Jennings, M B

    1996-04-01

    We developed a simple, inexpensive, rapid assay for the detection of antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serum. The immunoassay uses inactivated SIV and HIV-1 gp41 transmembrane recombinant protein as antigenic adsorbents on a nitrocellulose filter membrane. Diluted serum, with the addition of Protein-A-Gold, is gravity-filtered through the filter membrane, blocked, and buffer-washed. Antibodies to HIV or SIV or both in serum bind to the appropriate antigen, and the resulting antigen-antibody complex reacts with Protein-A-Gold to produce a readable pink color. Field evaluation of the test on 30 human and 70 nonhuman primate sera in Kenya and Zaire indicated that the test had at least 93 and 90% correlation with Western blot sensitivity and specificity respectively. Prior refrigeration of the test kit and incubation of sera during testing were not required. This result indicates that the test may be a rapid, economical, and simple test for detecting HIV, SIV, or both in serum. This immunoassay can be useful for carrying out HIV and SIV serosurveys in countries with limited or no laboratory facilities. PMID:8723237

  20. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  1. Extracellular Vpr protein increases cellular permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus replication and reactivates virus from latency.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; Weiner, D B

    1995-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus is a virion-associated regulatory protein that has been shown using vpr mutant viruses to increase virus replication, particularly in monocytes/macrophages. We have previously shown that vpr can directly inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation, events linked to the control of HIV replication, and also that the replication of a vpr mutant but not that of wild-type HIV type 1 (HIV-1) ...

  2. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Bienzle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1 inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2 inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3 blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4 interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5 prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6 inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  3. Efficient production of human immunodeficiency virus proteins in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolicoeur, P.; Laperrière, A; Beaulieu, N.

    1992-01-01

    Transgenic mice containing the complete human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coding sequences fused to the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat were generated. They were found to produce high levels of authentic gag and env HIV proteins in several tissues known to support mouse mammary tumor virus-driven transcription. HIV proteins were also detected in serum and in body fluids (milk and epididymal secretions) known to be natural sites of retrovirus, and specifically of HIV, productio...

  4. POTENT INVITRO ANTI-HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-1 ACTIVITY OF MODIFIED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; MOLEMA, G; PAUWELS, R; SCHOLS, D; DECLERCQ, E; MEIJER, DKF

    1991-01-01

    A series of neoglycoproteins was synthesized by coupling of thiophosgene-activated p-aminophenyl derivatives [Biol. Cell. 47:95-110 (1983); J. Histochem. Cytochem. 32:1091-1094 (1984)] of various sugars to human serum albumin. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against human im

  5. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and... Draft Guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for reducing unexpected transmission of HIV,...

  6. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Genital herpes and human immunodeficiency virus: double trouble.

    OpenAIRE

    Celum, Connie; Levine, Ruth; Weaver, Marcia; Wald, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The synergistic relationship between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be substantial in developing countries that have high prevalences of both viral infections. Genital herpes, most frequently caused by HSV-2, has become the leading cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. This review of recent research on genital herpes and enhanced susceptibility to, and transmission of, HIV is part of the "Advances in HIV/AIDS research series"...

  8. Vaccination against feline immunodeficiency virus using fixed infected cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Verschoor, E.J.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Egberink, H.F.; Hesselink, W.; Alphen, W.E. van; Joosten, I.; Boog, C.J.P.; Ronde, A. de

    1995-01-01

    Crandell feline kidney cells and feline thymocytes, either feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infected or uninfected, were fixed with paraformaldehyde and used to vaccinate cats. The cells were mixed with a 30:70 water/mineral oil emulsion containing 250 mu g ml−1 N-acetyl-d-glucosaminyl-beta-(1 4)

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Associated Sporadic Nonfamilial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Sibashish Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Lal, Niharika Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), a relatively uncommon metabolic disease, is the most common cutaneous porphyria. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with sporadic, nonfamilial PCT that presented with classical cutaneous findings and multiple risk factors, including alcohol abuse, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, that have been strongly associated with the sporadic form of PCT. PMID:27293254

  10. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P), originall

  11. Alteration in pancreatic islet function in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms behind the defects in insulin production and secretion associated with antihuman immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapy and the development of HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) are discussed in this article. Data suggesting insulin resistance on the beta cell...

  12. Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Dominic; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Sullivan, Katherine; Sletten, David M; Fujii, Satomi; Umekawa, Sari; Kocher, Morgan; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Low, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequencies of symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on stable combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients infected with HIV reported higher frequencies of dysautonomia symptoms compared with HIV-negative patients, particularly in the autonomic domains related to urinary, sleep, gastroparesis, secretomotor, pupillomotor, and male sexual dysfunction.

  13. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression. PMID:26962942

  14. Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, M.; Snoeck, R; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E

    1988-01-01

    Several sulfated polysaccharides (dextran sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and carrageenans) proved to be potent inhibitors for herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sindbis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. They were moderately inhibitory to vaccinia virus but not inhibitory to adenovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, parainfluenza virus, and reovirus. These results indicate that, with the exception of parainfluenza virus, enveloped viruses ar...

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.

    OpenAIRE

    Duesberg, P H

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, ...

  16. Antiretroviral spermicide WHI-07 prevents vaginal and rectal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Waurzyniak, Barbara; Uckun, Fatih M

    2004-04-01

    WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxy alaninyl phosphate] is a novel dual-function aryl phosphate derivative of zidovudine with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and spermicidal activities. WHI-07 was active against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). This study evaluated whether topical application of WHI-07 as a single agent and in combination with an organometallic vanadium complex, vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC), via a nontoxic gel microemulsion can block vaginal as well as rectal transmission of feline AIDS (FAIDS) by chronically FIV-infected feline T cells in the natural host model. Genital transmission of FIV was monitored in recipient cats by the appearance of viral antibodies to FIV Gag proteins and by virus isolation of blood leukocytes as measured by FIV reverse transcriptase activity and FIV-specific PCR. Microbicidal activity was considered effective when the treated cats did not show evidence of FIV infection for up to 18 weeks postchallenge. An aggregate analysis of 46 specific-pathogen-free cats revealed that a single dose of the infected cell inoculum efficiently transmitted FIV infection when delivered into the vagina (100%) or rectum (66%). Pretreatment of the vagina or rectum with 2% WHI-07 alone or in combination with 0.25% VDDTC significantly (P = 0.004) protected cats from genital transmission by the highly infectious inoculum (7 million FIV(Bangston)-infected feline T cells). Collectively, using the vaginal and rectal transmucosal model for FAIDS, our studies demonstrated that WHI-07 either alone or in combination with a vanadocene has clinical potential for the development of a dual-function anti-HIV microbicide for sexually active women. PMID:15047505

  17. Anti-Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type-I Antibodies in Atomic-Bomb Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Nakashima, Eiji; Carter, Randolph L.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Kinoshita, Ken-Ichiro; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito

    1995-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), induced by human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I), is endemic in Nagasaki, Japan. To investigate the effects of atomic-bomb radiation on development of this specific type of leukemia, 6182 individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERE) Adult Health Study sample in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were examined for positive rate of HTLV-I antibody. Several lymphocyte parameters were also studied for 70 antibody-positive subjects in Nagasaki. The HTLV-I a...

  18. Variation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase within the simian immunodeficiency virus genome of RT-SHIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A Wadford

    Full Text Available RT-SHIV is a chimera of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV containing the reverse transcriptase (RT-encoding region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 within the backbone of SIVmac239. It has been used in a non-human primate model for studies of non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTI and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We and others have identified several mutations that arise in the "foreign" HIV-1 RT of RT-SHIV during in vivo replication. In this study we catalogued amino acid substitutions in the HIV-1 RT and in regions of the SIV backbone with which RT interacts that emerged 30 weeks post-infection from seven RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques. The virus set points varied from relatively high virus load, moderate virus load, to undetectable virus load. The G196R substitution in RT was detected from 6 of 7 animals at week 4 post-infection and remained in virus from 4 of 6 animals at week 30. Virus from four high virus load animals showed several common mutations within RT, including L74V or V75L, G196R, L214F, and K275R. The foreign RT from high virus load isolates exhibited as much variation as that of the highly variable envelope surface glycoprotein, and 10-fold higher than that of the native RT of SIVmac239. Isolates from moderate virus load animals showed much less variation in the foreign RT than the high virus load isolates. No variation was found in SIVmac239 genes known to interact with RT. Our results demonstrate substantial adaptation of the foreign HIV-1 RT in RT-SHIV-infected macaques, which most likely reflects selective pressure upon the foreign RT to attain optimal activity within the context of the chimeric RT-SHIV and the rhesus macaque host.

  19. Thirty years of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fariba S. Younai

    2013-01-01

    After more than 30 years of battling a global epidemic, the prospect of eliminating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the most challenging infectious disease of the modern era is within our reach. Major scientific discoveries about the virus responsible for this immunodeficiency disease state, including its pathogenesis, transmission patterns and clinical course, have led to the development of potent antiretroviral drugs that offer great hopes in HIV treatment and prevention. Although these agents and many others still in development and testing are capable of effectively suppressing viral replication and survival, the medical management of HIV infection at the individual and the population levels remains challenging. Timely initiation of antiretroviral drugs, adherence to the appropriate therapeutic regimens, effective use of these agents in the pre and post-exposure prophylaxis contexts, treatment of comorbid conditions and addressing social and psychological factors involved in the care of individuals continue to be important considerations.

  20. Inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus by photodynamic therapy with HMME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Yin; Yingxin Li; Zhaohui Zou; Wentao Qiao; Xue Yao; Yang Su; Hongyan Guo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) can provide the basis theory for photoinactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the protection of HMME-PDT on the cell line Cf2Th infected with BIVR29 by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazol-2-yl-3,5-di-phenytetrazolium bromide (MTT) with power density of 5 and 25 mW/cm2 and energy density from 0.6 to 3 J/cm. To observe the inhibition of membrane fusion using a new reporter cell line BIVE by fluorescence microscope. HMME-PDT has significant protectant effects on Cf2Th-BIVR29 with both power densities, especially in the group of high power density. Fluorescent microscope shows that there is no significant difference between the group of PDT and control, which means PDT could not inhibit the BIV-mediated membrane fusion.

  1. Neurocysticercosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianura, Leonardo; Sberna, Maurizio; Moioli, Cristina; Villa, Maria Riccarda; Orcese, Carloandrea; Causarano, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Ecuador is considered a holoendemic high-risk area for the transmission of cysticercosis. Moreover, the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs worldwide. We present a case of simultaneous diagnosis of cysticercosis and HIV infection in a 22-year-old Ecuadorian immigrant. We would postulate that with the increasing HIV incidence in endemic areas of cysticercosis, the simultaneous diagnosis of both diseases is an event to be expected. PMID:17107432

  2. Filarial/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in Urban Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Talaat, Kawsar R.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gopinath, Ramya; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    The disease course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often altered by existing or newly acquired coinfections. Treatment or prevention of these concomitant infections often improves the quality and duration of life of HIV-infected persons. The impact of helminth infections on infections with HIV is less clear. However, HIV is frequently most problematic in areas where helminth infections are common. In advance of the widespread distribution of drugs for elimination of lymphatic filaria...

  3. Management of human immunodeficiency virus infection in advanced age

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, M; Justice, AC; Lampiris, HW; Valcour, V

    2013-01-01

    Importance: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy now have increased life expectancy and develop chronic illnesses that are often seen in older HIV-negative patients. Objective: To address emerging issues related to aging with HIV. Screening older adults for HIV, diagnosis of concomitant diseases, management of multiple comorbid medical illnesses, social isolation, polypharmacy, and factors associated with end-of-life care are reviewed. Evi...

  4. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Staitieh, Bashar; Guidot, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV desp...

  5. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, V S; Suprakash Chaudhury; Sudarsanan, S.; Kalpana Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consec...

  6. Skin Conditions in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Bernárdez Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: patients with human immunodeficiency virus frequently develop skin conditions that affect their quality of life and modify their prognosis. Objective: to describe the most common skin conditions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Methods: a case-series study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. It included all patients diagnosed until February 2008 attending the internal medicine consultation for their follow-up. Forty-seven deceased patients, 12 patients not living in the province and 2 inmates were excluded from the study. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, skin color, self-reported skin conditions and diagnosed skin diseases. Results: Thirty-eight percent of patients were aged 25 to 34 years. Fifty-seven were white-skinned and 75% were male. Approximately half of the patients had AIDS and were under antiretroviral therapy. The skin infection of viral origin most commonly found was herpes simplex (30.0%; of fungal origin, onychomycosis (44 %; and of bacterial origin, folliculitis (43 %. Among papulosquamous disorders, seborrheic dermatitis (74 % predominated and among other skin disorders, lipodystrophy (23.6 %. Xerosis and pruritus shared equal percentage (16.3 %. Conclusions: viral and fungal skin infections predominated. An important number of these skin conditions were diagnosed during the study, particularly in AIDS patients.

  7. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  8. Neopterin and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B

    1993-01-01

    to predict the later development of AIDS. The increased neopterin concentrations show that the immune system is activated in HIV infection and demonstrate the presence of an interaction between the virus and the immune system. The most important future use of neopterin measurements may be in fast evaluation...

  9. Prevalence and prognostic significance of infection with TT virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JK; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Sørensen, M;

    2000-01-01

    No clear association between human disease and TT virus (TTV) has been documented. A possible pathogenic role of TTV was investigated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). TTV serum concentrations were estimated in 185 HIV-infected patients by dilution polymerase chain...

  10. 76 FR 72417 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) through Solid Organ Transplantation'' (76 FR 58517). Written and electronic comments were to be received on or before November 21, 2011... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus...

  11. Limited Protection from a Pathogenic Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge following Immunization with Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark G.; Yalley-Ogunro, Jake; Greenhouse, Jack J.; Brennan, Terry P.; Jiang, Jennifer Bo; Thomas C VanCott; Lu, Yichen; Eddy, Gerald A.; Birx, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    Two live attenuated single-deletion mutant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) constructs, SIV239Δnef and SIVPBj6.6Δnef, were tested for their abilities to stimulate protective immunity in macaques. During the immunization period the animals were examined for specific immune responses and virus growth. Each construct generated high levels of specific immunity in all of the immunized animals. The SIV239Δnef construct was found to grow to high levels in all immunized animals, with some animals ...

  12. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola A. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2 is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S. These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Abacavir (1592U89) from a Dose-Ranging, Double-Blind, Randomized Monotherapy Trial with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Stephen; Radomski, Kristine M.; Lou, Yu; Stein, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    Abacavir (formerly 1592U89) is a carbocyclic nucleoside analog with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) activity when administered alone or in combination with other antiretroviral agents. The population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of abacavir were investigated in 41 HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, antiretroviral naive adults with baseline CD4+ cell counts of ≥100/mm3 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of >30,000 copies/ml. Data for analysis were obtained from patients who rec...

  14. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  15. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae. PMID:17728918

  16. Plasmoblastic lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Emoke; Krenács, L; Bagdi, Eniko; Pávai, Z; Macarie, I; Nagy, Elod-Erno; Demian, Smaranda

    2008-01-01

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, typically present as extranodal disease associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. PBLs are often the initial manifestation of AIDS. Here we present a case of PBL concerning the oral cavity. A 34-year-old woman presented a tumor in the oral cavity that involved the maxilla and gingiva (confirmed by CT-scan). The gingival biopsy showed a massive infiltration by large lymphoid cells with round, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, fine chromatin and an significant amount of basophilic cytoplasm which express CD79a, CD138, cytoplasmic lambda light chain and LCA, without staining for CD20, CD38, CD3 and CTK. Serological analysis confirmed HIV positivity. PBLs lack most B-lineage markers, but many express CD79a in at least some of the cells, therefore generate difficulties in differential diagnosis. Overall assessment and correlation of the histopathological and immunohistochemical features with the clinical findings and serology investigation are the most helpful diagnostic tools and can lead to the final diagnosis. PMID:18758634

  17. Plasmoblastic lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Emoke; Krenács, L; Bagdi, Eniko; Pávai, Z; Macarie, I; Nagy, Elod-Erno; Demian, Smaranda

    2008-01-01

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, typically present as extranodal disease associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. PBLs are often the initial manifestation of AIDS. Here we present a case of PBL concerning the oral cavity. A 34-year-old woman presented a tumor in the oral cavity that involved the maxilla and gingiva (confirmed by CT-scan). The gingival biopsy showed a massive infiltration by large lymphoid cells with round, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, fine chromatin and an significant amount of basophilic cytoplasm which express CD79a, CD138, cytoplasmic lambda light chain and LCA, without staining for CD20, CD38, CD3 and CTK. Serological analysis confirmed HIV positivity. PBLs lack most B-lineage markers, but many express CD79a in at least some of the cells, therefore generate difficulties in differential diagnosis. Overall assessment and correlation of the histopathological and immunohistochemical features with the clinical findings and serology investigation are the most helpful diagnostic tools and can lead to the final diagnosis.

  18. Alopecia areata and vitiligo as primary presentations in a young male with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old Chinese male consulted with the team regarding his alopecia areata and vitiligo for which previous treatment was ineffective. The patient, a homosexual man, denied having a history of drug abuse and of blood transfusion. No member of his family had vitiligo or alopecia. Laboratory studies revealed that the serum for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibody was positive. The patient′s CD4 lymphocyte count and CD4/CD8 ratio were both strikingly low (20 cells/mL and 0.04, but no other complaints or opportunistic infections were reported. One month after antiretroviral therapy, the patient′s alopecia areata dramatically improved, but no evident improvement in his vitiligo was found. This case is a very rare case of alopecia areata and vitiligo associated with HIV infection that might be attributed to the generation and maintenance of self-reactive CD8+ T-cells due to chronic immune activation with progressive immune exhaustion in HIV infection.

  19. Neuromyelitis optica in patients with coexisting human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Singh, Parbhdeep; Smith, Robert G

    2013-09-01

    Two patients with known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and receiving antiretroviral treatment developed neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease). One patient tested positive for serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies. Both patients were treated with high dose pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone followed by standard sessions of plasma exchange both at the onset attack and during disease relapses. For maintenance therapy, one patient received rituximab infusions and the second patient received mycophenolate mofetil orally. Despite treatment, both patients are currently wheelchair-bound due to severe paraparesis. Neuromyelitis optica can occur in the course of HIV infection and poses an ongoing therapeutic challenge.

  20. Global Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle, Helene D; Hill, Gena L.

    2001-01-01

    This review provides information on the epidemiology, economic impact, and intervention strategies for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) at the end of 1999, an estimated 34.3 million people were living with HIV/AIDS. Most of the people living with HIV, 95% of the global total, live in developing countries. Examples of the impact of HIV/AIDS in Afri...

  1. Management of dyslipidemia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalit, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are more common in the patient population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality and has transformed HIV disease into a chronic, manageable condition. As a result, non-AIDS-related illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases, are now the leading causes of death in the HIV-infected population. Optimizing fasting lipid parameters plays an important role in reducing cardiovascular risk in this population. This review focuses on the management of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination ART.

  2. Novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Lauren B.; Rawson, Jonathan M.; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E.; Louis M. Mansky

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infects about two million people worldwide. HIV-2 has fewer treatment options than HIV-1, yet may evolve drug resistance more quickly. We have analysed several novel drugs for anti-HIV-2 activity. It was observed that 5-azacytidine, clofarabine, gemcitabine and resveratrol have potent anti-HIV-2 activity. The EC50 values for 5-azacytidine, clofarabine and resveratrol were found to be significantly lower with HIV-2 than with HIV-1. A time-of-addition...

  3. Postmortem Investigations Following Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Bychkov

    2009-04-01

    of leukemia and one case of cervical cancer. Conclusions: Tuberculosis was the most widespread among the opportunistic infections, which often had affected the entire lung and had a destructive form. In the morphological picture of tuberculous inflammation, alterative and exudative changes dominated. Moreover, HIV infection had a characteristically broad spectrum of causative agents of pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

  4. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Lanari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population.

  5. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iorio, Alfonso; Marchesini, Emanuela; Awad, Tahany;

    2010-01-01

    Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).......Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  7. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  8. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus among young prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Ataie; Zary Nokhodian; Behrooz Ataei; Nazila Kassaian; Majid Yaran; Razieh Hassannejad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Juveniles in custody are affected by sexually transmitted infections due to risky behaviors. Therefore, they have a disproportionate burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the prevalence and associated characteristics of hepatitis B and HIV infections were assessed in young prisoners. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, prevalence of HBV and HIV infections was assessed among young prisoners during 2008-2009. A che...

  9. Polyarthropathy in a cat seropositive for feline synctial-forming virus and feline immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat presented witha polyarthropathy. Indirect immunofluorescence assays revealed seropositive results for both feline synctial-forming virus (FeSFV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Direct relationships between viral infections and polyarthropathy are not confirmed, however, possible correlations are discussed. Mechanisms of lentivirus infections and polyarthropathy in the cat are reviewed in order to theorize a potential relationship among these disease processes

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tropical diseases: a Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G Morgado

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes recent findings on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/Aids, highlighting the role of co-infections with major tropical diseases. Such co-infections have been studied in the Brazilian context since the beginning of the Aids epidemic and are expected to be more frequent and relevant as the Aids epidemic in Brazil proceeds towards smaller municipalities and the countryside, where tropical diseases are endemic. Unlike opportunistic diseases that affect basically the immunocompromised host, most tropical diseases, as well as tuberculosis, are pathogenic on their own, and can affect subjects with mild or no immunossuppression. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapies (HAART, opportunistic diseases seem to be on decrease in Brazil, where such medicines are fully available. Benefiting from HAART in terms of restoration of the immune function, putative milder clinical courses are expected in the future for most co-infections, including tropical diseases. On the other hand, from an ecological perspective, the progressive geographic diffusion of Aids makes tropical diseases and tuberculosis a renewed challenge for Brazilian researchers and practitioners dealing with HIV/Aids in the coming years.

  11. Significance of blood analysis in hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shen; Qin Huang; Hong-Qing Sun; Reena Ghildyal

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of hepatitis virus infection on cirrhosis and liver function markers in HIV-infected hemophiliacs.METHODS:We have analyzed the immunological,liver function and cirrhosis markers in a cohort of hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses.RESULTS:There was no difference in immunological markers among co-infected patients and patients infected with HIV only and those co-infected with one or more hepatitis virus. Although liver function and cirrhosis markers remained within a normal range,there was a worsening trend in all patients co-infected with hepatitis virus C (HCV),which was further exacerbated in the presence of additional infection with hepatitis virus B (HBV).CONCLUSION:Co-infection with HIV,HBV and HCV leads to worsening of hyaluronic acid and liver function markers. Increases in serum hyaluronic acid may be suggestive of a predisposition to liver diseases.

  12. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  14. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by cdk inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehn-Hall Kylene

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection relies primarily on the administration of anti-retroviral nucleoside analogues, either alone or in combination with HIV-protease inhibitors. Although these drugs have a clinical benefit, continuous therapy with the drugs leads to drug-resistant strains of the virus. Recently, significant progress has been made towards the development of natural and synthetic agents that can directly inhibit HIV-1 replication or its essential enzymes. We previously reported on the pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (PCI r-roscovitine as a potential inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. PCIs are among the most promising novel antiviral agents to emerge over the past few years. Potent activity on viral replication combined with proliferation inhibition without the emergence of resistant viruses, which are normally observed in HAART patients; make PCIs ideal candidates for HIV-1 inhibition. To this end we evaluated twenty four cdk inhibitors for their effect on HIV-1 replication in vitro. Screening of these compounds identified alsterpaullone as the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 with activity at 150 nM. We found that alsterpaullone effectively inhibits cdk2 activity in HIV-1 infected cells with a low IC50 compared to control uninfected cells. The effects of alsterpaullone were associated with suppression of cdk2 and cyclin expression. Combining both alsterpaullone and r-roscovitine (cyc202 in treatment exhibited even stronger inhibitory activities in HIV-1 infected PBMCs.

  15. The Molecular Biology of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV

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    Andrew M. L. Lever

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is widespread in feline populations and causes an AIDS-like illness in domestic cats. It is highly prevalent in several endangered feline species. In domestic cats FIV infection is a valuable small animal model for HIV infection. In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in FIV, in part to exploit this, but also because of the potential it has as a human gene therapy vector. Though much less studied than HIV there are many parallels in the replication of the two viruses, but also important differences and, despite their likely common origin, the viruses have in some cases used alternative strategies to overcome similar problems. Recent advances in understanding the structure and function of FIV RNA and proteins and their interactions has enhanced our knowledge of FIV replication significantly, however, there are still many gaps. This review summarizes our current knowledge of FIV molecular biology and its similarities with, and differences from, other lentiviruses.

  16. Mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 RNA packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Na; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Dilley, Kari A;

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) has been reported to have a distinct RNA packaging mechanism, referred to as cis packaging, in which Gag proteins package the RNA from which they were translated. We examined the progeny generated from dually infected cell lines that contain two HIV-2...... proviruses, one with a wild-type gag/gag-pol and the other with a mutant gag that cannot express functional Gag/Gag-Pol. Viral titers and RNA analyses revealed that mutant viral RNAs can be packaged at efficiencies comparable to that of viral RNA from which wild-type Gag/Gag-Pol is translated. These results...... do not support the cis-packaging hypothesis but instead indicate that trans packaging is the major mechanism of HIV-2 RNA packaging. To further characterize the mechanisms of HIV-2 RNA packaging, we visualized HIV-2 RNA in individual particles by using fluorescent protein-tagged RNA-binding proteins...

  17. Cardiovascular implications from untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    particle changes (e.g. high-density lipoprotein particles). Some of these mechanisms are attenuated, though incompletely, with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related suppression of HIV replication. Exposure to ART is also associated with variable toxicity that may simultaneously decrease (via viral......Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with access to antiretroviral medications, as the risk for AIDS has fallen and life expectancy improved. Traditional CVD risk...... factors are often more common among individuals with HIV infection, and traditional prevention strategies remain important. Recent data have revealed that untreated HIV infection itself amplifies additional pro-atherogenic mechanisms related to immune activation, inflammation, coagulation, and lipoprotein...

  18. A Case of Fatal Congenital Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Uğur Hatipoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a clinical condition caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which can be transmitted either vertically or horizontally. More than 90% of children living with HIV in developing countries have been infected through mother to child transmission during pregnancy, around the time of birth, or through breastfeeding. In order to reduce the number of infected children, increasing emphasis should be placed on preventing mother to child transmission programs with the use of antiretroviral medications in the pregnant woman during pregnancy and at delivery and, starting immediately after birth for the exposed infant. Here, we present the case of a 60-day-old infant heavily immunocompromised due to an extremely high viral burden of HIV, which was acquired perinatally from an undiagnosed and untreated mother, leading to severe bronchopneumonia, sepsis, septic shock and death.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection. PMID:8067276

  20. Glanzmann thrombasthenia associated with human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Manne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glanzmann′s thrombasthenia (GT is an autosomal recessive inherited platelet function defect characterized by normal platelet count, prolonged bleeding time and abnormal clot retraction. This disease typically presents in infancy or early childhood and has proven to have very good prognosis. In this case study, a 22-year-old GT patient who also developed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection after sometime is reported. The patient showed oral manifestations of gingival hyperplasia and petechial lesions. Unfortunately the detection of both thrombasthenia and HIV were done at considerably late stages which contributed to a poor prognosis. The patient died of cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to HIV, thrombasthenia and thrombocytopenia. The importance of early detection, supportive care and communication between the general and oral physician in management of the GT is also discussed.

  1. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B;

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes...... cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....

  2. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  3. Postmortem detection of hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus genomes in blood samples from drug-related deaths in Denmark*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Kringsholm, Birgitte;

    2009-01-01

    Blood-borne viral infections are widespread among injecting drug users; however, it is difficult to include these patients in serological surveys. Therefore, we developed a national surveillance program based on postmortem testing of persons whose deaths were drug related. Blood collected...... at autopsy was tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), or anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies using commercial kits. Subsets of seropositive samples were screened for viral genomes using sensitive in-house and commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Hepatitis B....... Postmortem HIV RNA testing was less sensitive than antemortem testing. Thus, postmortem PCR analysis for HBV and HBC infection is feasible and relevant for demonstrating ongoing infections at death or for transmission analysis during outbreaks....

  4. Conflicting selective forces affect T cell receptor contacts in an immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus epitope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Astrid K N; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Learn, Gerald H;

    2006-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical for the control of human immunodeficiency virus, but containment of virus replication can be undermined by mutations in CTL epitopes that lead to virus escape. We analyzed the evolution in vivo of an immunodominant, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope and fou...

  5. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, Retno; SahBandar, Ivo N.; Theelen, Bart; Hagen, Ferry; Poot, Ge; Meis, Jacques F.; Rozalyani, Anna; Sjam, Ridhawati; Widodo, Djoko; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Boekhout, Teun

    2008-01-01

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavueonazole and wa

  6. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.

  7. Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 RNA packageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckwahl, Matthew J; Arnion, Helene; Kharytonchyk, Siarhei; Zang, Trinity; Bieniasz, Paul D; Telesnitsky, Alice; Wolin, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    All retroviruses package cellular RNAs into virions. Studies of murine leukemia virus (MLV) revealed that the major host cell RNAs encapsidated by this simple retrovirus were LTR retrotransposons and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Several classes of ncRNAs appeared to be packaged by MLV shortly after synthesis, as precursors to tRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs were all enriched in virions. To determine the extent to which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) packages similar RNAs, we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the RNAs within infectious HIV-1 virions produced in CEM-SS T lymphoblastoid cells. We report that the most abundant cellular RNAs in HIV-1 virions are 7SL RNA and transcripts from numerous divergent and truncated members of the long interspersed element (LINE) and short interspersed element (SINE) families of retrotransposons. We also detected precursors to several tRNAs and small nuclear RNAs as well as transcripts derived from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacers. We show that packaging of a pre-tRNA requires the nuclear export receptor Exportin 5, indicating that HIV-1 recruits at least some newly made ncRNAs in the cytoplasm. Together, our work identifies the set of RNAs packaged by HIV-1 and reveals that early steps in HIV-1 assembly intersect with host cell ncRNA biogenesis pathways. PMID:27247436

  8. BK virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J; Muñoz, P; Garcia de Viedma, D; Cabrero, I; Loeches, B; Montilla, P; Gijon, P; Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Bouza, E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BK virus (BKV) infection in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital. The presence of BKV was analysed in urine and plasma samples from 78 non-selected HIV-infected patients. Clinical data were recorded using a pre-established protocol. We used a nested PCR to amplify a specific region of the BKV T-large antigen. Positive samples were quantified using real-time PCR. Mean CD4 count in HIV-infected patients was 472 cells/mm3 and median HIV viral load was 500 cells/mm3 (74.3% vs 25.7%; p=0.007). Viruria was present in 21.7% of healthy controls (5 out of 23 samples, p=0.02). All viral loads were low (<100 copies/mL), and we could not find any association between BKV infection and renal or neurological manifestations. We provide an update on the prevalence of BKV in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. BKV viruria was more common in HIV-infected patients; however, no role for BKV has been demonstrated in this population.

  9. Functional contribution of cysteine residues to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope.

    OpenAIRE

    Tschachler, E; Buchow, H; Gallo, R C; Reitz, M S

    1990-01-01

    Although the envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shows considerable strain variability, cysteine residues of the envelope protein are strongly conserved, suggesting that they are important to the envelope structure. We constructed and analyzed mutants of a biologically active molecular clone of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in which different cysteines were replaced by other amino acids in order to determine their functional importance. Substitution of cysteines 296 and...

  10. Amplification of a Complete Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Genome from Fecal RNA of a Wild Chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, ML; Bibollet-Ruche, F.; Bailes, E; Kamenya, S; Muller, MN; Lukasik, M; Pusey, AE; Collins, DA; Wrangham, RW; Goodall, J.; Shaw, GM; Sharp, PM; Hahn, BH

    2003-01-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) infection of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is incomplete since few isolates, mostly from captive apes from Cameroon and Gabon, have been characterized; yet this information is critical for understanding the origins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the circumstances leading to the HIV-1 pandemic. Here, we report the first full-length SIVcpz sequence (TAN1) from a wild chimpanzee (Pan tro...

  11. Current human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and its response in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Lai-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The first patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was identified in 1985; since then, as of October 31, 2010, a total accumulative number of 370 000 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS have been reported. The estimated number of patients living with HIV (PLHIV) in China was 740 000 in 2009. Although China is still a low-HIV prevalence region (rate of 0.057%), the epidemic has spread more widely from the high-risk groups to the general population. This paper covers five topics of importance, i.e., current trends of the HIV epidemic; HIV-1 subtype diversity; emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR); the country's response to the disease; and future challenges and additional actions needed. This paper emphasizes sexual transmission as the predominant route of transmission and it being spread more frequently among men who have sex with men; the epidemic being concentrated over particular areas in China. We also discuss the fact that diverse HIV-1 subtypes have been found throughout the entire country and that recombinant subtypes became predominant. We also explore other topics such as the possibility of HIVDR, including primary and secondary resistance, with the use of free highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART); the integrated strategy of HIVDR surveillance and individual clinical HIVDR testing as a new attempt in China. For many years both policy-makers and professionals (including non-governmental organizations) have expressed strong commitment to prevention, control, and care of HIV/sexual transmission infection (STI), promoted the research and conducted different actions to slow the rising trend of the HIV epidemics. Although China is facing many challenges, its citizens need to be persistent on continuing the campaign of the State Council titled "Information of Strengthening Work on Prevention and Control of AIDS".

  12. The regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1996-09-15

    Despite 15 years of intensive research we still do not have an effective treatment for AIDS, the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent research is, however, revealing some of the secrets of the replication cycle of this complex retrovirus, and this may lead to the development of novel antiviral compounds. In particular the virus uses strategies for gene expression that seem to be unique in the eukaryotic world. These involve the use of virally encoded regulatory proteins that mediate their effects through interactions with specific viral target sequences present in the messenger RNA rather than in the proviral DNA. If there are no cellular counterparts of these RNA-dependent gene-regulation pathways then they offer excellent targets for the development of antiviral compounds. The viral promoter is also subject to complex regulation by combinations of cellular factors that may be functional in different cell types and at different cell states. Selective interference of specific cellular factors may also provide a route to inhibiting viral replication without disrupting normal cellular functions. The aim of this review is to discuss the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression and, as far as it is possible, to relate the observations to viral pathogenesis. Some areas of research into the regulation of HIV-1 replication have generated controversy and rather than rehearsing this controversy we have imposed our own bias on the field. To redress the balance and to give a broader view of HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis we refer you to a number of excellent reviews [Cullen, B. R. (1992) Microbiol. Rev. 56, 375-394; Levy, J. A. (1993) Microbiol. Rev. 57, 183-394; Antoni, B. A., Stein, S. & Rabson, A. B. (1994) Adv. Virus Res. 43, 53-145; Rosen, C. A. & Fenyoe, E. M. (1995) AIDS (Phila.) 9, S1-S3]. PMID:8856047

  13. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  14. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    OpenAIRE

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock follo...

  15. [Antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infection: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, F; Goujard, C

    2009-06-01

    Since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, the care of infected patients improved dramatically. Whereas the disease was almost always fatal, the development of new drugs and new therapeutic strategies now allow a prolonged survival. However, the complexity of patient care is increasing and physicians face new clinical events and treatment toxicities. Recent molecules and follow-up according to the recent French recommendations will be presented here. The objectives of the treatment is to decrease mortality and morbidity of the HIV infection, by restoring near normal CD4+ T cell counts and qualitative T CD4+ responses, associated with a sustained reduction in viral replication. This objective must be reached by minimizing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs. Newly developed drugs that are better-tolerated and new therapeutic classes should improve outcome at all stages of HIV infection. Whereas viral eradication remains unrealistic and protective vaccines will not be soon available, direct consequences of long term HIV infection and issues related to an ageing HIV infected population raise up new research topics. Prevention of new infections, improvement in the precocity of care by a better-targeted screening and assessment of therapy before an established immune deficiency appear as the main priorities for the coming years. PMID:19237230

  16. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus - associated lymphomas: A neglected domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Taterao Sirsath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV associated lymphoma is an important public health concern; however, the epidemiological data available from India is sparse. Aims: The present study was carried out at a tertiary cancer care center in South India to analyze the scenario of HIV-associated lymphoma. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at our center, on consecutive patients diagnosed with HIV-associated lymphoma, from January 2008 to December 2012. Results: A total of 44 patients were diagnosed with HIV-associated lymphoma, of which 18 opted for treatment. There were 11 males and 7 females in the study population. Median interval from the diagnosis of HIV infection to diagnosis of lymphoma was 18 months. Median CD4 count at the time of lymphoma diagnosis was 218/mm 3 . Five patients had Hodgkin′s lymphoma, and the rest had non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. Five out of 18 (28% patients in the present study expired during treatment. Ten (55.5% patients are alive and lymphoma free, with a median follow up of 18 months. Conclusions: More than half of our treated patients are lymphoma free with a median follow up of 18 months; hence treatment of patients with HIV-associated lymphoma should be encouraged.

  18. Syphilis, leprosy, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: a challenging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Claudia Fd; Bornhausen-Demarch, Eduardo; Prata, Aline G; de Andrade, Felipe C; Fernandes, Mariana P; Lopes, Marcia Ra; Nery, José Ac

    2013-08-01

    The association between syphilis, leprosy, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well documented, and the emergence of isolated cases raises the interest and indicates that this triple coinfection can occur. We report the case of a 42-year-old man from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with erythematous papules on the trunk, back, and upper and lower extremities; an erythematous plaque on the upper abdomen; and an erythematous violaceous plaque on the right thigh with altered sensitivity. Laboratory investigation showed a reagent VDRL test (1:512) and positive test results for Treponema pallidum hemagglutination. Treatment with benzathine penicillin (2,400,000 U intramuscularly) was started (2 doses 1 week apart). On follow-up 40 days later, the lesions showed partial improvement with persistence of the plaques on the right thigh and upper abdomen as well as a new similar plaque on the back. Further laboratory examinations showed negative bacilloscopy, positive HIV test, and histologic findings consistent with tuberculoid leprosy. The patient was started on multidrug therapy for paucibacillary leprosy with clinical improvement; the patient also was monitored by the HIV/AIDS department. We emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion for a coinfection case despite the polymorphism of these diseases as well as the precise interpretation of laboratory and histopathology examinations to correctly manage atypical cases. PMID:24087779

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Neural Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovich, Therese A.; Lazar, Eliot; Blumberg, Benjamin M.; Saito, Yoshihiro; Eskin, Thomas A.; Reichman, Richard; Baram, David A.; del Cerro, Coca; Gendelman, Howard E.; del Cerro, Manuel; Epstein, Leon G.

    1992-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain.

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...... HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period...... for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus...

  1. Hepatitis B and C Viruses Infections and Their Association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Cross-Sectional Study among Blood Donors in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yami, Alemeshet; Alemseged, Fissehaye; Hassen, Alima

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy and the dramatic improvement in the prognosis of individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, liver disease due to chronic viral hepatitis has become as important cause of morbidity and mortality in co-infected individuals. The objective of the study was to determine the Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the association of the virus with Hepatitis B Virus and...

  2. Hepatitis B virus/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection:interaction among human immunodeficiency virus infection,chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and host immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-jia; WANG Huan-ling; LI Tai-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective This review discusses progress in the studies of hepatitis B virus (HBV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection and focuses on the interaction among HIV infection,chronic HBV infection,and host immunity.Data sources Data and studies published mainly from 2008 to 2011 were selected using PubMed.Study selection Original articles and critical reviews concerning HBV/HIV coinfection and HBV and HIV pathogenesis were selected.Results HIV may accelerate HBV progression by lowering CD4 count,weakening HBV-specific immunity,“enriching”HBV mutants,causing immune activation,etc.On the other hand,HBV may enhance HIV replication by activating HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) with X protein (HBX) and cause immune activation in synergy with HIV.Paradoxically,HBV may also inhibit HIV dissemination via dendritic cells.Conclusions The interaction among HIV,HBV,and host immunity remains poorly understood.Further research is warranted to elucidate the detailed molecular mechanisms and to translate these mechanisms into clinical practice.

  3. Chemical inactivation of recombinant vaccinia viruses and the effects on antigenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); S.G. Norley (Stephen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe efficiency of paraformaldehyde (PFA) and binary ethylenimine (BEI) in inactivating recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV), present in baby hamster kidney cells expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (SIV-Env), was measured in a series of inactivation studies. Both

  4. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists' arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsironi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. PMID:26056460

  5. A Web-Based System To Enchance The Management Of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbelusi Olutola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a global disease, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is arguably the greatest health problem of this age and there is need to make first class information on the management of HIV/AIDS available through the use of Web-Based Technology. This paper examined the various ways of contacting HIV and the effort made by Information and Technology to make life easier for people living with the virus in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to Doctors and people living with HIV/AIDS to access their knowledge and belief about the said disease. MySQL was used to generate the database, to store all the vital information about the patients, their Doctors and their complaints. PHP programming for the implementation of the interfaces, Dreamweaver HTML for the design of the web-based application, T-test and Microsoft Excel were used for the analysis of data collected. The study looked into the occupation, age range and the marital status of different categories of people living with the virus. It was discovered that there were quite large numbers of people who are living with the virus.

  6. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Group B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Giovanetti, Marta; Veo, Carla; Lai, Alessia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciotti, Marco; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infections are mainly restricted to West Africa; however, in the recent years, the prevalence of HIV-2 is a growing concern in some European countries and the Southwestern region of India. Despite the presence of different HIV-2 groups, only A and B Groups have established human-to-human transmission chains. Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the phylogeographic inference of HIV-2 Group B worldwide to estimate their data of origin and the population dynamics. Materials and Methods: The evolutionary rates, the demographic history for HIV-2 Group B dataset, and the phylogeographic analysis were estimated using a Bayesian approach. The viral gene flow analysis was used to count viral gene out/in flow among different locations. Results: The root of the Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree of HIV-2 Group B dated back to 1957. The demographic history of HIV-2 Group B showed that the epidemic remained constant up to 1970 when started an exponential growth. From 1985 to early 2000s, the epidemic reached a plateau, and then it was characterized by two bottlenecks and a new plateau at the end of 2000s. Phylogeographic reconstruction showed that the most probable location for the root of the tree was Ghana. Regarding the viral gene flow of HIV-2 Group B, the only observed viral gene flow was from Africa to France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Conclusions: The study gives insights into the origin, history, and phylogeography of HIV-2 Group B epidemic. The growing number of infections of HIV-2 worldwide indicates the need for strengthening surveillance.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Prevalence of MetS was compared in patients who were not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART to patients who were on HAART. Materials and Methods: Seventy HIV positive cases were studied. Pregnant and lactating women, patients on drugs other than HAART known to cause metabolic abnormalities and those having diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Cases were evaluated for MetS by using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III. Results: 47 cases were on HAART and 23 cases were not on HAART. Fasting Blood Glucose ≥100 mg/dl was present in 28.6% cases, out of whom 27.7% were on HAART and 30.4% were not on HAART (P = 0.8089. 12.9% cases had BP ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, out of whom 14.9% were on HAART and 8.7% were not on HAART (P = 0.4666. 42.9% cases had TG ≥150 mg/dl, out of whom 44.7% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.6894. HDL cholesterol was low (males <40 mg/dl, females <50 mg/dl in 50% cases, out of whom 55.3% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.2035. Conclusions: Prevalence of MetS was 20%. Majority of patients had only one component of MetS (32.9%. Low HDL was present in 50%, followed by raised triglycerides in 42.9%. Waist circumference was not increased in any of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between those on HAART and those not on HAART in distribution of risk factors and individual components of MetS.

  9. Declined Neural Efficiency in Cognitively Stable Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Thomas; Yakupov, Renat; Nakama, Helenna; Crocket, Grace; Cole, Michael; Watters, Michael; Ricardo-Dukelow, Mary Lynn; Chang, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether brain activation changes in clinically and neurocognitively normal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and in HIV-seronegative control (SN) participants over a 1-year period. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 32 SN and 31 HIV patients (all with stable combination antiretroviral treatment) at baseline and after 1 year. Each participant performed a set of visual attention tasks with increasing attentional load (from tracking two, three, or four balls). All HIV and SN participants had normal neuropsychological function at both examinations. Results Over 1 year, HIV patients showed no change in their neurocognitive status or in task performance during fMRI. However, HIV patients showed significant 1-year increases in fMRI signals in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices for the more difficult tasks, whereas SN control participants showed only decreases in brain activation in these regions. This resulted in significant interactions between HIV status and time of study in left insula, left parietal, left temporal, and several frontal regions (left and right middle frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate). Interpretation Because fMRI task performance remained unchanged in both groups, the HIV patients appeared to maintain performance by increasing usage of the attention network, whereas the control participants reduced usage of the attention network after 1 year. These findings suggest improved efficiency or a practice effect in the SN participants but declined efficiency of the neural substrate in HIV patients, possibly because of ongoing brain injury associated with the HIV infection, despite their apparent stable clinical course. PMID:19334060

  10. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  11. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  12. 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, J.; Walker, M. C.; Leclerc, J M; Lapointe, N; Beaulieu, R.; Thibodeau, L

    1990-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents which affect the integration, stability, or inducibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus would have considerable value in treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Two nucleoside analogs of cytosine, 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine, which seem to have such value because of their capabilities to affect both the stability and the methylation patterns of the nucleic acids into which they are incorporated, were tested for their ability to inhibit...

  13. A study on Global Human-Immunodeficiency Virus and its Effect in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Jamal; Mohajan, Haradhan; Moolio, Pahlaj; Peter, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and situation of this disease in Bangladesh. The disease is alarming in poorer areas as like Africa, Latin America, Caribbean islands and some parts of Asia. This paper aware the people who have very few knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Due to ignorance of people, HIV/AIDS is spreading to the developing countries. An attempt is taken here to show the world about the discrimination to the societi...

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in prisoners in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Ziglam, Hisham; Zorgani, Abdel-Aziz; Balouz, Ahmed; Abudher, Abdel Hafidh; Elahmer, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Prison inmates are reported to exhibit higher rates of disease morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization than the general population. The rates of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reported to be particularly elevated in prison. This excess is largely attributed to the high concentration of inmates with a history of injection drug use.(Published: 18 December 2012)Citation: Libyan J Med 2012, 7: 1971...

  15. Outcomes and management of viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Congly, Stephen E; Doucette, Karen E; Coffin, Carla S

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with viral hepatitis co-infection is increasingly offered in many North American and European liver transplant centers. Prior studies have demonstrated acceptable post-transplant outcomes and no increased risk of HIV complications in patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, liver transplantation in HIV positive patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has poorer outcomes overall, requiring careful s...

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase: effect on viral replication of mutations at highly conserved residues.

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, P M; Wilson, W; Byles, E; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1994-01-01

    Sequence comparisons of the integrase (IN) proteins from different retroviruses have identified several highly conserved residues. We have introduced mutations at 16 of these sites into the integrase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and analyzed the phenotypes of the resulting viruses. The viruses were all normal for p24 content and reverse transcriptase activity. In addition, all of the mutants could infect T-cell lines and undergo reverse transcription, as assessed by PCR analysi...

  17. Identification of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoprotein Variant Resistant to Cold Inactivation▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Aemro; Finzi, Andrés; Pancera, Marie; Courter, Joel R.; Amos B Smith; Sodroski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein trimer consists of gp120 and gp41 subunits and undergoes a series of conformational changes upon binding to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, that promote virus entry. Surprisingly, we found that the envelope glycoproteins of some HIV-1 strains are functionally inactivated by prolonged incubation on ice. Serial exposure of HIV-1 to extremes of temperature, followed by expansion of replication-competent viruses, allowed sel...

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cloning Vectors for Antiretroviral Resistance Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Sutton, Lorraine; De Pasquale, Maria Pia; Savara, Anu V.; D’Aquila, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Better detection of minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) populations containing gene mutations may improve the usefulness of antiretroviral resistance testing for clinical management. Molecular cloning of HIV-1 PCR products which might improve minority detection can be slow and difficult, and commercially available recombinant virus assays test drug susceptibility of virus pools. We describe novel plasmids and simple methods for rapid cloning of HIV-1 PCR products from patient...

  19. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive North Indian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swati Gupta; Sarman Singh

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi,India.METHODS:Serum samples from 451 HIV positive patients were analyzed for HBsAg and HCV antibodies during three years (Jan 2003-Dec 2005). The control group comprised of apparently healthy bone-marrow and renal donors.RESULTS:The study population comprised essentially of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in this population was 5.3% as compared to 1.4% in apparently healthy donors (P < 0.001).Though prevalence of HCV co-infection (2.43%) was lower than HBV in this group of HIV positive patients,the prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than controls (0.7%). Triple infection of HIV, HBV and HCV was not detected in any patient.CONCLUSION:Our study shows a significantly high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in HIV infected patients. Hepatitis viruses in HIV may lead to faster progression to liver cirrhosis and a higher risk of antiretroviral therapy induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore,it would be advisable to detect hepatitis virus coinfections in these patients at the earliest.

  20. Hepatitis B virus exposure in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive Cuban patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licel Rodríguez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the prevalence of serological markers of exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, 295 subjects were selected at random from the National Registry of human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects. Evidence of exposure to HBV was defined as: testing Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive or anti-HBc positive only. Overall, 133 (45.5% were positive for anti-HBc and 15 (5.1% resulted positive to HBsAg. Significant statistical association was found between male sex and exposure to HBV (p<0.01. Homosexual or bisexual behavior was found to be strongly associated to HBV exposure (p<0.001. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV serological markers is higher in Cuban HIV positive subjects compared to the Cuban general population.

  1. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Course Is Predicted by the Extent of Virus Replication during Primary Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staprans, Silvija I.; Dailey, Peter J.; Rosenthal, Ann; Horton, Chris; Grant, Robert M.; Lerche, Nicholas; Feinberg, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between early viral infection events and immunodeficiency virus disease progression, quantitative-competitive and branched-DNA methods of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA quantitation were cross-validated and used to measure viremia following infection of rhesus macaques with the pathogenic SIVmac251 virus isolate. Excellent correlation between the methods suggests that both accurately approximate SIV copy number. Plasma viremia was evident 4 days postinfection, and rapid viral expansion led to peak viremia levels of 107 to 109 SIV RNA copies/ml by days 8 to 17. Limited resolution of primary viremia was accompanied by relatively short, though variable, times to the development of AIDS (81 to 630 days). The persistent high-level viremia observed following intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 explains the aggressive disease course in this model. Survival analyses demonstrated that the disease course is established 8 to 17 days postinfection, when peak viremia is observed. The most significant predictor of disease progression was the extent of viral decline following peak viremia; larger decrements in viremia were associated with both lower steady-state viremia (P = 0.0005) and a reduced hazard of AIDS (P = 0.004). The data also unexpectedly suggested that following SIVmac251 infection, animals with the highest peak viremia were better able to control virus replication rather than more rapidly developing disease. Analysis of early viral replication dynamics should help define host responses that protect from disease progression and should provide quantitative measures to assess the extent to which protective responses may be induced by prophylactic vaccination. PMID:10233944

  2. Resistance of previously infected chimpanzees to successive challenges with a heterologous intraclade B strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C.; Cho, M W; Arthur, L. O.; Nigida, S M; Matthews, T; Sawyer, L A; Schultz, A.; Murthy, K K; Israel, Z; Javadian, A; Frost, P.; Kennedy, R C; Lane, H C; Martin, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    To test whether the protective effects of attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques were applicable to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-chimpanzee system, two groups of animals, previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) or HIV-1(SF2) were each challenged with a heterologous clade B virus, HIV-1(DH12). Following challenge, the parameters measured included virus isolation (from plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymph node tissue); quantitative DNA PCR...

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Gontán Quintana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.

  4. Inhibition of simian immunodeficiency virus by foamy virus vectors expressing siRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viral vectors available for gene therapy are either inefficient or suffer from safety concerns for human applications. Foamy viruses are non-pathogenic retroviruses that offer several unique opportunities for gene transfer in various cell types from different species. In this report, we describe the use of simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1) vector to examine the efficacy of therapeutic genes. Hairpin short-interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) rev/env was placed under the control of the PolIII U6 snRNA promoter for expression and screened for silencing target genes using cognate target-reporter fusions. We have identified an effective siRNA (designated R2) which reduces the rev and env gene expression by 89% and 95%, respectively. Using the simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1) based vector, we delivered the PolIII expressed R2 siRNA into cultured cells and challenged with SIV. The results show that the R2 siRNA is a potent inhibitor of SIV replication as determined by p27 expression and reverse transcriptase assays. Vectors based on a non-pathogenic SFV-1 vector may provide a safe and efficient alternative to currently available vectors, and the SIV model will help devise protocols for effective anti-HIV gene therapy

  5. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Samuel S; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S; van Seggelen, Wouter O; Gillies, Robert D; Foster, Andrew L; Barbati, Zachary R; Smith, Davey M; Fierer, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    Background.  The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods.  We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results.  Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions.  One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  6. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  7. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fischer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.

  8. Intracellular proteins of feline immunodeficiency virus and their antigenic relationship with equine infectious anaemia virus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberink, H F; Ederveen, J; Montelaro, R C; Pedersen, N C; Horzinek, M C; Koolen, M J

    1990-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) grown in cat lymphocyte and thymocyte cultures was labelled with L-[35S]methionine or [3H]glucosamine and virus-coded proteins were identified using immunoprecipitation. Polypeptides with apparent Mr values of 15K, 24K, 43K, 50K, 120K and 160K were detected. An additional polypeptide of 10K was detected by Western blot analysis. The two highest Mr species sometimes appeared as one band, of which only the 120K polypeptide was glycosylated. In the presence of tunicamycin gp120 was no longer detectable and a non-glycosylated precursor of 75K was found instead. Pulse-chase experiments suggested that the smaller polypeptides p24 and p15 are cleavage products of both p160 and p50. Western blot analysis using a rabbit serum directed against p26 of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) and an anti-EIAV horse serum from a field case of infection revealed a cross-reactivity with p24 of FIV. Cat sera collected late after experimental FIV infection recognized p26 of EIAV, indicating a reciprocal cross-reactivity. PMID:1690264

  9. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G H; McKim, K D; Cooley, P L; Dice, P F; Russell, R G; Grant, C K

    1989-01-15

    Lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. Despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. Microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. Abnormal jaw movements that were believed to be indicative of neurologic disease were observed. Approximately 17 months later, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral renomegaly. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and glomerulonephritis were diagnosed histologically. Manganese- and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity were detected in supernatants from lymph node and spleen mononuclear cell cultures, suggesting T-lymphocyte infection with FeLV and FIV. PMID:2537274

  10. Susceptibility of Rat-Derived Cells to Replication by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Keppler, Oliver T.; Yonemoto, Wesley; Welte, Frank J.; Patton, Kathryn S.; Iacovides, Demetris; Atchison, Robert E.; Ngo, Tuan; Hirschberg, David L.; Roberto F Speck; Goldsmith, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in developing a small animal model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease would greatly facilitate studies of transmission, pathogenesis, host immune responses, and antiviral strategies. In this study, we have explored the potential of rats as a susceptible host. In a single replication cycle, rat cell lines Rat2 and Nb2 produced infectious virus at levels 10- to 60-fold lower than those produced by human cells. Rat-derived cells supported substantial levels of early ...

  11. Genetic and phylogenetic divergence of feline immunodeficiency virus in the puma (Puma concolor).

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, M.A.; Brown, E. W.; Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Brousset, D; O'Brien, S J

    1996-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus which causes an AIDS-like disease in domestic cats (Felis catus). A number of other felid species, including the puma (Puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat FIV. Serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to FIV in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. FIV-Pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in th...

  12. Parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Human Cervical Tissue and Inhibition by Vaginal Virucides

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhead, Peter; Hayes, Peter; Watts, Patricia S.; Laing, Ken G.; Griffin, George E.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2000-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most frequent mode of infection worldwide. However, the immediate events between exposure to infectious virus and establishment of infection are still poorly understood. This study investigates parameters of HIV infection of human female genital tissue in vitro using an explant culture model. In particular, we investigated the role of the epithelium and virucidal agents in protection against HIV infection. We have demonstr...

  13. Hepatitis C Screening in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Lessons Learned From Syphilis Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Chen, Daniel D.; Fitzpatrick, Rosemary E.; Grasberger, Paula E.; Kirshner, Caleb H.; Anderson, Jordan E.; Chui, Kenneth K. H.; Knox, Tamsin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). New guidelines recommend annual screening for HCV, similar to recommendations for syphilis screening with rapid plasma reagin (RPR). Methods.  This study compares the frequency of repeat HCV antibody (Ab) testing to repeat RPR testing in a retrospective chart review of 359 HCVAb-negative people living with HIV (PLWH) observed in an Infec...

  14. Selection of High-Level Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Terri; Resch, Wolfgang; Irlbeck, David; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Protease inhibitors represent some of the most potent agents available for therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Under certain circumstances the virus develops resistance to the inhibitor, thereby negating the benefits of this therapy. We have carried out selections for high-level resistance to each of three protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) in cell culture. Mutations accumulated over most of the course of ...

  15. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C;

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N...

  16. Association of human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression with human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M J; Stanley, M W; Cruikshank, S; Carson, L

    1989-02-01

    Human papillomavirus infection plays an important causal role in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. The rate of infection with human papillomavirus as well as the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma are increased in immunosuppressed patients. We report a possible association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with human papillomavirus infection.

  17. SIVdrl detection in captive mandrills: are mandrills infected with a third strain of simian immunodeficiency virus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. van der Kuyl (Antoinette); R. van den Burg (Remco); M.J. Hoyer (Mark); R.A. Gruters (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Berkhout (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These captivity-born mandrills had never been in contact with drill monkeys, and we

  18. Improvement of lymphocyte proliferation in human immunodeficiency virus infection after recombinant interleukin-2 treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the effect of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was examined. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an impaired ability of PBMC from 8 patients to respond upon...

  19. In Vitro Phenotypic Susceptibility of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Clinical Isolates to Protease Inhibitors▿

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Delphine; Roquebert, Bénédicte; Peytavin, Gilles; Damond, Florence; Collin, Gilles; Bénard, Antoine; Campa, Pauline; Matheron, Sophie; Chêne, Geneviève; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Descamps, Diane; Anrs Hiv-2 Cohort, French

    2008-01-01

    We determine phenotypic susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates to amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir. Saquinavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are potent against wild-type HIV-2 isolates and should be preferred as first-line options for HIV-2-infected patients. Other protease inhibitors are less active against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

  20. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Associated Risk Factors in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Olivia; Wu, Qishan; Ickes, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study documents the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in a sample of college students and examines associated demographic and behavioral characteristics. Participants: College students aged 18 or older were randomly selected to participate in a health behavior survey at a southeastern university in September…

  1. Improvement of lymphocyte proliferation in human immunodeficiency virus infection after recombinant interleukin-2 treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the effect of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was examined. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an impaired ability of PBMC from 8 patients to respond upon mi...

  2. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Braunstein; C.M. Ingabire; E. Kestelyn; A.U. Uwizera; L. Mwamarangwe; J. Ntirushwa; D. Nash; N.J. Veldhuijzen; A. Nel; J. Vyankandondera; J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  3. A determinant of feline immunodeficiency virus involved in Crandell feline kidney cell tropism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); J.A. Karlas (Jos); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.L. Bosch (Marnix)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractViral progeny of the molecular clone 19k1 of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) can infect feline T-cells but not Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells. In contrast, the biological isolate FIV-AM6c, which was CrFK adapted by co-cultivation of FIV-AM6 infected thymocytes with CrFK cells, c

  4. Normal T-cell telomerase activity and upregulation in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, KC; Otto, SA; Wisman, GBA; Fleury, S; Reiss, P; ten Kate, RW; van der Zee, AGJ; Miedema, F

    1999-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, decrease of telomere length is mainly found in CD8(+) T cells and not in CD4(+) T cells. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that can synthesize telomeric sequence onto chromosomal ends, can compensate for telomere loss. Here, we investigated if

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and inter-arm blood pressure difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between cardiovascular risk factors and inter-arm blood pressure difference(IAD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection,and to confirm as to whether HIV infection promotes atherosclerosis. Methods 41 HAART-naive HIV infected-patients and 43 healthy people were

  6. Serial MR evaluations of human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of the progression of neurologic and neuropsy chological dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive homosexual men in order to define the natural history of this disease. Markers predictive of disease progression are discussed. Experimental methods and materials are included and results are assessed

  7. Isolation of Mycoplasma species from bronchoalveolar lavages of patients positive and negative for human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Teel, L D; Finelli, M R; Johnson, S C

    1994-01-01

    The rates of isolation of Mycoplasma species from bronchoalveolar lavages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and HIV-negative patients were compared. Mycoplasma species were more frequently isolated from HIV-positive patients. In most cases, a known pulmonary pathogen was also identified. All samples tested negative for Mycoplasma fermentans by PCR.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  9. Epidemiological profiles of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections in Malian women: Risk factors and relevance of disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Bouare, N; Gothot, André; Delwaide, Jean; Bontems, Sébastien; Vaira, Dolorès; Seidel, Laurence; Gerard, P.; Gerard, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To document the epidemiologic patterns and risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Mali in order to develop prevention means for both diseases. METHODS: Two prospective studies were conducted in Bamako in 2009 among 1000 pregnant women (i.e. , young women) who consulted six reference health centers, and in 2010, among 231 older women who attended general practice in two hospitals. Antibody tests and molecular...

  10. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection. PMID:27515208

  11. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, K; Lutz, H

    1992-02-01

    Serum samples from 224 Norwegian cats were analyzed for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27 common core antigen, and for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Ninety specimens originated from the serum bank at the central referral clinic at the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, which had been collected during the years 1983-1989; 67 sera were submitted from veterinarian practitioners; while 67 sera originated from cats presented for euthanasia. The cats were classified into one "healthy" and one "sick" group. Only 2.2% of sick cats and 1.2% of healthy cats showed FeLV antigenemia, a finding which is lower than which has been reported from many other countries. The prevalence of FIV antibodies was 10.1% in sick cats and 5.9% in healthy cats. Antibodies to FIV was most prevalent in male cats (14.7%) than in female cats (2.1%), and more prevalent among domestic cats (12.0%) compared to pedigree cats (2.4%). Antibodies to FIV in the cats demonstrated increasing prevalence with increasing age. It may be concluded that FeLV causes minor problems in Norwegian cats, while FIV is present in a similar prevalence to what is reported from other countries. PMID:1316024

  12. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus among young prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ataie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juveniles in custody are affected by sexually transmitted infections due to risky behaviors. Therefore, they have a disproportionate burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In this study, the prevalence and associated characteristics of hepatitis B and HIV infections were assessed in young prisoners. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, prevalence of HBV and HIV infections was assessed among young prisoners during 2008-2009. A checklist consisting of demographic, social, and risk factors was filled out and blood was drawn for their tests. Sera were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag, hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs Ab, hepatitis B core antibody (HBc Ab and HIV Ab, and Western blot test was performed on antibody-positive HIV. Results: A total number of 160 young prisoners (147 boys and 13 girls were evaluated. The mean age of the subjects was 16.59 ± 1.24 year. HBs Ag, HBc Ab, HBs Ab, and HIV Ab were detected in 1 (0.63%, 1 (0.63%, 52 (32.5%, and 1 (0.63%, respectively. Conclusion: With respect to national vaccination program against HBV infection, the juvenile prisoners had low prevalence of HBs Ab.

  13. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Mason, Andrew; Luftig, Ronald B; Bautista, Abraham P

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 400,000 individuals in the United States are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is likely that almost one in two of these subjects consumes alcohol. The majority of these patients suffer an accelerated course of liver disease as manifested by the onset of cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years of developing HCV infection, as well as an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is thought that chronic alcohol abuse mediates liver damage as a result of increased production of free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. In the setting of chronic HCV infection, alcohol ingestion has an additional effect of diminishing immune clearance and increasing viral burden to hasten the onset of cirrhosis and HCC. Likewise, chronic HCV and HIV-1 co-infection results in a net increase in HCV burden; higher prevalence rates of HCV transmission to sexual partners and offspring, as well as an accelerated progression to end stage liver disease as compared to individuals with HCV infection alone. Thus, the synergistic effects of alcohol abuse and HIV-1 greatly impact on the morbidity and mortality for patients with HCV coinfection. Ultimately, this cumulative disease process will require far more aggressive management with abstinence and counseling for alcohol abuse; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection and combination anti-viral therapy for HCV infection to stem the rapid progression to end stage liver disease. PMID:12086918

  14. Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: Diagnostic methods and clinical impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caterina; Sagnelli; Salvatore; Martini; Mariantonietta; Pisaturo; Giuseppe; Pasquale; Margherita; Macera; Rosa; Zampino; Nicola; Coppola; Evangelista; Sagnelli

    2015-01-01

    Several non-invasive surrogate methods have recently challenged the main role of liver biopsy in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus(HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, applied to avoid the well-known side effects of liver puncture. Serological tests involve the determination of biochemical markers of synthesis or degradation of fibrosis, tests not readily available in clinical practice, or combinations of routine tests used in chronic hepatitis and HIV/HCV coinfection. Several radiologic techniques have also been proposed, some of which commonly used in clinical practice. The studies performed to compare the prognostic value of noninvasive surrogate methods with that of the degree of liver fibrosis assessed on liver tissue have not as yet provided conclusive results. Each surrogate technique has shown some limitations, including the risk of over- or under-estimating the extent of liver fibrosis. The current knowledge on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCVcoinfected patients will be summarized in this review article, which is addressed in particular to physicians involved in this setting in their clinical practice.

  15. Behavioral surveillance survey regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among high school and junior college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is necessary to know the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among young people and the changes in these with intervention to guide prevention efforts. Methods: A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey with health education as a method of intervention was carried out in four different randomly selected schools and junior colleges among the Class IX-XII students of both sex. Instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS in their best practice recommendations was used for data collection. Results: Knowledge about all correct methods was present in 61.23% of the respondents. Knowledge of at least two methods of prevention was present in 70.31% of the respondents. Misconceptions about prevention were that good diet (33.42%, avoiding mosquito bite (49.71% and avoiding public toilets (65.14% could help in the prevention. With intervention, there was an improvement in the knowledge. However, the proportion of students with misconceptions did not come down. Correct knowledge about two methods of prevention also did not reach the WHO recommendation of 90%. Conclusion: It is very difficult to change the attitude and practices by a single health educational intervention and an ongoing behavior change communication is recommended.

  16. Effect of CD8+ Lymphocyte Depletion on Virus Containment after Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Challenge of Live Attenuated SIVmac239Δ3-Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jörn E.; Johnson, R. Paul; McClure, Harold M.; Manson, Kelledy H.; Wyand, Michael S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Khunkhun, Rajinder S.; McEvers, Kimberly J.; Gillis, Jacqueline; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Grosschupff, Gudrun; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara

    2005-01-01

    Although live attenuated vaccines can provide potent protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenges, the specific immune responses that confer this protection have not been determined. To test whether cellular immune responses mediated by CD8+ lymphocytes contribute to this vaccine-induced protection, we depleted rhesus macaques vaccinated with the live attenuated virus SIVmac239Δ3 of CD8+ lymphocytes and then challenged them with SIV...

  17. Lupus anticoagulant in human immunodeficiency virus -infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodu Omolade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lupus anticoagulant (LA is a heterogeneous group of antibodies that causes a variety of clinical and laboratory effects; has been described in infections such as human immunodeficiency virus. LA has not been previously described in Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus infection on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Aim: To determine the frequency of LA in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus on HAART. Methods: Cross sectional study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection undergoing HAART at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Screening for LA was done using the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and kaolin clotting time (KCT. Mixing experiments were conducted on samples with prolonged clotting time. KCT ratio was calculated. A positive result was taken as KCT ratio greater than or equal to 1.2. Fisher′s exact test was used to test the association between LA and sex. Association between aPTT and KCT was tested according to Pearson. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifty-eight patients aged 18- 60 years were studied, comprising of 28 males (mean age 40.50 plus/minus 8.8 years and 30 females (mean age 35.4 plus/minus 9.02. Frequency of LA among human immunodeficiency infected patients was 5.2%, (frequency in males and females were 3.6 and 6.7 % respectively. This was lower than 46% reported in patients not on HAART. There was no statistically significant difference in LA prevalence between males and females P greater than0.05. A positive correlation was observed between the clotting tests aPTT and KCT (r is equal to 0.9406, p less than 0.0001. Conclusion: HAART may prevent development of LA in HIV-infected patients.

  18. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Markers in Romanian Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Simona

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the frequency of hepatitis coinfection in Romanian adolescents who were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prior to 1995. Methods One hundred sixty-one adolescents (13–18 years of age with symptomatic HIV infection, but without signs of hepatic dysfunction, and 356 age-matched, HIV-uninfected controls underwent laboratory testing for markers of parenterally acquired hepatitis virus infection. Results Seventy-eight percent of HIV-infected adolescents had markers of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, as compared with 32% of controls (P = .0001. The prevalence of HBV replicative markers was more than 5-fold higher in HIV-infected adolescents as compared with controls: 43.4% vs 7.9% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; and 11.2% vs 2.2% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg. The prevalence of HBsAg chronic carriers and the presence of HBV replicative markers was significantly higher in patients with immunologically defined AIDS (CD4+ cell counts P = .02 for HBsAg and 22.8% vs 5.7%, (P = .002 for HBV DNA. After 1 year of follow-up, the proportion of those who cleared the HBeAg was considerably lower in severely immunosuppressed coinfected patients: 4.7% vs 37.1% (P = .003. Four additional HIV-infected adolescents became HBsAg-positive over the term of follow-up (incidence rate, 24.9/1000 person-years, despite a record of immunization against hepatitis B. Conclusion A substantial percentage of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Romanian adolescents have evidence of past or present HBV infection. In HIV-infected adolescents, the degree of immunosuppression is correlated with persistence of HBV replicative markers, even in the absence of clinical or biochemical signs of liver disease.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase: effect on viral replication of mutations at highly conserved residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, P M; Wilson, W; Byles, E; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1994-08-01

    Sequence comparisons of the integrase (IN) proteins from different retroviruses have identified several highly conserved residues. We have introduced mutations at 16 of these sites into the integrase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and analyzed the phenotypes of the resulting viruses. The viruses were all normal for p24 content and reverse transcriptase activity. In addition, all of the mutants could infect T-cell lines and undergo reverse transcription, as assessed by PCR analysis. Most of the mutant viruses also had normal Western blot (immunoblot) profiles, although three of the mutations resulted in reduced signals for IN relative to the wild type on the immunoblots and mutation of residue W235 completely abolished recognition of the protein by pooled sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive patients. Mutations that have previously been shown to abolish activity in in vitro studies produced noninfectious viruses. The substitution of W235 was notable in producing a noninfectious virus, despite previous reports of this residue being nonessential for IN activity in vitro (A.D. Leavitt, L. Shiue, and H.E. Varmus, J. Biol. Chem. 268:2113-2119, 1993). In addition, we have identified four highly conserved residues that can be mutated without any affect on viral replication in T-cell lines. PMID:8035478

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection in Spain: Prevalence and Patient Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Núñez, María J; Vivancos, María J; Crespo, Manel; Téllez, María J; Domingo, Pere; Iribarren, José A; Artero, Arturo; Márquez, Manuel; Santos, Ignacio; Moreno, Javier; Montero, Marta; González-García, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Background.  The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (Abs) and active HCV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) patients in Spain in 2015. This was a cross-sectional study. Methods.  The study was performed in 41 centers in 2015. Sample size was estimated for an accuracy of 2%, the number of patients from each hospital was determined by proportional allocation, and patients were selected using simple random sampling. Results.  The reference population was 35 791 patients, and the sample size was 1867 patients. Hepatitis C virus serostatus was known in 1843 patients (98.7%). Hepatitis C virus-Abs were detected in 695 patients (37.7%), in whom the main route of HIV acquisition was injection drug use (75.4%). Of these 695 patients, 402 had HCV RNA, 170 had had a sustained viral response (SVR) after anti-HCV therapy, and 102 cleared HCV spontaneously. Hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid results were unknown in 21 cases. Genotype distribution (known in 367 patients) was 1a in 143 patients (39.0%), 4 in 90 (24.5%) patients, 1b in 69 (18.8%) patients, 3 in 57 (15.5%) patients, 2 in 5 (1.4%) patients, and mixed in 3 (0.8%) patients. Liver cirrhosis was present in 93 patients (23.1%) with active HCV infection and in 39 (22.9%) patients with SVR after anti-HCV therapy. Conclusions.  The prevalence of HCV-Abs and active HCV infection in HIV+ patients in Spain is 37.7% and 22.1%, respectively; these figures are significantly lower than those recorded in 2002 and 2009. The predominant genotypes in patients with active HCV infection were 1a and 4. A high percentage of patients had cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is also common in patients with SVR after anti-HCV therapy. PMID:27186584

  1. Anti-hepatitis C virus treatment may prevent the progression of liver fibrosis in non-responder human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Sagnelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate changes in liver histology in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection non-responders to a suboptimal Interferon+Ribavirine regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 49 patients with two sequential liver biopsies: 18 were non-responders to Interferon+Ribavirine treatment (Group hepatitis C virus Rx administered after the 1st liver biopsy who underwent a 2nd liver biopsy after a median period of 3.92 year and 31 were patients who remained untreated for hepatitis C virus disease (Group hepatitis C virus untreated after the 1st liver biopsy because of refusal and underwent a 2nd liver biopsy after a median period of 5.05-years. Most patients in both groups were under highly active antiretroviral therapy. At the time of 1st liver biopsy similar degrees of necro-inflammation, fibrosis and steatosis were observed in both groups. Changes in liver lesions between 1st and 2nd liver biopsys were adjusted for different intervals between liver biopsys by a mathematic formula. RESULTS: Liver fibrosis did not change in 88.9% of patients in Group hepatitis C virus Rx and in 77.4% in Group hepatitis C virus untreated. A marked deterioration in liver fibrosis was observed in 5 (16% patients in Group hepatitis C virus untreated and in none in Group hepatitis C virus treated. Necro-inflammation and steatosis remained substantially unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSION: Liver histology remained substantially unchanged in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus patients non-responder to anti-hepatitis C virus therapy over 4 years observation, suggesting an effective anti-hepatitis C virus early treatment for all hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus coinfected patients who can reasonably tolerate therapy.

  2. Clinical Manifestations of Cytomegalovirus-Associated Posterior Uveitis and Panuveitis in Patients Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Tesavibul, Nattaporn; Choopong, Pitipol; Boonsopon, Sutasinee; Kongyai, Natedao; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Kunavisarut, Paradee; Rothova, Aniki

    2013-01-01

    Importance: Little attention has been paid to clinical features of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and comorbidities of patients without HIV infection who have CMV-associated posterior uvei

  3. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Pistello; Grazia Guidi; Natasa Tozon; Alessandro Poli

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some...

  4. Effect of Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Viral Load on Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death In Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Moyers, Brian S.; Secemsky, Eric A.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wong, Joseph K.; Diane V Havlir; Priscilla Y Hsue; Tseng, Zian H

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Whether left ventricular (LV) dysfunction predicts SCD in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of LV on SCD in patients with HIV. We previously characterized all SCDs and AIDS deaths in 2860 consecutive patients in a public HIV clinic between 2000 and 2009. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) performed ...

  5. Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    McIlleron Helen; Hussey Gregory D; Maritz Johannes; Labadarios Demetre; Cilliers Karien; Willemse Marianne; Schaaf Hendrik; Smith Peter; Donald Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Rifampin is a key drug in antituberculosis chemotherapy because it rapidly kills the majority of bacilli in tuberculosis lesions, prevents relapse and thus enables 6-month short-course chemotherapy. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children with tuberculosis, both human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected. Methods...

  6. Simian and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Proteins Use Different Surfaces To Downregulate Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Swigut, Tomek; Iafrate, A. John; Muench, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Skowronski, Jacek

    2000-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef proteins are related regulatory proteins that share several functions, including the ability to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and CD4 expression on the cell surface and to alter T-cell-receptor-initiated signal transduction in T cells. We compared the mechanisms used by SIV mac239 Nef and HIV-1 Nef to downregulate class I MHC and found that the ability of SIV Nef to downregula...

  7. Soluble CD163 does not predict first-time myocardial infarction in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Møller, Holger Jon; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI).......Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI)....

  8. Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available P Naidoo, D Pillay, S SamanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Port Shepstone Regional Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaAbstract: A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement, and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stridor and a cerebrovascular accident with left hemiplegia. She died approximately 2 weeks after admission. The potential causes of her stridor included a mediastinal mass or a central mechanism secondary to tuberculosis meningitis. Limited resources precluded definitive imaging of the chest to rule out a mediastinal mass. Further, an autopsy was not done. Despite these limitations, this case is unique because it reports the presence of both stridor and tuberculosis meningitis in an adult patient.Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, meningitis, stridor, tuberculosis

  9. The Biology of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and the Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di QIN; Chun LU

    2008-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV),also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8),is discovered in 1994 from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesion of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)patient.In addition to its association with KS,KSHV has also been implicated as the causative agent of two other AIDS-associated malignancies:primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).KSHV is a complex DNA virus that not only has the ability to promote cellular growth and survival for tumor development,but also can provoke deregulated angiogenesis,inflammation,and modulate the patient's immune system in favor of tumor growth.As KSHV is a necessary but not sufficient etiological factor for KS,human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a very important cofactor.Here we review the basic information about the biology of KSHV,development of pathogenesis and interaction between KSHV and HIV.

  10. Primary Neuritic Hansen's Disease presenting as Ulnar Nerve Abscess in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjigi, S; Herakal, K; Murthy, S C; Bathina, A; Kusuma, M R; Nikhil, K R Y

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy has been increasingly known to have an enigmatic relationship with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Co-infection may result in atypical manifestations of leprosy. A 45-year old human immunodeficiency virus-positive male; agricultural laborer presented with a swelling over right elbow, right hand deformity, generalized itching and recurrent vesicles overthe perinasal area. Clinical and investigational findings were consistent with mononeuritic type of Hansen's disease with right sided silent ulnar nerve abscess, partial claw hand. CD4+ count of the patientwas 430 cells/cmm. This patient also hadherpes simplex labialis, with HIV-associated pruritus. To the best of our knowledge such an atypical presentation has not been reported earlier. PMID:26999990

  11. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890489

  12. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Multiple Effector Functions Mediated by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Philip J.; Sumaroka, Marina; Brander, Christian; Moffett, Howell F.; Boswell, Steven L.; Nguyen, Tam; Sykulev, Yuri; Walker, Bruce D; Rosenberg, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-specific T helper cells contribute to effective antiviral control, but their functional characteristics and the precise epitopes targeted by this response remain to be defined. In this study, we generated CD4+ T-cell clones specific for Gag from HIV-1-infected persons with vigorous Gag-specific responses detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Multiple peptides containing T helper epitopes were identifie...

  14. Women’s willingness to be tested for human immunodeficiency virus during pregnancy: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Natan, Merav; Hazanov, Yelena

    2015-01-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a primary cause of pediatric infections with HIV. Many of these infections involve women who were not tested early enough in pregnancy, or who did not receive prevention services. HIV testing of pregnant women is considered to be one of the key strategies for preventing mother-to-child-transmission of HIV, but HIV testing rates among pregnant women in various countries remain suboptimal. Understanding the factors relating t...

  15. Vanishing bile duct syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus: Nevirapine hepatotoxicity revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan; Kochar; Moises; I; Nevah; Frank; J; Lukens; Michael; B; Fallon; Victor; I; Machicao

    2010-01-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) refers to a group of disorders characterized by prolonged cholestasis as a result of destruction and disappearance ofintrahepatic bile ducts. Multiple etiologies have been indentifi ed including infections, neoplastic disorders, autoimmune conditions and drugs. The natural history of this condition is variable and may involve resolution of cholestasis or progression with irreversible damage. VBDS is extremely rare in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients an...

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kalikar, M.V.; Thawani, V.R.; Varadpande, U.K.; Sontakke, S.D.; Singh, R. P.; Khiyani, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of TCE in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients. Materials and Methods: Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE) in HIV positive patients was assessed in randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. 68 HIV positive participants were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either TCE or placebo for six months. After clinical examination TLC, DLC, ESR, platelet count, hemoglobin and CD4 count were done. The hematological inve...

  17. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by a dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princen, Katrien; Hatse, Sigrid; Vermeire, Kurt;

    2004-01-01

    Here we report that the N-pyridinylmethyl cyclam analog AMD3451 has antiviral activity against a wide variety of R5, R5/X4, and X4 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] ranging from 1.2 to 26.5 microM) in various T-cell lines, CCR5...

  18. Structure-function studies of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein, p17.

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, P M; Matthews, S.; Clark, N.; Byles, E D; Iourin, O; Hockley, D J; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1997-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein, p17, plays important roles in both the early and late stages of the viral life cycle. Using our previously determined solution structure of p17, we have undertaken a rational mutagenesis program aimed at mapping structure-function relationships within the molecule. Amino acids hypothesized to be important for p17 function were mutated and examined for effect in an infectious proviral clone of HIV-1. In parallel, we analyzed by nu...

  19. Minimal requirement for a lentivirus vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, V N; Mitrophanous, K; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1998-01-01

    The use of human immunodeficiency virus vectors for gene therapy is hampered by concern over their safety. This concern might be ameliorated, in part, if the viral accessory genes and proteins could be eliminated from the vector genomes and particles. Here we describe a minimal vector system that is capable of transducing nondividing cells and which does not contain tat, vif, vpr, vpu, and nef. PMID:9420292

  20. Minimal Requirement for a Lentivirus Vector Based on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, V. Narry; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos; Kingsman, Susan M.; Kingsman, Alan J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of human immunodeficiency virus vectors for gene therapy is hampered by concern over their safety. This concern might be ameliorated, in part, if the viral accessory genes and proteins could be eliminated from the vector genomes and particles. Here we describe a minimal vector system that is capable of transducing nondividing cells and which does not contain tat, vif, vpr, vpu, and nef.

  1. Lung function abnormalities in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with and without overt pneumonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, R J; Roussak, C; Forster, S M; Harris, J R; Pinching, A J; Mitchell, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary function was measured in 169 male patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in symptom free patients and patients with persistent generalised lymphadenopathy was normal (greater than 83% of predicted values). Patients with the AIDS related complex, non-pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, and non-pulmonary non-Kaposi sarcoma AIDS (that is, opportunist infections affecting other organs) had lower mean values for TLCO (77%, 7...

  2. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Env-Mediated Fusion by DC-SIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Nobile, Cinzia; Moris, Arnaud; Porrot, Françoise; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie; Schwartz, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a lectin expressed on dendritic cell and macrophage subsets, binds to human immunodeficiency virus Env glycoproteins, allowing capture of viral particles. Captured virions either infect target cells or are efficiently transmitted to lymphocytes. Cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of DC-SIGN remain poorly understood. Here we have analyzed the effects of DC-SIGN on viral entry and on syncytium formation induced by Env glycoproteins. The lectin enhanced susceptibility to viral i...

  3. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus as a Gene Transfer Vector in the Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarii

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, L. H.; Langasek, J. E.; Talman, L. S.; Taktakishvili, O. M.; Talman, W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Gene transfer has been used to examine the role of putative neurotransmitters in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Most such studies used adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer although adenovirus vector transfects both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Successful transfection in the NTS has also been reported with lentivirus as the vector. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, may preferentially transfect neurons and could be a powerful tool to delineate physiological effect...

  4. Critical appraisal and update on tenofovir in management of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez E. (ed.); Morello J; Soriano V; Labarga P; Rodriguez-Nóvoa S

    2011-01-01

    Elena Alvarez1, Judit Morello1, Vincent Soriano2, Pablo Labarga2, Sonia Rodriguez-Nóvoa11Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Unit, Service of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Tenofovir is currently one of the most widely used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to its good efficacy, tolerability, and convenience as a once-daily dosage. It is a drug ...

  5. Structural features in TAR RNA of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses: a phylogenetic analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, B.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative analysis of TAR RNA structures in human and simian immunodeficiency viruses reveals the conservation of certain structural features despite the divergence in sequence. Both the TAR elements of HIV-1 and SIV-chimpanzee can be folded into relatively simple one-stem hairpin structures. Chemical and RNAase probes were used to analyze the more complex structure of HIV-2 TAR RNA, which folds into a branched hairpin structure. A surprisingly similar RNA conformation can be proposed for...

  6. Interaction between human immunodeficiency virus and Toxoplasma gondii replication in dually infected monocytoid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Y; Molina, J. M.; Poirot, C.; Ferchal, F; Decazes, J M; Lagrange, P.; Derouin, F.

    1993-01-01

    THP-1 monocytoid cells, either not infected or chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), were challenged with Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitic growth, as assessed by trophozoite counting and measurement of supernatant p30 membrane antigen, was similar in HIV-infected and noninfected THP-1 cells. Also, T. gondii did not affect HIV replication. These experiments therefore failed to demonstrate any interaction between HIV-1 and T. gondii replication in concurrently infec...

  7. 5-Azacytidine Can Induce Lethal Mutagenesis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dapp, Michael J.; Clouser, Christine L; Patterson, Steven; Mansky, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    Ribonucleosides inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report the antiviral mechanism for the ribonucleoside analog 5-azacytidine (5-AZC). We hypothesized that the anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-AZC was due to an increase in the HIV-1 mutation rate following its incorporation into viral RNA during transcription. However, we demonstrate that 5-AZC's primary antiviral activity can be attributed to its effect on the e...

  8. Expression of the Mu Opioid Receptor in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transgenic Rat Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sulie L.; Beltran, Jose A.; SWARUP, SHILPA

    2007-01-01

    Opioids, via the mu opioid receptor (MOR), can exacerbate bacterial infections and the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, an HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat model containing circulating HIV-1 gp120 was created. Using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we found that MOR mRNA levels were significantly higher in the peritoneal macrophages of the HIV-1Tg rat than those in control animals. Lipopolysaccharide, a bacterial endotoxin, induced secre...

  9. Diffuse interstitial lung infiltrates in a smoker with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vasudevan, Viswanath P.; Praveen K. Jinnur; Vishal Verma; Sasikanth Nallagatla

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare interstitial lung disease characteristically affecting middle-aged smokers. It has unpredictable clinical course and may be associated with malignant neoplasms. Opportunistic lung infections are frequently considered when patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection present with respiratory symptoms and an abnormal chest X-ray. Though fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is diagnostic for infectious etiologies, sur...

  10. Biological and molecular variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 isolates from The Gambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, T F; Whitby, D; Hoad, J G; Corrah, T; Whittle, H.; Weiss, R A

    1990-01-01

    Seven new human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates (CBL-20 to CBL-26) from The Gambia were characterized. Their cytopathogenicity and growth in vitro correlated with the severity of clinical disease. CBL-22 was highly sensitive to neutralization by HIV-2 sera and was cross-neutralized by some HIV-1 sera. These findings, the differing sizes of envelope glycoproteins of individual isolates, and the sequence analysis of amplified regions of the viral DNAs show that these HIV-2 isolat...

  11. Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1

    OpenAIRE

    Béguelin, Charles Antoine; Vázquez, Miriam; Bertschi, Manuel; Yerly, S; de Jong, Denise; Gutbrod, Klemens; Rauch, Andri; Cusini, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the case of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who developed ataxia and neurocognitive impairment due to viral escape within the central nervous system (CNS) with a multidrug-resistant HIV-1 despite long-term viral suppression in plasma. Antiretroviral therapy optimization with drugs with high CNS penetration led to viral suppression in the CSF, regression of ataxia, and improvement of neurocognitive symptoms.

  12. Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguelin, C; Vázquez, M; Bertschi, M; Yerly, S; de Jong, D; Gutbrod, K; Rauch, A; Cusini, A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the case of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who developed ataxia and neurocognitive impairment due to viral escape within the central nervous system (CNS) with a multidrug-resistant HIV-1 despite long-term viral suppression in plasma. Antiretroviral therapy optimization with drugs with high CNS penetration led to viral suppression in the CSF, regression of ataxia, and improvement of neurocognitive symptoms. PMID:26885540

  13. A rare case of human immunodeficiency virus associated bilateral facial nerve palsy in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases are on the increase in India and worldwide, so are its various complications. Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported

  14. Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo P; Pillay D; Saman S

    2013-01-01

    P Naidoo, D Pillay, S SamanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Port Shepstone Regional Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaAbstract: A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement), and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stri...

  15. Optimizing Mycobacterial Culture in Smear-Negative, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Tuberculosis Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, N. A.; Said, H. M.; Pinini, Z.; S.V. Omar; Beyers, N; Naidoo, P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant public health problem and the diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—infected individuals is challenging. The use of mycobacterial culture remains an important complementary tool and optimizing it has important benefits. We sought to determine the effect of an increase in the number of specimens evaluated, addition of nutritional supplementation to the culture medium, sputum appearance and volume on diagnostic yield and time to detectio...

  16. Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lucélia Henn; Fabiano Nagel; Felipe Dal Pizzol

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC) in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detec...

  17. Antiretroviral therapy outcome in human immuno-deficiency virus infected patients in a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Hasitha Diana Manohar; Smita Shenoy; Muralidhar Varma; Asha Kamath; Chaithanya Malalur; Kurady Laxminarayana Bairy; Amod Tilak; Kavitha Saravu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presently accounts for the highest number of deaths due to any infective agent in the world. The present study assessed the one year treatment outcome following antiretroviral therapy in HIV positive, treatment na and iuml;ve patients in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Adult HIV positive, antiretroviral treatment naive patients who were started on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1st January 2011 and 31st May 2013 were included in the s...

  18. Neuronal injury in simian immunodeficiency virus and other animal models of neuroAIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Leslie; Lentz, Margaret R.; González, R. Gilberto; Fox, Howard S.; Masliah, Eliezer

    2008-01-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy has reduced the incidence of severe neurological complication resulting from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, increased patient survival has been associated with an increased prevalence of protracted forms of HIV encephalitis leading to moderate cognitive impairment. NeuroAIDS remains a great challenge to patients, their families, and our society. Thus development of preclinical models that will be suitable for testing promising new ...

  19. Pharmacokinetic Interaction of Abacavir (1592U89) and Ethanol in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, James A.; Chittick, Gregory E.; Stevens, Cristina Pilati; Edwards, Kathleen D.; Stein, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    While in vitro results at clinically relevant concentrations do not predict abacavir (1592U89) interactions with drugs highly metabolized by cytochrome P450, the potential does exist for a pharmacokinetic interaction between abacavir and ethanol, as both are metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase. Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, three-way-crossover, phase I study of human immunodeficiency virus-infected male subjects. The three treatments were administration of ...

  20. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Bibiana A Ledesma; Nigro, Monica G; Natalia Vittar; Nestor Rueda; Luis De Carolis; Olga Figueiras; Silvana Carnevale; Marcelo Corti

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 c...

  1. Novel human endogenous sequences related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, M S; Boyce-Jacino, M T; Faras, A J

    1992-01-01

    Endogenous retrovirus-related sequences exist within the normal genomic DNA of all eukaryotes, and these endogenous sequences have been shown to be important to the nature and biology of related exogenous retroviruses and may also play a role in cellular functions. To date, no endogenous sequences related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been reported. Herein we describe the first report of the presence of nucleotide sequences related to HIV-1 in human, chimpanzee, and rhes...

  2. Biochemical assessment of pancreatic disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected men.

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, M R; N..A. Smith; Hawkins, D A; Gazzard, B; Ball, S G

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine the usefulness of measuring amylase activity as an indicator of pancreatic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients. METHODS: A prospective study of 129 ambulant HIV positive males. Total amylase, pancreatic amylase, and lipase activities were assayed using commercial test kits on an automated analyser. Samples with raised amylase were examined for the presence of macroamylasaemia using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. RESULTS: Thirty six (28%) of th...

  3. A rare case of verrucous carcinoma of penis in an human immunodeficiency virus- infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Tonita Mariola Noronha; Girisha, Banavasi S; Shubha P Bhat; Carol M Christy; Sripathi Handattu; Fernandes, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Verrucous carcinoma is a peculiarly slow evolving, but relentlessly expanding variant of epidermoid carcinoma that is extremely reluctant to metastasize. A 60-year-old unmarried male patient presented with urethral discharge of 3 weeks duration. Dorsal slit of the prepuce revealed an ulceroproliferative growth measuring 3 cm Χ 3 cm arising from prepuce and involving glans. Biopsy from t...

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coat Protein Neurotoxicity Mediated by Nitric Oxide in Primary Cortical Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Uhl, George R.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1993-04-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coat protein, gp120, kills neurons in primary cortical cultures at low picomolar concentrations. The toxicity requires external glutamate and calcium and is blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to gp120 toxicity, since nitroarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, prevents toxicity as does deletion of arginine from the incubation medium and hemoglobin, which binds NO. Superoxide dismutase also attenuates toxicity, implying a role for superoxide anions.

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus decreases cell-cell communication and mitochondrial membrane potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Danave, I R; Tiffany-Castiglioni, E; Zenger, E; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R C; Collisson, E W

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro effects of viral replication on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) were evaluated as two parameters of potential cellular injury. Two distinct cell types were infected with the Petaluma strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Primary astroglia supported acute FIV infection, resulting in syncytia within 3 days of infection, whereas immortalized Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells of epithelial origin supported persis...

  6. Determinants of Incident Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Matityahu; Emma Shifrin; Howard Minkoff; Joseph Feldman

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Mucosal infections including vulvovaginal candidiasis are a common problem for women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Our objective was to determine which factors predict the development of symptomatic disease among HIV-infected women.Materials and Methods: In a prospective study from 1991 to 1995, 205 HIV-positive women were evaluated every 6 months for occurrences of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Included in the study were all initially asymptomatic women, whether t...

  7. Fifty cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: immunoultrastructural study of circulating lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Feremans, W W; Huygen, K.; Menu, R; Farber, C M; de Caluwe, J P; van Vooren, J P; Marcelis, L; Andre, L; Brasseur, M; Bondue, H

    1988-01-01

    The peripheral lymphocytes of 50 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (13 of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 17 of AIDS related complex (ARC), and 20 healthy carriers) were studied immunoultrastructurally. The prevalence of "tubuloreticular structures" and "tubular confronting cisternae" increased with the progression of the disease. Numerous tubular confronting cisternae were noted in patients presenting with a high serum acid labile alpha-interferon values. The ...

  8. Substance abuse treatment in human immunodeficiency virus: The role of patient–provider discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Korthuis, Philip Todd; Josephs, Joshua S.; FLEISHMAN, John A.; HELLINGER, James; Himelhoch, Seth; Chander, Geetanjali; Morse, Elizabeth B.; GEBO, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment is associated with decreases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior and can improve HIV outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization, including patient–provider discussions of substance use issues. We surveyed 951 HIV-infected adults receiving care at 14 HIV Research Network primary care sites regarding drug and alcohol use, substance abuse treatment, and provider discussions of substanc...

  9. Crusted Scabies: Presenting as erythroderma in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. It is common in patients with sensory neuropathy, mentally retarded persons and in patients who are immunosuppressed. Further, crusted scabies can rarely present as erythroderma (<0.5% cases necessitating a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis. Because of its rare occurrence, we are reporting a case of crusted scabies presenting as erythroderma, in a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient.

  10. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Injection Drug Users Released from Jail

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Emdadi, Abbas; Soori, Bahram; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Injecting drug users (IDUs) and prisoners are considered to be highly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Iran. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among IDUs released from jail in Bahar (Hamadan, Iran). Methods In a cross-sectional study, 118 IDUs who were prisoners during 2001-07 were evaluated. Their demographic and personal characteristics were assessed by a questionnaire. In order to determine HIV-positive individua...

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid human immunodeficiency virus viral load in patients with neurosyphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Sergio Monteiro de; Bhatt, Archana; Riggs, Patricia K.; Durelle, Janis; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; McCutchan, Allen; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Syphilis is a frequent coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Whereas systemic syphilis infection increases plasma HIV RNA levels (viral load; VL), effects of syphilis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VL are unknown. We hypothesized that intrathecal immune activation in neurosyphilis would selectively increase CSF VL in coinfected patients. In this study, HIV-infected research subjects (N = 225) were categorized into three groups based on serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR), microhemagl...

  12. An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butt F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, published literature has increasingly projected the ranula as a lesion that may be closely associated with exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In this report, we document 28 patients who presented with ranulae, among whom 19 were HIV infected. In some, this was the only lesion that was the sentinel sign of HIV infection. Most probably, this lesion could be considered as one of the clinical markers of this infection.

  13. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  14. Detection and quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry.

    OpenAIRE

    McSharry, J J; Costantino, R; Robbiano, E; Echols, R; Stevens, R; Lehman, J M

    1990-01-01

    A flow cytometric assay has been developed to detect and quantitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-seropositive patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from patients attending an acquired immune deficiency syndrome clinic, and mononuclear cells were separated by centrifugation onto Ficoll-Hypaque. The cell layer at the interface was removed, washed in phosphate-buffered saline without Ca2+ and Mg2+, and fixed with 90% methanol,...

  15. Hepatitis Viruses B and D and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Hemodialysis Patients in the South of Iran: Prevalence and Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri; Kargar Kheirabad; Shoja MR; Gouklani

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are transmitted by blood transfusion. Thus, hemodialysis (HD) patients are more prone to become the carriers of these infections due to their treatment demands. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBV and HIV infections among HD patients in Bandar Abbas, Iran, 2015. P...

  16. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  17. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  18. Absent or rare human immunodeficiency virus infection of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, B. R.; Schwartz, D H; Marx, J C; Johnson, C.E.; Berry, J. M.; Lyding, J; Merigan, T C; Zander, A

    1991-01-01

    An important question in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis is whether HIV-infected bone marrow CD34+ stem/progenitor cells serve as a significant reservoir of virus in HIV-infected individuals. Our data indicate that infection of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells with HIV occurs rarely, if ever, in vivo. In the present study, CD34+ cells were immunomagnetically purified from the bone marrow of HIV-seropositive individuals, and purified cells or colony-forming cells of the granul...

  19. Detachment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 from Germinal Centers by Blocking Complement Receptor Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Kacani, Laco; Prodinger, Wolfgang M.; Sprinzl, Georg M.; Michael G Schwendinger; Spruth, Martin; Stoiber, Heribert; Döpper, Susanne; Steinhuber, Sabine; Steindl, Franz; Manfred P Dierich

    2000-01-01

    After the transition from the acute to the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complement mediates long-term storage of virions in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. The contribution of particular complement receptors (CRs) to virus trapping in GC was studied on tonsillar specimens from HIV-infected individuals. CR2 (CD21) was identified as the main binding site for HIV in GC. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) blocking the CR2-C3d interaction were shown to detach 6...

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 intersubtype (B/E) recombination in a superinfected chimpanzee.

    OpenAIRE

    Fultz, P N; Yue, L; Wei, Q; M. Girard

    1997-01-01

    Genetic characterization of a large number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates indicates that at least 10% of all strains have mosaic genomes generated by recombination between viruses of the same or different subtypes or clades. What is not known, however, is the time between infection with the first and second HIV-1 strains as well as the time between infection with the second strain and the recombinational event. After 32 months of infection with HIV-1(LAI(IIIB)), a chi...

  1. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child.

  2. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child. PMID:27079412

  3. Cocaine: A Catalyst for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet K Dhillon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection drug use has been recognized as a major risk factor for AIDS from the outset of the epidemic. Cocaine, one of the most widely abused drugs in the United States can both impair the functions of macrophages & CD4+ lymphocytes and also activate HIV-1 expression in these cells. Cocaine is a multifactorial agent that acts globally to impair the functioning of brain resident cells through multiple pathways. The drug not only promotes virus replication in macrophages, microglia and astrocytes, but can also upregulate CCR5 coreceptor, and reciprocally inhibit its ligands, thereby increasing virus infectivity. Cocaine is known to modulate astroglial function and activation. Cocaine causes a myriad of toxic responses in the neurons: a it synergizes with viral proteins, Tat and gp120 resulting in exacerbated neuronal apoptosis, b it causes calcium mobilization and, c generation of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, cocaine also exerts potent effects on microvascular permeability, thereby impacting the influx of virus-infected inflammatory cells in brain parenchyma. By amplifying the various arms of the toxic responses that characterize HIV-associated dementia (HAD, cocaine skews the balance in favor of the virus leading to accelerated progression and severity of dementia.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bande Faruku

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV are major causes of morbidity and mortality in domestic and wild felids. Despite the clinical importance of feline retroviruses and the growing interest in cats as pets, information about FeLV and FIV in Malaysia is presently insufficient to properly advise veterinarians and pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with FeLV and FIV among domestic cats in peninsular Malaysia. Plasma samples were harvested from the blood of 368 domestic cats and screened for evidence of FeLV p27 antigen and FIV antibodies, using an immunochromatographic kit. Additionally, data on cat demographics and health were collected using a structured questionnaire, and were evaluated as potential risk factors for FeLV or FIV status. Results Of the 368 cats that were evaluated in this study, 12.2% (45/368; 95% CI = 8.88 - 15.58 were positive for FeLV p27 antigen, 31.3%, (115/368; 95% CI = 26.51 - 35.99 were seropositive to FIV antibodies, and 4.3% (16/368; 95% CI = 2.27 - 6.43 had evidence of both viruses. Factors found to significantly increase the risk for FeLV seropositivity include sex, age, behaviour, sickness, and living in a multi-cat household. Seropositive response to FIV was significantly associated with sex, neuter status, age, behaviour, and health status. Conclusions The present study indicates that FeLV and FIV are common among domestic cats in peninsular Malaysia, and that factors related to cat demographics and health such as age, sex, behaviour, health status and type of household are important predictors for seropositive status to FeLV or FIV in peninsular Malaysia. High prevalence of FeLV or FIV observed in our study is of concern, in view of the immunosuppressive potentials of the two pathogens. Specific measures for control and prevention such as screening and

  5. Construction and characterization of chimeric BHIV (BIV/HIV-1) viruses carrying the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin Zhu; Chang Liu; Xin-Lei Liu; Wen-Tao Qiao; Qi-Min Chen; Yi Zeng; Yun-Qi Geng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of the replacement of the gag gene between human immunodeficiency virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus, to achieve chimeric virions,and thereby gain a new kind of AIDS vaccine based on BHIV chimeric viruses.METHODS: A series of chimeric BHIV proviral DNAs differing in the replacement regions in gag gene were constructed, and then were transfected into 293T cells. The expression of chimeric viral genes was detected at the RNA and protein level. The supematant of 293T cell was ultra centrifuged to detect the probable chimeric virion. Once the chimeric virion was detected, its biological activities were also assayed by infecting HIV-sensitive MT4 cells.RESULTS: Four chimeric BHIV proviral DNAs were constructed. Genes in chimeric viruses expressed correctly in transfected 293T cells. All four constructs assembled chimeric virions with different degrees of efficiency. These virions had complete structures common to retroviruses and packaged genomic RNAs, but the cleavages of the precursor Gag proteins were abnormal to some extent. Three of these virions tested could attach and enter into MT4 cells, and one of them could complete the course of reverse transcription. Yet none of them could replicate in MT4 cells.CONCLUSION: The replacement of partial gag gene of HIV with BIV gaggene is feasible. Genes in chimeric BHIVs are accurately expressed, and virions are assembled. These chimeric BHIVs (proviral DNA together with virus particles) have the potential to become a new kind of HIV/AIDS vaccine.

  6. Limited Breadth of the Protective Immunity Elicited by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmne gp160 Vaccines in a Combination Immunization Regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Polacino, Patricia; Stallard, Virginia; Klaniecki, James E.; David C Montefiori; Langlois, Alphonse J.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Overbaugh, Julie; Morton, William R.; Benveniste, Raoul E.; Hu, Shiu-Lok

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that immunization with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne envelope (gp160) vaccines protected macaques against an intravenous challenge by the cloned homologous virus, E11S. In this study, we confirmed this observation and found that the vaccines were effective not only against virus grown on human T-cell lines but also against virus grown on macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The breadth of protection, however, was limited. In three experi...

  7. PD 404,182 Is a Virocidal Small Molecule That Disrupts Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Ana Maria; Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Bobardt, Michael; Simeon, Rudo; Chang, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    We describe a virucidal small molecule, PD 404,182, that is effective against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the antiviral effect of PD 404,182 against HCV and HIV in cell culture are 11 and 1 μM, respectively. The antiviral activity of PD 404,182 is due to the physical disruption of virions that is accompanied to various degrees (depending on the virus and exposure temperature/time) by the release of viral nucleic acids into the surrounding medium. PD 404,182 does not directly lyse liposomal membranes even after extended exposure, and it shows no attenuation in antiviral activity when preincubated with liposomes of various lipid compositions, suggesting that the compound inactivates viruses through interaction with a nonlipid structural component of the virus. The virucidal activity of PD 404,182 appears to be virus specific, as little to no viral inactivation was detected with the enveloped Dengue and Sindbis viruses. PD 404,182 effectively inactivates a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 as well as HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and it does not exhibit significant cytotoxicity with multiple human cell lines in vitro (50% cytotoxic concentration, >300 μM). The compound is fully active in cervical fluids, although it exhibits decreased potency in the presence of human serum, retains its full antiviral potency for 8 h when in contact with cells, and is effective against both cell-free and cell-associated HIV. These qualities make PD 404,182 an attractive candidate anti-HIV microbicide for the prevention of HIV transmission through sexual intercourse. PMID:22083468

  8. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Sonia Gupta; Amarjit Kaur; Manvi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV...

  9. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  10. Nucleic acid amplification technology screening for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus for blood donations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the

  11. Vaccination with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, based on autologous infected cells, elicits enhancement of homologous challenge infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Karlas (Jos); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); M.A. van Peer (Maartje); W. Huisman (Willem); A.M. Cuisinier; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCats were vaccinated with fixed autologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cells in order to present viral proteins to the immune system of individual cats in an MHC-matched fashion. Upon vaccination, a humoral response against Gag was induced. Furthermore, virus-neutralizin

  12. 75 FR 22814 - Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. FDA-2005D-0261) Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for...

  13. MUC1 in human milk blocks transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from dendritic cells to T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeland, E.; Jong, de M.A.W.P.; Nabatov, A.; Kalay, H.; Kooijk, van Y.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) occurs frequently via breast-feeding. HIV-1 targets DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal areas that allow efficient transmission of the virus to T cells. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelial mucin MUC1, abundant in milk,

  14. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, M

    1991-03-01

    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  15. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies. PMID:14974895

  16. Role of upper endoscopy in diagnosing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Luiza Werneck-Silva; Ivete Bedin Prado

    2009-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically decreased opportunistic infections (OIs)in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.However, gastrointestinal disease continues to account for a high proportion of presenting symptoms in these patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms in treated patients who respond to therapy are more likely to the result of drug-induced complications than OI. Endoscopic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract remains a cornerstone of diagnosis, especially in patients with advanced immunodeficiency, who are at risk for OI. The peripheral blood CD4 lymphocyte count helps to predict the risk of an OI, with the highest risk seen in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 count (200 cells/mm3). This review provides an update of the role of endoscopy in diagnosing OI in the upper gastrointestinal tract in HIV-infected patients in the era of HAART.

  17. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...... infection is unknown. We retrospectively studied 102 patients with HIV infection early during the infection and in most cases in asymptomatic patients. Serological IgG antibody response to H. pylori was assessed by ELISA. Compared with an age-matched control group the seroprevalence of H. pylori positivity......) and 2 patients had H. pylori seroconverted, indicating an incidence of new infection of 2%/year. In conclusion, previous reports have underestimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HIV patients, which seems to be similar to that in an HIV-negative population....

  18. Metabolic stress in infected cells may represent a therapeutic target for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Menéndez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide, there are thousands of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection per day. The effectiveness of current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is relative; to prioritize finding vaccines and/or cure-oriented initiatives should be reinforced because there is little room, if any, for procrastination. Basic and clinical findings on HIV-1 reservoirs suggest that disruption of virus latency is feasible. Because the goal is curing HIV-1 infection, we should be aware that the challenge is to eradicate the viruses of every single infected cell and consequently acting upon virus latency is necessary but not sufficient. The large majority of the virus reservoir, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, is readily accessible but other minor reservoirs, where ART does not diffuse, require innovative strategies. The situation closely resembles that currently faced in the treatment of cancer. Exploiting the fact that histone deacetylase inhibitors, mainly vorinostat, may disrupt the latency of HIV-1, we propose to supplement this effect with a programmed interference in the metabolic stress of infected cells. Metformin and chloroquine are cheap and accessible modulators of pro-survival mechanisms to which viruses are constantly confronted to generate alternative energy sources and maximize virus production. Metformin restrains the use of the usurped cellular biosynthetic machinery by viral genes and chloroquine contributes to death of infected cells. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat, chloroquine and metformin should be combined with ART to pursue viral eradication in infected cells. PMID:23639282

  19. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started.

  20. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in the HAART era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas C Macdonald; Mark Nelson; Mark Bower; Thomas Powles

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rising. HCC in HIV almost invariably occurs in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and, on account of shared modes of transmission, this occurs in more than 33% and 10% of patients with HIV worldwide respectively. It has yet to be clearly established whether HIV directly accelerates HCC pathogenesis or whether the rising incidence is an epiphenomenon of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, wherein the increased longevity of patients with HIV allows long-term complications of viral hepatitis and cirrhosis to develop. Answering this question will have implications for HCC surveillance and the timing of HCV/HBV therapy, which in HIV co-infection presents unique challenges. Once HCC develops, there is growing evidence that HIV co-infection should not preclude conventional therapeutic strategies, including liver transplantation.

  2. Selective inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus with an ultrashort pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, K. T.; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, femtosecond laser technology has been shown to be effective in the inactivation of non-pathogenic viruses. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that infectious numbers of pathogenic viruses such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) can be reduced by irradiation with subpicosecond near infrared laser pulses at a moderate laser power density. By comparing the threshold laser power density for the inactivation of HIV with those of human red blood cells and mouse dendritic cells, we conclude that it is plausible to use the ultrashort pulsed laser to selectively inactivate blood-borne pathogens such as HIV while leaving the sensitive materials like human red blood cells unharmed. This finding has important implications in the development of a new laser technology for disinfection of viral pathogens in blood products and in the clinic.

  3. Immunobiology of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope and its relationship to vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, D P

    1990-02-01

    The envelope of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an essential building block of the virus and it plays a major role in its life-cycle, particularly during the early stages of infection. It very likely determines, at least in part, the host range and tissue specificity of HIV, participates in pathogenic processes mediated by the virus and can itself be immunosuppressive. Because of its strategic location on the outer surface of the virion and the infected cell, it also represents an optimal (although not the only) target for immune attack and thus a prime candidate for development of vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Efforts to better understand its structural, functional and antigenic properties will thus be well worthwhile. Some of its principal features are reviewed herein and its role in vaccine strategies is discussed. PMID:2182967

  4. Correlates of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a Danish human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Weis, Nina; Schønning, Kristian;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Around a quarter of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are spontaneously able to clear the virus. Correlates of spontaneous HCV clearance are not well established and the aim of this study was to characterize factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance...... in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected cohort. Methods: We analyzed 327 anti-HCV-positive HIV-1-infected patients using multivariate logistic regression. HCV clearance was defined as the presence of anti-HCV with undetectable HCV RNA from at least 2 measurements more than 6 months apart. Results......) 18-28) had cleared their HCV infection and 251 (77%; 95% CI 72-82) had a chronic infection. The clearance rate in HBsAg-positive individuals was 65%. Being female, HBsAg-positive, or belonging to HIV exposure groups IDU and MSM predicted higher HCV clearance rates (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.8, 95...

  5. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists’ arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanagnou P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Panagiota Papanagnou,1 Panagiotis Baltopoulos,2 Maria Tsironi1 1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, University of Peloponnese, Sparta, 2Department of Sports Medicine and Biology of Physical Activity, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. Keywords: repositioning, tumorigenesis, pleiotropy, exploitation

  6. Replication-incompetent herpesvirus vector delivery of an interferon alpha gene inhibits human immunodeficiency virus replication in human monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Weir, J P; Elkins, K L

    1993-01-01

    Human monocytes and macrophages are nondividing cells that serve as a major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at all stages of infection. To investigate viral-mediated gene delivery as a means of inhibiting HIV replication in human monocytes, a replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus vector was developed that expressed human interferon alpha. Monocytes infected with this herpes simplex virus vector and then challenged with HIV showed dramatically reduced cytopathic effects...

  7. The inability of human immunodeficiency virus to infect chimpanzee monocytes can be overcome by serial viral passage in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Gendelman, H E; Ehrlich, G D; Baca, L M; Conley, S; Ribas, J.; Kalter, D C; Meltzer, M S; Poiesz, B J; Nara, P

    1991-01-01

    Studies of lentivirus infection in ruminants, nonhuman primates, and humans suggest that virus infection of macrophages plays a central role in the disease process. To investigate whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can infect chimpanzee macrophages, we recovered monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-negative animals and inoculated these and control human monocytes with a panel of four human-passaged monocytotropic virus strains and one chimpanzee-passaged...

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  9. Immune responses to recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients with different CD4~+ T-lymphocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective.To compare the difference of immune responses to hepatitis B virus(HBV)vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-1-infected patients with different CD4+T-lymphocyte counts.Methods HIV-1 infected patients who visited clinic at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu were enrolled and divided in-+

  10. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  11. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott Realtime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schutten (Martin); D. Peters (D.); N. Back (Nicole); A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); B. Beuselinck (B.); V. Foulongne (V.); A.M. Geretti (Anna Maria); L. Pandiani (L.); M. Tiemann; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche

  12. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, M; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMa

  13. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  14. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…

  15. Comparison of neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody responses to influenza A virus vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; Tavares, L; Kraaijeveld, CA; De Jong, JC

    1998-01-01

    A neutralization enzyme immunoassay (N-EIA) was used to determine the neutralizing serum antibody titers to influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) and Beijing/353/89 (H3N2) viruses after vaccination of 51 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected individuals and 10 healthy noninfected controls agai

  16. Effect of Pregnancy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Intracellular Interleukin-2 Production Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Madeline Y.; Holland, Bart; Thomas N Denny; Garcia, Ambrosia; Garcia, Zenaida; Stein, Dana; Arlene D. Bardeguez

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection decreases the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Recombinant IL-2 (rIl-2) has been given to HIV-infected individuals to generate significant increases in CD4+ T-cell counts. There are limited data regarding the effects of pregnancy and HIV infection on IL-2 production in humans. To investigate the effects of human pregnancy, HIV infection, and HIV therapy on IL-2 production, we evaluated 61 women. Intracellular ...

  17. Aspects of gastrointestinal immunology and nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castello-Branco Luiz RR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal surfaces have a fundamental participation in many aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection pathogenesis. In Brazilian HIV-1 infected subjects, loss of weight and appetite are among the most debilitating symptoms. In this review we describe a defined mucosal immunogen that has profound but transient effects on HIV viral load, and we suggest that gut associated lymphoid tissue under constant immunostimulation is likely to provide a major contribution to the total levels of HIV. We also show that hypermetabolism appears to play a role in the wasting process in Brazilian patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.

  18. Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Melissa J; Wesselingh, Steven L; Cowley, Daniel; Pardo, Carlos A; McArthur, Justin C; Brew, Bruce J; Gorry, Paul R

    2009-08-01

    Astrocyte infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered rare, so astrocytes are thought to play a secondary role in HIV neuropathogenesis. By combining double immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, and highly sensitive multiplexed polymerase chain reaction to detect HIV DNA in single astrocytes in vivo, we showed that astrocyte infection is extensive in subjects with HIV-associated dementia, occurring in up to 19% of GFAP+ cells. In addition, astrocyte infection frequency correlated with the severity of neuropathological changes and proximity to perivascular macrophages. Our data indicate that astrocytes can be extensively infected with HIV, and suggest an important role for HIV-infected astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis.

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 multiplication by antisense and sense RNA expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S; Van Brunschot, A; Asad, S.; van der Elst, I; Read, S. E.; Bernstein, A

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primarily infects CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages and causes AIDS in humans. Retroviral vectors allowing neomycin phosphotransferase (npt) gene expression were engineered to express 5' sequences of HIV-1 RNA in the antisense or sense orientation and used to transform the human CD4+ lymphocyte-derived MT4 cell line. Cells expressing antisense or sense RNA to the HIV-1 tat mRNA leader sequence, as part of the 3' untranslated region of the npt mRNA, r...

  20. Minimal sequence requirements of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primer binding site.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, J K; Rhim, H; Morrow, C D

    1994-01-01

    The initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription occurs by the extension of a tRNA(3Lys) primer bound near the 5' end of the genomic RNA at a position termed the primer binding site (PBS). The PBS is an 18-nucleotide sequence of the HIV-1 genome which is complementary to the 3'-terminal 18 nucleotides of the tRNA(3Lys). To investigate the sequence specificity of the interaction between tRNA(3Lys) and the PBS, we have constructed proviral genomes containing m...

  1. Survival Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Mohammad SAATCHI; KHAZAEI, Salman; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: At present, limited clinical data is available regarding survival rates of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the survival chances of active TB adults who disclosed their symptoms of TB in this part of Iran. Patients and Methods: The records and data of 807 patients only infected with TB and 21 co-infected patients with HIV/TB, who wer...

  2. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shima; Shahbaz; Marcella; Manicardi; Giovanni; Guaraldi; Paolo; Raggi

    2015-01-01

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease(CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial.

  3. Human herpesvirus 6 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, J A; Landay, A.; Lennette, E T

    1990-01-01

    The SF strain of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6SF) isolated from the saliva of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual was shown to inhibit HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified CD4+ lymphocytes. This suppression of HIV-1 replication led to decreased cytopathic effects of HIV-1 and prolonged survival of CD4+ cells in culture. Even low levels of HHV-6 added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 r...

  4. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L;

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized...

  5. Emphysematous pyelonephritis in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Mohamed Ashif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN is a rapidly progressive and life-threatening infection that is seen most commonly in persons with diabetes. The infecting organisms usually consist of mixed flora, including Escherichia coli (68%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (9% and Proteus mirabilis. Females are affected twice as often as men, and mortality rates can be as high as 80%. Obstructive uropathy, urinary calculi, calyceal stenosis and neoplasms are significant predis-posing factors. We report a case of EPN in a patient with the human immunodeficiency virus infection, without diabetes mellitus or urinary tract obstruction, which responded remarkably to conservative management with antibiotics alone.

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Selective inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus with subpicosecond near-infrared laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, K. T.; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2008-06-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be inactivated by irradiation with subpicosecond near-infrared laser pulses at a moderate laser power density. By comparing the threshold laser power density for the inactivation of HIV with those of human red blood cells and mouse dendritic cells, we conclude that it is plausible to use the ultrashort pulsed laser to selectively inactivate blood-borne pathogens such as HIV while leaving sensitive materials like human red blood cells unharmed. This finding has important implications in the development of a new laser technology for disinfection of viral pathogens in blood products and in the clinic.

  7. Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 15.1 million children have been orphaned because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They face significant vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination, trauma and stress, illness, food insecurity, poverty, and difficulty accessing education. Millions of additional children who have living parents are vulnerable because their parents or other relatives are infected. This article reviews the current situation of orphans and vulnerable children, explores the underlying determinants of vulnerability and resilience, describes the response by the global community, and highlights the challenges as the HIV pandemic progresses through its fourth decade. PMID:26613693

  8. Viral resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific pyridinone reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Nunberg, J H; Schleif, W A; Boots, E J; O'Brien, J A; Quintero, J C; Hoffman, J. M.; Emini, E A; Goldman, M E

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific pyridinone reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors prevent HIV-1 replication in cell culture (M. E. Goldman, J. H. Nunberg, J. A. O'Brien, J.C. Quintero, W. A. Schleif, K. F. Freund, S. L. Gaul, W. S. Saari, J. S. Wai, J. M. Hoffman, P. S. Anderson, D. J. Hupe, E. A. Emini, and A. M. Stern, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:6863-6867, 1991). In contrast to nucleoside analog inhibitors, such as AZT, which need to be converted to triphosphates by h...

  9. Cofactors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 cDNA Integration In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Kui; Gorelick, Robert J.; Johnson, Donald G.; Bushman, Frederic

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the function of two DNA binding proteins that stimulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNA integration in vitro, the cellular HMGa1 protein and the viral nucleocapsid (NC) protein. Of the three forms of NC (NCp7, NCp9, and NCp15), we find that NCp9 is the most effective at increasing integration in vitro; thus, processing of NC may potentially modulate its activities during infection. We also found that maximal stimulation by NCp9 required roughly enough NC to coat ...

  10. A rare case of verrucous carcinoma of penis in an human immunodeficiency virus- infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonita Mariola Noronha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Verrucous carcinoma is a peculiarly slow evolving, but relentlessly expanding variant of epidermoid carcinoma that is extremely reluctant to metastasize. A 60-year-old unmarried male patient presented with urethral discharge of 3 weeks duration. Dorsal slit of the prepuce revealed an ulceroproliferative growth measuring 3 cm Χ 3 cm arising from prepuce and involving glans. Biopsy from the growth in the prepuce showed histopathological features of verrucous carcinoma. Partial amputation of the penis was done. Human papillomavirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction was negative. The patient was started on antiretroviral therapy.

  11. Differential human immunodeficiency virus expression in CD4+ cloned lymphocytes: from viral latency to replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, A; Bensussan, A; Vilmer, E; Dormont, D

    1992-06-01

    By using cloning methodology, 13 CD4+, CD8-, CD45RO+, and CD29+ clones, isolated from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative donors, have been characterized and tested regarding their susceptibility to two strains of HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Infected clones possess integrated provirus. Only six are able to replicate HIV-1, while seven may normally grow without cytopathic effect and without viral replication. These results argue that all CD4+ lymphocyte clones may be infectable but that a heterogeneity exists regarding their abilities to replicate HIV-1.

  12. Structural basis of asymmetry in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase heterodimer.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wang; Smerdon, S J; J. Jäger; Kohlstaedt, L A; Rice, P A; Friedman, J M; Steitz, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a heterodimer consisting of one 66-kDa and one 51-kDa subunit. The p66 subunit contains both a polymerase and an RNase H domain; proteolytic cleavage of p66 removes the RNase H domain to yield the p51 subunit. Although the polymerase domain of p66 folds into an open, extended structure containing a large active-site cleft, that of p51 is closed and compact. The connection subdomain, which lies between the polymerase and RNa...

  13. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  14. Proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, and nucleotides with inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus and its enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, has claimed innumerable lives in the past. Many biomolecules which suppress HIV replication and also other biomolecules that inhibit enzymes essential to HIV replication have been reported. Proteins including a variety of milk proteins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, ribonucleases, antifungal proteins, and trypsin inhibitors; peptides comprising cathelicidins, defensins, synthetic peptides, and others; polysaccharides and polysaccharopeptides; nucleosides, nucleotides, and ribozymes, demonstrated anti-HIV activity. In many cases, the mechanism of anti-HIV action has been elucidated. Strategies have been devised to augment the anti-HIV potency of these compounds.

  15. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART.

  16. Chemokine receptors and their crucial role in human immunodeficiency virus infection: major breakthroughs in HIV research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, T B; Knudsen, T B; Eugen-Olsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Within the last three years, major progress in the understanding of acquired immune deficiency syndrome pathogenesis has been achieved. The discovery that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in addition to the CD4 receptor, requires the presence of a coreceptor in order to infect cells has led...... to a series of breakthroughs in HIV research and knowledge. These include an increased understanding of viral entry, a connection of viral phenotype to specific coreceptor use, and an unequivocal linkage of a single human gene to host susceptibility. All in all these achievements provide a number of promising...

  17. Placental Malaria and Mother-to-Child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Rural Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Bulterys, Philip L.; Chao, Ann; Dalai, Sudeb C.; Zink, M. Christine; Dushimimana, Abel; Katzenstein, David; Saah, Alfred J.; Bulterys, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study of placental malaria (PM) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within a prospective cohort of 627 mother-infant pairs followed from October 1989 until April 1994 in rural Rwanda. Sixty stored placentas were examined for PM and other placental pathology, comparing 20 HIV-infected mother-infant (perinatal transmitter) pairs, 20 HIV-uninfected pairs, and 20 HIV-infected mothers who did not transmit to their inf...

  18. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  19. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Shima; Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-10-26

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial. PMID:26516417

  20. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  1. Seroprevalence of the Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Treponema pallidum at the Beijing General Hospital from 2010 to 2014: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Xu

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses and Treponema pallidum are important causes of infectious diseases concern to public health.Between 2010 and 2014, we used an automated chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect the hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency viruses as well as Treponema pallidum (the rapid plasma regain test was used in 2010-2011. Positive human immunodeficiency virus tests were confirmed via western blotting.Among 416,130 subjects, the seroprevalences for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum were 5.72%, 1.23%, 0.196%, and 0.76%, respectively. Among 671 patients with positive human immunodeficiency virus results, 392 cases were confirmed via western blotting. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent in men (7.78% and 0.26%, respectively than in women (4.45% and 0.021%, respectively. The hepatitis B and C virus seroprevalences decreased from 6.21% and 1.58%, respectively, in 2010, to 5.37% and 0.988%, respectively, in 2014. The human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence increased from 0.04% in 2010 to 0.17% in 2014, and was elevated in the Infectious Disease (2.65%, Emergency (1.71%, and Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (1.12% departments. The specificity of the human immunodeficiency virus screening was 71.4%. The false positive rates for the Treponema pallidum screening tests increased in patients who were 60-70 years old. The co-infection rates for the hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses were 0.47% in hepatitis C virus-positive patients and 7.33% in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.During 2010-2014, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent among men at our institution. Although the seroprevalences of hepatitis B and C viruses decreased, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection increased (with

  2. Complex determinants of macrophage tropism in env of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K; Ringler, D J; Kodama, T; Desrosiers, R C

    1992-04-01

    Macrophage-tropic virus variants evolved during the course of infection of individual rhesus monkeys with cloned, non-macrophagetropic simian immunodeficiency virus. Specific changes in the envelope gene (env) were found to be primarily responsible for the dramatic increase in the ability of the virus to replicate in macrophages. Cloned viruses differing at nine amino acid positions in env exhibited a more than 100-fold difference in replicative capacity for primary cultures of rhesus monkey alveolar macrophages. At least five of the nine amino acid changes contributed to macrophage tropism. These determinants were distributed across the full length of env, including both the gp120 and gp41 products of the env gene. Furthermore, the emergence of macrophagetropic variants in vivo was associated with specific pathologic manifestations in which the macrophage is the major infected cell type. Thus, major determinants of macrophage tropism reside in env, they can be complex in nature, and the presence of macrophage-tropic virus variants in vivo can influence the disease course and disease manifestations.

  3. Caregiver experience in preventive treatment for children exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the experience of caregivers of children vertically exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework. It is a qualitative research with data collection carried out in a reference clinic in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, from November 2012 to August 2013 through semi-structured interviews with 12 mothers and a grandmother. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis method. The caregivers administered antiretroviral to child to prevent virus infection and perceived good acceptance of medication. The child was considered healthy and waiting for the test results generated suffering. Family support and public health services were highlighted as an aid to go through this route pervaded by prejudice, lack of direction, fear and inability to breastfeed. It was noted that the public health service in the city studied tried to follow the protocol requirements established, however, improvements in the quality of counselling is needed.

  4. ADAR2 editing enzyme is a novel human immunodeficiency virus-1 proviral factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Margherita; Tomaselli, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Michienzi, Alessandro; Gallo, Angela

    2011-05-01

    The adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes catalyse conversion of adenosine to inosine in dsRNA. A positive effect of ADAR1 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication has recently been reported. Here, we show that another ADAR enzyme, ADAR2, positively affects the replication process of HIV-1. We found that, analogously to ADAR1, ADAR2 enhances the release of progeny virions by an editing-dependent mechanism. However, differently from the ADAR1 enzyme, ADAR2 does not increase the infectious potential of the virus. Importantly, downregulation of ADAR2 in Jurkat cells significantly impairs viral replication. Therefore, ADAR2 shares some but not all proviral functions of ADAR1. These results suggest a novel role of ADAR2 as a viral regulator. PMID:21289159

  5. Lentiviral Gag assembly analyzed through the functional characterization of chimeric simian immunodeficiency viruses expressing different domains of the feline immunodeficiency virus capsid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Esteva

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the functional relationship between the capsid (CA domains of the Gag polyproteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively, we constructed chimeric SIVs in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by the equivalent region of the FIV CA. The phenotypic characterization of the chimeras allowed us to group them into three categories: the chimeric viruses that, while being assembly-competent, exhibit a virion-associated unstable FIV CA; a second group represented only by the chimeric SIV carrying the N-terminal domain (NTD of the FIV CA which proved to be assembly-defective; and a third group constituted by the chimeric viruses that produce virions exhibiting a mature and stable FIV CA protein, and which incorporate the envelope glycoprotein and contain wild-type levels of viral genome RNA and reverse transcriptase. Further analysis of the latter group of chimeric SIVs demonstrated that they are non-infectious due to a post-entry impairment, such as uncoating of the viral core, reverse transcription or nuclear import of the preintegration complex. Furthermore, we show here that the carboxyl-terminus domain (CTD of the FIV CA has an intrinsic ability to dimerize in vitro and form high-molecular-weight oligomers, which, together with our finding that the FIV CA-CTD is sufficient to confer assembly competence to the resulting chimeric SIV Gag polyprotein, provides evidence that the CA-CTD exhibits more functional plasticity than the CA-NTD. Taken together, our results provide relevant information on the biological relationship between the CA proteins of primate and nonprimate lentiviruses.

  6. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  7. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

  8. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats can generate human immunodeficiency virus-gp120 cross-reactive antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentiviruses display surprisingly disparate clinical manifestations in their specific hosts, share complex genetic structures, and exhibit extensive diversity, particularly in their envelope genes. The envelope protein, gp135, of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) has minimal primary sequence homology to gp120, the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nevertheless, they bear certain similarities in that they both possess five variable regions, both are heavily glycosylated, and both share short sequence motifs. We establish a further relationship and demonstrate that some goats, infected with CAEV, possess gp135-specific antibodies which cross-react with gp120 from several HIV strains, provided the protein is expressed in insect cells. We show that, although the cross-reactivity of these immunoglobulins depends on the level of glycosylation, nevertheless, some antibodies recognize the protein epitopes on gp120, at least some of which are linear in character. Further characterization of this unexpected cross-reaction will define its potential therapeutic utility

  9. Critical appraisal and update on tenofovir in management of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Elena Alvarez1, Judit Morello1, Vincent Soriano2, Pablo Labarga2, Sonia Rodriguez-Nóvoa11Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Unit, Service of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Tenofovir is currently one of the most widely used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV due to its good efficacy, tolerability, and convenience as a once-daily dosage. It is a drug of choice both for first-line therapy in naïve and pretreated patients, along with two other active drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy. Moreover, tenofovir can be used to treat hepatitis B virus-infected patients as well as coinfected patients who meet criteria to be treated for HIV or hepatitis B virus infection, and more recently some studies have supported its use as part of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Although large clinical trials and postmarketing studies have shown a gentle renal profile for tenofovir, some prospective cohort studies and case reports have raised concern about renal damage and bone disorders associated with use of tenofovir in a small proportion of patients, and apprehension lingers over its long-term usage. Renal toxicity from tenofovir seems to be linked to tubular damage, so classical markers for monitoring renal function that mainly assess glomerular function would not be advisable to detect early renal impairment. Management of toxicity associated with tenofovir should be based on assessment of optimal biomarkers for the detection and monitoring of renal disease.Keywords: tenofovir, antiretroviral treatment, kidney, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B

  10. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  11. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus and nodular regenerative hyperplasia of liver: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archita; Sood; Mariana; Castrejón; Sammy; Saab

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnosis, pathogenesis, natural history, and management of nodular regenerative hyperplasia(NRH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV). METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the medical literature regarding NRH in patients with HIV. Inclusion criteria include reports with biopsy proven NRH. We studied the clinical features of NRH, in particular, related to its presenting manifestation and laboratory values. Combinations of the following keywords were implemented: "nodular regenerative hyperplasia", "human immunodeficiency virus", "noncirrhotic portal hypertension", "idiopathic portal hypertension", "cryptogenic liver disease", "highly active antiretroviral therapy" and "didanosine". The bibliographies of these studies were subsequently searched for any additional relevant publications.RESULTS: The clinical presentation of patients with NRH varies from patients being completely asymptomatic to the development of portal hypertension – namely esophageal variceal bleeding and ascites. Liver associated enzymes are generally normal and synthetic function well preserved. There is a strong association between the occurrence of NRH and the use of antiviral therapies such as didanosine. The management of NRH revolves around treating the manifestations of portal hypertension. The prognosis of NRH is generally good since liver function is preserved. A high index of suspicion is required to make a identify NRH. CONCLUSION: The appropriate management of HIVinfected persons with suspected NRH is yet to be outlined. However, NRH is a clinically subtle condition that is difficult to diagnose, and it is important to be able to manage it according to the best available evidence.

  13. Optimization of the doxycycline-dependent simian immunodeficiency virus through in vitro evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piatak Mike

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination of macaques with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV provides significant protection against the wild-type virus. The use of a live attenuated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV as AIDS vaccine in humans is however considered unsafe because of the risk that the attenuated virus may accumulate genetic changes during persistence and evolve to a pathogenic variant. We earlier presented a conditionally live HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively in the presence of doxycycline (dox. Replication of this vaccine strain can be limited to the time that is needed to provide full protection through transient dox administration. Since the effectiveness and safety of such a conditionally live virus vaccine should be tested in macaques, we constructed a similar dox-dependent SIV variant. The Tat-TAR transcription control mechanism in this virus was inactivated through mutation and functionally replaced by the dox-inducible Tet-On regulatory system. This SIV-rtTA variant replicated in a dox-dependent manner in T cell lines, but not as efficiently as the parental SIVmac239 strain. Since macaque studies will likely require an efficiently replicating variant, we set out to optimize SIV-rtTA through in vitro viral evolution. Results Upon long-term culturing of SIV-rtTA, additional nucleotide substitutions were observed in TAR that affect the structure of this RNA element but that do not restore Tat binding. We demonstrate that the bulge and loop mutations that we had introduced in the TAR element of SIV-rtTA to inactivate the Tat-TAR mechanism, shifted the equilibrium between two alternative conformations of TAR. The additional TAR mutations observed in the evolved variants partially or completely restored this equilibrium, which suggests that the balance between the two TAR conformations is important for efficient viral replication. Moreover, SIV-rtTA acquired mutations in the U3 promoter region. We demonstrate

  14. Avian influenza: potential impact on sub-Saharan military populations with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-07-01

    Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease. Two possible scenarios have been postulated regarding how such a coinfection of HIV and H5N1 might present. (1) Soldiers already weakened by HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome rapidly succumb to H5N1. The cause of death is a "cytokine storm," essentially a runaway inflammatory response. (2) The weakened immune system prevents the cytokine storm from occurring; however, H5N1 is still present, replicating, and being shed, leading to the infection of others. A cytokine storm is particularly dangerous for individuals of military age, as evidenced by the large number of soldiers who died during the 1918 influenza epidemic. If large numbers of sub-Saharan soldiers suffer a similar fate from avian influenza, then military and political instability could develop.

  15. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  16. Quantification of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus by SYBR Green RT-PCR Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LU; Li QIN; Guang-jie LIU; Si-ting ZHAO; Xiao-ping CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Plasma viral RNA load is widely accepted as the most relevant parameter to assess the status and progression of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. To accurately measure RNA levels of the virus, a one-step fluorescent quantitative assay was established based on the SYBR green Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The lower detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per reaction for the virus. This method was successfully applied to quantify SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 viruses produced in CEM×174 cells. Additionally, the performance of the SYBR green RT-PCR was assessed in a SIVmac251 infected rhesus macaque. The result demonstrated that the method could detect as little as 215 copies per milliliter of plasma and the dynamic pattern of viral load was highly consistent with previous results. With regard to convenience, sensitivity and accuracy our assay represents a realistic alternative to both branched-chain DNA (b-DNA) assays or real-time PCR assays based on TaqMan probes.

  17. R5 to X4 coreceptor switch of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 B' and B'/C recombinant subtype isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-fang; ZHANG Xiao-yan; RUAN Yu-hua; ZHANG Yao-xin; SHAO Yi-ming; MA Li-ying; YUAN Lin; WANG Shu-hua; SUN Jian-ping; XU Wei-si; Xu Jian-qing; XING Hui; HONG Kun-xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 play an important role as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entring into cells.HIV-1 isolates can be distinguished by the chemokine coreceptors. Nonsyncytium inducing (NSI), macrophage tropic viruses utilizing CCR5, are called R5 viruses;syncytium inducing (SI) isolates use CXCR4 and known as X4 viruses.

  18. Bile salt-stimulated lipase from human milk binds DC-SIGN and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transfer to CD4(+) T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Naarding; A.M. Dirac; I.S. Ludwig; D. Speijer; S. Lindquist; E.L. Vestman; M.J. Stax; T.B.H. Geijtenbeek; G. Pollakis; O. Hernell; W.A. Paxton

    2006-01-01

    A wide range of pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus, Ebola virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, Mycobacterium, Leishmania, and Helicobacter pylori, can interact with dendritic cell (DC)-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), expressed on DCs a

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus-negative plasmablastic lymphoma: a comprehensive analysis of 114 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Bailong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qiang; Ding, Lijuan; Xia, Chengcheng; Dong, Lihua

    2015-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-negative plasma-blastic lymphoma (PBL) is an extremely rare entity. Its clinicopathological features, optimal treatment strategy and prognostic factors remain obsure. An extensive search was performed in the English language literature within the Pubmed database using the key words: 'plasmablastic lymphoma and human immunodeficiency virus-negative or immunocompetent'. Data from 114 patients from 52 articles were analyzed. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 58.90 years (range, 2-86). HIV-negative PBL showed a predilection for elderly individuals (patients older than 60 years, 56.14%) and affected more males than females (M:F, 2.29:1). Ann Arbor stage IV patients accounted for 39.22% while bone marrow involvement was less frequent (12.79%). The Ki-67 index was high with a mean expression of 83%. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was common being positive in 58.70% of the patients while herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection was rare being positive in only 7.55% of the patients. Immunosuppression was noted in 28.16% of patients. The median overall survival (OS) was 19 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 52.3 and 45.3%, respectively. Age, gender and primary site showed no strong relationship with OS while Immunosuppression, Ann Arbor stage IV and EBV negativity were able to predict a poorer OS. Either complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) was superior to the refractory group in OS (P<0.0001 and P=0.0066, respectively). For stage Ⅰ patients, the application of radiotherapy did not improve the OS. In conclusion, HIV-negative PBL is a distinct entity likely occurring in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. Immunosuppression status, Ann Arbor stage IV, EBV negativity and refractory to treatment are poor prognostic factors of OS in HIV-negative PBL. PMID:25695332

  20. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protein Tat Induces Synapse Loss via a Reversible Process that is Distinct from Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Jung; Martemyanov, Kirill A.; Thayer, Stanley A.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of the CNS produces changes in dendritic morphology that correlate with cognitive decline in patients with HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). Here we investigated the effects of HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat), a protein released by virus-infected cells, on synapses between hippocampal neurons using an imaging-based assay that quantified clusters of the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density 95 fused to green fluorescent protein (PSD9...

  2. Continuous Viral Escape and Selection by Autologous Neutralizing Antibodies in Drug-Naïve Human Immunodeficiency Virus Controllers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Jayaraman, Pushpa; Miura, Toshiyuki; Pereyra, Florencia; Chester, E. Michael; Richardson, Barbra; Walker, Bruce; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed differences in the character and specificity of autologous neutralizing antibodies (ANAbs) against individual viral variants of the quasispecies in a cohort of drug-naïve subjects with long-term controlled human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and moderate levels of broad heterologous neutralizing antibodies (HNAb). Functional plasma virus showed continuous env evolution despite a short time frame and low levels of viral replication. Neutralization-sensitive varian...

  3. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  4. Evolution of Envelope Sequences of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Cellular Reservoirs in the Setting of Potent Antiviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gunthard, HF; Frost, SDW; Leigh Brown, AJ; Ignacio, CC; Kee, K; Perelson, AS; Spina, CA; Havlir, DV; Hezareh, M; Looney, DJ; Richman, DD; Wong, JK

    1999-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with potent antiretroviral therapy, the persistence of latently infected cells may reflect the long decay half-life of this cellular reservoir or ongoing viral replication at low levels with continuous replenishment of the population or both. To address these possibilities, sequences encompassing the C2 and V3 domains of HIV-1 env were analyzed from virus present in baseline plasma and from viral isolates obtained after 2 years o...

  5. A Novel Nonnucleoside Analogue That Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates Resistant to Current Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhijun; Xu, Wen; Koh, Yung-hyo; Shim, Jae Hoon; Girardet, Jean-Luc; Yeh, Li-Tain; Hamatake, Robert K.; Hong, Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) are important components of current combination therapies for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, their low genetic barriers against resistance development, cross-resistance, and serious side effects can compromise the benefits of the two current drugs in this class (efavirenz and nevirapine). In this study, we report a novel and potent NNRTI, VRX-480773, that inhibits viruses from efavirenz-resistant mol...

  6. Envelope gene sequences encoding variable regions 3 and 4 are involved in macrophage tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Vahlenkamp, T.W.; Ronde, A. de; Schuurman, N.M.P.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Drunen, J. van; Egberink, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    The envelope is of cardinal importance for the entry of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) into its host cells, which consist of cells of the immune system including macrophages. To characterize the envelope glycoprotein determinants involved in macrophage tropism, chimeric infectious molecular clo

  7. Vaccination with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, based on autologous infected cells, elicits enhancement of homologous challenge infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Karlas (Jos); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); M.A. Peer; W. Huisman (Willem); A.M. Cuisinier; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCats were vaccinated with fixed autologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cells in order to present viral proteins to the immune system of individual cats in an MHC-matched fashion. Upon vaccination, a humoral response against Gag was induced. Furthermore,

  8. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication with artificial transcription factors targeting the highly conserved primer-binding site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Eberhardy; J. Goncalves; S. Coelho; D.J. Segal; B. Berkhout; C.F. Barbas

    2006-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primer-binding site (PBS) is a highly conserved region in the HIV genome and represents an attractive target for the development of new anti-HIV therapies. In this study, we designed four artificial zinc finger transcription factors to bind at or adjac

  9. SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO THE HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS IN DIALYSIS WORKERS - RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERLYNE, G; KACZMAREK, RG; HAMBURGER, S; HAMILTON, P; MOORE, RM; CHARNEY, AN; KAHN, T; GRUBER, M; KAUFMAN, CE; GOFFINET, J; BERNARD, MA

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Devices and Radiological Health, in collaboration with the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., conducted a multi-center, multi-institutional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among dialysis workers. Seven dia

  10. Adherence and acceptability of once daily Lamivudine and abacavir in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LePrevost, M.; Green, H.; Flynn, J.; Head, S.; Clapson, M.; Lyall, H.; Novelli, V.; Farrelly, L.; Walker, A.S.; Burger, D.M.; Gibb, D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on adherence to and acceptability of once daily lamivudine and abacavir are few. METHODS: Twenty-four U.K. human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected children 2-13 years of age participated in the Pediatric European Network for the Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) 13 single arm, open lab

  11. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA in cultured human glial cells by means of the polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjaerg, L L; Hansen, J E; Dalbøge, H;

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of viral genomic sequences in latently infected cells. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus in cultures of human glial cells was demonstrated, using nucleic acid amplification followed by dot blot...

  12. Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizeng, Q; Nilsson, C; Sourial, S;

    2004-01-01

    the resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection are still not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the HIV-2-specific humoral serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune response in HIV-2-exposed IgG-seronegative (EGSN) individuals. Serum samples from heterosexual EGSN individuals...

  13. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus specific antibodies in cats with an attenuated Salmonella strain expressing the Gag protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); J.A. Karlas (Jos); M.C. Burger; F.R. Mooi (Frits); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSalmonella typhimurium aroA strains (SL3261), expressing high levels of the Gag protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) fused with maltose binding protein (SL3261-MFG), were constructed using an invertible promoter system that allows the stable expression of heterologous antigens

  14. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ulrik B;

    2003-01-01

    The pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is not fully clarified. We investigated 18 men with HALS and 18 HIV-positive males without lipodystrophy (control subjects). Duration and modality of antiretroviral therapy were...

  15. Dendritic cells are less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than to HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Duvall (Melody); K. Loré (Karin); H. Blaak (Hetty); D.A. Ambrozak (David); W.C. Adams (William); K. Santos (Kathlyn); C. Geldmacher (Christof); J.R. Mascola (John); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); A. Jaye (Assan); H. Whittle; S.L. Rowland-Jones (Sarah); R.A. Koup (Richard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dendritic cells (DCs) has been documented in vivo and may be an important contributor to HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. HIV-1-specific CD4+T cells respond to HIV antigens presented by HIV-1-infected DCs and in this process be

  16. R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of fetal thymic organ culture induces cytokine and CCR5 expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhary, S.K.; Choudhary, N.R.; Kimbrell, K.C.; Colasanti, J.; Ziogas, A.; Kwa, D.; Schuitemaker, H.; Camerini, D.

    2005-01-01

    Late-stage CCR5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates (R5 HIV-1) can deplete nearly all CD4+ thymocytes from human thymus/liver grafts, despite the fact that fewer than 5% of these cells express CCR5. To resolve this paradox, we studied the replication and cytopathic effects (C

  17. Clinical manifestations of cytomegalovirus-associated posterior uveitis and panuveitis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pathanapitoon (Kessara); N. Tesavibul (Nattaporn); P. Choopong (Pitipol); S. Boonsopon (Sutasinee); N. Kongyai (Natedao); S. Ausayakhun (Somsanguan); P. Kunavisarut (Paradee); A. Rothova (Aniki)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractImportance: Little attention has been paid to clinical features of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and comorbidities of patients without HIV infection who have CMV-associated po

  18. Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIlleron Helen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampin is a key drug in antituberculosis chemotherapy because it rapidly kills the majority of bacilli in tuberculosis lesions, prevents relapse and thus enables 6-month short-course chemotherapy. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children with tuberculosis, both human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected. Methods Fifty-four children, 21 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 33 human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected, mean ages 3.73 and 4.05 years (P = 0.68, respectively, admitted to a tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa with severe forms of tuberculosis were studied approximately 1 month and 4 months after commencing antituberculosis treatment. Blood specimens for analysis were drawn in the morning, 45 minutes, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 hours after dosing. Rifampin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For two sample comparisons of means, the Welch version of the t-test was used; associations between variables were examined by Pearson correlation and by multiple linear regression. Results The children received a mean rifampin dosage of 9.61 mg/kg (6.47 to 15.58 body weight at 1 month and 9.63 mg/kg (4.63 to 17.8 at 4 months after commencing treatment administered as part of a fixed-dose formulation designed for paediatric use. The mean rifampin area under the curve 0 to 6 hours after dosing was 14.9 and 18.1 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.25 1 month after starting treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children, respectively, and 16.52 and 17.94 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.59 after 4 months of treatment. The mean calculated 2-hour rifampin concentrations in these human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children were 3.9 and 4.8

  19. Long-term use of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy is not associated with carotid artery stiffness in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohui Zhu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether or not highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with carotid artery stiffness in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Henan Province, China. Method: Fifty human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with at least a 5-year history of highly active antiretroviral therapy use and 50 human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients without a history of highly active antiretroviral therapy use were enrolled in this study. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and stiffness were determined by quantitative inter-media thickness and quantitative artery stiffness, respectively. Results: No statistically significant difference in carotid artery intima-media thickness and stiffness was observed between groups. A significant association between human immunodeficiency virus infection time and carotid artery stiffness was observed, but no significant association between human immunodeficiency virus infection time and intima-media thickness was found. No significant association between intima-media thickness, stiffness, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were observed. Conclusion: The first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy currently used in China is not associated with carotid artery stiffness in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with good highly active antiretroviral therapy compliance. Human immunodeficiency virus may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis.

  20. Fluorometric determination of 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate, the active metabolite of a new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drug, in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, F; Kelley, J A; Zhang, H; Malinowski, N; Kavlick, M F; Lietzau, J; Welles, L; Yarchoan, R; Ford, H

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive precolumn derivatization method has been developed to measure the 5'-triphosphate of 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (F-ddA, lodenosine), a new anti-HIV drug, in human lymphocytes by HPLC using fluorescence detection. Reaction of chloroacetaldehyde with F-ddA triphosphate in extracts from human lymphocytes produces a highly fluorescent etheno adduct. This derivative is then separated and quantitated by reverse-phase paired-ion chromatography. Degradation of natural nucleic acid ribosides, such as ATP, using periodate oxidation simplifies the chromatogram and minimizes interference with detection of the target analyte. This method, modeled using cultured MOLT-4 T-lymphocytes, achieves a linear detector response for peak area measurements over the range 2.5 to 22.5 pmol (50-450 nM using 50 microl sample). Analyte recovery is greater than 90%, and the method achieves a limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 1.4 and 2.5 pmol per HPLC injection (50 microl sample containing cellular extract from 2.5 x 10(6) cells), respectively. Application of this method to measure F-ddATP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients treated with F-ddA at 3.2 mg/kg twice daily for 22 days shows F-ddATP levels which range from 1.5 to 3.5 pmol/10(6) cells. PMID:11141306

  1. In Vitro Preclinical Testing of Nonoxynol-9 as Potential Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Microbicide: a Retrospective Analysis of Results from Five Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Brigitte E.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Krebs, Fred C.; Shattock, Robin J.; Fletcher, Patricia S.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Cummins, James E.; Bromley, Ena; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Pallansch, Luke A.; Lackman-Smith, Carol; Osterling, Clay; Mankowski, Marie; Miller, Shendra R.; Catalone, Bradley J.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Howett, Mary K.; Wigdahl, Brian; Turpin, Jim A.; Reichelderfer, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The first product to be clinically evaluated as a microbicide contained the nonionic surfactant nonoxynol-9 (nonylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol; N-9). Many laboratories have used N-9 as a control compound for microbicide assays. However, no published comparisons of the results among laboratories or attempts to establish standardized protocols for preclinical testing of microbicides have been performed. In this study, we compared results from 127 N-9 toxicity and 72 efficacy assays that were generated in five different laboratories over the last six years and were performed with 14 different cell lines or tissues. Intra-assay reproducibility was measured at two-, three-, and fivefold differences using standard deviations. Interassay reproducibility was assessed using general linear models, and interaction between variables was studied using step-wise regression. The intra-assay reproducibility within the same N-9 concentration, cell type, assay duration, and laboratory was consistent at the twofold level of standard deviations. For interassay reproducibility, cell line, duration of assay, and N-9 concentration were all significant sources of variability (P 24 h) and short (<2 h) exposures of cells to N-9 showed variability, while assays with 4 to 8 h of N-9 exposure gave results that were not significantly different. This is the first analysis to compare preclinical N-9 toxicity levels that were obtained by different laboratories using various protocols. This comparative work can be used to develop standardized microbicide testing protocols that will help advance potential microbicides to clinical trials. PMID:16436731

  2. Induction of humoral and cell-mediated anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) responses in HIV sero-negative volunteers by immunization with recombinant gp160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, J A; Vasudevachari, M B; Easter, M; Davey, R T; Falloon, J; Polis, M A; Metcalf, J A; Salzman, N; Baseler, M; Smith, G E

    1993-01-01

    Development of an effective vaccine for prevention of infection with HIV would provide an important mechanism for controlling the AIDS epidemic. In the current study, the first clinical trial of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine initiated in the United States, the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses (10-1,280 micrograms) of recombinant gp160 (rgp160), were evaluated in 138 HIV-negative volunteers. Maximal antibody responses, as evaluated by ELISA, were seen after immunization with three doses of 1,280 micrograms rgp160. Responses to some specific epitopes of HIV gp160, including the second conserved domain and the CD4 binding site, were seen more frequently than after natural infection. Neutralizing antibodies to the homologous HIV strain, but not heterologous strains, were induced by this regimen. Blastogenic responses to rgp160 were seen in most volunteers receiving at least two doses of > or = 20 micrograms. These envelope-specific T cell responses were also seen against heterologous strains of HIV. No major adverse reactions were seen after immunization. Thus, rgp160 is a safe and immunogenic candidate HIV vaccine; further studies are needed to determine if it will provide any clinical benefit in preventing HIV infection. Images PMID:7688766

  3. Priming of Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) CD8^+ Cytotoxic T Cells in vivo by Carrier-Free HIV Synthetic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mary Kate; Weinhold, Kent J.; Scearce, Richard M.; Washburn, Eileen M.; Clark, Cynthia A.; Palker, Thomas J.; Haynes, Barton F.

    1991-11-01

    The generation of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a critical component of the immune response to viral infections. A safe and nontoxic vaccine for AIDS would optimally use a carrier-free synthetic peptide immunogen containing only components of HIV necessary for induction of protective immune responses. We report that hybrid synthetic peptides containing either a HIV envelope gp120 T-cell determinant (T1) or the envelope gp41 fusion domain (F) N-terminal to HIV CTL determinants are capable of priming murine CD8^+, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted anti-HIV CTLs in vivo. These data demonstrate that carrier-free, nonderivatized synthetic peptides can be used in vivo to induce anti-HIV CTL responses.

  4. In Vitro Preclinical Testing of Nonoxynol-9 as Potential Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Microbicide: a Retrospective Analysis of Results from Five Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Brigitte E.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Krebs, Fred C.; Shattock, Robin J; Fletcher, Patricia S.; Buckheit, Robert W; Watson, Karen; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Cummins, James E.; Bromley, Ena; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Pallansch, Luke A.; Lackman-Smith, Carol; Osterling, Clay; Mankowski, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The first product to be clinically evaluated as a microbicide contained the nonionic surfactant nonoxynol-9 (nonylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol; N-9). Many laboratories have used N-9 as a control compound for microbicide assays. However, no published comparisons of the results among laboratories or attempts to establish standardized protocols for preclinical testing of microbicides have been performed. In this study, we compared results from 127 N-9 toxicity and 72 efficacy assays that were genera...

  5. In vitro preclinical testing of nonoxynol-9 as potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus microbicide: a retrospective analysis of results from five laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Brigitte E; Doncel, Gustavo F; Krebs, Fred C; Shattock, Robin J; Fletcher, Patricia S; Buckheit, Robert W; Watson, Karen; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Cummins, James E; Bromley, Ena; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Pallansch, Luke A; Lackman-Smith, Carol; Osterling, Clay; Mankowski, Marie; Miller, Shendra R; Catalone, Bradley J; Welsh, Patricia A; Howett, Mary K; Wigdahl, Brian; Turpin, Jim A; Reichelderfer, Patricia

    2006-02-01

    The first product to be clinically evaluated as a microbicide contained the nonionic surfactant nonoxynol-9 (nonylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol; N-9). Many laboratories have used N-9 as a control compound for microbicide assays. However, no published comparisons of the results among laboratories or attempts to establish standardized protocols for preclinical testing of microbicides have been performed. In this study, we compared results from 127 N-9 toxicity and 72 efficacy assays that were generated in five different laboratories over the last six years and were performed with 14 different cell lines or tissues. Intra-assay reproducibility was measured at two-, three-, and fivefold differences using standard deviations. Interassay reproducibility was assessed using general linear models, and interaction between variables was studied using step-wise regression. The intra-assay reproducibility within the same N-9 concentration, cell type, assay duration, and laboratory was consistent at the twofold level of standard deviations. For interassay reproducibility, cell line, duration of assay, and N-9 concentration were all significant sources of variability (P concentrations for N-9 were similar between laboratories for assays of similar exposure durations, but these similarities decreased with lower test concentrations of N-9. Results for both long (>24 h) and short (levels that were obtained by different laboratories using various protocols. This comparative work can be used to develop standardized microbicide testing protocols that will help advance potential microbicides to clinical trials. PMID:16436731

  6. Early myeloid dendritic cell dysregulation is predictive of disease progression in simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viskam Wijewardana

    Full Text Available Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC are lost from blood in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection but the mechanism for this loss and its relationship to disease progression are not known. We studied the mDC response in blood and lymph nodes of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected rhesus macaques with different disease outcomes. Early changes in blood mDC number were inversely correlated with virus load and reflective of eventual disease outcome, as animals with stable infection that remained disease-free for more than one year had average increases in blood mDC of 200% over preinfection levels at virus set-point, whereas animals that progressed rapidly to AIDS had significant loss of mDC at this time. Short term antiretroviral therapy (ART transiently reversed mDC loss in progressor animals, whereas discontinuation of ART resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in mDC over preinfection levels only in stable animals, approaching 10-fold in some cases. Progressive SIV infection was associated with increased CCR7 expression on blood mDC and an 8-fold increase in expression of CCL19 mRNA in lymph nodes, consistent with increased mDC recruitment. Paradoxically, lymph node mDC did not accumulate in progressive infection but rather died from caspase-8-dependent apoptosis that was reduced by ART, indicating that increased recruitment is offset by increased death. Lymph node mDC from both stable and progressor animals remained responsive to exogenous stimulation with a TLR7/8 agonist. These data suggest that mDC are mobilized in SIV infection but that an increase in the CCR7-CCL19 chemokine axis associated with high virus burden in progressive infection promotes exodus of activated mDC from blood into lymph nodes where they die from apoptosis. We suggest that inflamed lymph nodes serve as a sink for mDC through recruitment, activation and death that contributes to AIDS pathogenesis.

  7. The relationship between personality traits and AIDS in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS. PMID:27208456

  8. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while anti-retroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CONCLUSIONS A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  9. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4(+) cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  10. Pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients: A study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shreevidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-reactive patients are more prone to infections. The morbidity and mortality in HIV-reactive patients is due to opportunistic infections. Most of the infections seen in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome are endemic to that geographical region. Hence, this study was undertaken to document the occurrence of pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Expectorated and induced sputum samples were collected from 100 HIV-reactive patients and processed for bacterial and fungal pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii. Results: Of 100 samples, 66 were culture positive. Among the isolates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis constituted the highest number, 55 (83.3%, followed by other bacterial infections, 11 (16.6%, and fungi, 2 (3.03%. Tuberculosis patients had a CD4 count of less than 250 cells/μl with a mean count of 186 cells/μl and those with bacterial infections had a CD4 count of more than 300 cells/μl. The study showed that males were infected with HIV more than females and most of them belonged to the adult age group in the prime of their working life. Weight loss followed by fever and cough were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: M. tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic pathogen followed by bacterial pathogens infecting the lung in HIV. Low CD4 count is a dangerous signal of decreased immune status and higher chances of opportunistic infections and high mortality.

  11. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  12. 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, J; Walker, M C; Leclerc, J M; Lapointe, N; Beaulieu, R; Thibodeau, L

    1990-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents which affect the integration, stability, or inducibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus would have considerable value in treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Two nucleoside analogs of cytosine, 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine, which seem to have such value because of their capabilities to affect both the stability and the methylation patterns of the nucleic acids into which they are incorporated, were tested for their ability to inhibit the replication of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in human CEM T cells in vitro. 5-Azadeoxycytidine (1 microM) completely inhibited HIV replication in CEM cells, by the criteria of reduced viral antigen expression and decreased supernatant reverse transcriptase activity, with little toxicity for the treated cells. 5-azacytidine (1 microM) also inhibited HIV replication, but less effectively. When added 2 or more h after CEM cells were infected with HIV-1, both 5-azacytosine derivatives were less effective than they were when added at the time of infection. Even 2 h of exposure to 5-azadeoxycytidine was sufficient for inhibition of HIV replication. Although long exposure to either analog at concentrations of 1 microM would result in pronounced cellular cytotoxicity, the the fact that short exposures to the same dose of drug inhibit HIV replication but are not toxic for the cells implies that cellular toxicity itself is not an important mechanism of the antiviral action of the analogs. PMID:1691617

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  14. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia. PMID:24047742

  15. Aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudo, A; Rassenti, L; Havlir, D; Richman, D; Feigal, E; Kipps, T J

    1998-08-15

    We examined the IgM VH gene subgroup use-distribution in serial blood samples of 37 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and a group of HIV-seronegative healthy adults. The IgM VH gene repertoires of healthy adults were relatively similar to one another and were stable over time. In contrast, individuals infected with HIV had IgM VH gene repertoires that were significantly more heterogeneous and unstable. Persons at early stages of HIV infection generally had abnormal expression levels of Ig VH3 genes and frequently displayed marked fluctuations in the relative expression levels of this VH gene subgroup over time. In contrast, persons with established acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a significantly lower incidence of abnormalities in Ig VH3 expression levels, although continued to display abnormalities and instability in the expression levels of the smaller Ig VH gene subgroups. Moreover, the skewing and/or fluctuations in the expressed-IgM VH gene repertoire appeared greatest for persons at earlier stages of HIV infection. These studies show that persons infected with HIV have aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes suggestive of a high degree humoral immune dysregulation and ongoing humoral immune responses to HIV-associated antigens and superantigens.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 endocytic trafficking through macrophage bridging conduits facilitates spread of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiu, Irena; Gendelman, Howard E

    2011-12-01

    Bridging conduits (BC) sustain communication and homeostasis between distant tethered cells. These are also exploited commonly for direct cell-to-cell transfer of microbial agents. Conduits efficiently spread infection, effectively, at speeds faster than fluid phase exchange while shielding the microbe against otherwise effective humoral immunity. Our laboratory has sought to uncover the mechanism(s) for these events for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection. Indeed, in our prior works HIV-1 Env and Gag antigen and fluorescent virus tracking were shown sequestered into endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi organelles but the outcomes for spreading viral infection remained poorly defined. Herein, we show that HIV-1 specifically traffics through endocytic compartments contained within BC and directing such macrophage-to-macrophage viral transfers. Following clathrin-dependent viral entry, HIV-1 constituents bypass degradation by differential sorting from early to Rab11(+) recycling endosomes and multivesicular bodies. Virus-containing endocytic viral cargoes propelled by myosin II through BC spread to neighboring uninfected cells. Disruption of endosomal motility with cytochalasin D, nocodasole and blebbistatin diminish intercellular viral spread. These data lead us to propose that HIV-1 hijacks macrophage endocytic and cytoskeletal machineries for high-speed cell-to-cell spread.

  17. Hepatitis B and C infection and liver disease trends among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan E Buskin; Elizabeth A Barash; John D Scott; David M Aboulafia; Robert W Wood

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine trends in and correlates of liver disease and viral hepatitis in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cohort.METHODS: The multi-site adult/adolescent spectrum of HIV-related diseases (ASD) followed 29 490 HIVinfected individuals receiving medical care in 11 U.S.metropolitan areas for an average of 2.4 years, and a total of 69 487 person-years, between 1998 and 2004.ASD collected data on the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of HIV, including liver disease, hepatitis screening, and hepatitis diagnoses.RESULTS: Incident liver disease, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were diagnosed in 0.9, 1.8, and 4.7 per 100 person-years.HBV and HCV screening increased from fewer than 20% to over 60% during this period of observation (P < 0.001).Deaths occurred in 57% of those diagnosed with liver disease relative to 15% overall (P < 0.001).Overall 10% of deaths occurred among individuals with a diagnosis of liver disease.Despite care guidelines promoting screening and vaccination for HBV and screening for HCV, screening and vaccination were not universally conducted or, if conducted, not documented.CONCLUSION: Due to high rates of incident liver disease, viral hepatitis screening, vaccination, and treatment among HIV-infected individuals should be a priority.

  18. Structure-function studies of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein, p17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, P M; Matthews, S; Clark, N; Byles, E D; Iourin, O; Hockley, D J; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1997-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein, p17, plays important roles in both the early and late stages of the viral life cycle. Using our previously determined solution structure of p17, we have undertaken a rational mutagenesis program aimed at mapping structure-function relationships within the molecule. Amino acids hypothesized to be important for p17 function were mutated and examined for effect in an infectious proviral clone of HIV-1. In parallel, we analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the structure of recombinant p17 protein containing such substitutions. These analyses identified three classes of mutants that were defective in viral replication: (i) proteins containing substitutions at internal residues that grossly distorted the structure of recombinant p17 and prevented viral particle formation, (ii) mutations at putative p17 trimer interfaces that allowed correct folding of recombinant protein but produced virus that was defective in particle assembly, and (iii) substitution of basic residues in helix A that caused some relocation of virus assembly to intracellular locations and produced normally budded virions that were completely noninfectious. PMID:9094619

  19. Detachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from germinal centers by blocking complement receptor type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacani, L; Prodinger, W M; Sprinzl, G M; Schwendinger, M G; Spruth, M; Stoiber, H; Döpper, S; Steinhuber, S; Steindl, F; Dierich, M P

    2000-09-01

    After the transition from the acute to the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complement mediates long-term storage of virions in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. The contribution of particular complement receptors (CRs) to virus trapping in GC was studied on tonsillar specimens from HIV-infected individuals. CR2 (CD21) was identified as the main binding site for HIV in GC. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) blocking the CR2-C3d interaction were shown to detach 62 to 77% of HIV type 1 from tonsillar cells of an individual in the presymptomatic stage. Although they did so at a lower efficiency, these antibodies were able to remove HIV from tonsillar cells of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that the C3d-CR2 interaction remains a primary entrapment mechanism in treated patients as well. In contrast, removal of HIV was not observed with MAb blocking CR1 or CR3. Thus, targeting CR2 may facilitate new approaches toward a reduction of residual virus in GC. PMID:10933708

  20. Detachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from germinal centers by blocking complement receptor type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacani, L; Prodinger, W M; Sprinzl, G M; Schwendinger, M G; Spruth, M; Stoiber, H; Döpper, S; Steinhuber, S; Steindl, F; Dierich, M P

    2000-09-01

    After the transition from the acute to the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complement mediates long-term storage of virions in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. The contribution of particular complement receptors (CRs) to virus trapping in GC was studied on tonsillar specimens from HIV-infected individuals. CR2 (CD21) was identified as the main binding site for HIV in GC. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) blocking the CR2-C3d interaction were shown to detach 62 to 77% of HIV type 1 from tonsillar cells of an individual in the presymptomatic stage. Although they did so at a lower efficiency, these antibodies were able to remove HIV from tonsillar cells of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that the C3d-CR2 interaction remains a primary entrapment mechanism in treated patients as well. In contrast, removal of HIV was not observed with MAb blocking CR1 or CR3. Thus, targeting CR2 may facilitate new approaches toward a reduction of residual virus in GC.

  1. Expanding human immunodeficiency virus testing and counseling to reach tuberculosis clients' partners and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay-Quirk, C; Date, A; Bachanas, P; Baggaley, R; Getahun, H; Nelson, L; Granich, R

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have shown important increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC), diagnosis, and coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients. Expansion of HTC for partners and families are critical next steps to increase earlier HIV diagnoses and access to ART, and to achieve international goals for reduced TB and HIV-related morbidity, mortality, transmission and costs. TB and HIV programs should develop and evaluate feasible and effective strategies to increase access to HTC among the partners and families of TB patients, and ensure that newly diagnosed people living with HIV and HIV-infected TB patients who complete anti-tuberculosis treatment are successfully linked to ongoing HIV clinical care.

  2. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeti, Kalyani; Khan, Rafay; Jehangir, Waqas; Zafar, Shoaib; Yousif, Abdalla; Sen, Shuvendu

    2016-06-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a relatively common disease of adulthood characterized by a typical combination of clinical and radiological findings. In this report, we discuss a 54-year-old female presenting with symptoms suggestive of NPH and found to have a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. She was not treated as she was in denial state and developed NPH as a possible complication. In the literature, there has only been one reported case of HIV type 2 causing NPH; however, no relationship has been properly documented with HIV type 1. These findings bring about a question on whether NPH is associated or a complication of HIV with awareness of this association. Earlier screening of HIV can be done in patients presenting with such symptoms, thus to prevent further progression of its complications. PMID:27222676

  3. "Anti-HBc alone" in human immunodeficiency virus-positive and immuno-suppressed lymphoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xuan Koo; Daniel SW Tan; Iain BH Tan; Richard Quek; Miriam Tao; Soon Thye Lim

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in various parts of the world. A proportion of patients have resolved prior exposure to HBV, as evidenced by the clearance of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen and the appearance of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), which could produce protective antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). With time, anti-HBs in some patients may become negative. Such patients are described as having occult HBV infection or "anti-HBc alone". In the context of immunodeficient patients, such as HIV patients or lymphoma patients undergoing immunosuppressive immunotherapy, the lack of protective anti-HBs may increase the risk of hepatitis B reactivation. Serum HBV DNA testing may be necessary in "anti-HBc alone" patients, to detect patients at a high risk of developing HBV infection allowing appropriate prophylactic management.

  4. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  6. Curcumin ameliorates hippocampal neuron damage induced by human immunodeficiency virus-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei Tang; Guoyin Xiong; Jun Dong; Rui Pan; Wenli Fang; Yanyan Xing; Dexi Chen; Xiaobao Chen; Yuanyuan Yu; Junbing Wang; Zheng Gong

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that infection with the gp120 V3 loop can cause human immunodeficiency virus-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. Curcumin has been shown to improve these effects to some degree, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. The present study analyzed the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of curcumin in relation to hippocampal neurons. Results showed that 1 nmol/L gp120 V3 loop suppressed the growth of synapses. After administration of 1 μmol/L curcumin, synaptic growth improved. Curcumin is neuroprotective against gp120 V3 loop-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting the activation of L-type calcium currents, relieving intracellular Ca2+ overload, promoting Bcl-2 expression, and inhibiting Bax activation. The effect of curcumin was identical to nimodipine, suggesting that curcumin has the same neuroprotective effects against gp120 V3 loop-induced neuronal damage.

  7. Diffuse interstitial lung infiltrates in a smoker with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanath P Vasudevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare interstitial lung disease characteristically affecting middle-aged smokers. It has unpredictable clinical course and may be associated with malignant neoplasms. Opportunistic lung infections are frequently considered when patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present with respiratory symptoms and an abnormal chest X-ray. Though fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is diagnostic for infectious etiologies, surgical lung biopsies are preferred to diagnose noninfectious lung diseases and to help guide appropriate therapy. In the present study, we report a case of progressive bilateral lung infiltrates in a smoker with HIV infection which presented a diagnostic dilemma in view of coexistent HIV infection. Analysis of clinical symptomatology aided by surgical lung biopsy helped in diagnosis.

  8. Peginterferon plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Marchesini, Emanuela; Iorio, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of peginterferon plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Trials were identified through manual and electronic searches. Randomized trials comparing peginterferon plus ribavirin...... with other antiviral treatments for patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV were included. The primary outcome measure was virological response at the end of treatment and after > or =6 months (sustained). Intention-to-treat meta-analyses including data on all patients who were randomized were carried out....... RESULTS: Seven randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. The patients included had chronic hepatitis C and stable HIV and were not previously treated with interferon or ribavirin (treatment naive). The mean dosages were 180 or 1.5 microg/kg once weekly for peginterferon and 800 mg daily for ribavirin...

  9. Bispecific Antibodies that Mediate Killing of Cells Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus of Any Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jorg; Lotscher, Erika; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Capon, Daniel J.; Baenziger, Jurg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1991-06-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro.

  10. CD4+ T Cell Depletion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Infection: Role of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Rebollo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is principally a mucosal disease and the gastrointestinal (GI tract is the major site of HIV replication. Loss of CD4+ T cells and systemic immune hyperactivation are the hallmarks of HIV infection. The end of acute infection is associated with the emergence of specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and the establishment of a chronic phase of infection. Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite a low steady state level of viremia. Although the causes of persistent immune hyperactivation remain incompletely characterized, physiological alterations of gastrointestinal tract probably play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT might impair the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier. This review discusses recent advances on understanding the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion to HIV pathogenesis.

  11. CD4+ T Cell Depletion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Role of Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Février, Michèle; Dorgham, Karim; Rebollo, Angelita

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is principally a mucosal disease and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the major site of HIV replication. Loss of CD4+ T cells and systemic immune hyperactivation are the hallmarks of HIV infection. The end of acute infection is associated with the emergence of specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and the establishment of a chronic phase of infection. Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite a low steady state level of viremia. Although the causes of persistent immune hyperactivation remain incompletely characterized, physiological alterations of gastrointestinal tract probably play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) might impair the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier. This review discusses recent advances on understanding the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:21994747

  12. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted. PMID:26560977

  13. Antiretroviral regimen and suboptimal medication adherence are associated with low-level human immunodeficiency virus viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Christina; Ribaudo, Heather; Ragland, Kathleen; Bangsberg, David R; Li, Jonathan Z

    2015-01-01

    Episodes of human immunodeficiency virus low-level viremia (LLV) are common in the clinical setting, but its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen and adherence remains unclear. Antiretroviral therapy adherence was evaluated in participants of the Research on Access to Care in the Homeless cohort by unannounced pill counts. Factors associated with increased risk of LLV include treatment with a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen (ritonavir-boosted PI vs nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor: adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; P = .01) and lower ART adherence over the past 3 months (HR, 1.1 per 5% decreased adherence, adjusted; P = .050). Patients with LLV may benefit from ART adherence counseling and potentially regimen modification. PMID:25884007

  14. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianna Helene Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.

  15. Salicylic acid inhibits UV- and Cis-Pt-induced human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of HeLa cells stably transfected with a human immunodeficiency virus-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (HIV-LTR-CAT) construct to UV light-induced expression from the HIV LTR. By culturing the cells with salicylic acid we demonstrated dose-dependent repression of this induced HIV expression. Repression was evident if salicylic acid was administered 2 h before, at the same time as, or up to 6 h after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent. The kinetics were similar for UV- and for cis-Pt-induced HIV expression, and induction was dependent on the UV dose or cis-Pt concentration added to the culture. These results suggest a role for the prostaglandins or the cyclooxygenase pathway or both in HIV induction mediated by DNA-damaging agents

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Melia, Michael T.; Silhan, Leann L.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) results from a hypersensitivity response to airways colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus, and it occurs most often in individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an indolent, but potentially progressive, disease in patients. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ABPA is rare, and its description in the literature is limited to case reports. We describe the occurrence of ABPA in a 37-year-old woman with well controlled HIV infection. This represents the first documented case of ABPA in an HIV-infected patient whose only pulmonary comorbidity included the ramifications of prior acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We also review prior case reports of ABPA in HIV-infected patients and consider risk factors for its development.

  17. Acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Kronborg, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is potentially blinding and often associated with contact lens wearing. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient, a non-contact lens wearer, presented with keratitis. She experienced a protracted course of disease, characterized by exacerbations and remissions......, and was treated with various topical antibiotics and steroids. 13 months after symptom onset the eye was removed owing to serious scarring of cornea and unbearable pain. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the cornea showed Acanthamoeba. In non-contact lens wearers suffering from Acanthamoeba...... keratitis the diagnosis is delayed, pathognomonic features are often not seen and visual outcome is usually poor. There is no known relation between HIV infection and Acanthamoeba keratitis....

  18. Imaging Appearance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis on the Diffusion Weighted Images: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hun Cheol; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Daejeon Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Keon Se [Dept. of Neurology, Daejeon Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Imaging finding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis contain bilateral, symmetric, patchy, or diffuse increased T2WI signal intensities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and centrum semiovale. In particular, the centrum semiovale is most commonly involved. Most of the HIV encephalitis cases are accompanied by brain atrophy. No previous study has reported symmetric increased signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale without brain atrophy on diffusion weighted images in HIV encephalitis patients. Here, we report a case of this. We suggest that radiologists should consider the possibility of HIV encephalitis if there are symmetric increases in signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale on diffusion weighted images of patients with a history of HIV infection.

  19. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia. PMID:24182418

  20. The Comparison of Genetic Variation in the Envelope Protein Between Various Immunodeficiency Viruses and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Yuan; Chang Liu; Zhipin Liang; Xueqing Chen; Danhong Diao; Xiaohong Kong

    2012-01-01

    The envelope protein(Env) of lentiviruses such as HIV,SIV,FIV and EIAV is larger than that of other retroviruses.The Chinese EIAV attenuated vaccine is based on Env and has helped to successfully control this virus,demonstrating that envelope is crucial for vaccine.We compared Env variation of the four kinds of lentiviruses.Phylogenetic analysis showed that the evolutionary relationship of Env between HIV and SIV was the closest and they appeared to descend from a common ancestor,and the relationship of HIV and EIAV was the furthest.EIAV had the shortest Env length and the least number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites(PNGS) as well as glycosylation density compared to various immunodeficiency viruses.However,HIV had the longest Env length and the most PNGS.Moreover,the alignment of HIV and SIV showed that PNGS were primarily distributed within extracellular membrane protein gp120 rather than transmembrane gp41.It implies that the size difference among these viruses is associated with a lentivirus specific function and also the diversity of env.There are low levels of modification of glycosylation sites of Env and selection of optimal protective epitopes might be useful for development of an effective vaccine against HIV/AIDS.

  1. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C;

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N...

  2. Vaccine-induced virus-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T cells do not protect macaques from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac32H (J5).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); A.M. Geretti (Anna Maria); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.P. Cranage (Martin); E. Rud; S.G. Norley (Stephen); P. de Vries (Petra); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTo gain further insight into the ability of subunit vaccines to protect monkeys from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), two groups of cynomolgus macaques were immunized with either recombinant SIVmac32H-derived envelope glycoproteins (Env) incorporated into

  3. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Erhabor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Erhabor1, Z A Jeremiah2, T C Adias1, Okere CE21Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilbeforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75. The subjects studied were 36 male (30% and 84 females (70%. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25% were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80% compared to males 6 (20% and among singles (66.7% compared to married subjects (33.3% (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001. HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40% followed by the 18–28 year age group (20% (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01. This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, tuberculosis, TB, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  5. The Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention and Reproductive Health Text Messages on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Young Women in Rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, Njambi; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Sambu, Carrole; Sianyo, Christopher; Gakuo, Stephen; Irungu, Elizabeth; Baeten, Jared; Heffron, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Background More than half of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals in Kenya are unaware of their status, and young women carry a disproportionate burden of incident HIV infections. We sought to determine the effect of an SMS intervention on uptake of HIV testing among female Kenyan college students. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental study to increase HIV testing among women 18 to 24 years old. Four midlevel training colleges in Central Kenya were allocated to have their study participants receive either weekly SMS on HIV and reproductive health topics or no SMS. Monthly 9-question SMS surveys were sent to all participants for 6 months to collect data on HIV testing, sexual behavior, and HIV risk perception. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression to detect differences in the time to the first HIV test reported by women during the study period. Results We enrolled 600 women between September 2013 and March 2014 of whom 300 received weekly SMS and monthly surveys and 300 received only monthly surveys. On average, women were 21 years of age (interquartile range, 20–22), 71.50% had ever had sex and 72.62% had never tested for HIV. A total of 356 women reported testing for HIV within the 6 months of follow-up: 67% from the intervention arm and 51% from the control arm (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28–1.92). Conclusions Use of weekly text messages about HIV prevention and reproductive health significantly increased rates of HIV testing among young Kenyan women and would be feasible to implement widely among school populations. PMID:27200519

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection.

  7. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishna Shyamala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI, a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP and occult HBV infections (OBI. Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.

  8. BIRTH-ORDER, DELIVERY ROUTE, AND CONCORDANCE IN THE TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 FROM MOTHERS TO TWINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULIEGE, AM; AMOS, CI; FELTON, S; BIGGAR, RJ; ZIEGLER, J; CRUIKSHANK, M; LEVY, J; MEATES, MA; GIBB, D; MAYAUX, MJ; TEGLAS, JP; LAURENT, C; BLANCHE, S; ROUZIOUX, C; HELLINGGIESE, G; MATTNER, U; HOEGER, PH; CONLON, T; GRIFFIN, E; DEMARIA, A; BENEDETTO, A; PRINCIPI, N; GIAQUINTO, C; GIANCOMELLI, A; MOK, J; CASABONA, J; FORTUNY, C; URIZ, S; PEREZ, JM; TUSETRUIZ, MC; LEON, P; ELORZA, JFY; CANOSA, C; BRANDLE, B; SEGER, R; NADAL, D; IRION, O; WYLER, CA; DAVIS, P; LALLEMANT, M; LALLEMANTLECOEUR, S; HITIMANA, DG; LEPAGE, P; VANDEPERRE, P; DABIS, F; MARUM, L; NDUGWA, C; TINDYEBWA, D; ACENG, E; MMIRO, F; SUTONGAS, T; OLNESS, K; LAPOINTE, N; RUBINSTEIN, A; BURGE, D; STECHENBERG, BW; COOPER, E; REGAN, AM; SHIPKOWITZ, S; WIZNIA, A; BRUNELL, PA; COURVILLE, T; RUTSTEIN, R; MCINTOSH, K; PETRU, A; OLEARY, M; CHURCH, J; TAYLOR, S; SQUIRES, J; MALLORY, M; YOGEV, R; RAKUSAN, T; PLUMLEY, S; SHELTON, MM; WILFERT, C; LANE, B; ABRAMS, EJ; RANA, S; CHANDAVASU, O; PUVABANDITSIN, S; CHOW, JH; SHAH, K; NACHMAN, S; ONEILL, R; SELWYN, P; SHOENBAUM, E; BARZILAI, A; WARFORD, R; AHERN, L; PAHWA, S; PNUGOTI, N; GARCIATRIAS, DE; BAKSHI, S; LANDESMAN, S; MENDEZ, H; MOROSO, G; MENDEZBAUTISTA, RD; FIKRIG, S; BELMAN, A; KLINE, MW; HANSON, C; EDELSON, P; HINDS, G; VANDYKE, R; CLARK, R; WARA, DW; MANIO, EB; JOHNSON, G; WELLS, L; JOHNSON, JP; ALGER, L; LUZURIAGA, K; MASTRUCCI, T; SUNKUTU, MR; RODRIGUEZ, Z; DOYLE, M; REUBEN, J; BRYSON, Y; DILLON, M; SIMPSON, BJ; ANDIMAN, W; URIBE, P; Klauke, B.

    1995-01-01

    Background: We evaluated data from prospectively identified twins to understand better the mechanisms and covariates of mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: Using data obtained from an international collaboration and multivariate quasilikelihood modeling, we

  9. Probiotic yogurt consumption may improve gastrointestinal symptoms, productivity, and nutritional intake of people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Mwanza, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irvine, Stephanie L.; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh

    2011-01-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effe

  10. Neuropathological sequelae of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and apathy: A review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Uddin, Lucina Q; Antoni, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Apathy remains a common neuropsychiatric disturbance in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) despite advances in anti-retroviral treatment (ART). The goal of the current review is to recapitulate findings relating apathy to the deleterious biobehavioral effects of HIV-1 in the post-ART era. Available literatures demonstrate that the emergence of apathy with other neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms may be attributed to neurotoxic effects of viral proliferation, e.g., aggregative effect of Tat and gp120 on apoptosis, transport and other enzymatic reactions amongst dopaminergic neurons and neuroglia. An assortment of neuroimaging modalities converge on the severity of apathy symptoms associated with the propensity of the virus to replicate within frontal-striatal brain circuits that facilitate emotional processing. Burgeoning research into functional brain connectivity also supports the effects of microvascular and neuro-inflammatory injury linked to aging with HIV-1 on the presentation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Summarizing these findings, we review domains of HIV-associated neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment linked to apathy in HIV. Taken together, these lines of research suggest that loss of affective, cognitive and behavioral inertia is commensurate with the neuropathology of HIV-1.

  11. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 in seronegative infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Reyes-Terán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some individuals repeatedly exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus do not seroconvert and are resistant to HIV infection. Here, in a pediatric cohort of HIV seronegative infants born of HIV-infected mothers, we have studied eight non-breastfed children in whom viral DNA was detected in their PBMC. Our objective was to assess whether silent infection in these children can be explained by the presence of integrated viral DNA. Methods The presence of viral DNA was corroborated by nested PCR with primers for gag and the nef/LTR regions of HIV-1. Integration of HIV DNA into the host genome was assessed by an Alu-LTR PCR. Amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyzes were done. Results HIV-1 DNA was detected in the earliest available PBMC sample from all eight infants, and two of them tested positive for HIV DNA at 2 years of age. Nested PCR resulted in the amplification of gag, nef/LTR and Alu-LTR fragments, which demostrated that HIV-1 DNA was integrated in the host cell genome. Each individual has a characteristic sequence pattern and is different from the LTR sequence of HXB2 prototype virus and other Mexican isolates. Conclusion HIV-1 DNA was observed in PBMC from HIV exposed seronegative children in this pediatric cohort.

  13. IL-21-producer CD4+ T cell kinetics during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shoi; Seki, Sayuri; Matano, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    IL-21 signaling is important for T cell and B cell-mediated clearance of chronic viral infections. While non-cognate follicular helper CD4+ T cells (TFH) are indicated to be pivotal in providing IL-21-mediated help to activated B cells within germinal centers, how this signaling may be disrupted in early AIDS virus infection is not clear. In this study, we assessed the lineage and kinetics of peripheral blood IL-21-producing CD4+ T cells in primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques. After SIV challenge, antigen-nonspecific IL-21 production was observed in Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells with Th1 dominance. While IL-21+ Th2 and IL-21+ Th17 showed variable kinetics, an increase in total IL-21+ CD4+ T cells and IL-21+ Th1 from week 3 to week 8 was observed, preceding plasma SIV-specific IgG development from week 5 to week 12. SIV Gag-specific IL-21+ CD4+ T cells detectable at week 2 were decreased in frequencies at week 5. Results imply that kinetics of IL-21+ CD4+ T cells comprised of multiple lineages, potentially targeted by SIV with a bias of existing frequencies during their precursor stage, associate with availability of cooperative B-cell help provided through a proportionate precursor pool developing into TFH and subsequent anti-SIV antibody responses. PMID:23791954

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C infections induce distinct immunologic imprints in peripheral mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottilil, S; Yan, MY; Reitano, KN; Zhang, X; Lempicki, R; Roby, G; Daucher, M; Yang, J; Cortez, KJ; Ghany, M; Polis, MA; Fauci, AS

    2009-01-01

    Co-infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is present in one-third of all Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected (HIV) individuals in the United States and is associated with rapid progression of liver fibrosis and poor response to pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from different groups of individuals who are mono- or co-infected with HIV and HCV. Data showed that HIV and HCV viremia up-regulate genes associated with immune activation and immunoregulatory pathways. HCV viremia is also associated with abnormalities in all peripheral immune cells, suggesting a global effect of HCV on the immune system. Interferon-α-induced genes were expressed at a higher level in PBMCs from HIV-infected individuals. HCV and HIV infections leave distinct profiles or gene expression of immune activation in PBMCs. HIV viremia induces an immune activated state; by comparison, HCV infection induces immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory pathways that may contribute to progression of liver fibrosis. An aberrant type-I IFN response seen exclusively in HIV-infected individuals could be responsible for the poor therapeutic response experienced by HIV/HCV co-infected individuals receiving interferon-α based current standard of care. PMID:19551908

  15. An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Gary; Baltimore, David

    1987-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production from latently infected T lymphocytes can be induced with compounds that activate the cells to secrete lymphokines1,2. The elements in the HIV genome which control activation are not known but expression might be regulated through a variety of DNA elements. The cis-acting control elements of the viral genome are enhancer and promoter regions. The virus also encodes trans-acting factors specified by the tat-III (refs 3-6) and art genes7. We have examined whether products specific to activated T cells might stimulate viral transcription by binding to regions on viral DNA. Activation of T cells, which increases HIV expression up to 50-fold, correlated with induction of a DNA binding protein indistinguishable from a recognized transcription factor, called NF-κB (ref. 8), with binding sites in the viral enhancer. Mutation of these binding sites abolished inducibility. That NF-κB acts in synergy with the viral tat-III gene product to enhance HIV expression in T cells may have implications for the pathogenesis of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

  16. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4+ and T8+ cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4+ cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo

  17. Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jag H. Khalsa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are an estimated 200 million users of an illicit drug in the world today. In addition, an estimated 40 million people are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and an estimated 180 million people are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV. Both the use of an illicit drug and the co-occurrence of infections are associated with a multitude of medical and health consequences including hormonal and metabolic disorders. Thus, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA, a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH hosted a workshop on hormonal and metabolic disorders of HIV among substance abusers. A number of clinicians and scientists participated and discussed a wide range of issues concerning hormones, nutrition and metabolic complications in HIV and substance abuse. Their observations and the recommendations they made for future research are presented in these proceedings. The readers are encouraged to contact the NIH staff (JK, FV for technical guidance and programmatic priorities on the subject and directly contact the individual authors for collaborations.

  18. Epitope specificity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC] responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollara, Justin; Bonsignori, Mattia; Moody, M Anthony; Pazgier, Marzena; Haynes, Barton F; Ferrari, Guido

    2013-07-01

    Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC] has been suggested to play an important role in control of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 [HIV-1] viral load and protection from infection. ADCC antibody responses have been mapped to multiple linear and conformational epitopes within the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Many epitopes targeted by antibodies that mediate ADCC overlap with those recognized by antibodies capable of virus neutralization. In addition, recent studies conducted with human monoclonal antibodies derived from HIV-1 infected individuals and HIV-1 vaccine-candidate vaccinees have identified a number of antibodies that lack the ability to capture primary HIV-1 isolates or mediate neutralizing activity, but are able to bind to the surface of infected CD4+ T cells and mediate ADCC. Of note, the conformational changes in the gp120 that may not exclusively relate to binding of the CD4 molecule are important in exposing epitopes recognized by ADCC responses. Here we discuss the HIV-1 envelope epitopes targeted by ADCC antibodies in the context of the potential protective capacities of ADCC. PMID:24191939

  19. Hepatitis C Screening in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Lessons Learned From Syphilis Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurcel, Alysse G; Chen, Daniel D; Fitzpatrick, Rosemary E; Grasberger, Paula E; Kirshner, Caleb H; Anderson, Jordan E; Chui, Kenneth K H; Knox, Tamsin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). New guidelines recommend annual screening for HCV, similar to recommendations for syphilis screening with rapid plasma reagin (RPR). Methods.  This study compares the frequency of repeat HCV antibody (Ab) testing to repeat RPR testing in a retrospective chart review of 359 HCVAb-negative people living with HIV (PLWH) observed in an Infectious Diseases clinic. Patients were classified into risk groups based on sexual risk factors. Results.  Although 85% of PLWH had repeat syphilis screening, less than two thirds had repeat HCVAb screening. The MSM status was associated with increased HCVAb and RPR testing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6 and 5.9, respectively). Seven persons had incident HCV infection: 3 were MSM, and 4 had symptoms or abnormal laboratory results to prompt testing. Conclusions.  Failure to find incident HCV infection in PLWH represents missed opportunities to cure HCV infection and prevent progressive liver disease. Further quality improvement studies are necessary to develop physician-focused interventions to increase HCV screening rates in PLWH. PMID:26885544

  20. "Resistance" to PSC-RANTES revisited: two mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 SF162 or simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV SF162-p3 do not confer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedellec, Rebecca; Coetzer, Mia; Lederman, Michael M; Offord, Robin E; Hartley, Oliver; Mosier, Donald E

    2010-06-01

    Resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors is well demonstrated, but resistance to macromolecular CCR5 inhibitors (e.g., PSC-RANTES) that act by both CCR5 internalization and receptor blockade had not been reported until recently (3). The report of a single simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162-p3) variant with one V3 and one gp41 sequence change in gp160 that conferred both altered replicative fitness and resistance to PSC-RANTES was therefore surprising. We introduced the same two mutations into both the parental HIV-1(SF162) and the macaque-adapted SHIV(SF162-p3) and found minor differences in entry fitness but no changes in sensitivity to inhibition by either PSC-RANTES or the small-molecule allosteric inhibitor TAK-779. We attribute the earlier finding to confounding fitness effects with inhibitor sensitivity.

  1. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus-1 enhances hepatitis C virus replication through interferon gamma-inducible protein-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV is associated with faster progression of liver disease and an increase in HCV persistence. However, the mechanism by which HIV-1 accelerates the progression of HCV liver disease remains unknown. Results HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. HCV RNA levels were higher in PBMCs of patients with HIV-1/HCV co-infection than in patients with HCV mono-infection. HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activated HCV replication in a time-dependent manner, and HIV-1 Tat induced IP-10 production. In addition, the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication was blocked by anti-IP-10 monoclonal antibody, demonstrating that the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication depends on IP-10. Taken together, these results suggest that HIV-1 Tat protein activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. Conclusions HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of IP-10 mRNA and replication of HCV RNA. Furthermore, both HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activate HCV replication. HIV-1 Tat activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. These results expand our understanding of HIV-1 in HCV replication and the mechanism involved in the regulation of HCV replication mediated by HIV-1 during co-infection.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection: epidemiology, natural history and the situation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying; Matthew Robinson; ZHANG Fu-jie

    2009-01-01

    @@ Worldwide, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemics poseserious threats to global health, currently infecting 130 million and 40 million people respectively. Of those infected with HIV, an estimated 4-12 million are co-infected with HCV. Due to shared risk factors for transmission, co-infection with HIV and HCV is common in China. Liver disease was the second leading cause of death behind acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in co-infected patients. Several studies have confirmed that HIV co-infection accelerates the clinical course of chronic HCV infection and leads to an increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated liver disease. While some studies have shown an increased risk of progression to AIDS andAIDS-related death among HIV-HCV positive persons, others found that HCV may not affect the clinical course of HIV infection. The current optimal therapeutic approach to HCV infection in HIV co-infected patients is peg-IFN plus ribavirin but further investigation is ongoing to improve outcomes.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses

  5. Hybrid human immunodeficiency virus Gag particles as an antigen carrier system: induction of cytotoxic T-cell and humoral responses by a Gag:V3 fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, J C; Harris, S. J.; Layton, G T; Berrie, E L; French, T J; Burns, N R; Adams, S E; Kingsman, A J

    1993-01-01

    In attempts to increase the immunogenicity of recombinant antigens, a number of particulate antigen presentation systems have been developed. In this study, we used human immunodeficiency virus Gag particles as carriers for the human immunodeficiency virus envelope V3 region. Gag:V3 fusion proteins were expressed from baculovirus expression vectors; they migrated to the insect cell membrane and budded from the cells as hybrid particles. An immunization study carried out with rats showed that ...

  6. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer: Results of a Clinical Trial in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subjects with Facial Lipoatrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Tagle, Jorge M.; Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in t...

  7. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukey Pawan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV /Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is increasing at an alarming rate globally. It has now become a major challenge & threat to public health. HIV infection in women occur primarily during their reproductive years, hence pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for implementing prevention strategies against HIV infection. If we estimate seroprevalence in pregnancy, the effective & timely intervention will reduce the transmission of infection to newborns. AIMS: To study the seroprevalence of HIV infection in pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital. SETTING: Antenatal Care Clinic of a Tertiary Care Hospital. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples of all the pregnant women with written consent were collected and tested for HIV antibodies as per National AIDS Control Organization (NACO guidelines over a period from September 2002 to August 2004. However only those who were HIV seroreactive were included in this study. Spouses of seroreactive pregnant women were also counselled and tested. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. RESULTS: Out of the total 10683 blood samples from pregnant women tested, 147 (1.38% were found to be HIV seroreactive. Seroreactive cases when compiled year-wise, showed increase in the seroprevalence from 1.24% in September 2002 - August 2003 to 1.45% in September 2003 - August 2004. Majority 69 (46.94% seroreactive pregnant women were in the age group of 19-24 years followed by 25-29 years age group (31.29%. Out of 88 spouses of HIV seroreactive pregnant women, 85 (96.59% were found to be HIV seroreactive. CONCLUSION: In the present study, seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be1.38% amongst pregnant women.

  8. White matter tract injury and cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Taylor, Michael J; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Letendre, Scott L; Alhassoon, Omar M; Jacobus, Joanna; Woods, Steven P; Jernigan, Terry L; Ellis, Ronald J; Frank, Lawrence R; Grant, Igor

    2009-04-01

    Approximately half of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit cognitive impairment, which has been related to cerebral white matter damage. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment, cognitive impairment remains common even in individuals with undetectable viral loads. One explanation for this may be subtherapeutic concentrations of some antiretrovirals in the central nervous system (CNS). We utilized diffusion tensor imaging and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to cognitive impairment and antiretroviral treatment variables. Participants included 39 HIV-infected individuals (49% with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]; mean CD4 = 529) and 25 seronegative subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were mapped onto a common whole-brain white matter tract skeleton, allowing between-subject voxelwise comparisons. The total HIV-infected group exhibited abnormal white matter in the internal capsule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiation; whereas those with AIDS exhibited more widespread damage, including in the internal capsule and the corpus callosum. Cognitive impairment in the HIV-infected group was related to white matter injury in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. White matter injury was not found to be associated with HIV viral load or estimated CNS penetration of antiretrovirals. Diffusion tensor imaging was useful in identifying changes in white matter tracts associated with more advanced HIV infection. Relationships between diffusion alterations in specific white matter tracts and cognitive impairment support the potential utility of diffusion tensor imaging in examining the anatomical underpinnings of HIV-related cognitive impairment. The study also confirms that CNS injury is evident in persons infected with HIV despite effective antiretroviral treatment.

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection-Associated Mortality during Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment in Six Provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yu Ji; LIU Er Yong; WANG Li Ming; Jamie P MORANO; WANG Ning; Kaveh KHOSHNOOD; ZHOU Lin; CHENG Shi Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors attributable to tuberculosis-related deaths in areas with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemics. Methods A prospective cohort study of newly registered patients in tuberculosis (TB) dispensaries in six representative Chinese provinces was conducted from September 1, 2009 to August 31, 2011. Risk factors for TB-associated death were identified through logistic regression analysis. Results Of 19,103 newly registered pulmonary TB patients, 925 (4.8%) were found to be HIV-positive. Miliary TB and acid-fast bacillus smear-negative TB were more common among these patients. Out of a total of 322 (1.7%) deaths that occurred during TB treatment, 85 (26%) of the patients were co-infected with HIV. Multivariate analysis revealed that HIV infection was the strongest predictor of death [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.86]. Other significant mortality risk factors included presentation with miliary TB (aOR 4.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.14-7.88), ≥35 years of age (aOR 3.04), non-Han ethnicity (aOR 1.67), and farming as an occupation (aOR 1.59). For patients with TB/HIV co-infection, miliary TB was the strongest risk factor for death (aOR 5.48). A low CD4 count (≤200 cells/µL) (aOR 3.27) at the time of TB treatment initiation and a lack of antiretroviral therapy (ART) administration (aOR 3.78) were also correlated with an increased risk of death. Conclusion Infection with HIV was independently associated with increased mortality during TB treatment. Offering HIV testing at the time of diagnosis with TB, early TB diagnosis among HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, and the timely provision of ART were identified as the key approaches that could reduce the number of HIV-associated TB deaths.

  10. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw MB

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melashu Balew Shiferaw,1 Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs,2 Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw,3 Yohannes Amede Yesuf,4 1Laboratory Capacity Building Core Process, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Laboratory, Africa Service Committee Clinic, Kombolcha, Ethiopia Introduction: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014.Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to ­January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection.Results: The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674. The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5

  11. GB Virus Type C E2 Protein Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly Through Interference With HIV-1 Gag Plasma Membrane Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Timmons, Christine L.; Shao, Qiujia; Wang, Chenliang; Liu, Ling; Liu, Huanliang; Dong, Xinhong; Liu, Bindong

    2013-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus classified in the Flaviviridae family. Persistent coinfection with GBV-C is associated with lower human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load, higher CD4+ T-cell count, and prolonged survival in HIV-1 coinfected patients. The GBV-C envelope glycoprotein E2 has been reported to interfere with HIV-1 entry. In this study, we showed that the expression of GBV-C E2 inhibited HIV-1 Gag assembly and release. Expression of gly...

  12. Vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 - HIV-1 -transmission - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bongertz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors appear to affect vertical HIV-1 transmission, dependent mainly on characteristics of the mother (extent of immunodeficiency, co-infections, risk behaviour, nutritional status, immune response, genetical make-up, but also of the virus (phenotype, tropism and, possibly, of the child (genetical make-up. This complex situation is compounded by the fact that the virus may have the whole gestation period, apart from variable periods between membrane rupture and birth and the breast-feeding period, to pass from the mother to the infant. It seems probable that an extensive interplay of all factors occurs, and that some factors may be more important during specific periods and other factors in other periods. Factors predominant in protection against in utero transmission may be less important for peri-natal transmission, and probably quite different from those that predominantly affect transmission by mothers milk. For instance, cytotoxic T lymphocytes will probably be unable to exert any effect during breast-feeding, while neutralizing antibodies will be unable to protect transmission by HIV transmitted through infected cells. Furthermore, some responses may be capable of controlling transmission of determined virus types, while being inadequate for controlling others. As occurence of mixed infections and recombination of HIV-1 types is a known fact, it does not appear possible to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission by reinforcing just one of the factors, and probably a general strategy including all known factors must be used. Recent reports have brought information on vertical HIV-1 transmission in a variety of research fields, which will have to be considered in conjunction as background for specific studies.

  13. Clinical significance of "anti-HBc alone" in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez; Bernardo Sope(n)a; Manuel Crespo; Alberto Rivera; Teresa Gonzólez del Blanco; Antonio Ocampo; César Martínez-Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of isolated antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen as the only marker of infection ("anti-HBc alone") among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 infected patients. Occult hepatitis B infection frequency was also evaluated.METHODS: Three hundred and forty eight histories from 2388 HIV-positive patients were randomly reviewed. Patients with serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were classified into three groups: past hepatitis, "anti-HBc alone" and chronic hepatitis. Determination of DNA from HBV, and RNA and genotype from hepatitis C virus (HCV) were performed on "anti-HBc alone" patients.RESULTS: One hundred and eighty seven (53.7%) HIV-positive patients had markers of HBV infection: 118 past infection (63.1%), 14 chronic hepatitis (7.5%) and 55 "anti-HBc alone" (29.4%). Younger age [2.3-fold higher per every 10 years younger; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.33-4.00] and antibodies to HCV infection [odds ratio (OR) 2.87; 95% CI 1.10-7.48] were factors independently associated with the "anti-HBc alone" pattern. No differences in liver disease frequency were detected between both groups.Serum levels of anti-HBs were not associated with HCV infection (nor viral replication or HCV genotype), or with HIV replication or CD4 level. No "anti-HBc alone" patient tested positive for HBV DNA.CONCLUSION: "Anti-HBc alone" prevalence in HIVpositive patients was similar to previously reported data and was associated with a younger age and with antibodies to HCV infection. In clinical practice, HBV DNA determination should be performed only in those patients with clinical or analytical signs of liver injury.

  14. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  15. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  16. Liver-related deaths among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Friis-Møller, Nina;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver-related de....... Longer follow-up is required to investigate whether clinically significant treatment-associated liver-related mortality will develop.......BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver......-related deaths in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study, which prospectively evaluated 76 893 person-years of follow-up in 23 441 HIV-infected persons. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses identified factors associated with liver-related, AIDS-related, and other causes of death...

  17. Comparison of Talaromyces marneffei Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative Patients from Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Ru Li; Shao-Xi Cai; Yu-Sheng Chen; Mei-E Yu; Neng-Luan Xu; Bao-Song Xie; Ming Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background:Talaromyces (Penicillium) rnarneffei (TM) is an emerging dimorphic human pathogenic fungus that is endemic to Southeast Asia.TM mostly occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with TM infections who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative and to assess therapies and outcomes.Methods:This was a retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with disseminated TM infection from September 2005 to April 2014 at Fujian Provincial Hospital,China.Results:Patients with TM infection tend to present with fever,weight loss,and anemia.The time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was greater for HIV-negative patients (n =7; median:60 days,range:14-365 days) than for HIV-positive patients (n =19; median:30 days,range:3-90 days,Mann Whitney U=31.50,P =0.041).HIV-negative patients were more likely to have dyspnea (57.1% vs.5.3%,x2 =8.86,P =0.010),low neutrophil count (Mann-Whitney U =27.00,P =0.029),high CD4 count (Mann-Whitney U =0.00,P =0.009),and high lymphocyte count (Mann-Whitney U =21.00,P =0.009).There were no significant differences in other demographic,clinical,or biochemical characteristics.Among all the patients,12 HIV-positive patient and 1 HIV-negative patient received amphotericin and fluconazole treatment,9 of whom improved,1 died,2 had kidney damage,1 had hypokalemia due to exceeded doses.Conclusions:HIV-negative patients with TM infections tend to have a longer diagnostic interval,a higher percentage of dyspnea,higher levels of CD4 and lymphocytes,and lower neutrophil counts than TM infection in HIV-positive patients.Treatment programs with amphotericin and fluconazole are mostly effective.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (ART. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs are emerging as a promising new drug class for HIV-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting FIV replication using INSTIs. Methods Phylogenetic analysis of lentiviral integrase (IN sequences was carried out using the PAUP* software. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of the FIV IN catalytic core domain (CCD was obtained by homology modeling based on a crystal structure of HIV-1 IN CCD. The interaction of the transferred strand of viral DNA with the catalytic cavity of FIV IN was deduced from a crystal structure of a structurally similar transposase complexed with transposable DNA. Molecular docking simulations were conducted using a genetic algorithm (GOLD. Antiviral activity was tested in feline lymphoblastoid MBM cells acutely infected with the FIV Petaluma strain. Circular and total proviral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Results The calculated INSTI-binding sites were found to be nearly identical in FIV and HIV-1 IN CCDs. The close similarity of primate and feline lentivirus IN CCDs was also supported by phylogenetic analysis. In line with these bioinformatic analyses, FIV replication was efficiently inhibited in acutely infected cell cultures by three investigational INSTIs, designed for HIV-1 and belonging to different classes. Of note, the naphthyridine carboxamide INSTI, L-870,810 displayed an EC50 in the low nanomolar range. Inhibition of FIV integration in situ was shown by real-time PCR experiments that revealed accumulation of circular forms of FIV DNA within cells treated with L-870,810. Conclusion We report a drug class (other than nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors that is capable of inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. The present study helped establish L-870,810, a compound

  19. Antiretroviral interventions to reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: challenges for health systems, communities and society.

    OpenAIRE

    Baggaley, R; Van Praag, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the ethical, economic and social issues that should be considered when antiretroviral interventions are being planned to reduce mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. Interventions aiming to reduce mother-to-child transmission should be concerned with the rights of both the child and the mother. Women should not be seen as vectors of transmission but as people entitled to adequate health care and social services in their own right. For women acce...

  20. Major histocompatibility complex class I-associated vaccine protection from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccine protection from infected cells from another individual of the same species, vaccinated rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were challenged with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from another animal diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Half of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- vaccinated animals challenged were protected, whereas unprotected vaccinates progressed as rapidly to AIDS. Protection was unrelated to either total ant...

  1. Inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a haemophiliac associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, responding to high dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Panicker, R.; Bloom, A. L.; Compston, D A

    1988-01-01

    We describe what we believe to be the first case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) occurring in a haemophiliac infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the first patient to show a clinical response to treatment with high dose i.v. immunoglobulin. A 55 year old, severe haemophiliac, known to be positive for HIV antibody, presented with a short history of motor weakness and variable sensory loss in both lower limbs. Clinical examination, electrophysiol...

  2. Comparison of depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Saadat; Behboodi, Zahra M.; Ebrahim Saadat

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Settings And Design: In this cross-sectional survey conducted between November and September 2013, 200 participants with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) attending Consultation Centers. Materials And Methods: Participants with HIV/AIDS were interviewed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales questionnaire (DASS 21 ). Results: There were...

  3. Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope V3 region isolates from mothers and infants after perinatal transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, N.; Baroudy, B M; Baker, R. C.; Chappey, C

    1995-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences from variable region 3 (V3) of the envelope gene were analyzed from seven infected mother-infant pairs following perinatal transmission. The V3 region sequences directly derived from the DNA of the uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from infected mothers displayed a heterogeneous population. In contrast, the infants' sequences were less diverse than those of their mothers. In addition, the sequences from the younger infants'...

  4. Pharmacovirological Impact of an Integrase Inhibitor on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 cDNA Species In Vivo ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Goffinet, Christine; Allespach, Ina; Oberbremer, Lena; Golden, Pamela L.; Foster, Scott A.; Johns, Brian A.; Weatherhead, Jason G.; Novick, Steven J.; Chiswell, Karen E.; Garvey, Edward P.; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials of the first approved integrase inhibitor (INI), raltegravir, have demonstrated a drop in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA loads of infected patients that was unexpectedly more rapid than that with a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and apparently dose independent. These clinical outcomes are not understood. In tissue culture, although their inhibition of integration is well documented, the effects of INIs on levels of unintegrated HIV-1 cDNAs have be...

  5. Prevention interventions for human immunodeficiency virus in drug-using women with a history of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman JK; Ludwig-Barron N; Hoffman MA; Ulibarri MD; Penniman Dyer TV

    2012-01-01

    Jamila K Stockman1, Natasha Ludwig-Barron1, Monica A Hoffman2, Monica D Ulibarri3, Typhanye V Penniman Dyer41Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine; 2Department of Communication and Science Studies; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA; 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USAAbstract: The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and partner...

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kalikar M; Thawani V; Varadpande U; Sontakke S; Singh R; Khiyani R

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of TCE in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients. Materials and Methods: Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE) in HIV positive patients was assessed in randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. 68 HIV positive participants were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either TCE or placebo for six months. After clinical examination TLC, DLC, ESR, platelet count, hemoglobin and CD4 count were done. The hematological in...

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 major neutralizing determinant exposed on hepatitis B surface antigen particles is highly immunogenic in primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlienger, K; M. Mancini; Rivière, Y; Dormont, D; Tiollais, P; Michel, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) produced by recombinant DNA technology is now widely and safely used worldwide for hepatitis B vaccination. We used the HBsAg particle as a carrier molecule for presentation of selected human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) determinants to the immune system. Immunization of rhesus monkeys with an HBsAg chimera carrying the HIV-1 envelope major neutralizing determinant allowed us to generate proliferative T-cell responses and, in some cases, neutralizi...

  8. In Vitro Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Resistance Selections with Combinations of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine or Abacavir and Lamivudine▿

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, N. A.; Waters, J. M.; Miller, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance development was evaluated in vitro by using combinations of the drugs tenofovir and emtricitabine or abacavir and lamivudine, as well as by using the compounds individually. Emtricitabine- and lamivudine-resistant HIV-1 isolates with the M184I or M184V mutation in reverse transcriptase were readily selected in the cultures with emtricitabine alone, lamivudine alone, and the two drug combinations and conferred high-level resistance to emtr...

  9. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without...... a consistent association between tenofovir and cLEE emerging within the first 2 years after drug initiation. This novel tenofovir-cLEE signal should be further investigated....

  10. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among healthy voluntary first-time blood donors in Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Das, B. K.; B K Gayen; Subhra Aditya; Sumit Kumar Chakrovorty; P.K. Datta; Ajay Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) threaten safety of the recipients and the community as a whole and are a subject of real concern worldwide. Aims and Objectives: To know prevalence of Hepatitis-B (HBV), Hepatitis-C (HCV), and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in voluntary first-time blood donors. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional observational study done in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 3 745 voluntary first-time blood donors were recruited and...

  11. Tristetraprolin expression and microRNA-mediated regulation during simian immunodeficiency virus infection of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jonathan; Sisk, Jeanne M; Gama, Lucio; Clements, Janice E.; Kenneth W. Witwer

    2013-01-01

    Background The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) participates in normal post-transcriptional control of cytokine and chemokine gene expression, dysregulation of which contributes to the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of TTP has been described, including regulation by microRNA-29a. In the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of HIV CNS disease, control of cytokine/chemokine expression coincides with the end of acute pha...

  12. Active β-Catenin Signaling Is an Inhibitory Pathway for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anvita; Zloza, Andrew; Moon, Randall T.; Watts, Jeffrey; Tenorio, Allan R.; Al-Harthi, Lena

    2008-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is involved in cell functions governing development and disease. In modeling postentry restriction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in astrocytes, we reported that part of this natural resistance to productive replication of HIV in astrocytes involved expression of proteins of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We determined here whether induction of β-catenin signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can modulate HIV replication. Giv...

  13. The replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in macrophages is enhanced after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rosangela G; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Saraiva, Elvira M. B.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer

    2002-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells increases macrophage secretion of antiinflammatory mediators and might modulate viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected macrophages. To study this, primary macrophages were infected with HIV-1 and exposed to apoptotic cells. It was found that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells potently enhanced HIV-1 growth. The peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which binds to integrin receptors, inhibited the uptake of apoptotic cells and the subsequent enhanc...

  14. Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, R.M.; Piwowar, E M; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Muzawalu, W; Rugera, S; Abima, J; Stramer, S L; Kataaha, P; Jackson, B.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy and acceptability of saliva human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing were compared with serum testing in a study of paired specimens from HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative Ugandan adults attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Saliva collection was performed with the Omni-sal device (Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Vancouver, Wash.), and antibody testing was performed by a rapid filter paper assay (Test-Pack; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, ...

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Antiretroviral Therapy and Markers of Lymphatic Filariasis Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Rural Northern Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Terence Tafatatha; Miriam Taegtmeyer; Bagrey Ngwira; Amos Phiri; Mariot Kondowe; Wilson Piston; Anna Molesworth; Ndoliwe Kayuni; Olivier Koole; Amelia Crampin; John Horton; Neil French

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major public health problems. Individuals may be co-infected, raising the possibility of important interactions between these two pathogens with consequences for LF elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology and Principal Findings We analysed circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) by HIV infection status among adults in two sites in northern Malawi, a region endemic for both LF and HIV...

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus test-seeking blood donors in a large blood bank in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalez, T; Sabino, E; Sales, N; Chen, YH; D. Chamone; Busch, M.; Murphy, E; Custer, B; McFarland, W

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors are excluded from donation to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Persons donating to be tested for HIV may therefore deny risk behaviors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A random sample of donors completed a survey on motivations, knowledge, and attitudes on the screening process. Donors were considered test seekers if they agreed with two statements "I think that blood donation is a good, fast, and anonym...

  17. Low Sensitivity of Peripheral Blood Smear for Diagnosis of Subclinical Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, J.; Pineda, J. A.; Macías, J.; Regordán, C.; Gallardo, J. A.; Leal, M.; Sanchez-Quijano, A.; Lissen, E.

    1998-01-01

    The peripheral blood smear is an easy method for the diagnosis of symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. However, its efficiency in diagnosing subclinical VL remains unknown. In this study, Leishmania amastigotes were seen in blood smears from 1 of 13 HIV-1-positive individuals with subclinical VL. This shows that this procedure is not suitable for subclinical-VL diagnosis.

  18. A.S.P.E.N. Clinical Guidelines: Nutrition Support of Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sabery, Nasim; Duggan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children differ substantially from those in adults, and these differences are important to consider in providing both medical and nutrition care. Growth failure, wasting, and loss of active lean tissue are all associated with increased mortality and accelerated disease progression. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis and life span of c...

  19. Diagnostic value of amplification of human cytomegalovirus DNA from gastrointestinal biopsies from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotte, L.; Drouet, E.; Bissuel, F.; Denoyel, G A; Trepo, C

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the value of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA amplification of gastrointestinal biopsies, we studied 57 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with and without gastrointestinal HCMV diseases. After DNA extraction, a 406-bp fragment from the unique short region of the HCMV genome was amplified by 35 cycles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and semiquantified from 80 to 80,000 HCMV genomic copies. Among 12 non-AIDS patients, the PCR assay was negative for 11 of 12 du...

  20. Nevirapine Significantly Reduces the Levels of Racemic Methadone and (R)-Methadone in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Hartmut; Kruse, Guido; Kreckel, Peter; Herzmann, Christian; Arastéh, Keikawus; Claus, Jörg; Jessen, Heiko; Cordes, Christiane; Hintsche, Bettina; Schlote, Frank; Schneider, Lothar; Kurowski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Methadone is metabolized by various isoforms of the cytochrome P450 family, which can be induced by many drugs, including nevirapine. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of coadministration of nevirapine and methadone on the dose-adjusted areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of racemic and (R)-methadone. Twenty-five human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects taking stable single daily doses of racemic methadone or (R)-methadone were included in this...

  1. Use of human papillomavirus genotyping and biomarkers for targeted screening of anal dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dupin, Clarisse; Siproudhis, Laurent; Hénno, Sébastien; Minjolle, Sophie; Arvieux, Cédric; Tattevin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for anal dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is not standardized. High-resolution imaging is not adequate for mass screening, and anal cytology requires expertise. New biomarkers, selected because of their use in cervical cancer mass screening, have been originally tested for targeted and easy-to-perform screening. METHODS: 120 HIV-infected individuals (males 96.4%, mean age 47±11 years) were referred for clinical examination, anoscopy, and ...

  2. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahin Behzadpour; Narges Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalenc...

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with increased replicative capacity develop during the asymptomatic stage before disease progression.

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, R I; Ho, D D

    1994-01-01

    We examined the replicative properties of a series of sequential isolates and biological clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) obtained from an individual who progressed from seroconversion to AIDS in approximately 5 years. HIV-1 isolated soon after seroconversion replicated slowly and to low levels in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells; however, subsequent isolates obtained during asymptomatic infection showed a marked increase in replication kinetics. This was ex...

  4. Analysis of the cleavage site of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein: requirement of precursor cleavage for glycoprotein incorporation.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubay, J W; Dubay, S R; Shin, H. J.; Hunter, E

    1995-01-01

    Endoproteolytic cleavage of the glycoprotein precursor to the mature SU and TM proteins is an essential step in the maturation of retroviral glycoproteins. Cleavage of the precursor polyprotein occurs at a conserved, basic tetrapeptide sequence and is carried out by a cellular protease. The glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 contains two potential cleavage sequences immediately preceding the N terminus of the TM protein. To determine the functional significance of these t...

  5. New polyacetal polysulphate active against human immunodeficiency virus and other enveloped viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Witvrouw, Myriam; Schols, Dominique; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Ikeda, S; Pauwels, R; Van Schepdael, Ann; Arnout, J; Claes, Paul; Desmyter, J; De Clercq, Erik

    1992-01-01

    A new polyacetal polysulphate, termed PAPS, was synthesized starting from dextran through oxidation, reduction, and subsequent sulphation. PAPS inhibited HIV-1- and HIV-2-induced cytopathicity in MT-4 cells at concentrations comparable to those required for dextran sulphate (MW 5000) to inhibit the cytopathicity of these viruses (50% inhibitory concentration: 0.4-0.04 mug ml-1). At these concentrations PAPS had no anticoagulant activity. PAPS suppressed syncytium formation between MOLT-4 cell...

  6. Suppression of a Natural Killer Cell Response by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Schafer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell responses in primates are regulated in part through interactions between two highly polymorphic molecules, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs on NK cells and their major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I ligands on target cells. We previously reported that the binding of a common MHC class I molecule in the rhesus macaque, Mamu-A1*002, to the inhibitory receptor Mamu-KIR3DL05 is stabilized by certain simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV peptides, but not by others. Here we investigated the functional implications of these interactions by testing SIV peptides bound by Mamu-A1*002 for the ability to modulate Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cell responses. Twenty-eight of 75 SIV peptides bound by Mamu-A1*002 suppressed the cytolytic activity of primary Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cells, including three immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitopes previously shown to stabilize Mamu-A1*002 tetramer binding to Mamu-KIR3DL05. Substitutions at C-terminal positions changed inhibitory peptides into disinhibitory peptides, and vice versa, without altering binding to Mamu-A1*002. The functional effects of these peptide variants on NK cell responses also corresponded to their effects on Mamu-A1*002 tetramer binding to Mamu-KIR3DL05. In assays with mixtures of inhibitory and disinhibitory peptides, low concentrations of inhibitory peptides dominated to suppress NK cell responses. Consistent with the inhibition of Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cells by viral epitopes presented by Mamu-A1*002, SIV replication was significantly higher in Mamu-A1*002+ CD4+ lymphocytes co-cultured with Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cells than with Mamu-KIR3DL05- NK cells. These results demonstrate that viral peptides can differentially affect NK cell responses by modulating MHC class I interactions with inhibitory KIRs, and provide a mechanism by which immunodeficiency viruses may evade NK cell responses.

  7. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  8. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion

  9. Highly efficient inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase by aptamers functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Yen-Chun; Ou, Chung-Mao; Chen, Shih-Ju; Ou, Ting-Yu; Lin, Han-Jia; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-03-01

    We have developed aptamer (Apt)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (Apt-Au NPs, 13 nm in diameter) as highly effective inhibitors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). Two Apts, RT1t49 (Aptpol) and ODN 93 (AptRH), which recognize the polymerase and RNase H regions of HIV-1 RT, are used to conjugate Au NPs to prepare Aptpol-Au NPs and AptRH-Au NPs, respectively. In addition to DNA sequence, the surface density of the aptamers on Au NPs (nApt-Au NPs; n is the number of aptamer molecules on each Au NP) and the linker length number (Tm; m is the base number of the deoxythymidine linker) between the aptamer and Au NPs play important roles in determining their inhibition activity. A HIV-lentiviral vector-based antiviral assay has been applied to determine the inhibitory effect of aptamers or Apt-Au NPs on the early stages of their replication cycle. The nuclease-stable G-quadruplex structure of 40AptRH-T45-Au NPs shows inhibitory efficiency in the retroviral replication cycle with a decreasing infectivity (40.2%).We have developed aptamer (Apt)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (Apt-Au NPs, 13 nm in diameter) as highly effective inhibitors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). Two Apts, RT1t49 (Aptpol) and ODN 93 (AptRH), which recognize the polymerase and RNase H regions of HIV-1 RT, are used to conjugate Au NPs to prepare Aptpol-Au NPs and AptRH-Au NPs, respectively. In addition to DNA sequence, the surface density of the aptamers on Au NPs (nApt-Au NPs; n is the number of aptamer molecules on each Au NP) and the linker length number (Tm; m is the base number of the deoxythymidine linker) between the aptamer and Au NPs play important roles in determining their inhibition activity. A HIV-lentiviral vector-based antiviral assay has been applied to determine the inhibitory effect of aptamers or Apt-Au NPs on the early stages of their replication cycle. The nuclease-stable G-quadruplex structure of 40AptRH-T45

  10. Gut and mesenteric lymph node involvement in pediatric patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cecilia Mantegazza,1 Giovanni Maconi,2 Vania Giacomet,1 Federica Furfaro,2 Chiara Mameli,1 Cristina Bezzio,2 Michela Monteleone,2 Giulia Ramponi,1 Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti11Department of Paediatrics, 2Gastroenterology Unit, L Sacco University Hospital, Milan, ItalyBackground: The gastrointestinal tract is a primary target for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HIV infection causes a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and affects gastrointestinal mucosal integrity and permeability. The gastrointestinal tract has also been suggested as the main reservoir of HIV despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We performed a prospective case-control study to assess gut involvement in HIV-infected patients, either naïve or on HAART, using noninvasive methods such as bowel ultrasound and fecal calprotectin.Methods: Thirty HIV-infected children and youth underwent the following tests: CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load, fecal calprotectin, and bowel ultrasound, with the latter evaluating bowel wall thickness and mesenteric lymph nodes. Fecal calprotectin and bowel ultrasound were also assessed in 30 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Fecal calprotectin was measured using a quantitative immunochromatographic point-of-care test, and concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 µg/g were considered to be normal reference values in children.Results: Fecal calprotectin was normal in 29 HIV-infected patients and was not significantly different from controls (mean values 63.8±42.5 µg/g and 68.3±40.5 µg/g, respectively; P=0.419, and did not correlate with HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell absolute count and percentage, or HAART treatment. No significant changes were found on bowel ultrasound except for enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, which were observed in seven HIV-infected patients (23.3% and two controls (6.6%. This finding was significantly correlated with high HIV viral load (P=0.001 and low CD4+ T-cell percentage (P=0

  11. Characterization of Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Area I in Cienfuegos from 1988 to 2011

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    Graciela Caridad Cabrera Acea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: over 60 million people worldwide have been affected by the human immunodeficiency virus. Globally, it is the fourth leading cause of death; therefore it is considered a global emergency. Objective: to characterize patients with the human immunodeficiency virus.Methods: a retrospective, descriptive study was conducted involving 21 patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in the Area I in Cienfuegos from 1988 to 2011. The variables analyzed included: age, sex, year of diagnosis, People’s Council they belong to, sexual orientation, educational level, occupation, presence of opportunistic diseases and antiretroviral treatment. Results: groups aged 25 to 34 and 35 to 44 years (33, 33 % predominated; 90, 48 % of the patients were males with a ratio of 9,5:1; 38,10 % was diagnosed from 2009 to 2011, 71, 4 % of the cases belonged to the Historic Center; 57, 14 % were men who had sex with men; those who completed high school and university studies accounted for 66,66 % of the cases. Workers prevailed (57, 14 %; only 14, 29 % suffered from opportunistic diseases and 52, 4 % was undergoing antiretroviral treatment.Conclusions: infection increased in the last five years, particularly in most sexually active age groups; it was more common in men who have sex with men. More than half of the patients receive antiretroviral treatment.

  12. Determining Seminal Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Load in the Context of Efficient Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquier, Christophe; Sauné, Karine; Raymond, Stéphanie; Moinard, Nathalie; Daudin, Myriam; Bujan, Louis; Izopet, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The semen plasma virus load is measured to ensure the safety of sperm processing during medically assisted procreation (MAP) for couples with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected man. A practical, automated protocol using the COBAS Ampliprep CAP/CTM kit in the COBAS TaqMan96 system was developed to measure the HIV-1 load in semen plasma samples. HIV-1 was detected in 13.4% of the semen samples processed at our MAP center. Of the eight patients having a detectable semen HIV-1...

  13. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA in cultured human glial cells by means of the polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Hansen, J-ES; Dalbøge, H;

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of viral genomic sequences in latently infected cells. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus in cultures of human glial cells was demonstrated, using nucleic acid amplification followed by dot blot...... hybridization. It was not possible to detect any viral antigen production in the cultures, and attempts to recover virus by highly sensitive coculture techniques were unsuccessful, indicating that the infection was latent. The PCR technique provides a simple approach to the study of viral infection in cases...

  14. Immunological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during HIV-specific protease inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Katzenstein, T; Aladdin, H;

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of effective anti-retroviral treatment on immune function, evaluated by a broad array of immunological tests. We followed 12 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 6 months after initiation of combination anti-retroviral treatment...... Vaccinia virus was increased after 3-6 months, whereas the specific HIV-directed CTL activity and the concentration and lytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells were unchanged during follow-up. These results demonstrate that the initiation of a treatment including an HIV protease inhibitor is followed...

  15. Risky sexual behavior related to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among seasonal labor migrants: A cross-sectional study from far Western Region of Nepal

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    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global public health problem; enormously affecting the national economy, social development and human rights with posing a challenge to human civilization. Seasonal labor migrants are the most at risk population for HIV/AIDS and their risky sexual behaviors exacerbate its transmission. The aim of the study was to explore the HIV/AIDS related sexual behavior of migrant workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 372 migrant workers backing to Nepal from Banbasa border of India-Nepal during August-October 2010. Migrants having permanent residents of far western region, Nepal were individually contacted at the entry point of Nepal and interviewed in a confidential environment after obtaining informed consent. Data were analysed using the SPSS (16.0 version. Descriptive and inferencial statistics were applied considering P 3 sex partners. Most (82.25% had vaginal sex and 43.54% reported the consistent use of condom. About 64.76% had sex after drinking alcohol. Age, education, monthly income and nature of works were significant with risky behaviors. Conclusion: Inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners and sex after drinking alcohol have a cumulative effect on the risk of HIV transmission.

  16. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

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    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  17. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Bastos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  18. Committee Opinion No. 655: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Obstetrician-Gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    To prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, it is important that health care providers adhere to standard precautions, follow fundamental infection-control principles, and use appropriate procedural techniques. All obstetrician-gynecologists who provide clinical care should receive the hepatitis B virus vaccine series. The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America has established guidelines for the management of health care providers who are infected with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The guidelines categorize representative obstetric and gynecologic procedures according to level of risk of bloodborne pathogen transmission and include recommendations for health care provider clinical activities, based on these categories and viral burden. It is important to note that when no restrictions are recommended, careful supervision should be carried out as highlighted. These recommendations provide a framework within which to consider such cases; however, each case should be independently considered in context by the expert review panel. PMID:26942390

  19. Committee Opinion No. 655 Summary: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Obstetrician-Gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    To prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, it is important that health care providers adhere to standard precautions, follow fundamental infection-control principles, and use appropriate procedural techniques. All obstetrician-gynecologists who provide clinical care should receive the hepatitis B virus vaccine series. The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America has established guidelines for the management of health care providers who are infected with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The guidelines categorize representative obstetric and gynecologic procedures according to level of risk of bloodborne pathogen transmission and include recommendations for health care provider clinical activities, based on these categories and viral burden. It is important to note that when no restrictions are recommended, careful supervision should be carried out as highlighted. These recommendations provide a framework within which to consider such cases; however, each case should be independently considered in context by the expert review panel. PMID:26942383

  20. Neutralizing antibody response during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: type and group specificity and viral escape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Sönnerborg, A; Svennerholm, B;

    1993-01-01

    The paradox that group-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) exist in the majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients, whereas the NA response against autologous HIV-1 virus isolates is highly type-specific, motivated us to study the type- and group-specific NA...... of recombinant soluble gp120IIIB to cell-associated CD4, but group-specific virus neutralization required binding of NA to HIV-1 prior to viral attachment to target cells. Consecutive escape virus isolates were tested for sensitivity to neutralization by heterologous sera. Only minor differences were...... demonstrated, suggesting that the majority of the change in neutralization sensitivity is driven by the selective pressure of type-specific NA. Furthermore, no differences were observed in sensitivity to neutralization by anti-carbohydrate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or the lectin concanavalin A...

  1. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Pena, Giselle Priscila Dos Anjos; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215bp) and IG (610bp) regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2); in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only) and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV) subjects regarding their TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27266589

  2. The protective rate of the feline immunodeficiency virus vaccine: An Australian field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, M E; Malik, R; Hall, E; Harris, M; Norris, J M

    2016-09-01

    A case-control field study was undertaken to determine the level of protection conferred to client-owned cats in Australia against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using a commercial vaccine. 440 cats with outdoor access from five Australian states/territories underwent testing, comprising 139 potential cases (complete course of primary FIV vaccinations and annual boosters for three or more years), and 301 potential controls (age, sex and postcode matched FIV-unvaccinated cats). FIV status was determined using a combination of antibody testing (using point-of-care test kits) and nucleic acid amplification, as well as virus isolation in cases where results were discordant and in all suspected FIV-vaccinated/FIV-infected cats ('vaccine breakthroughs'). Stringent inclusion criteria were applied to both 'cases' and 'controls'; 89 FIV-vaccinated cats and 212 FIV-unvaccinated cats ultimately satisfied the inclusion criteria. Five vaccine breakthroughs (5/89; 6%), and 25 FIV-infected controls (25/212; 12%) were identified, giving a vaccine protective rate of 56% (95% CI -20 to 84). The difference in FIV prevalence rates between the two groups was not significant (P=0.14). Findings from this study raise doubt concerning the efficacy of Fel-O-Vax FIV® under field conditions. Screening for FIV infection may be prudent before annual FIV re-vaccination and for sick FIV-vaccinated cats. Owners should not rely on vaccination alone to protect cats against the risk of acquiring FIV infection; other measures such as cat curfews, the use of 'modular pet parks' or keeping cats exclusively indoors, are recommended. PMID:27522177

  3. Identifying recombinants in human and primate immunodeficiency virus sequence alignments using quartet scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Darren P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombination has a profound impact on the evolution of viruses, but characterizing recombination patterns in molecular sequences remains a challenging endeavor. Despite its importance in molecular evolutionary studies, identifying the sequences that exhibit such patterns has received comparatively less attention in the recombination detection framework. Here, we extend a quartet-mapping based recombination detection method to enable identification of recombinant sequences without prior specifications of either query and reference sequences. Through simulations we evaluate different recombinant identification statistics and significance tests. We compare the quartet approach with triplet-based methods that employ additional heuristic tests to identify parental and recombinant sequences. Results Analysis of phylogenetic simulations reveal that identifying the descendents of relatively old recombination events is a challenging task for all methods available, and that quartet scanning performs relatively well compared to the triplet based methods. The use of quartet scanning is further demonstrated by analyzing both well-established and putative HIV-1 recombinant strains. In agreement with recent findings, we provide evidence that the presumed circulating recombinant CRF02_AG is a 'pure' lineage, whereas the presumed parental lineage subtype G has a recombinant origin. We also demonstrate HIV-1 intrasubtype recombination, confirm the hybrid origin of SIV in chimpanzees and further disentangle the recombinant history of SIV lineages in a primate immunodeficiency virus data set. Conclusion Quartet scanning makes a valuable addition to triplet-based methods for identifying recombinant sequences without prior specifications of either query and reference sequences. The new method is available in the VisRD v.3.0 package http://www.cmp.uea.ac.uk/~vlm/visrd.

  4. Resistance mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protease to inhibitors: A molecular dynamic approach

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    Mohammad Reza Dayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 protease inhibitors comprise an important class of drugs used in HIV treatments. However, mutations of protease genes accelerated by low fidelity of reverse transcriptase yield drug resistant mutants of reduced affinities for the inhibitors. This problem is considered to be a serious barrier against HIV treatment for the foreseeable future. In this study, molecular dynamic simulation method was used to examine the combinational and additive effects of all known mutations involved in drug resistance against FDA approved inhibitors. Results showed that drug resistant mutations are not randomly distributed along the protease sequence; instead, they are localized on flexible or hot points of the protein chain. Substitution of more hydrophobic residues in flexible points of protease chains tends to increase the folding, lower the flexibility and decrease the active site area of the protease. The reduced affinities of HIV-1 protease for inhibitors seemed to be due to substantial decrease in the size of the active site and flap mobility. A correlation was found between the binding energy of inhibitors and their affinities for each mutant suggesting the distortion of the active site geometry in drug resistance by preventing effective fitting of inhibitors into the enzymes' active site. To overcome the problem of drug resistance of HIV-1 protease, designing inhibitors of variable functional groups and configurations is proposed.

  5. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir is potentially active against urological malignancies

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    Sato A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Akinori Sato Department of Urology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir has recently been shown to have antineoplastic activity, and its use in urological malignancies is under investigation with an eye toward drug repositioning. Ritonavir is thought to exert its antineoplastic activity by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways, including the Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways. It can increase the amount of unfolded proteins in the cell by inhibiting both the proteasome and heat shock protein 90. Combinations of ritonavir with agents that increase the amount of unfolded proteins, such as proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, or heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, therefore, induce endoplasmic reticulum stress cooperatively and thereby kill cancer cells effectively. Ritonavir is also a potent cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibitor, increasing the intracellular concentration of combined drugs by inhibiting their degradation and efflux from cancer cells and thereby enhancing their antineoplastic activity. Furthermore, riotnavir’s antineoplastic activity includes modulation of immune system activity. Therapies using ritonavir are thus an attractive new approach to cancer treatment and, due to their novel mechanisms of action, are expected to be effective against malignancies that are refractory to current treatment strategies. Further investigations using ritonavir are expected to find new uses for clinically available drugs in the treatment of urological malignancies as well as many other types of cancer. Keywords: drug repositioning, novel treatment

  6. Spread of distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 AG recombinant lineages in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, M; van Den Burg, R; Zorgdrager, F; Goudsmit, J

    2000-02-01

    To identify new subtype G human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains and AG recombinant forms, we collected 28 serum samples from immigrants to the Netherlands from 12 countries throughout Africa. Based on the gag sequences 22 isolates were identified as subtype A or G. Phylogenetic analysis of discontinuous regions of the gag (726 nt), pol (1176 nt) and env (276 nt) genes revealed 13 AG recombinants with the mosaic structure A(gag)/G(pol)/A(env), three with A(gag)/G(pol)/G(env) and one other with A(gag) /G(pol)/G(env), in addition to 'pure' subtypes A(gag)/A(pol)/A(env) (n=1) and G(gag)/G(pol)/G(env) (n=4). To analyse the crossover points in more detail, a new RT-PCR was developed resulting in a large contiguous sequence of 2600 nt from the gag region to half the pol region. All the 13 A(gag)/G(pol)/A(env) recombinants appeared to belong to the circulating recombinant form (CRF) AG (IbNG). The three A(gag)/G(pol) /G(env) recombinants differed from the CRF AG (IbNG) subtype, suggesting the identification of a new CRF subtype. The recovery of AG recombinants from African countries a thousand miles apart indicates the active spread of new recombinants. PMID:10644851

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen testing to detect HIV infection in female sex workers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R K; Ali, K; Thoe, S Y

    1995-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterised by seroconversion after a ¿window¿ period of 2 to 3 months. After this period antibodies are usually detectable by screening tests (enzyme immunoassay or particle agglutination) confirmed by Western blot analysis. We studied 1000 newly enrolled female sex workers who had not been previously tested for HIV to assess the usefulness of HIV antigen testing to improve the efficacy of HIV infection detection. Blood was taken at enrollment for HIV antigen and HIV antibody testing. The Abbott HIVAG-1 test was used to detect antigen; antibody detection was by the Abbott recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, the Fujirebio Serodia-HIV particle agglutination (PA) test for screening, and the Diagnostic Biotechnology HIV Blot 2.2 Western blot (WB) test for antibody confirmation. Of the 1000 samples, 26 were positive for HIV antibody testing (26/26 for EIA, 25/25 for PA, 26/26 for WB), giving a prevalence rate of 2.6%, Of these 26 seropositive samples 1 was positive on HIV antigen testing. There were no samples which were antigen-positive and antibody-negative. HIV antigen testing does not add to increased efficacy of HIV detection among female sex workers in Singapore.

  8. Exosomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Pathogenesis: Threat or Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Yeang Teow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometre-sized vesicles, also known as exosomes, are derived from endosomes of diverse cell types and present in multiple biological fluids. Depending on their cellular origins, the membrane-bound exosomes packed a variety of functional proteins and RNA species. These microvesicles are secreted into the extracellular space to facilitate intercellular communication. Collective findings demonstrated that exosomes from HIV-infected subjects share many commonalities with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1 particles in terms of proteomics and lipid profiles. These observations postulated that HIV-resembled exosomes may contribute to HIV pathogenesis. Interestingly, recent reports illustrated that exosomes from body fluids could inhibit HIV infection, which then bring up a new paradigm for HIV/AIDS therapy. Accumulative findings suggested that the cellular origin of exosomes may define their effects towards HIV-1. This review summarizes the two distinctive roles of exosomes in regulating HIV pathogenesis. We also highlighted several additional factors that govern the exosomal functions. Deeper understanding on how exosomes promote or abate HIV infection can significantly contribute to the development of new and potent antiviral therapeutic strategy and vaccine designs.

  9. Rhabdomyolysis secondary to diarrhoea induced hypokalemia in a human immunodeficiency virus - seropositive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroopa K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypokalemia with rhabdomyolysis caused by diarrhoea is uncommon in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. We report the case of a patient with HIV1 infection who presented with chronic diarrhoea that led to hypokalemia induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI. A 32-year-old man, known to be HIV-1 seropositive who was on treatment with tenofovir, lamivudine, lopinavirand ritonavir, presented to the emergency department with 6 months history of diarrhoea and sudden onset of weakness of all 4 limbs of two days duration. On examination limb power was grade 3/5 with hypotonia and diminished reflexes. Laboratory investigations showed severe hypokalemia, low urinary potassium, normal anion-gap metabolic acidosis, markedly increased creatine kinase and mildly increased serum creatinine. He was diagnosed as having diarrhoea induced hypokalemic myopathy leading to rhabdomyolysis and AKI. With potassium supplements, antiprotozoal treatment adequate hydration he improved significantly and is on regular follow-up. Patients presenting with hypokalemia should be closely monitored for rhabdomyolysis, because outcome is good with early treatment.

  10. Epidemic transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in renal dialysis centers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, N M; Gomatos, P J; Beck-Sagué, C M; Dietrich, U; von Briesen, H; Osmanov, S; Esparza, J; Arthur, R R; Wahdan, M H; Jarvis, W R

    2000-01-01

    In 1993 an epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among 39 patients at 2 renal dialysis centers in Egypt. The centers, private center A (PCA) and university center A (UCA) were visited, HIV-infected patients were interviewed, seroconversion rates at UCA were calculated, and relatedness of HIV strains was determined by sequence analysis; 34 (62%) of 55 patients from UCA and 5 (42%) of 12 patients from PCA were HIV-infected. The HIV seroconversion risk at UCA varied significantly with day and shift of dialysis session. Practices that resulted in sharing of syringes among patients were observed at both centers. The analyzed V3 loop sequences of the HIV strain of 12 outbreak patients were >96% related to each other. V3 loop sequences from each of 8 HIV-infected Egyptians unrelated to the 1993 epidemic were only 76%-89% related to those from outbreak strains. Dialysis patients may be at risk for HIV infection if infection control guidelines are not followed.

  11. Identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected infant and adult rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, K G; Lin, K C; Newman, J; Schauer, D; MacKey, J; Lackner, A A; Carville, A

    2001-03-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was recognized as a common opportunistic pathogen of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with AIDS. Retrospective analysis revealed that 27 of 96 (28.1%) animals with AIDS had features of EPEC infection, and EPEC was the most frequent pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract identified morphologically. In 7.3% of animals dying with AIDS, EPEC represented the sole opportunistic agent of the gastrointestinal tract at death. In 20.8% of cases, it was seen in combination with one or more gastrointestinal pathogens, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Mycobacterium avium, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Strongyloides stercoralis, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus. Clinically, infection was associated with persistent diarrhea and wasting and was more frequent in animals that died at under 1 year of age (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). The organism was associated with the characteristic attaching and effacing lesion in colonic tissue sections and produced a focal adherence pattern on a HEp-2 assay but was negative for Shiga toxin production as assessed by PCR and a HeLa cell cytotoxicity assay. A 2.6-kb fragment encompassing the intimin gene was amplified and sequenced and revealed 99.2% identity to sequences obtained from human isolates (GenBank AF116899) corresponding to the epsilon intimin subtype. Further investigations with rhesus macaques may offer opportunities to study the impact of EPEC on AIDS pathogenesis and gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:11230413

  12. Pancreatic tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite the increased incidence of tuberculosis related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in recent decades,pancreatic tuberculosis has rarely been described.We report a case of pancreatic tuberculosis in a 39-yearold African man who presented with progressive dysphagia,vomiting,weight loss and productive cough,accompanied by localized epigastric pain and one episode of melena.HIV-1 testing was positive and lymphocyte subset profile showed CD4 count of 9/mm3.Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast revealed a cystic mass in the body of the pancreas,significant portal and retroperitoneal cystic adenopathy,and multiple cystic lesions in the spleen and liver.CT guided cyst aspiration and node biopsy detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis.The patient responded well on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy.Tuberculosis rarely involves the pancreas,probably due to the presence of pancreatic enzymes which interfere with the seeding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Pancreatic tuberculosis is considered to be the result of dissemination of the infection from nearby lymphatic nodes.Endoscopic ultrasound or CT guided fine needle aspiration for cytology is the recommended diagnostic technique.Although the prognosis is good with antituberculosis treatment,it could be fatal without correct diagnosis and treatment.The clinician's high index of suspicion of pancreatic tuberculosis and application of FNAB to obtain pathological evidence are extremely important to a correct diagnosis,especially in young HIV positive patients.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy are associated with serum concentrations of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, G Sonia; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Martin, Lizabeth D; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Gavrila, Alina; Hsu, William C; Karchmer, Adolf W; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-03-15

    The relationship between the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been established. We classified a cohort of HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with >or=6 months of antiretroviral exposure as having no lipodystrophy (51 patients [43% of the cohort]), lipoatrophy (23 patients [19% of the cohort]), mixed lipodystrophy (29 patients [24% of the cohort]), or lipohypertrophy (17 patients [14% of the cohort]), on the basis of physical examination, anthropometric measurements, and the findings of dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Measurements of insulin resistance were higher for patients with each category of lipodystrophy, compared with those observed for patients with no lipodystrophy (Plipohypertrophy (9.10+/-6.86 ng/mL), and significantly different from those in patients without lipodystrophy (3.14+/-2.30 ng/mL; both P<.01). In this cohort of antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients, a low serum level of leptin was independently associated with insulin resistance in patients with lipoatrophy, after controlling for total and regional body fat.

  14. Antiretroviral therapy and drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Alvarez, Mar

    2014-02-01

    One to two million people worldwide are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), with highest prevalences in West African countries, but also present in Western Europe, Asia and North America. Compared to HIV-1, HIV-2 infection undergoes a longer asymptomatic phase and progresses to AIDS more slowly. In addition, HIV-2 shows lower transmission rates, probably due to its lower viremia in infected individuals. There is limited experience in the treatment of HIV-2 infection and several antiretroviral drugs used to fight HIV-1 are not effective against HIV-2. Effective drugs against HIV-2 include nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (e.g. zidovudine, tenofovir, lamivudine, emtricitabine, abacavir, stavudine and didanosine), protease inhibitors (saquinavir, lopinavir and darunavir), and integrase inhibitors (raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir). Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist blocking coreceptor binding during HIV entry, is active in vitro against CCR5-tropic HIV-2 but more studies are needed to validate its use in therapeutic treatments against HIV-2 infection. HIV-2 strains are naturally resistant to a few antiretroviral drugs developed to suppress HIV-1 propagation such as nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, several protease inhibitors and the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide. Resistance selection in HIV-2 appears to be faster than in HIV-1. In this scenario, the development of novel drugs specific for HIV-2 is an important priority. In this review, we discuss current anti-HIV-2 therapies and mutational pathways leading to drug resistance. PMID:24345729

  15. False Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Results Associated with Rheumatoid Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-chun Li; Fan Yang; Xiao-yun Ji; Zhong-jun Fang; Jun Liu; Yue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate if immunological factors associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affect the result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods 100 RA cases were enrolled from January 2012 to February 2013 into this study. HIV screening was conducted with ECLIA detecting both HIV-1 p24 antigen, HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, with ELISA and colloidal gold method detecting HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. The samples producing positive results were submitted to the Center for Disease Control for confirmation using Western blotting method. The antibody titers of rheumatoid factors (RF) including RF-IgG, RF-IgM, RF-IgA, and CCP-IgG were analyzed by ELISA. Results The HIV positive-rate determined by ECLIA was significantly higher than that by ELISA and colloidal gold method (P Conclusion Immunological factors, including RF and anti-CCP antibody, may influence the screening of HIV by ECLIA, producing false-positive result.

  16. Integrating Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Into Women's Health Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon

    2016-07-01

    Women comprise one in five new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses in the United States. Trials and implementation projects demonstrate preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention is effective in women. Preexposure prophylaxis is a method of preventing HIV acquisition by having an HIV-negative individual take antiretroviral medication before exposure. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate coformulated with emtricitabine as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in 2012. Preexposure prophylaxis is highly dependent on adherence for effectiveness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends offering preexposure prophylaxis to individuals at significant risk of infection and estimates 468,000 women in the United States are eligible for preexposure prophylaxis. Although variable individual and structural forces affect each woman's medication adherence, and therefore the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis, women's health care providers are uniquely positioned to screen, counsel about, and offer preexposure prophylaxis. Shared decision-making provides a framework for these clinical encounters, allowing patients and clinicians to make health care decisions together based on scientific evidence and patient experiences. By incorporating fertility desires and contraceptive needs, health care providers effectively integrate sexual and reproductive health care. Including preexposure prophylaxis in women's health services requires health care provider training and attention to lessons learned from family planning and HIV prevention. Nevertheless, obstetrician-gynecologists have an opportunity to play a critical role in reducing sexual transmission of HIV in the United States by integrating preexposure prophylaxis education and provision into their practices. PMID:27275793

  17. Specific interaction of aurintricarboxylic acid with the human immunodeficiency virus/CD4 cell receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schols, D.; Baba, M.; Pauwels, R.; Desmyter, J.; De Clercq, E. (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium))

    1989-05-01

    The triphenylmethane derivative aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), but not aurin, selectively prevented the binding of OKT4A/Leu-3a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and, to a lesser extent, OKT4 mAb to the CD4 cell receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The effect was seen within 1 min at an ATA concentration of 10 {mu}M in various T4{sup +} cells (MT-4, U-937, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and monocytes). It was dose-dependent and reversible. ATA prevented the attachment of radiolabeled HIV-1 particles to MT-4 cells, which could be expected as the result of its specific binding to the HIV/CD4 receptor. Other HIV inhibitors such as suramin, fuchsin acid, azidothymidine, dextran sulfate, heparin, and pentosan polysulfate did not affect OKT4A/Leu-3a mAb binding to the CD4 receptor, although the sulfated polysaccharides suppressed HIV-1 adsorption to the cells at concentrations required for complete protection against HIV-1 cytopathogenicity. Thus, ATA is a selective marker molecule for the CD4 receptor. ATA also interfered with the staining of membrane-associated HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 by a mAb against it. These unusual properties of a small molecule of nonimmunological origin may have important implications for the study of CD4/HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and possibly treatment.

  18. Simultaneous Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus to Multiple Targets through Polysynapses▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Dominika; Feldmann, Jérôme; Porrot, Françoise; Wietgrefe, Steve; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Estaquier, Jérôme; Haase, Ashley T.; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie; Schwartz, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) efficiently propagates through cell-to-cell contacts, which include virological synapses (VS), filopodia, and nanotubes. Here, we quantified and characterized further these diverse modes of contact in lymphocytes. We report that viral transmission mainly occurs across VS and through “polysynapses,” a rosette-like structure formed between one infected cell and multiple adjacent recipients. Polysynapses are characterized by simultaneous HIV clustering and transfer at multiple membrane regions. HIV Gag proteins often adopt a ring-like supramolecular organization at sites of intercellular contacts and colocalize with CD63 tetraspanin and raft components GM1, Thy-1, and CD59. In donor cells engaged in polysynapses, there is no preferential accumulation of Gag proteins at contact sites facing the microtubule organizing center. The LFA-1 adhesion molecule, known to facilitate viral replication, enhances formation of polysynapses. Altogether, our results reveal an underestimated mode of viral transfer through polysynapses. In HIV-infected individuals, these structures, by promoting concomitant infection of multiple targets in the vicinity of infected cells, may facilitate exponential viral growth and escape from immune responses. PMID:19369333

  19. Species distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-related mycobacterial infections: implications for selection of initial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, V; Phillips, P; Montaner, J; Haley, L; Craib, K; Bessuille, E; Black, W

    1996-06-01

    Management of mycobacterial infection is species specific; however, treatment is prompted by positive smears or cultures, often several weeks before species identification. The objective of this study was to determine the species distribution of mycobacterial isolates from various body sites in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All mycobacterial isolates recovered at St. Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) from April 1989 to March 1993 were reviewed. Among 357 HIV-positive patients with mycobacterial infections, 64% (96) of the sputum isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 18% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 17% were Mycobacterium kansasii. Lymph node involvement (25 patients) was due to either MAC (72%) or M. tuberculosis (24%). Two hundred ninety-eight episodes of mycobacteremia were due to MAC (98%), M. tuberculosis (1%), and M. kansasii (1%). Similarly, cultures of 84 bone marrow biopsy specimens (99%), 19 intestinal biopsy specimens (100%), and 30 stool specimens (97%) yielded predominantly MAC. These results have implications for initial therapy, particularly in areas where rapid methods for species identification are not readily available. Because of considerable geographic variation, development of guidelines for selection of initial therapy depends on regional determination of species distribution in HIV-related mycobacterial infections. PMID:8783698

  20. The role of radiotherapy in the management of cancer patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer and AIDS are both pandemics: they have an emotional and social impact that goes far beyond the physical disruption they cause. These are usually perceived and addressed as independent disease entities. When these coexist in one patient, however, the appropriate management of the cancer needs to be modified from the standard clinical protocols. New protocols appearing in the radiotherapy literature have been investigative rather than definitive and, with few exceptions, analyse the results of small series of patients. The IAEA has extensive projects in radiation oncology in developing countries. In Africa, there is concern that AIDS related cancers utilise an increasing amount of scarce resources, that they frequently require equipment for the management of superficial tumours, and that inadequate training is available in the management of these cancers. This report developed from the need to address these concerns. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on the Relationship between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Cancer Management Protocols for Developing Countries was convened in October 1999. A reading of this report will show that considerable amount of further investigation is required to respond authoritatively to many of the management decisions that need be made. It is also evident that the greatest number of patients requiring optimal management protocols live in sub-Saharan Africa - a region where research resources are at a minimum. The IAEA has made available limited funding for a research project in determining the intermediate term effects of radiation therapy on the immune system in AIDS related cervical cancer

  1. Maternal human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection and intrauterine growth: a prospective cohort study in Butare, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulterys, M; Chao, A; Munyemana, S; Kurawige, J B; Nawrocki, P; Habimana, P; Kageruka, M; Mukantabana, S; Mbarutso, E; Dushimimana, A

    1994-02-01

    A prospective cohort study of 318 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected and 309 seronegative pregnant women was carried out in Butare, Rwanda. Birth weight was significantly lower among singleton infants born alive to HIV-1-infected mothers compared with those born alive to seronegative mothers (2706 g vs. 2825 g; P = 0.002). Crown-to-heel length, head circumference, chest circumference and placental weight were also reduced. Maternal HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with intrauterine growth retardation but not with preterm birth. Differences in the body mass index and weight/head ratio suggest that the adverse impact on live born infants may have been most severe towards the end of pregnancy, resulting in a lean infant with a relatively large head. The higher frequency of intrauterine growth retardation could not be explained by potential confounding factors such as maternal cigarette smoking, history of sexually transmitted diseases or sociodemographic characteristics. The neonatal physical examination did not reveal any differences in clinical signs or symptoms within 48 hours of birth except for the presence of conjunctivitis which was more common among infants of HIV-1-infected mothers. The perinatal and neonatal mortality rates were not significantly affected by maternal HIV-1 status. PMID:8190558

  2. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-visceral leishmaniasis-co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufal Spir, Patrícia Rodrigues; Zampieri D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida; Fonseca, Elivelton Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel

    2016-04-01

    In Brazil, the rates of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased from 20% to 1-2% in some regions. However, the country contains 90% of individuals infected with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Latin America, and the west region of São Paulo state faces an alarming expansion of the disease. We describe the epidemiological aspects of the expanding infection of VL and a case report of an HIV-VL-co-infected child from the west region of São Paulo state. The patient was an AIDS-C3 with low levels of CD4, high viral load, severe diarrhea, oral and perineal candidiasis, severe thrombocytopenia, and protein-caloric malnourishment. She evolved with sepsis, renal and cardiac failure. An rK rapid diagnosis test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and bone marrow aspirate were performed for VL. Her symptoms improved significantly after liposomal amphotericin B administration. From the 45 municipalities that compose the Regional Health Department of Presidente Prudente, Lutzomyia longipalpis vectors were found in 58% of them. VL infected dogs were found in 33% of those municipalities, infected dogs and humans were found in 29%, 20% are starting and 33% of the municipalities are preparing VL investigation. It is likely, in this patient, that VL advanced the clinical progression of the HIV disease and the development of AIDS severity. Supported by favorable conditions, the region becomes a new frontier of VL in Brazil. PMID:23834783

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vpr Induces DNA Replication Stress In Vitro and In Vivo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Erik S.; Sherman, Michael P.; Blackett, Jana L.; Neidleman, Jason A.; Kreis, Christophe; Mundt, Pamela; Williams, Samuel A.; Warmerdam, Maria; Kahn, James; Hecht, Frederick M.; Grant, Robert M.; de Noronha, Carlos M. C.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Greene, Warner C.; Planelles, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) causes cell cycle arrest in G2. Vpr-expressing cells display the hallmarks of certain forms of DNA damage, specifically activation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase, ATR. However, evidence that Vpr function is relevant in vivo or in the context of viral infection is still lacking. In the present study, we demonstrate that HIV-1 infection of primary, human CD4+ lymphocytes causes G2 arrest in a Vpr-dependent manner and that this response requires ATR, as shown by RNA interference. The event leading to ATR activation in CD4+ lymphocytes is the accumulation of replication protein A in nuclear foci, an indication that Vpr likely induces stalling of replication forks. Primary macrophages are refractory to ATR activation by Vpr, a finding that is consistent with the lack of detectable ATR, Rad17, and Chk1 protein expression in these nondividing cells. These observations begin to explain the remarkable resilience of macrophages to HIV-1-induced cytopathicity. To study the in vivo consequences of Vpr function, we isolated CD4+ lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals and interrogated the cell cycle status of anti-p24Gag-immunoreactive cells. We report that infected cells in vivo display an aberrant cell cycle profile whereby a majority of cells have a 4N DNA content, consistent with the onset of G2 arrest. PMID:16956949

  4. Microglia-passaged simian immunodeficiency virus induces neurophysiological abnormalities in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospéro-García, Oscar; Gold, Lisa H.; Fox, Howard S.; Polis, Ilham; Koob, George F.; Bloom, Floyd E.; Henriksen, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    Four rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a cryopreserved stock of microglia obtained from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque. Before infection, three of the four monkeys were trained and tested daily on a computerized neuropsychological test battery. After SIV infection, behavioral testing continued to monitor deficits associated with disease progression. Five additional age-matched, behaviorally trained monkeys served as controls. Neurophysiological testing for visual and auditory evoked responses was accomplished 37–52 weeks after infection in all monkeys. Subsequently, all four SIV-infected monkeys and one control subject were sacrificed, and samples of brain tissue were taken for pathological analysis. SIV-infected monkeys demonstrated abnormal responses in both auditory and visual evoked responses. In addition, around the time of electrophysiological recording, all three SIV-infected, behaviorally trained monkeys exhibited significant decreases in progressive-ratio performance, reflecting a reduction in reinforcer efficacy. One subject also demonstrated impairments in shifting of attentional set and motor ability at that time. Neuropathological evaluation revealed that all four SIV-infected monkeys exhibited numerous perivascular and parenchymal infiltrating T cells. These findings document that SIV causes electrophysiological, behavioral, and neuropathological sequelae similar to what has been observed in the human neuroAIDS syndrome. Our observations further validate the simian model for the investigation of the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia and for the investigation of drugs with potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:8943077

  5. Biventricular diastolic function assessed by Doppler echocardiogram in children vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio L. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine, by Doppler-echocardiography, the frequency of cardiac diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic and clinically stable pediatric patients with vertical infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, from the cardiovascular viewpoint. METHODS: this was an observational, prospective, and cross-sectional study, performed at a regional referral clinic for patients with HIV, in a convenience sample of 94 individuals, assessing biventricular diastolic function by Doppler-echocardiography, and weight, blood hemoglobin, and percentage of lymphocytes T-CD4+. RESULTS: fifty patients had diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 38.7%, and the predominant type of dysfunction was decreased myocardial compliance. Right ventricular dysfunction was observed in 29.4% of the sample, and abnormal relaxation was the most prevalent type. Simultaneous biventricular dysfunction occurred in 14.1% of the individuals. There was no association between dysfunction and the immune status. CONCLUSIONS: diastolic dysfunction occurred, individually or simultaneously, with no association with immune status; decreased myocardial compliance was predominant in the left ventricle, and abnormal relaxation in the right ventricle.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1: drug resistance in treated and untreated Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRR Simonetti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infected Brazilian children were studied for antiretroviral drug resistance. They were separated into 2 groups according to the administration of antiretroviral therapy into those who presented disease symptoms or without symptoms and no therapy. Viral genome sequencing reactions were loaded on an automated DNA sampler (TruGene, Visible Genetics and compared to a database of wild type HIV-1. In the former group 8 of 12 children presented isolates with mutations conferring resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs, 7 presented isolates resistant to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and 2 presented isolates resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs. Ten children were included in the antiretroviral naïve group. Eight were susceptible to NRTIs and all of them were susceptible to PIs; one presented the V108I mutation, which confers low-level resistance to NNRTIs. The data report HIV mutant isolates both in treated and untreated infants. However, the frequency and the level of drug resistance were more frequent in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy, corroborating the concept of selective pressure acting on the emergence of resistant viral strains. The children who presented alterations at polymorphism sites should be monitored for the development of additional mutations occurring at relevant resistance codons.

  7. Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin, genetics, gender and environmental factors have been shown to influence some immunologic indices, so that development of reference values for populations of different backgrounds may be necessary. We have determined the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood. Lymphocyte subsets were determined using four-colour cytometry in a cross-sectional study of 463 human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed children and adults from birth through 49 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets varied according to age, as previously observed in other studies. However, total CD4+ T cell numbers were lower than what was described in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 (PACTG P1009, which assessed an American population of predominantly African and Hispanic backgrounds until the 12-18 year age range, when values were comparable. Naïve percentages and absolute values of CD8+ T cells, as assessed by CD45RA expression, were also lower than the PACTG P1009 data for all analysed age ranges. CD38 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than the PACTG P1009 values, with a widening gap between the two studies at older age ranges. Different patterns of cell differentiation seem to occur in different settings and may have characteristic expression within each population.

  8. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Flyvbjerg, A;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than.......01). Patients reported improvements of lipodystrophy, which was supported by a decreased waist-to-thigh ratio (P = 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.06). Ratio of peripheral to trunk soft tissue mass increased (P = 0.01, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans) and a trend towards reduction......' treatment of lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with hGH, 0.7 mg day(-1), increased total and free IGF-I twofold and appeared safe and tolerable. The potential of low-dose hGH in the treatment of HIV-lipodystrophy awaits examination by placebo-controlled, randomized trials....

  9. [Performance Assessment of a Newly Developed Rapid Diagnostic Reagent for Human Immunodeficiency Virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagiri, Itsuhiro; Wada, Hideho; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Fukuda, Hirofumi; Tasaka, Taizo; Sugihara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Extremely early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been considered highly important for its treatment. We conducted a performance assessment of a newly developed rapid diagnostic reagent for HIV by using a fourth-generation immunochromatographic assay (Alere HIV Combo). We used whole-blood, plasma, and serum samples obtained from 250 Japanese adults who visited the Kawasaki Medical School Hospital and underwent HIV screening tests. We also used 12 types of commercial HIV-1 sero- conversion panels and World Health Organization standard antigens. This method, which has a detection sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.3%, was as accurate as the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method. In a sensitivity test using seroconversion panels in the early phase of infection, the mean duration until positive conversion was 19.3 days. With this method having a high detection sensitivity for HIV-1p24 antigen, the results from whole-blood samples were the same as those from plasma and serum samples. Therefore, it can be considered as a useful rapid measurement method for general practice. PMID:26821522

  10. Role of cranial computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with generalised seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Zyl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency neuroimaging of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients with generalised new onset seizures (NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination remains controversial, with the general impression being that emergency imaging is necessary because immunosuppression may blur clinical indicators of acute intracranial pathology. The objectives of our study were to establish whether cranial computed tomography (CT affects the emergency management of HIV-positive patients with generalised NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination.Method: We conducted a prospective descriptive observational study. Consecutive HIVpositive patients of 18 years and older, who presented to the Kimberley Hospital Complex’s Emergency Department within 24 hours of their first generalised seizures and who had undergone normal post-ictal neurological examinations, were included. Emergency CT results as well as CD4-count levels were evaluated.Results: A total of 25 HIV-positive patients were included in the study. The results of cranial CT brought about a change in emergency care management in 12% of patients, all of them with CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm3 .Conclusion: We suggest that emergency cranial CT be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with generalised NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination, particularly if the CD4 count is below 200 cells/mm3.Keywords: HIV; Seizures; CT Brain

  11. Molecular Characterization of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women and Their Vertically Infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sara Nunes; Giovanetti, Marta; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Oliveira, Tulio de; Danaviah, Siva; Gonçalves, Maria Luiza Freire; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Brites, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 35 million people worldwide are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) around 3.2 million of whom are children under 15 years. Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 accounts for 90% of all infections in children. Despite great advances in the prevention of MTCT in Brazil, children are still becoming infected. Samples from 19 HIV-1-infected families were collected. DNA was extracted and fragments from gag, pol, and env were amplified and sequenced directly. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed. Drug resistance analyses were performed in pol and env sequences. We found 82.1% of subtype B and 17.9% of BF recombinants. A prevalence of 43.9% drug resistance-associated mutations in pol sequences was identified. Of the drug-naive children 33.3% presented at least one mutation related to protease inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (PI/NRTI/NNRTI) resistance. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was 4.9%. On env we found a low prevalence of HR1 (4.9%) and HR2 (14.6%) mutations. PMID:26200738

  12. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications.

  13. Structure of a human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment against gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X. M.; Ruker, F.; Casale, E.; Carter, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a human monoclonal antibody (Fab), which binds specifically to a major epitope of the transmembrane protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, has been determined by crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.7 A. It has been previously determined that this antibody recognizes the epitope SGKLICTTAVPWNAS, belongs to the subclass IgG1 (kappa), and exhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The quaternary structure of the Fab is in an extended conformation with an elbow bend angle between the constant and variable domains of 175 degrees. Structurally, four of the hypervariable loops can be classified according to previously recognized canonical structures. The third hypervariable loops of the heavy (H3) and light chain (L3) are structurally distinct. Hypervariable loop H3, residues 102H-109H, is unusually extended from the surface. The complementarity-determining region forms a hydrophobic binding pocket that is created primarily from hypervariable loops L3, H3, and H2.

  14. Peripartum cardiomyopathy coexistent with human immunodeficiency virus: A substantial obstetric jeopardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasmita Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare cause of pregnancy-related heart failure, which affects a woman during the last months of pregnancy or first months of parturition. Its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. Coexistence of PPCM with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been scarcely analyzed. A low CD4 count is proposed to be one of the predictors of dilated cardiomyopathy in HIV. Here, a pregnant woman with HIV presented with signs of congestive heart failure for the first time during her last trimester. Echocardiography revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction of 34% which proved the diagnosis of PPCM. She underwent cesarean section for impending previous scar rupture. Her status deteriorated subsequently in spite of all efforts and she succumbed due to ventricular tachycardia. This case necessitates an awareness regarding coexistence of HIV with PPCM and dreaded clinical sequences. Patients suffering from HIV should be treated well and their CD4 count should be improved before conception to avoid such complications in pregnancy.

  15. Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán LM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luis M Beltrán,1 Alfonso Rubio-Navarro,2 Juan Manuel Amaro-Villalobos,2 Jesús Egido,2–4 Juan García-Puig,1 Juan Antonio Moreno21Metabolic-Vascular Unit, Fundación IdiPAZ-Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 2Vascular, Renal, and Diabetes Research Lab, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM, Madrid, Spain; 4Fundación Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo-Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas (FRIAT-IRSIN, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection.Keywords: HIV, cardiovascular disease, immune activation, inflammation, antiretroviral therapy

  16. Renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus - Not just HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, P S; Ismal, K; Gowrishankar, S; Sahay, M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the various histopathological lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with renal dysfunction and to establish clinicopathological correlation. Over a period of two years from January 2008 to March 2010, 27 HIV positive patients with renal dysfunction were subjected to renal biopsy. Of the 27 patients, 23 were males and four were females (85.2% males, 14.8% females). Mean age was 38.2 ± 10.36 (range 20 - 60) years. The probable mode of acquisition of HIV infection was sexual in 22 patients (81.5%). Thirteen patients (48%) had nephrotic proteinuria. The CD4 count ranged from 77 to 633/microliter. The kidneys were of normal size in 19 (70.4%) and bulky in eight (29.6%) patients. Thirteen patients required renal replacement therapy. Eleven patients had acute tubule-interstitial lesions (40.7%) while 15 (55.5%) had glomerular lesions. The various glomerular lesions were, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in five, amyloidosis in three, diffuse proliferative GN in two, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN), membranous GN, minimal change disease, diabetic nephropathy, crescentic GN, and thrombotic microangiopathy were seen in one each. None of the clinical or laboratory variables, except hypertension, was found to predict glomerular versus non-glomerular lesions on biopsy. In conclusion we show that a variety of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions can be seen on renal histology. Hence, renal biopsy is indicated in renal dysfunction associated with HIV for making proper diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Postoperative Infectious Morbidities of Cesarean Delivery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cavasin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the infectious complication rates from cesarean delivery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected women and HIV-negative women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from HIV-infected women and HIV-negative women, who underwent cesarean delivery at two teaching hospitals. Main outcome measures were infectious postoperative morbidity. Descriptive, comparison analysis, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. One hundred and nineteen HIV-infected women and 264 HIV-negative women delivered by cesarean section and were compared. The HIV-negative women were more likely than the HIV-infected women to deliver by emergent cesarean section (78.0% versus 51.3%, resp., .05. In a multivariate stepwise logistic analysis, emergent cesarean delivery and chorioamnionitis but not HIV infection were associated with increased rate of post-operative endometritis (odds ratio (OR 4.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.41–11.91, <.01, and OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.13–8.03, <.05, resp.. Conclusion. In our facilities, emergent cesarean delivery and chorioamnionitis but not HIV infection were identified as risk factors for post-operative endometritis.

  18. African origins and chronic kidney disease susceptibility in the human immunodeficiency virus era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasembeli, Alex N; Duarte, Raquel; Ramsay, Michèle; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide with the estimated incidence growing by approximately 6% annually. There are striking ethnic differences in the prevalence of CKD such that, in the United States, African Americans have the highest prevalence of CKD, four times the incidence of end stage renal disease when compared to Americans of European ancestry suggestive of genetic predisposition. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are the major causes of CKD. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an irreversible form of CKD with considerable morbidity and mortality and is present predominantly in people of African ancestry. The APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles were more strongly associated with the risk for CKD than the previously examined MYH9 E1 risk haplotype in individuals of African ancestry. A strong association was reported in HIVAN, suggesting that 50% of African Americans with two APOL1 risk alleles, if untreated, would develop HIVAN. However these two variants are not enough to cause disease. The prevailing belief is that modifying factors or second hits (including genetic hits) underlie the pathogenesis of kidney disease. This work reviews the history of genetic susceptibility of CKD and outlines current theories regarding the role for APOL1 in CKD in the HIV era.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Cuba

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    Kouri Vivian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence rates and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections in Cuban women, two different groups were selected. Group I consisted of 60 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 seropositive women from different regions of Cuba and group II of 60 randomly selected women HIV seronegative and apparently healthy. C. trachomatis was detected in cervical scrapes by mean of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for major out membrane protein. The overall prevalence rate of C. trachomatis in cervical scrapes determined by nested PCR was 10% in group I and the estimated prevalence was 6.6% for group II; 83.3% of HIV seropositive women with C. trachomatis infection reported history of pelvic inflammatory disease followed by cervicitis (50%. The control group C. trachomatis-infected women referred a history of cervicitis in 75% of cases. Other reports in the latter group included infertility and pelvic inflamatory disease in 50%. The present study is the first report of C. trachomatis prevalence in Cuba. It showed that there was not significantly difference in the prevalence rate of C. trachomatis between both groups.

  20. Localization of human immunodeficiency virus antigens in infected cells by scanning/transmission-immunogold techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application of high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and gold-labelling techniques for the rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells has been developed. Experimental in vitro studies for detecting two HIV structural proteins, gp41 and p17, were performed following an indirect labeling procedure that uses monoclonal anti-p17 and anti-gp41 antibodies as primary antibodies and 40 nm gold-linked goat antimouse IgG as secondary antibodies. The cells were then studied by STEM in the scanning mode. Unambiguous localization of the viral antigens was possible by combining the three-dimensional image provided by the secondary electron image and the atomic number-dependent backscattered electron image for the identification of the gold marker. This technique combines both the morphological information and the rapid procedures of scanning electron microscopy with the precise and sensitive antigen detection provided by the use of STEM and immunological methods. The preliminary results of its application to the study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four anti-HIV-seropositive patients showing the presence of specific labeling in all of them suggest that it might prove useful for early detection of HIV infection before seroconversion, as well as for quantitative studies